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1.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 129-132, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To obtain the prevalence of hyperuricemia among primary and secondary school students in Shandong Province, and to provide data support for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia in children and adolescents.@*Methods@#The stratified cluster random sampling method was used to collect the data of 3 609 primary and secondary school students in urban and rural areas in Shandong Province, including the blood uric acid, waist circumference, height, and weight.@*Results@#The average blood uric acid value of primary and secondary school students was (316.17±82.57)μmol/L, and the total detection rate of hyperuricemia was 17.4%. The detection rate of blood uric acid was 18.9% and hyperuricemia[(338.26±90.30)μmol/L] of boys were higher than those of girls[(294.25±67.29)μmol/L,15.9%], and the difference were statistically significant( t/χ 2=16.60, 5.48, P < 0.05). The detection rate of blood uric acid (21.6%) and hyperuricemia [(353.24±78.98)μmol/L] in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas, and higher in coastal areas[(376.80±85.46)μmol/L, 26.6%] than inland; the differences were statistically significant ( t =14.54, 15.27, χ 2=48.15, 132.53, P <0.01). The differences in the blood uric acid value and the detection rate of hyperuricemia between different ages were statistically significant ( t/χ 2=11.79, 18.11, P <0.01). The detection rate of blood uric acid increased with the increase of obesity, waist circumference,blood pressure,blood lipids and blood sugar,and the difference were statistically significant ( χ 2=999.95, 561.08 , 447.57, 196.37, 115.08, P <0.01).@*Conclusion@#The detection rate of hyperuricemia among primary and secondary school students in Shandong Province is relatively high. The hyperuricemia is related to gender, age, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure,blood lipids and blood sugar. Highrisk groups should have regular physical examinations to actively improve their unhealthy lifestyles and reduce the incidence of hyperuricemia.

2.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 40: e2020331, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340800

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the distribution of cases of congenital anomalies in the state of Santa Catarina by health macro-region, to determine the frequency according to maternal and neonatal variables, to estimate the related mortality, and the trends in the period 2010-2018. Methods: An ecological time-series study with secondary data on congenital anomalies and the sociodemographic and health variables of mothers and newborns living in Santa Catarina, from 2010 to 2018. For temporal trend analysis, generalized linear regression was performed using the Prais-Winsten method with robust variance. Results: The average prevalence of congenital anomalies in the period was 8.9 cases per 1,000 live births, being 9.4 cases by 1,000 live births in 2010 and, in 2018, 8.2/1,000. The trend remained stable in the analyzed period. The major malformations were musculoskeletal, hip, and foot malformations, with a proportion ≥30%. There was a higher prevalence of congenital anomalies in low birthweight, preterm, male livebirths with Apgar≤7, born by cesarean section, mothers of older age (≥40 years), and less educated (less than eight years of study). Infant mortality due to congenital malformations was 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births, representing about 25.8% of the total infant deaths in the period. Conclusions: The frequency of congenital anomalies and the mortality with anomalies was stable in the studied period in Santa Catarina. The presence of anomalies was associated with low birth weight, prematurity, and low Apgar score. The highest proportion of congenital anomalies was in the musculoskeletal system.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a distribuição dos casos de anomalias congênitas no estado de Santa Catarina por macrorregião de saúde, determinar a frequência segundo fatores da mãe e do produto da gestação e estimar a mortalidade relacionada e a tendência no período de 2010-2018. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal, com dados secundários sobre anomalias congênitas e variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde de mães e recém-nascidos residentes em Santa Catarina, no período de 2010 a 2018. Para análise de tendência temporal, foi utilizada a regressão linear generalizada pelo método de Prais-Winsten com variância robusta. Resultados: A prevalência média de anomalias congênitas no período foi de 8,9 casos a cada 1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 9,4 casos a cada 1.000 em 2010 e 8,2 a cada 1.000 em 2018. A tendência manteve-se estável no período analisado. As principais malformações foram as osteomusculares, de quadril e de pés, com proporção ≥30%. Verificou-se prevalência maior de anomalias congênitas nas crianças de baixo peso, prematuras, de sexo masculino e Apgar≤7 e nos nascidos de cesariana, de mães de maior idade (≥40 anos) e menor escolaridade (menos de oito anos de estudo). A mortalidade infantil por malformações congênitas foi de 2,6 óbitos/1.000 nascidos vivos, representando 25,8% do total de óbitos infantis no período. Conclusões: Houve estabilidade na frequência e na mortalidade associada às anomalias congênitas em Santa Catarina de 2010 a 2018. A ocorrência dessas condições foi associada aos nascidos de baixo peso, pré-termo e baixo escore de Apgar. A maior proporção de anomalias congênitas foi do sistema osteomuscular.

3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(supl.1): 23-23, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356983

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN : Los estudios de seroprevalencia permiten monitorear la circulación del SARS-CoV-2 y dan información para evaluar medidas sanitarias. El objetivo fue conocer la proporción y evolución de la seropositividad en puntos de gran circulación de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) y las características clínico-epidemiológicas de los seropositivos, de abril a octubre de 2020. MÉTODOS : Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de seis rondas de testeos rápidos serológicos y una encuesta de datos epidemiológicos. Se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia en tres estaciones ferroviarias cabeceras de CABA consideradas puntos de alto tránsito bidireccional del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. RESULTADOS : Participaron 7339 personas. La proporción de seropositivos fue 0,6% (IC95%: 0,2-0,9) en la primera ronda y aumentó a 5,6% en la última (IC95%: 4,3-7). Al inicio aumentó la seropositividad en residentes de CABA y de la zona sur de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. El antecedente de haber presentado síntomas y el de contacto con personas con COVID-19 fueron las únicas variables relacionadas con el resultado de inmunoglobulina G positivo (p <0,05). El 56,1% (n = 97) de los seropositivos no tuvo síntomas. El 78,4% (n = 134) no fue diagnosticado en la etapa aguda. DISCUSIÓN : La seropositividad fue en ascenso en cada ronda, en coincidencia con la situación epidemiológica de la zona de residencia. Las características epidemiológicas como la proporción de seropositivos sin antecedentes de síntomas, reafirman la importancia de las medidas sanitarias poblacionales.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION : Seroprevalence studies allow monitoring the circulation of SARS-CoV-2, providing information to evalúate public health measures. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and evolution of seropositivity in high circulation points in the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) and clinical and epidemiological characteristics of seropositive individuals from April to October 2020. METHODS : A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during six rounds, using rapid serological testing together with an epidemiological data survey. A convenience sample was selected in three CABA railway stations considered as high bi-directional traffic points in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA). RESULTS : 7,339 people participated. The seropositive proportion was 0.6% (95%CI: 0.2-0.9) in the first round, and rose to 5.6% in the last one (95%CI: 4.3-7). Initially, seropositivity increased in CABA residents and those living in the southern part of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region. Having presented symptoms and history of contact with COVID-19 cases were the only variables found to be related to positive IgG results (p<0.05). Among seropositive participantes, 56.1% (n=97) had no symptoms and 78.4% (n=134) didn't receive a COVID-19 diagnosis in the acute stage. DISCUSSION : Seropositivity increased between rounds, according to the epidemiological situation in the area of residence. Epidemiological characteristics, such as the proportion of seropositive individuals with no history of symptoms, reaffirm the importance of public health and social measures.

4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2510-2514, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904980

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasing year by year, and DILI has become one of the common liver diseases in clinical practice and has attracted the attention of the whole world. It is known that a variety of drugs, including Chinese herbal medicine and dietary supplements, can cause various types of acute or chronic liver injury, and acute liver failure may occur in severe cases, leading to death or liver transplantation. This article elaborates on the global prevalence of DILI and the distribution of common suspected drugs.

5.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 396-398, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875706

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined school-based sexual harassment experience among college students in Guangzhou, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing campus sexual harassment.@*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1 062 college students from five universities in Guangzhou, China. A self-made questionnaire regarding awareness sexual harassment and experience of school-based sexual harassment was filled out by students voluntarily and anonymously.@*Results@#A total of 169 students reported they experienced school-based sexual harassment. The incidence of school-based sexual harassment among college students in Guangzhou was 15.91%, higher among female students (20.30%) than male students(10.2%)(χ 2=19.91, P<0.01). Verbal harassment (10.26%) was the most common type of sexual harassment, followed by physical harassment (7.16%), visual harassment (4.61%) and unwanted sexual advances (1.69%). Sexual harassment primarily took place in teaching building(58), dormitory(33) and office(17). Among the victims, 116(68.64%) were influenced by harassment. Females(n=94) being harassed were more likely to be negatively influenced compare to males(n=22).@*Conclusion@#School-based sexual harassment may result adverse psychological outcomes to students, more emphasis should be put on the prevention of sexual harassment.

6.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 719-722, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911514

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate epidemiological characteristics of outpatients and disease spectrum in the dermatology department during the COVID-19 epidemicMethods:A retrospective comparison of outpatient visits, gender, age and disease types in the dermatology department of Wuhan No.1 Hospital was performed between COVID-19 epidemic period (from 23th January 2020 to 15th April 2020) and the same period in 2019. Enumeration data were analyzed by Pearson′s chi-square test.Results:During the COVID-19 epidemic, the number of outpatient visits to the dermatology department of the hospital decreased markedly, and the average daily number of outpatient visits (236 visits/day) was only 8.81% of that during the same period in 2019 (2 678 visits/day) ; the ratio of male to female patients was reversed from 1∶1.37 in 2019 to 1.16∶1 in 2020; the proportions of patients aged 0-6, 7-12, 13-17 and 18-45 years significantly decreased compared with those in 2019 (all P < 0.001) , and the proportions of patients aged 46-69 and > 69 years significantly increased (both P < 0.001) . During the COVID-19 epidemic, there were 171 types of skin diseases in the dermatology outpatient department, and the number of disease categories decreased compared with that during the same period in 2019 (442 types) ; the number of patient visits for allergic skin diseases, erythematous papulosquamous skin diseases, viral infectious skin diseases and bacterial infectious skin diseases significantly increased compared with that during the same period in 2019 (all P < 0.001) , while the number of patient visits for sebaceous and sweat gland disorders, pigmented skin diseases and physical skin diseases significantly decreased (all P < 0.001) . Conclusion:Compared with the same period in 2019, the number of outpatient visits, patient sex ratio, age distribution and disease types in the dermatology department have undergone marked changes during the COVID-19 epidemic, and this study provides a reference for healthcare workers in dermatology department to respond to various epidemics and natural disasters in the future.

7.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 872-880, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910669

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the prevalence and distribution characteristics of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in hospitalized patients with thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (TOLF).Methods:The clinical records of 132 consecutive TOLF patients from January 2018 to June 2019 were retrospectively studied. DISH was identified by the preoperative X-ray and CT and its prevalence was calculated. The prevalence of patients with different genders, different age groups and different ossification types was compared. The segmental distribution of DISH and the distribution in the upper (T 1-T 4), middle (T 5-T 8), and lower thoracic spine (T 9-T 12) were analyzed. Ossification degree of DISH was evaluated based on the Meta scoring system. The demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI, etc.) were compared between DISH and non-DISH group. Results:Forty-nine patients was diagnosed as DISH with the prevalence of 37.1% in all included cases. The prevalence was about twice as high in male (46.3%) than in female (23.1%) ( χ2=8.806, P=0.003). The prevalence in the age groups of <40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and ≥70 years was 20.0%, 28.0%, 34.4%, 44.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. The prevalence in long-segment TOLF patients (45.1%) was significantly higher than that in short-segment TOLF patients (24.0%) ( χ2=5.937, P=0.015). DISH most frequently affected T 8,9 levels (91.8%). The total number and mean number of ossified segments were 365 and 7.4, respectively. Ossification lesions in the upper, middle, lower thoracic spine accounted for 26.03%, 40.54%, and 33.15%, respectively. Grade I, grade II, and grade III ossification accounted for 21.4%, 28.5% and 50.1%, respectively. The mean age of the DISH group was older than the non-DISH group ( t=2.024, P=0.045). The proportion of male patients in the DISH group was significantly higher than that in the non-DISH group ( χ2=8.806, P=0.003). The average height and weight in the DISH group were significantly greater than those in the non-DISH group ( t=2.564, P=0.012; t=2.191, P=0.030), whereas no significant differences in BMI and constituent ratio of concurrent diabetes, cardiac disease, hypertension between two groups were observed. Conclusion:The prevalence of DISH in patients with TOLF is 37.1%. Male, elderly and long-segment TOLF patients are associated with higher prevalence. DISH frequently occurs in the middle and lower thoracic spine, and T 8,9 is the common affected segment. Ossification lesions may develop with age. Demographic characteristics of DISH group differ, to some extent, from those of non-DISH group.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910157

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the incidence and trend of severe postpartum hemorrhage (sPPH) in China, and to provide basic data for the development and evaluation of sPPH prevention and control strategy.Methods:Obstetric data was extracted from annual national representative sampling surveys based on the National Clinical Improvement System. From 2016 to 2019, 2 978, 3 400, 4 576 and 4 594 maternity hospitals with sPPH cases were included for statistics. The annual incidence of sPPH was calculated according to province and type of medical institutions and generalized linear model was emplyed to identify the determinants affecting sPPH incidence.Results:In China, sPPH incidence increased from 0.62% in 2016 to 0.93% in 2018, and was 0.92% in 2019. Eighteen provinces had an inverted U-shaped trend of sPPH over time and most of them had the highest incidence in 2018; ten provinces had an upward trend of sPPH and 3 provinces had a U-shaped trend. In 2019, the top five provinces with the highest sPPH incidence were Yunnan (1.88%), Beijing (1.45%), Jiangsu (1.31%), Guizhou (1.26%), and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (1.22%); the top five provinces with the lowest incidence were Henan (0.55%), Jiangxi (0.60%), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (0.64%), Liaoning (0.64%) and Gansu (0.69%). In 2019, the sPPH incidence in different types of medical institutions were as follows: tertiary public general hospital (1.15%), tertiary public specialized hospital (1.02%), secondary public general hospital (0.81%), private hospital (0.61%) and secondary public specialized hospital (0.58%). sPPH incidence was positively associated with proportion of twin pregnancies, macrosomia, primipara, and puerpera aged ≥35 years in maternity hospitals ( P<0.05). Conclusions:sPPH incidence generally showes an increasing trend from 2016 and is stable at a high level in recent two years in China. It is warranted to further strengthen the monitoring of postpartum hemorrhage, and improve the capability of hierarchical management and treatment in maternity institutions and regions, in order to reduce sPPH incidence and maternal mortality.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 618-627, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909912

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in China in 2018.Methods:Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to randomly select hospitals capable of treating patients with spinal cord injury from 3 regions,9 provinces and 27 cities in China to retrospectively investigate eligible patients with traumatic spinal cord injury admitted in 2018. National and regional incidence rates were calculated. The data of cause of injury,injury level,severity of injury,segment and type of fracture,complications,death and other data were collected by medical record questionnaire,and analyzed according to geographical region,age and gender.Results:Medical records of 4,134 patients were included in this study,with a male-to-female ratio of 2.99∶1. The incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in China in 2018 was 50.484 / 1 million (95% CI 50.122-50.846). The highest incidence in the Eastern region was 53.791 / 1 million (95% CI 53.217-54.365). In the whole country,the main causes of injury were high falls (29.58%),as well as in the Western region (40.68%),while the main causes of injury in the Eastern and Central regions were traffic injuries (31.22%,30.10%). The main injury level was cervical spinal cord in the whole country (64.49%),and the proportion of cervical spinal cord injury in the Central region was the highest (74.68%),and the proportion of lumbosacral spinal cord injury in the Western region was the highest (32.30%). The highest proportion of degree of injury was incomplete quadriplegia (55.20%),and the distribution pattern was the same in each region. A total of 65.87% of the patients were complicated with fracture or dislocation,77.95% in the Western region and only 54.77% in the Central region. In the whole country,the head was the main combined injury (37.87%),as well as in the Eastern and Central regions,while the proportion of chest combined injury in the Western region was the highest (38.57%). A total of 32.90% of the patients were complicated with respiratory complications. There were 23 patients (0.56%) died in hospital,of which 17(73.91%) died of respiratory dysfunction. Conclusions:The Eastern region of China has a high incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Other epidemiological features include high fall as the main cause of injury cervical spinal cord injury as the main injury level,incomplete quadriplegia as the main degree of injury,head as the main combined injury,and respiratory complications as the main complication.

10.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1728-1731, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906579

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the incidence of adenoid hypertrophy and risk factors for secretory otitis media among primary and middle school students aged 7-16 years in Suzhou,and to provide a reference for its clinical disagnosis,treatment and prognosis.@*Methods@#The primary and secondary school students aged from 7 to 16 in Suzhou from January 2015 to December 2019 were selected by using cluster stratified sampling, adenoid hypertrophy cases were screened and diagnosed by MR, the epidemiology of adenoid hypertrophy and related risk factors of complicated secretory otitis media were analyzed among participants.@*Results@#Among 327 cases of adenoid hypertrophy were screened, with a prevalence rate of 10.95%. From 2015 to 2019, the prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy among primary and middle school students increased by year. The prevalence rate in 2019 was 10.95% higher than 9.20% in 2015 and 9.95% in 2016. The prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy in boys was 12.29%, which was higher than 9.48% in girls( χ 2=6.04, P <0.05). The prevalence rate of adenoid hypertrophy between 7-10 years old was 15.08% and higher than 6.36 %( χ 2=57.93, P <0.05) for primary and middle school students aged 11-16. Among the 327 primary and middle school students with adenoid hypertrophy,a total of 20 had secretory otitis media, and the combined rate was 6.12%. The age of the combined secretory otitis media group was younger than that of the non combined group, the severity of adenoid hypertrophy was higher than that of the non combined group, and serum IL-4, TNF-α, IgA, IgG, and IgM were higher than those of the non combined group ( P <0.05). Adenoid hypertrophy complicated with secretory otitis media was associated with age, severity, IL-4, IgG, and IgM ( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of adenoid hypertrophy among primary and secondary school students aged 7-16 years in Suzhou is relatively high, which is related to gender, age, time of onset and season. Secretory otitis media in adenoids hypertrophy children and adolescents should attract sufficient attention from the whole society.

11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1411-1414, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887381

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand pneumonia mortality in children aged 0-14 years in China in recent 15 years, and to provide reference for child pneumonia prevention and treatment.@*Methods@#Based on the death data from China Statistical Yearbook 2005-2019, pneumonia mortality in urban and rural children aged 0-14 was extracted and the standardized mortality was calculated, and the trend of mortality was fitted by Joinpoint regression model.@*Results@#The crude mortality rate of child pneumonia in urban and rural areas showed an increasing trend, while the standardized mortality rate showed a fluctuating downward trend. Joinpoint regression showed that the mortality rate of pneumonia in urban and rural children showed a monotonous downward trend, and there was no turning point. The overall APC of pneumonia mortality of urban children was -3.4, that of boys and girls were both -3.5. Trend for annual changes in urban areas were found significant among total sample and boys (both P <0.05). The overall APC of pneumonia mortality in rural children was -7.8, that of boys and girls were -7.1 and -7.8, respectively. Trend for annual changes in rural areas were found significant among total sample and boys(both P <0.05). There was no significant differences in the trend of mortality between urban and rural groups.@*Conclusion@#During 2005 to 2019, child pneumonia mortality in urban and rural areas in China shows a downward trend, which is relatively balanced in urban and rural areas. Further strengthened pediatric pneumonia treatment and management are expected to reduce the pneumonia mortality.

12.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1373-1375, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887353

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The study aims to explore the epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis among students in Qinghai Province, to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of students tuberculosis.@*Methods@#Data on tuberculosis among students from 2016 to 2019 in Qinghai province were collected and epidemiological characteristics were analyzed, the spatial distribution map were drawn by using ArcMap 10.8.@*Results@#During 2016-2019, there were 2 691 reported cases of tuberculosis among students in Qinghai Province the reporting rate were 46.10/10 5, 68.50/10 5, 73.49/10 5, 85.96/10 5, increased year by year( χ 2=116.45, P <0.01). With a high incidence from March to September each year. The tuberculosis patients were mainly aged 18 years and above, with more reported female cases than male cases and more Tibetan cases. Most of students tuberculosis cases were reported in southern Qinghai, especially in Yushu and Guoluo areas, and sharp increase was observed in Xining during 2018 to 2019.@*Conclusion@#Students tuberculosis in Qinghai is still serious. Schools should strengthen education on tuberculosis prevention, especially those in southern Qinghai and Xining.

13.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1242-1245, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886675

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of school foodborne disease outbreaks in Henan Province from 2011 to 2020 and to provide the basis for effective prevention and control of school foodborne disease outbreaks.@*Methods@#The outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools in Henan Province reported by the foodborne disease outbreak surveillance system from 2011 to 2020 were statistically analyzed.@*Results@#A total of 47 outbreaks of school foodborne diseases were reported in Henan province in the past 10 years, with a total of 1 258 cases, 701 hospitalizations and 1 death. Zhengzhou, Zhumadian, Xinyang and Xinxiang were the top 4 cities in Henan Province in terms of the number of school foodborne disease outbreaks reported. The peak of foodborne illness incidents in schools was in June and September. The largest number of incidents occurred in middle school canteens and primary school canteens(all 12). The number of reported incidents (12) and the number of cases of foodborne diseases (371) in schools caused by cereals and their products were the largest. Pathogenic bacteria and their toxins were the main pathogenic factors that caused the outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools, accounting for 78.26% of the identified causes. Bacillus cereus was the top pathogens causing foodborne diseases outbreaks in schools. The pathogenic factor that caused the largest number of cases was Diarrheogenic Escherichia Coli, and the pathogenic factor that caused the death cases was poisonous mushrooms. Apart from unexplained incidents, improper processing was the main link leading to foodborne diseases outbreaks in schools.@*Conclusion@#The primary and middle school students are the group with high incidence of foodborne diseases in schools. The supervision and management of school canteen should be strengthened in summer to prevent the outbreak of bacterial foodborne diseases caused by improper processing and storage of grain food.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 623-626, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876417

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to investigate the epidemiological distribution of HFMD and quantify the association of temperature with the incidence of children’s HFMD in Nanjing, China.@*Methods@#Daily counts of HFMD in children under 5 years and daily meteorological variables during 2011-2016 were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics and distributed lag non linear model (DLNM) was used to assess the associations of temperature on HFMD cases.@*Results@#A total of 104 977 HFMD cases aged 0-5 years were reported in Nanjing during the study period and the male to female sex ratio was 1.49∶1. The average annual incidence was 213.5 per 100 000. A bimodal seasonal pattern was observed and the south and west were found to be the high incidence areas in the city. Of these laboratory confirmed enteroviruses positive cases, 32.5% cases were positive for EV-A71 infections, 29.1% cases were positive for CV-A16 infections and 38.4% cases were positive of other enteroviruses infections. The temperature HFMD relationships were non linear and showed obvious lag effects. The cumulative relative risk presented as an approximately inverted U shape over 14 days and peaked at 25.7 ℃ with value of 2.71(95%CI=1.93-3.81). Subgroup analyses revealed that males and children aged <1 year were more vulnerable to temperature variations.@*Conclusion@#Epidemiological characteristics of HFMD among children aged 0-5 years old in Nanjing presented temporal and regional distribution. The temperature has significant impact on children’s HFMD occurrence.

15.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 619-622, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876416

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of plant and mushroom poisoning events among people aged 0-19 in Guizhou Province from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide the basis for prevention and control of food poisoning events among children and adolescents.@*Methods@#Data of people aged 0 to 19 involved in plant and mushroom poisoning incidents reported by the foodborne disease outbreak surveillance system in Guizhou Province from 2015 to 2019 were collected, verified, sorted and statistically analyzed.@*Results@#From 2015 to 2019, there were 590 cases of plant and mushroom poisoning among people aged 0 to 19 in Guizhou Province, 1 441 people were poisoned and 5 died. In May and September, family and collective dining halls were the places with the highest incidence of plant and poisonous mushroom poisoning incidents, accounting for 90.68% (535/590) of the total incidents. Poisonous mushrooms and masanberry accounted for 71.69% (423/590) of the food poisoning causes, and 5 people died of poisoning were caused by poisonous mushrooms.@*Conclusion@#In the cases of plant and mushroom poisoning among people aged 0-19 years in Guizhou Province,preschool primary and middle school students in rural areas are most vulnerable population of poisoning, so it is necessary to strengthen the publicity and education on the prevention and control of toxic plant and mushroom poisoning among children and teenagers in rural areas, so as to reduce the occurrence of relevant poisoning incidents.

16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 917-921, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881436

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the characteristics distribution of falls among students aged 6-17 in 2018, and to provide data support for preventing falls among students and formulating the corresponding policies.@*Methods@#Data of falls among students aged 6-17 in China in 2018 were collected from the the National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) for analyzing its demographic characteristics, injury occurrence and clinical traits of falling.@*Results@#In total, 42 735 cases of fall aged 6-17 were collected from the NISS in China in 2018, which accounted for 54.03% of all cases, with a sex ratio of 2.34∶1, the proportion of students aged 6-11 was the highest(53.78%). The proportion of falls from March to June was the highest(42.12%), and the peak time when falls occurred was forenoon 10:00-10:59(8.40%). School and school-related area(40.40%), home(18.96%) and public residential institution (15.35%) were the sites where falls mainly occurred. The top three activities when falls occurred were leisure activities(47.41%), sports activities(23.90%) and walking(9.77%). Bruise/scrape(54.49%), sprain/strain(21.98%) and fracture(12.69%) were the major nature of injury. The most common body parts falls involved were lower limbs(34.71%), head(29.85%) and upper limbs(25.10%). The injury of falling was mainly characterized by mild ones(83.44%).@*Conclusion@#There were more cases of falls on students aged 6-17 from the NISS in China in 2018, mainly males. The epidemiological characteristics were relatively variable, so targeted prevention program of falls should be conducted.

17.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 914-916, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881435

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze of epidemiological and etiological characteristics of 14 norovirus clusters or outbreak in Nan an District, for comprehensive prevention and control measures for norovirus infections in the region.@*Methods@#Data were collected from the emergency public health event management information system of China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, and were analyzed by using descriptive epidemiological method.@*Results@#In 2018, 14 cases of norovirus infection clusters and outbreaks were reported in Nan an District, accounting for 63.64% of the total number of incidents in the region. A total of 268 cases were reported, with an average incidence of 2.19%; the outbreak occurred mainly in November(n=6); kindergartens reported the most outbreak(n=7), followed by primary schools(n=5); the median duration of the outbreak was 2.80 days; and 14 outbreaks were caused by the GII-type genome of norovirus, with the main transmission routes being human-to-hnuman transmission.@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of norovirus outbreaks tends to be higher in schools, it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of vomiting and diarrhea symptoms in collective units such as schools, and efforts should be promoted for implementation of all levels of prevention and control measures in school.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00402021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250818

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) at an infectious disease referral center. Changes in patient profiles over time were also evaluated. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with CD from November 1986-December 2019. All patients underwent an evaluation protocol that included sociodemographic profile; epidemiological history; anamnesis; and physical, cardiologic, and digestive examinations. Trend differences for each 5-year period from 1986 to 2019 were tested using a nonparametric trend test for continuous and generalized linear models with binomial distribution for categorical variables. RESULTS A total of 2,168 patients (52.2% women) were included, with a mean age of 47.8 years old. White patients with low levels of education predominated. The reported transmission mode was vectorial in 90.2% of cases. The majority came from areas with a high prevalence (52.2%) and morbidity (67.8%) of CD. The most common clinical presentation was the indeterminate form (44.9%). The number of patients referred gradually decreased and the age at admission increased during the study period, as did the patients' levels of education. CONCLUSIONS The clinical profile of CD is characterized by a predominance of the indeterminate form of the disease. Regarding the patients who were followed up at the referral center, there was a progressive increase in the mean age and a concomitant decrease in the number of new patients. This reflects the successful control of vector and transfusion transmission in Brazil as well as the aging population of patients with CD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Aged , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
19.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177985

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. El estudio de cohortes es un diseño de tipo observacional. Este diseño solo incluye participantes que tienen el mismo riesgo de estar expuestos, para luego comparar quienes de los expuestos y no expuestos presentarán el desenlace de interés durante el mismo periodo de tiempo. La temporalidad entre la exposición y el resultado de interés en un estudio de cohorte está bien definida porque se tiene certeza de que la exposición antecede al resultado de interés. Los estudios de cohorte pueden ser prospectivos, retrospectivos o una combinación de ambos. Una de las principales ventajas es su naturaleza longitudinal, lo que permiten estimar la incidencia y el riesgo relativo como asociación de interés. Algunas variables pueden variar en el tiempo por lo que es importante, utilizar técnicas de modelamiento de datos avanzados como los modelos de efectos fijos y aleatorios


Objetive. The cohort study is an observational design. This only includes participants who have the same risk of being exposed, then compares who is exposed and unexposed presents the outcome of interest during the same period. The temporality between the exposure and the outcome of interest in a cohort study is well defined because it is certain that the exposure antecedent to the outcome of interest. Cohort studies can be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both. One of the main advantages is its longitudinal nature, making it possible to estimate the incidence and relative risk as an association of interest. Some variables may vary over time, so it is essential to use advanced data modeling techniques such as fixed and random effects models.

20.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 53(4)nov. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354837

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Mensurar o nível de controle da asma em estudantes com relato de chiado no peito no último ano através do Asthma Control Test (ACT). Método: Estudo transversal descritivo realizado com ingressantes na Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) em 2017, incluindo 1.865 universitários com 18 anos ou mais. Resultados: Cerca de 19% dos universitários apresentaram chiado no peito nos 12 meses que antecederam a entrevista. Destes, 14% apresentaram asma não controlada (ACT ≤18 pontos). A maior prevalência de asma não controlada foi observada no sexo feminino, em indivíduos com 24 anos ou mais, com a cor da pele parda, em um quarto dos universitários pertencentes às classes D e E, e naqueles que não fumam e não consomem bebida alcoólica. Conclusão: Apesar de a população estudada ser composta por universitários, observou-se uma prevalência expressiva de asma não controlada.


ABSTRACT: Objective:To measure the level of asthma control in students who have reported wheezing in the last year throughthe Asthma Control Test (ACT). Method:A cross-sectional study was carried out with students for the University Federal of Pelotas (UFPel) in 2017, including 1865 university students aged 18 years or over. Results: About 19% of the interviewees reported wheezing in the last year. Of these, 14% had uncontrolled asthma (ACT ≤ 18 points).The highest prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was observed among females, in individuals aged 24 years or older, with brown skin color, in one quarter of university students in class D and E, and who did not smoke and did not consume alcohol. Conclusion: Although the population studied was composed by university students, a considerable percentage of them had uncontrolled asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Asthma , Epidemiologic Studies , Respiratory Sounds , Student Health
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