Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 266-273, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872628

ABSTRACT

Xianling Gubao is a common and effective medicine in the treatment of orthopedic diseases. In recent years, it has been reported to be associated with liver injury. However, through the analysis of the adverse drug reaction reports and key hospital cases, we found that there is considerable incomplete information in the reports of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury cases retrieved from the literature. Thus, it is difficult to accurately judge causality between the drug and liver injury. Six cases of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao were identified in key hospitals, two of which achieved the clinical diagnosis according to the assessment of the integrated evidence chain method. We further analyzed the public health data of all residents in Yinzhou. The gross incidence rate of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury was 0.034%, which corresponds to a level of rare incidence. This revealed that Xianling Gubao-related liver injury has significant divergence in individuals and an idiosyncratic nature. The gross incidence of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao was lower than that of other medicines for the treatment of orthopedic diseases. Based on the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury model mediated by immune stress, it was found that Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus were the major components that lead to liver injury, and the liver injury caused by a full prescription was less serious than that encountered with only Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus. This suggests that the other 4 herbs (Dipsaci Radix, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix,Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) can prevent/alleviate the liver injury. Through disassembled prescription analysis, we found that the attenuation efficacy of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was the most significant. In conclusion, Xianling Gubao may cause idiosyncratic liver injury in a tiny minority of susceptible individuals, but the incidence risk is lower than that of other commonly used drugs for orthopedic disease. Xianling Gubao should be discreetly applied to patients with immune stress. The major components that induced liver injury in Xianling Gubao were Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma appears to attenuate this toxicity. This study provides a reference for the rational clinical medication with Xianling Gubao.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887958

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Epimedii Folium, composed of diverse constituents, is single at present. In view of this, an eva-luation method of 13 chemical constituents based on quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) was established to further explore the composition differences of raw products and alcohol extracts in different batches and the influence of alcohol extraction on the composition, so as to provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation and control of Epimedii Folium. The fingerprints of different batches of Epimedii Folium were constructed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) to evaluate the inter-batch consistency. The changes of the flavonoids in Epimedii Folium during alcohol extraction were analyzed based on determined levels and heat map, and the reasons for the changes were preliminarily discussed. With icariin, the quality control component recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, as the internal reference, the stability of the relative correction factors of chemical components under different conditions was investigated to obtain the relative correction factors. Then the determination results of QAMS and the external standard method were compared to verify the accuracy of QAMS. The results revealed that all batches of Epimedii Folium met the requirements specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the fingerprints of Epimedii Folium from the same place of origin exhibited a high similarity. Raw products and alcohol extracts of Epimedii Folium could be clearly distinguished by prenylated flavonoids, which are potential biomarkers for quality control. Additionally, the glycoside hydrolysis in the alcohol extraction was preliminarily explored. The QAMS method has good accuracy, durability, and repeatability in determining 13 chemical components in Epimedii Folium under different experimental conditions. No significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods was observed. This study can provide a reference for comprehensive, rapid and reasonable quality evaluation of Epimedii Folium.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Leaves
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879142

ABSTRACT

To probe the potential hepatotoxic components of Epimedii Folium and investigate its mechanism based on network toxicology and cell experimental validation. According to the previous results of component measurement and cytotoxicity evaluation, 11 active compounds related to hepatotoxicity in Epimedii Folium were chosen as research object in this study. Through SwissTargetPrediction database and GeneCards database, the potentially hepatotoxic targets of Epimedii Folium were obtained. Subsequently, the protein-target interaction network and active compounds-hepatotoxic targets network were established to analyze the core targets and screen the key hepatotoxic compounds in Epimedii Folium. Meanwhile, the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms were inferred with GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis on the core targets. At last, the effect of icaritin as the chief hepatotoxic compound on the indexes related to hepatotoxicity in HL-7702 cells and HepG2 cells was investigated to validate the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Epimedii Folium. Through the network toxicology analysis, 190 action targets and 991 hepatotoxic targets were collected, then 64 potentially hepatotoxic targets of Epimedii Folium including AKT1, EGFR, MAPK3, TNF and so on were obtained, and icaritin was screened as the key hepatotoxic compound. GO functional enrichment analysis indicated 160 biological process terms such as protein phosphorylation and negative regulation of apoptotic process, 41 molecular function terms such as protein binding and ATP binding, and 32 cellular component terms such as cytosol and cell surface. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis inferred 75 signaling pathways involving PI3 K-Akt and HIF-1. After comprehensive analysis, it was inferred that the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Epimedii Folium was related with regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis. The results of cell biology experiments showed that icaritin could significantly increase the level of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, reduce the level of glutathione, improve the quality of reactive oxygen species and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that it could cause hepatotoxicity by destroying cell membrane structure, inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activity, activating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. These results proved the reliability of results of network pharmacology. This study preliminarily clarified the material base and the mechanism of potential hepatotoxicity of Epimedii Folium, which provided important information for further research and safe application.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Plant Leaves , Protein Interaction Maps , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907633

ABSTRACT

Objective:This study by using the method of network pharmacology to screen the active constituent and related targets of Epimedii Folium aims to explore the mechanisms of the reinforcing effect of Epimedii Folium on kidney in the treatment of PCOS. Methods:By retrieving data from TCMSP datebase, screened out the active constituent of Epimedii Folium and the information of the targets corresponding to each active constituent; by using the gene database of NCBI, translated the information of the targets into gene names; by retrieving data from GeneCards datebase, extracted the genes related to PCOS; related targets of Epimedii Folium in the treatment of PCOS were obtained by Venn tool; by using Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, constructed a network diagram of Epimedii Folium-active constituents-targets-PCOS; by using STRING database, constructed the protein interaction network; then carried out GO enrichment analysis of related targets by Geneontology database and carried out pathway enrichment analysis of related targets by KEGG database. Results:There were 23 active constituents of Epimedii Folium and 132 related targets treating PCOS. The Epimedii Folium could play the reinforcing effect on kidney mainly by regulating the biological processes like steroid hormone receptor activity, as well as KEGG pathways such as Estrogen signaling pathway, GnRH signaling pathway, GnRH secretion, HIF-1 signaling pathway and VEGF signaling pathway in treating PCOS. Conclusion:From the perspective of network pharmacology, this study preliminarily analyzed the related targets and pathways of reinforcing effect on kidney of Epimedii folium in the treatment of PCOS, providing reference for further experiments and application inclinics.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906497

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the mechanism of the prescription consisting Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Epimedii Folium in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) based on network pharmacology,followed by verification in H9c2 myocardial cells with hypoxia-reoxygenation injury <italic>in vitro</italic> and in zebrafish with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ⅱ (VRI) -induced vascular insufficiency. Method:The active ingredients in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Epimedii Folium were searched from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP),the corresponding target genes from the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the CHF-related targets from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and GeneCards. Both the active ingredient-potential target network and the active ingredient-CHF-related target network were generated using Cytoscape 3.6.1, followed by the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) enrichment analysis based on MetaScape. H9c2 myocardial cells exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation were selected for determining the proliferation-promoting effect by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The protein expression of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax),cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3(Caspase-3), protein kinase B(PKB/Akt),phosphorylated protein kinase B(p-Akt),phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2),extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase(PARP)was detected by Western blotting. The efficacy of the prescription in promoting angiogenesis was verified in a zebrafish model of VRI-induced vascular injury. Result:There were 28 active ingredients for the prescription, 209 corresponding targets, 1 296 CHF-related targets, and 94 common gene targets shared by the prescription and CHF. PPI network clustering suggested that Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Epimedii Folium alleviated CHF by interfering with cell differentiation and metabolism and angiogenesis. GO analysis revealed that CHF relief was achieved via the intervention in such biological processes as cell migration,vascular development, and angiogenesis. Pharmacodynamic experiments verified that Epimedii Folium (10 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) alone and the prescription (10 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>)both enhanced the proliferation of H9c2 myocardial cells under the hypoxia-reoxygenation condition (<italic>P</italic><0.05),while the latter also increased the expression of Bcl-2,Bcl-2/Bax, and PARP (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and reduced the expression of Caspase-3, Akt, and ERK (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The prescription at the concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 g·L<sup>-1</sup> promoted angiogenesis (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Epimedii Folium exert the therapeutic effect against CHF via multiple ingredients,multiple targets, and multiple channels. Such combination promotes the proliferation of H9c2 myocardial cells under hypoxic condition and protects zebrafish from vascular injury by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and PARP,increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio,and down-regulating the expression of Caspase-3,Akt, and ERK.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906441

ABSTRACT

Objective:To elucidate the potential molecular markers and drug-compound-target mechanism of Epimedii Folium intervention on breast cancer stem cells(BCSCs) through chip analysis combined with network pharmacology and experimental validation. Method:Relevant drug information was retrieved in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) to obtain the active components and potential targets of Epimedii Folium. "Breast Cancer Stem Cells" were searched in Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO)database,and GSE98239 chip data were obtained through analysis and screening. Then GEO2R online analysis tool was used to obtain the differential genes to draw differential gene heat map and volcano map. The differential gene network map of Epimedii Folium intervention for breast cancer stem cells was constructed by Cytoscape 3.8.0,and Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG)enrichment analysis of drug and disease genes were performed. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were divided into 20%,40%,60% Epimedii Folium drug-containing serum group and control group. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8),and Western blot were used to detect the effect of Epimedii Folium drug-containing serum intervention on cell activity and target protein expression in breast cancer cells. Result:Twenty-three active components including flavones,sterols,alkaloids and sesquiterpenoids were obtained from Epimedii Folium. It was found that Epimedii Folium interacted with B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 1(BCL2L1),matrix metallopeptidase 2(MMP2),prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2),vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA),transforming growth factor beta receptor 1(TGFBR1) and other pivotal genes in breast cancer stem cells,participated in the induction of new angiogenesis and cell migration,enabled the continuous self-renewal of BCSCs,decreased apoptosis and cell migration,thus promoting the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer. KEGG results showed that Epimedii Folium intervened in multiple differential expressed genes(DEGs)of transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic>(TGF-<italic>β</italic>),vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF),phosphoinositide 3kinase/protein kenase B(PI3K/Akt),mitogen-activated protein kinese(MAPK)and mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)subpathways in cancer signaling pathways to exert its efficacy in intervening breast cancer stem cells. Experiments showed that the survival rate of breast cancer cells was significantly reduced and the expression levels of TGFBR1 and Smad2 in breast cancer cells significantly decreased after the intervention of Epimedii Folium drug-containing serum(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Several components in different concentrations of drug-containing serum of Epimedii Folium can synergistically act on target differentially expressed genes of breast cancer stem cells,and inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells by down-regulating the expression levels of TGFBR1,a key molecule in the TGF-<italic>β</italic> pathway,and Smad2,a downstream signal.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906391

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of total flavonoids from Epimedii Folium (TEF) on the angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium in rats after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and discuss its molecular biological mechanism of attenuating myocardial ischemia and improving cardiac function. Method:AMI in rats was induced through the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. All male SD rats were randomized into sham-operated group, model group, diltiazem group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and TEF low-dose and high-dose groups (100 and 200 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), with 8 rats in each group. After modeling, rats in the diltiazem group and TEF groups were given corresponding doses of diltiazem and TEF, respectively, and those in the model group and sham-operated group received normal saline of equivalent volume, once a day for 7 days. After the administration, VisualSonics Vevo2100 imaging system was used to detect the cardiac structure and function and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the histomorphological changes in myocardial ischemic area. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze the expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-smooth muscle actin (<italic>α</italic>-SMA) in ischemic myocardium and Western blot to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) in ischemic myocardium. Real-time PCR was applied to quantify the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Result:Compared with the sham-operated group, the model group demonstrated significant increase in left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs), left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVEVs), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEVd), significant decrease in End-systolic thickness of left ventricular anterior wall (LVAWs), end-diastolic thickness of left ventricle anterior wall (LVAWd), end systolic thickness of left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWs), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), and cardiac output (CO), obvious pathological changes in the ischemic myocardium, and plummet of the expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-SMA (<italic>P</italic><0.01), Akt phosphorylation level, protein level of VEGF-R2, and mRNA levels of VEGF and bFGF (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). High-dose TEF significantly alleviated the pathological changes of ischemic myocardium as compared with the model group. Moreover, TEF high-dose group showed significantly lower levels of LVIDs, LVIDd, LVEVs, and LVEVd, significantly higher levels of LVAWs, LVAWd, LVPWs, SV, EF, FS, and CO, higher expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-SMA (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and higher levels of VEGF-R2 protein, phosphorylated Akt, and VEGF and bFGF mRNA than the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:TEF can effectively improve myocardial perfusion in peri-myocardial infarction area and attenuate ventricular remodeling and heart failure after AMI by up-regulating the expression of bFGF, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 in ischemic myocardium following AMI and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt/VEGF signaling transduction pathway which can promote angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906159

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the material basis and potential molecular mechanism of Epimedii Folium against osteoporosis. Method:The chemical components in 14 batches of Epimedii Folium were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). With the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as the pharmacodynamic index,the partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR) was conducted to establish a model uncovering the spectrum-effect relationship between UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS spectral peak and ALP activity and screen the active components against osteoporosis. Online databases such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP),Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD),Database for Annotation,Visualization,and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Cytoscape 3.6.1 were employed to predict the possible mechanism of action of Epimedii Folium against osteoporosis. Result:A total of 61 peaks and 56 compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. PLSR showed that icariin,baohuoside Ⅰ,epimedin A,sagittatoside A,and baohuoside Ⅱ might be the active components for Epimedii Folium to inhibit osteoporosis considering their strong correlation with ALP activity. As revealed by the network pharmacological analysis of the five components mentioned above,Epimedii Folium<italic> </italic>mainly regulated seven targets such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF),androgen receptor (AR),and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and eight key pathways like endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption,vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway,and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to exert its anti-osteoporosis effect. Conclusion:The exploration of material basis and potential molecular mechanism of Epimedii Folium against osteoporosis based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS,spectrum-effect relationship,and network pharmacology has provided an experimental basis for the scientific explanation and clinical application of Epimedii Folium in treating osteoporosis.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921780

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease(AD) patients in China have been surging, and the resultant medical burden and care demand have a huge impact on the development of individuals, families, and the society. The active component compound of Epimedii Folium, Astragali Radix, and Puerariae Lobatae Radix(YHG) can regulate the expression of iron metabolism-related proteins to inhibit brain iron overload and relieve hypofunction of central nervous system in AD patients. Hepcidin is an important target regulating iron metabolism. This study investigated the effect of YHG on the expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17(ADAM17), a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of β amyloid precursor protein(APP) in HT22 cells, by mediating hepcidin. To be specific, HT22 cells were cultured in vitro, followed by liposome-mediated siRNA transfection to silence the expression of hepcidin. Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to examine the silencing result and the effect of YHG on hepcidin in AD cell model. HT22 cells were randomized into 7 groups: control group, Aβ25-35 induction(Aβ) group, hepcidin-siRNA(siRNA) group, Aβ25-35 + hepcidin-siRNA(Aβ + siRNA) group, Aβ25-35+YHG(Aβ+YHG) group, hepcidin-siRNA+YHG(siRNA+YHG) group, Aβ25-35+hepcidin-siRNA+YHG(Aβ+siRNA+YHG) group. The expression of ADAM17 mRNA in cells was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of ADAM17 protein by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence showed that the ADAM17 protein expression was lower in the Aβ group, siRNA group, and Aβ+siRNA group than in the control group(P<0.05) and the expression was lower in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05) and higher in the Aβ+YHG group(P<0.05) than in the Aβ group. Moreover, the ADAM17 protein expression was lower in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05) and higher in the siRNA+YHG group(P< 0.05) than in the siRNA group. The expression was higher in the Aβ+siRNA+YHG group than in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05). The results of Western blot and real-time PCR were consistent with those of immunofluorescence. The experiment showed that YHG induced hepcidin to up-regulate the expression of ADAM17 in AD cell model and promote the activation of non-starch metabolic pathways, which might be the internal mechanism of YHG in preventing and treating AD.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hepcidins/genetics , Humans , Pueraria
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872993

ABSTRACT

Objective::To compare the adsorption characteristics of different macroporous adsorption resins for the total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium, clarify the adsorption mechanism, and screen the optimal resin for the purification of total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium. Method::Taking the adsorption and desorption capacities of the total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium and five representative flavonoids (epimedin A, epimendin B, epimendin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅰ) as indexes, static adsorption and dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to compare the adsorption characteristics of five macroporous including HPD100, HPD600, AB-8, X-5 and D101.The adsorption kinetics of the selected resin was studied by using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model, and the thermodynamic process was analyzed by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption models, which explored the adsorption mechanism of resin from the perspective of physical chemistry. Result::HPD100 macroporous resin had a better adsorption and desorption properties than the others. The adsorption process of HPD100 macroporous resin for total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium and five representative flavonoids conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption thermodynamic process of HPD100 resin for total flavonoids of Epimedii Folium conformed to the Freundlich model, and for the sum of five representative flavonoids conformed to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process of HPD100 resin for total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium was the exothermic process dominated by physical adsorption, and the optimal adsorption temperature was 25 ℃. Conclusion::HPD100 macroporous resin has large adsorption capacity, easy desorption and clear adsorption mechanism, it is suitable for isolation and purification of total flavonoids in Epimedii Folium.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872934

ABSTRACT

Objective:To predict the anti-inflammatory targets and relevant signaling pathways of Epimedii Folium in the treatment of depression by network pharmacology,in order to explore the potential mechanism of its anti-depression effect. Method:The active constituents of Epimedii Folium were collected and screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) database. PharmMapper server and TCMSP database were used to predict and screen out protein targets. OMIM database,CTD database and GeneCards database were used to screen out relevant targets and anti-inflammatory targets of depression. Enrichment analysis of the gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) signaling pathway for the key anti-inflammatory targets of Epimedii Folium were carried out by DAVID database. Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to construct the network diagram of "active component-action target-signal pathway" of Epimedii Folium and analyze the topological structure of the network. GOLD molecular docking software was used to verify the results of active components and key anti-inflammatory targets. Result:A total of 12 active components,30 targets and 5 key anti-inflammatory targets of Epimedii Folium were screened out, 65 biological processes,4 cell components and 1 molecular function were enriched with GO function, and 41 KEGG pathways were enriched and analyzed,including 9 inflammation-related signaling pathways. Molecular docking verified that icariin and key anti-inflammatory targets could form the optimal binding structure. Conclusion:The study preliminarily reveals the molecular mechanism of Epimedii Folium on depression through its anti-inflammatory target and its relevant signaling pathway network,so as to provide a basis for further study on the antidepressant effect of Epimedii Folium.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the flavonoids contained in different parts of different botanical origins of Epimedii Folium, and provide a basis for the quality evaluation of Epimedii Folium and the reasonable selection of medicinal parts. Methods: The aerial parts of 13 batches of Epimedii Folium were collected and divided into three parts: leaf, petiole and stem. The HPLC fingerprint and content of five flavonoids, including epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin and baohuoside I, were analyzed. Then the analysis of variance and the similarity evaluation software of traditional Chinese medicine chromatographic fingerprint were used. Combined with cluster analysis (HCA), the content differences of flavonoids in leaf, petiole and stem of Epimedii Folium were evaluated. Results: The fingerprints showed that the chemical constituents in Epimedii Folium leaves were richer than stems and petioles, and the chemical constituents in petioles and stems were basically the same. The content of five components in leaves was significantly higher than that of petiole and stem, even up to 10 times. Cluster analysis also showed that the leaves were obviously distinct from the petiole and stem. Conclusion: The quality differences of Epimedii Folium leaves, petioles and stems were clarified, and this study can provide the scientific evidence for the selection of medicinal parts and quality control of Epimedii Folium.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846394

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the anti-fatigue mechanism of Epimedii Folium by network pharmacology. Methods: The main active ingredients of Epimedii Folium and the targets of active ingredients were obtained by TCMSP. The GeneCards was used to predict and screen the anti-fatigue targets. The Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used to construct the active ingredient-disease-target network. The protein interactions network was constructed using the String database. The GO enrichment and KEGG pathways of the targets were analyzed by using DAVID database. Results: Nine active ingredients were screened from Epimedii Folium, including chrysoeriol, kaempferol, anhydroicaritin, C-homoerythrinan,1,6-didehydro-3,15,16-trimethoxy-,(3.beta.)-, 8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2-phenyl- chromone, luteolin, magnograndiolide, quercetin, 8-isopentenyl-kaempferol, which acted on 31 fatigue targets such as PPARG, GABRA1, CASP3, ICAM1, etc. Biological function analysis showed that the targets of Epimedii Folium included cellular response to hypoxia, regulation of apoptotic, positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, cellular response to hyperoxia, and negative regulation of lipid storage. Signaling pathway analysis showed that Epimedii Folium exerted the anti-fatigue effect by regulating PI3K-Akt, P53, HIF-1, TNF, FoxO, ErbB, MAPK, and other pathways. Conclusion: This study reflects the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway of Epimedii Folium, which provides reference for further research on the mechanism of anti-fatigue effects of Epimedii Folium.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846383

ABSTRACT

Objective: Based on UPLC-Q/TOF-MS technology, the fingerprint of Epimediumkoreanum before and after processing was established to analyze the whole composition and find out the iconic chemical composition to clarify the change rule of flavonoids. Methods: The data of E.koreanum raw and processed products were collected in positive ion mode using UPLC-Q/TOF-MS technology, and orthogonal partial least least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) method was used to explore the differences in chemical composition of E.koreanum before and after processing in nine different origins and batches. Results: Nine iconic chemical constituents from E.koreanum raw and processed products were found and identified, including 8-ethylene-kaempferol, icaritin, icariin I, icartin-3-O-glucoside, isoamyl alcohol sagittatoside B,1,3-prenyl epimedin C, 1,3-prenyl-sagittatoside B-7-O-glucuronic acid, 3-O-((4-acetoxy) rhamnose-2-O-(m-2acetoxy) glucose) icariin and its isomers. Conclusion: The structures of E.koreanum's flavonoids changed after the processing, the secondary glycosides of flavonoids increased, the polyglycosides decreased, and the flavonoids were generally converted to low glycoside components, which further clarified the change rule of E.koreanum's flavonoids after processing.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the best technological conditions for the purification of epimedin and icariin from Epimedii Folium by macroporous resin, and preliminarily characterize the purification fraction of the best technological conditions. Methods: Five kinds of macroporous resins were screened by static adsorption experiment with the content of epimedin A1, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin as indexes. The best purification conditions were optimized by the concentration of upper column solution, the maximum sample volume, the upper column flow rate, the volume of water washing, the concentration of removing impurity ethanol and elution ethanol, the volume of removing impurity ethanol and elution ethanol, the column diameter-height ratio through dynamic adsorption experiment. Finally, UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, HPLC and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were used to characterize the purification fraction of the best technological conditions. Results: The best macroporous resin was AB-8, column diameter-height ratio was 1:7, 6 BV of upper column solution (crude drug 0.5 g/mL) was used for dynamic adsorption at a flow rate of 6 BV/h, 5 BV of water and 5 BV of 20% ethanol were used for impurity removal, and 6 BV of 50% ethanol was used for elution. The flow rate of impurity removal and elution was 6 BV/h. After purification, the total flavonoids content was 63.29%, the total content of epimedin A1, A, B, C and icariin was 40.48%, the content of epimedin A1, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin was 1.63%, 2.52%, 16.36%, 5.51% and 14.46%, respectively. Conclusion: The purification process of epimedin and icariin from Epimedii Folium by AB-8 macroporous resin is stable, reasonable and feasible. The chemical characterization indicated that the purification fraction was mainly flavonoids, mainly consisting of epimedin and icariin. The optimized purification process can be used for the purification and enrichment of such ingredients.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773178

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium,a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine,has the effect of tonifying kidney Yang,strengthening bones and treating rheumatism. However,in recent years,the number of reports on adverse reactions of Epimedii Folium and its Chinese patent medicines such as Xianling Gubao Capsules and Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills has been gradually increased,and the toxicity of Epimedii Folium has attracted more and more attention. In this article,the ancient and modern literature on Epimedii Folium was traced through a comprehensive and systematic literature analysis method. According to the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,Epimedii Folium refers to the dried leaves of Epimedii Folium brevicomu,E. sugittutum,E. pubescens or E. koreuuum. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia also includes E. wushanense of Wushan Epimedium,which is the same plant variety as Epimedium. The study showed that there were differences in the geographical distribution,composition and toxicity among five species of Epimedium. This paper also explained the toxicity mechanism as well as efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing effects of Epimedii Folium,and reported its related adverse reaction cases. Through a retrospective comparative study on the toxicity of the modern Chinese patent medicines Xianling Gubao Capsules and Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills containing Epimedii Folium,it was believed that Epimedii Folium had cardiovascular system toxicity,neurotoxicity,hepatotoxicity,long-term toxicity,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and special toxicity; its safe medication factors included patient syndrome,doctor factors,drug factors,processing and compatibility factors. Meanwhile,strategies were proposed to improve patient safety medication awareness,standardize Epimedii Folium varieties and quality supervision,and the toxicity of Epimedii Folium was studied,hoping to draw attention from scholars to the safety of Epimedii Folium,improve the safe use of Epimedii Folium,and prevent adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773156

ABSTRACT

The change of icariin( ICA) content in thirty-three samples of five Epimedium species listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),including E. brevicornu,E. sagittatum,E. pubescens,E. koreanum,and E. wushanense has been investigated in this study. The results indicated that the optimized process procedure was baking at 150 ℃ for 30 min,and 3'''-carbonyl-2″-β-L-quinovosyl icariin( CQICA) could not be translated into ICA and ICA could be converted under this heating process condition. ICA increased remarkably after the heating process by 1-3 times in E. brevicornu,E. wushanense and E. koreanum,and increased lightly in E. brevicornum and E. pubescens,while ICA slightly increased or decreased in E. sagittatum and E. wushanense.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Hot Temperature , Phytochemicals , Specimen Handling
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects between crude and processed Epimedii Folium on the rats of kidney-Yang deficiency and edema, in order to discuss the mechanism. Method: The rat model of kidney-Yang edema was duplicated with hydrocortisone and doxorubicin hydrochloride. At day 1 and day 8 of modeling, the rats were injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3.5 mg·kg-1) via tail vein, while being intraperitoneally injected with hydrocortisone (3.75 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 15 days.After modeling,the rats were divided into model group,crude Epimedii Folium group(204.86 mg·kg-1)and processed Epimedii Folium group(204.86 mg·kg-1), and a normal control group was set up additionally.Rats in each treatment group were given the corresponding drugs,and those in normal and model groups were given the same volume of normal saline by gavage for continuous 14 days.At the end of the administration,24 h urine was measured by rat metabolic cage method; 24 h urinary protein was detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; the content of plasma albumin (ALB) and total serum protein (TP) were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer; and the content of adenosine monophosphate was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), serum creatinine (SCr), serum urea(BUN), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) indicator content were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Kidney tissues were collected to make pathological section by htoxylin eosin(HE) staining. Result: Compared with the normal group, all the indicators of appearance, biochemistry and pathological section in the model group indicated kidney Yang deficiency edema in the rats (PP2, T indicators to varying degrees(PPP2, T (PPP3, T4 and anal temperature (PPConclusion: Both crude Epimedii Folium group and processed Epimedii Folium group have certain effect in treating kidney Yang deficiency edema, and the possible mechanism is to alleviate glomerular podocyte injury induced by doxorubicin. Their emphasis in the treatment of kidney Yang deficiency edema is different. Crude Epimedii Folium has a cold property, and can treat kidney Yang deficiency edema by strengthening renal excretion function of rats with kidney Yang deficiency edema. Processed Epimedii Folium is processed with sheep oil to produce icariin and other substances, and its property changed from cold to warm, with a focus on alleviating the kidney Yang deficiency status of rats with kidney Yang deficiency edema.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690364

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium, a famous traditional Chinese medicine made of dried leaves of Epimedium brevicomu, E. pubescens, E. sagittatum or E. koreanum, has been applied in China for several thousand years as a medicine. It has the function of reinforcing kidney Yang, strengthening muscles and bones and dispelling rheumatism. Modern studies have shown that baohuoside Ⅰ has a low content in Herba Epimedii, but it has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-osteoporosis, anti-tumor, improving cognitive dysfunction, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury protection, and neuroprotection. More and more attention has been paid to the preparation methods and pharmacological effects of baohuoside Ⅰ due to its many biological activities and pharmacological effects. In this present research, in order to provide references for the better mass preparation and rational exploitation of baohuoside Ⅰ, we summarized and sorted out the preparation methods and pharmacological effects of baohuoside Ⅰ which were published in recent years.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687332

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium has a long history in China as a common traditional Chinese medicine. Key factors of Epimedii Folium quality were summarized based on ancient literatures, Chinese Pharmacopoeias and modern research in different period of history. The main reason for unqualified Epimedii Folium is unstable icariin. Therefore, it's suggested that: the precondition of the quality control of epimedium is to find the proper quality marker. It's suggested that the medicinal parts should be reverted to "dry whole plant overground" to solve Epimedium resource shortage problem. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the standardized cultivation, so as to ensure germplasm, production area, and producing method to guarantee the quality of Epimedium Folium. In the drying method, it is recommended to change "dry in the sun or shade" to "dry", namely dry in the sun, shade or drier, in order to provide a new method to improve the quality control and quality standard of Epimedii Folium.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL