Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Understanding the cause, severity, and elapsed time for the restoration of the functions of maxillofacial injuries can contribute to the establishment of clinical priorities aiming at effective treatment and further prevention of facial trauma. The objective of this study was to understand the factors associated with the restoration of mastication, ocular, and nasal functions in the face of trauma victims, estimating their recovery time after surgical treatment. We analyzed 114 medical records of patients treated at the Hospital Montenegro, who attended follow-up consultations for up to 180 days. For analysis of the recovery time, we performed survival analysis, followed by COX analysis. We observed that half of the patients recovered their functions within 20 days. The average time for recovery from trauma in the zygomatic-orbital-malar-nasal complex was 11 days, and in the maxillary-mandibular complex, 21 days (HR: 1.5 [0.99 2.3], p = 0.055). Although functional reestablishment has reached high rates after the surgical approach, it is necessary to analyze the failing cases, as well as the economic impacts and the prevention strategies associated with facial trauma, to improve the service to the population.


RESUMO O entendimento da causa, da gravidade e do tempo decorrido para o restabelecimento das funções de lesões maxilofaciais pode contribuir para o estabelecimento de prioridades clínicas objetivando o efetivo tratamento e prevenção dos traumatismos de face. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi compreender quais os fatores associados ao restabelecimento das funções mastigatórias, oculares e nasais em vítimas de trauma de face, estimando o tempo para recuperação das funções, após o tratamento cirúrgico. Foram analisados 114 prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Montenegro que compareceram às consultas de acompanhamento por até 180 dias. Para a análise do tempo para a recuperação, foi realizada a análise de sobrevida, seguida da análise de COX. Observou-se que metade dos pacientes recuperaram as funções em até 20 dias, sendo que o tempo médio para recuperação dos traumas no complexo zigomático-orbitário-malar-nasal foi de 11 dias e do complexo maxilo - mandibular de 21 dias (HR: 1,5 (0,99 - 2,3) p=0,055). Embora o restabelecimento das funções tenha atingido taxas elevadas após abordagem cirúrgicas, faz-se necessária a análise dos casos de insucessos bem como os impactos econômicos e as estratégias de prevenção associados aos traumas de face a fim de qualificar o serviço prestado à população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Orbital Fractures/surgery , Skull Fractures/surgery , Zygomatic Fractures/surgery , Facial Bones/injuries , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandibular Fractures/surgery , Maxillary Fractures/surgery , Nasal Bone/surgery , Orbital Fractures/etiology , Orbital Fractures/epidemiology , Skull Fractures/etiology , Skull Fractures/epidemiology , Zygomatic Fractures/etiology , Zygomatic Fractures/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Facial Bones/surgery , Mandibular Fractures/etiology , Mandibular Fractures/epidemiology , Maxillary Fractures/etiology , Maxillary Fractures/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nasal Bone/injuries
2.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 43(1): 129-150, jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000226

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Each year, more than 70 thousand new cases of the disease are registered in Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the tendency and the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the state of Alagoas in the 2010-2015 period and to identify possible areas of under-reported cases or high risk of transmission. This was a mixed ecological study. Six indicators were analyzed: incidence of tuberculosis, incidence of bacilliferous pulmonary tuberculosis, mortality, HIV/TB coinfection, cure and treatment abandonment. In the temporal analysis, the regression model by inflection points (Joinpoint) was used to identify the APC (Annual Percentual Change) and the trends were classified as increasing, stationary and decreasing. In the spatial analysis, Local Empirical Bayesian Method and Global and Local Moran statistics were used. Significance adopted was 5% with a 95% confidence interval (CI 95%). There was a statistically significant tendency of reduction in the general rate of tuberculosis incidence (APC -5.6; p = 0.01) and the proportion of abandonment (APC -10.9; p = 0.048). However, the proportion of coinfection presented a growing tendency (APC 7.9; p = 0.01). The other indicators presented a stationary pattern. The Bayesian method reduced random data fluctuation. The Moran statistic showed a significant autocorrelation for the incidence of general and bacilliferous pulmonary tuberculosis, with a concentration in the Metropolitan Region of Maceió. Tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Alagoas. The Mesoregion of the Alagoano Sertão (woodlands) appears as an area where under-reporting of cases occurs. The study demonstrated the need to strengthen actions to cope with the disease


A tuberculose é uma doença infectocontagiosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A cada ano mais de 70 mil casos novos da doença são registrados no Brasil. Buscou-se analisar a tendência e a distribuição espacial da TB no estado de Alagoas no período de 2010 a 2015 e identificar áreas de possível subnotificação de casos ou de alto risco de transmissão. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico misto. Foram analisados seis indicadores: incidência de tuberculose, incidência de tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera, mortalidade, coinfecção HIV/TB, cura e abandono de tratamento. Na análise temporal, aplicou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão (joinpoint) para a identificação do APC (Annual Percentual Change) e classificação da tendência em crescente, estacionária e decrescente. Na análise espacial, utilizou-se a Modelagem Bayesiana Empírica Local e a estatística de Moran Global e Local. Adotou-se significância de 5% e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%). Observou-se tendência estatisticamente significativa de redução da taxa de incidência de tuberculose geral (APC -5,6; p=0,01) e da proporção de abandono (APC -10,9; p=0,048). Por outro lado, a proporção de coinfecção apresentou tendência de crescimento (APC 7,9; p=0,01). Os demais indicadores apresentaram padrão estacionário. A modelagem bayesiana permitiu a redução da flutuação aleatória dos dados. A estatística de Moran mostrou auto correlação significativa para a incidência de tuberculose geral e pulmonar bacilífera, com concentração na Região Metropolitana de Maceió. A tuberculose representa um problema de saúde pública importante em Alagoas, uma vez que a Mesorregião do Sertão Alagoano se configurou como área de subnotificação de casos demonstrando-se, nesse sentido, a necessidade de fortalecimento das ações de enfrentamento à doença


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology and Biostatistics
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 326-330, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787287

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: In this paper, the basic elements related to the selection of participants for a health research are discussed. Sample representativeness, sample frame, types of sampling, as well as the impact that non-respondents may have on results of a study are described. The whole discussion is supported by practical examples to facilitate the reader's understanding. Objective: To introduce readers to issues related to sampling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sampling Studies , Patient Selection , Selection Bias , Data Collection/standards , Sample Size
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(4): 286-291, oct. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-770687

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Aplicar y valorar el enfoque bayesiano para realizar proyecciones de tasas de mortalidad por cáncer a través del ajuste de modelos edad-período-cohorte (EPC). MÉTODOS: El método de estimación bayesiano se aplica a datos de mortalidad por cáncer de vejiga en Argentina. Se adopta un esquema autorregresivo de segundo orden para la especificación a priori de los coeficientes del modelo EPC. Se comparan las estimaciones obtenidas con toda la información disponible y excluyendo los grupos de edad con tasas de mortalidad bajas, a fin de valorar el comportamiento del enfoque ante datos esparcidos. Se proyectan las tasas de mortalidad a dos períodos sucesivos a los observados. RESULTADOS: Se comprueba la robustez del método, lo cual evita excluir los grupos de edad con tasas de mortalidad nulas o bajas. Las tasas observadas caen todas dentro de las bandas de credibilidad y confirman la bondad del ajuste del modelo. Se observa una tendencia general decreciente de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de vejiga. Las estimaciones y proyecciones de estas tasas resultan más precisas en los grupos etarios que presentan mayor incidencia de mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: La formulación bayesiana utilizada permite reducir la variación aleatoria entre estimaciones adyacentes al especificar que los efectos de cada escala dependan de los inmediatos anteriores. Se demuestra la capacidad del enfoque para manejar frecuencias bajas y obtener estimaciones confiables de las tasas de mortalidad, como así también proyecciones precisas sin necesidad de realizar supuestos adicionales como sucede en el ajuste clásico de un modelo EPC.


OBJECTIVE: Apply and assess a Bayesian approach to projecting cancer mortality rates by fitting age-period-cohort (APC) models. METHODS: The Bayesian estimation method was applied to bladder cancer mortality data in Argentina. A second-order autoregressive model was adopted for a priori specification of APC model coefficients. The estimates obtained were compared with all available information and excluding age groups with low mortality, to assess behavior of the approach in light of scattered data. Mortality was projected for two successive periods following the ones observed. RESULTS: Robustness of the method was verified, which avoids excluding age groups with null or low mortality. Observed rates all fall within the credibility bands and confirm the model's goodness of fit. An overall downward trend in bladder cancer mortality was observed. Estimates and projections of these rates are more precise in age groups that have greater incidence of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The Bayesian formulation used herein makes it possible to reduce random variation between adjacent estimates by specifying that the effects of each scale depend on the immediately preceding ones. It was demonstrated that the approach has the capacity to handle low frequencies and obtain reliable mortality estimates, as well as precise projections, without the need for making additional assumptions, as happens in classical APC model fitting.


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Methods , Bayes Theorem , Urogenital Neoplasms/prevention & control , Argentina , Statistics as Topic
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(4): 523-528, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759204

ABSTRACT

AbstractBACKGROUND:Hypothesis tests are statistical tools widely used for assessing whether or not there is an association between two or more variables. These tests provide a probability of the type 1 error (p-value), which is used to accept or reject the null study hypothesis.OBJECTIVE:To provide a practical guide to help researchers carefully select the most appropriate procedure to answer the research question. We discuss the logic of hypothesis testing and present the prerequisites of each procedure based on practical examples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Research Design/standards , Bias , Biomedical Research , Linear Models , Reference Values
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(1): 44-49, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741328

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%), with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years); 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection. .


Introdução: As neoplasias malignas de cavidade oral possuem alta taxa de mortalidade. Por essa razão, existem diversas campanhas de prevenção do câncer bucal, visando orientar a população e diagnosticar lesões em estágio precoce. Contudo, vários estudos contestam a validade dessas iniciativas, uma vez que o público alvo atingido pode não representar o verdadeiro grupo de risco. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes que procuraram a campanha de prevenção, identificar a presença de lesões orais e comparar os dados com o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes portadores de câncer bucal. Método: Coorte histórica transversal. Foram levantados os dados epidemiológicos da campanha "Abra a boca para a saúde" dos anos de 2008 a 2013. Resultados: Nos anos avaliados, 11965 pessoas foram atendidas e 859 lesões diagnosticadas, todas benignas. A predominância foi do sexo feminino (52,7%), com média de idade de 44 anos (± 15,4 anos), 26% eram tabagistas e 29% relatavam uso de álcool. Sabe-se que o grupo de risco corresponde a homens, entre 60 e 70 anos, tabagistas e etilistas. Conclusão: A população que procura a campanha não é o principal grupo de risco para a doença, fato que explica o baixo número de lesões detectadas e nenhum câncer. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Health Promotion/standards , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Mass Screening , Program Evaluation , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(3): 225-230, sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608310

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Valorar la utilización de la técnica del estimador intrínseco (EI) en el campo de la epidemiología. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el enfoque EI al análisis de datos sobre cáncer de mama en la Argentina a fin de observar las tendencias asociadas a "edad, período y cohorte" (EPC). Esta metodología recurre a la aplicación de una regresión por componentes principales para obtener un único conjunto de tendencias estimadas. Se compararon sus resultados con los obtenidos por el método convencional "modelos lineales generalizados restringidos" (MLGR) que incluye una restricción adicional a las tradicionales en el modelo estadístico. RESULTADOS: Ambos métodos proporcionaron resultados compatibles en las tendencias asociadas a EPC, aunque difirieron en los intervalos de confianza, con mayor eficiencia por parte del EI. La curva asociada a edad mostró el patrón de cambio esperado según el transcurso de la vida: a mayor edad, mayor riesgo. En relación a cohortes, se evidenció un decrecimiento de los efectos asociados a las cohortes más recientes, mientras que para período los efectos estimados presentaron muy poca variación. CONCLUSIONES: La comparación entre los resultados obtenidos por el método EI y el de MLGR reveló los alcances de la solución genérica provista por el EI al problema de estimación en un modelo EPC. El método EI se basa en una transformación de los datos observados utilizando una matriz de ponderaciones de sencilla aplicación y proporciona estimaciones con propiedades estadísticas deseables.


OBJECTIVE: Assess use of the intrinsic estimator (IE) technique in epidemiology. METHODS: The IE approach was applied to the analysis of breast cancer data in Argentina in order to observe the trends associated with "age, period, and cohort" (APC). This method involves the use of a principal components regression to obtain a single set of estimated trends. The results were compared to the findings obtained with the conventional method, which consists of adjusting a generalized linear model that includes the traditional constraints of the statistical model as well as an additional constraint (CGLM). RESULTS: Both methods yielded compatible results in the trends associated with APC. However, they differed in the confidence intervals, with IE yielding greater efficiency. The curve associated with age showed the expected pattern of change across the life course: the greater the age, the greater the risk. With regard to cohorts, a decrease in the effects associated with the most recent cohorts was evident, whereas there was very little variation in the estimated effects for the period. CONCLUSIONS: A comparison of the results obtained with the IE method and the CGLM method revealed the reach of the generic solution provided by the IE to the problem of estimates in an APC model. The IE method is based on conversion of the data observed using a weighting matrix that is simple to apply and provides estimates with desirable statistical properties.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Models, Statistical , Argentina/epidemiology
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 94(4): 519-526, abr. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-546690

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Os estudos disponíveis não analisaram de modo abrangente os vários fatores envolvidos na gênese da hipertensão (HT), especialmente a associação entre pressão arterial, excreção urinária de sódio e disfunção renal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência dos fatores de risco para HT em diferentes grupos etários em uma amostra representativa da uma população urbana brasileira. MÉTODOS: A população estudada (1.717 indivíduos adultos) foi avaliada por grupos etários: 18 a 39 anos; 40 a 49; 50 a 59; 60 a 69 e > 70 anos. As médias das variáveis quantitativas e as variáveis categóricas dos grupos normotenso e hipertenso foram comparadas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência geral ajustada para HT foi de 25,23 por cento. A prevalência aumentou com a idade e era mais alta em indivíduos com baixo nível educacional. Índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal aumentados estavam positivamente associados com uma maior prevalência de HT. Havia uma associação positiva significante entre HT e excreção urinaria de sódio. Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentavam maior frequência de disfunção renal, definida como clearance de creatinina <60 ml/min/m². A prevalência de diabetes mellitus na população geral era de 5,6 por cento e 14,5 por cento nos indivíduos hipertensos. A hipertensão era uma condição conhecida por 74,4 por cento dos indivíduos hipertensos. Entre os indivíduos hipertensos tratados, 52,4 por cento tinham a hipertensão controlada e apenas 34,3 por cento dos pacientes hipertensos no geral (tratados ou não) tinham a pressão arterial controlada. CONCLUSÃO: Esse estudo de base populacional é especial devido ao fato de agregar diferentes fatores demográficos, epidemiológicos e de risco envolvidos na gênese da hipertensão na avaliação de uma única amostra com um cálculo populacional que pode ser extrapolado para outras populações hipertensas.


BACKGROUND: The available studies have not fully analyzed the several factors involved in the genesis of hypertension (HT), especially the association among blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion and renal dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To assess the HT prevalence and risk factors in different age groups in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population. METHODS: The studied population (1717 adult individuals) was evaluated by age groups: 18 to 39 years; 40 to 49; 50 to 59; 60 to 69 and > 70 years. Quantitative variable means and categorical variables of the hypertensive and normotensive groups were compared. RESULTS: The adjusted overall prevalence of HT was 25.23 percent. The prevalence increased with age and was higher in individuals with low educational level. Increased body mass index and abdominal waist were positively related to a higher prevalence of HT. There was a significant positive association between HT and urinary sodium excretion. Hypertensive individuals presented higher frequency of renal dysfunction, defined as measured creatinine clearance <60 ml/min/m². The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 5.6 percent in the overall population and 14.5 percent in hypertensive individuals. Hypertension was a known condition to 74.4 percent of the hypertensive individuals. Among treated hypertensive individuals, 52.4 percent achieved controlled blood pressure and only 34.3 percent of the overall hypertensive patients (treated or not) had blood pressure controlled. CONCLUSION: This population-based is unique by gathering different demographic, epidemiologic and risk factors involved in the genesis of hypertension in a single sample assessment with a population calculation, which might be extrapolated to other hypertensive populations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Body Mass Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/urine , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/urine , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium/urine , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL