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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219464


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from pregnant women attending Mater Misericordia Hospital Afikpo, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Study Design: This is a laboratory based prospective study carried out on pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and was requested to undergo diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria from October, 2022 to January, 2023. Methodology: Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected from 206 pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and were requested to undergo medical diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. The urine samples were processed following standard microbiological procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method, while ESBL phenotypes were determine by the Double-Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Disc potentiation test was performed to check for MBL production. Results: Out of the 206 urine samples processed, 24 (11.7 %) E. coli and 12 (5.8 %) K. pneumoniae were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates recorded a 100 % resistance with Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Cotrimoxazole. The Gram-negative isolates showed a high sensitivity of 100 % to Netilmicin, Meropenem and Ofloxacin. Overall, 35 (97.2 %) multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed of the bacteria isolates. A total of 9 (37.5 %) E. coli and 4 (33.3 %) K. pneumoniae was found positive for ESBL production whereas, 5 (20.8 %) E. coli and 2 (16.7 %) K. pneumoniae were MBL positive. Conclusion: The level of drug resistance in this study underscores the need for regular surveillance for effective management of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(2): 2-2, jun. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449400


Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen implicated in numerous outbreaks worldwide that has the ability to cause extra-intestinal complications in humans. The Enteropathogens Division of the Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) in Paraguay is working to improve the genomic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) to enhance laboratory-based surveillance and investigation of foodborne disease outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is proposed worldwide to be used in the routine laboratory as a high-resolution tool that allows to have all the results in a single workflow. This study aimed to carry out for the first time, the genomic characterization by WGS of nine STEC O157:H7 strains isolated from human samples in Paraguay. We were able to identify virulence and resistance mechanisms, MLST subtype, and even establish the phylogenetic relationships between isolates. Furthermore, we detected the presence of strains belonging to hypervirulent clade 8 in most of the isolates studied.

Resumen Escherichia coli O157:H7 es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos implicado en numerosos brotes en todo el mundo y es capaz de causar complicaciones extraintestinales en humanos. La sección de «Enteropatógenos¼ del Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública trabaja en mejorar la caracterización genómica de STEC, de modo de potenciar la vigilancia laboratorial y la investigación de brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. La secuenciación de genoma completo (WGS, por sus siglas en inglés) se propone a nivel mundial como una herramienta de alta resolución para ser utilizada en el laboratorio de rutina, ya que permite obtener todos los resultados en un único proceso. El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo, por primera vez, la caracterización genómica por WGS de nueve cepas STEC O157:H7 aisladas en Paraguay a partir de muestras de origen humano. Pudimos identificar los factores de virulencia, los mecanismos de resistencia, el subtipo MLST, e incluso pudimos establecer la relación filogenética entre los aislamientos. Además, detectamos que la mayoría de las cepas pertenecían al clado hipervirulento 8.

Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(2): 11-11, jun. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449409


Abstract This work focused on the comprehensive study of two provincial transit abattoirs inTucumán, Argentina, with no Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. Visits (n = 20)were conducted between 2016 and 2018 during the operational and post-operational processes.Risk was estimated and the bacteriological analysis of carcass and environmental samples wasperformed. Risk estimation showed the predominance of high risk in both abattoirs. The maindeviations from the HACCP plan were: deficient building conditions, deficient workflow, lack of sectorization of changing rooms and bathrooms, lack of implementation of Standardized Sanitary Operational Procedures, and no food safety training of workers. The counts of indi-cator microorganisms from both abattoirs were not significant. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 7.5% carcass and 7.3% environmental samples. The Salmonella serovars identified were Cerro, Corvallis, Havana and Agona. Shiga toxin (stx) genes were detected in 24.4% carcass and 30.9% environmental samples. The isolates were characterized as Escherichia coli O8:H7/stx1, O116:H49/stx2 and O136:H40/stx2. Based on these results, it would be possible to implement an improvement plan in Tucumán abattoirs together with the local health authorities. Still, the need to work jointly with the sanitary authority in search of a unique sanitary standard for Argentina remains unaddressed.

Resumen Este trabajo se centró en el estudio integral de dos frigoríficos de tránsito provincial en Tucumán, Argentina, carentes de un plan de análisis de peligros y puntos críticos de control (HACCP, por sus siglas en inglés). Las visitas (n = 20) se realizaron entre 2016 y 2018 durante los procesos operativos y posoperativos. Se realizó la estimación del riesgo y el análisis bacteriológico de medias reses y muestras ambientales. La estimación del riesgo demostró un predominio de riesgo alto en ambos frigoríficos. Las principales desviaciones del plan HACCP fueron las deficientes condiciones edilicias, un inadecuado flujo de trabajo, la falta de sectorización de vestuarios y banños, una implementación nula de procedimientos operativos estandarizados de saneamiento y una insuficiente capacitación en seguridad alimentaria de los operarios. Los recuentos de microorganismos indicadores de ambos frigoríficos no presentaron diferencias significativas. Salmonella spp. se aisló del 7,5% de muestras de medias reses y del 7,3% de muestras ambientales. Se identificaron las siguientes serovariedades de Salmonella: Cerro, Corvallis, Havana y Agona. Se detectaron genes de toxina Shiga (sfx) en el 24,4% de las muestras de medias reses y en el 30,9% de las muestras ambientales. Los aislamientos se caracterizaron como Escherichia coli O8:H7/sfx1, O116:H49/sfx2 y O136:H40/sfx2. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados, sería posible implementar un plan de mejoramiento en frigoríficos de Tucumán conjuntamente con las autoridades locales de salud. Aun así, sigue sin abordarse la necesidad de trabajar en vinculación con las autoridades sanitarias en la búsqueda de una norma integrada única para Argentina.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217205


Background: The quinolone group, a synthetic antimicrobial, is widely used worldwide to treat many diseases, including those caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli and others are among the bacteria that produce quinolone resistance genes (qnr) such as qnrA and aac(6?)-Ib-cr. Objective: The present study aimed to the isolate Escherichia coli from patients attending some Hospitals in Wad Medani city, identification of drug resistance patterns and detection of the frequency of quinolones resistance genes; qnrA and aac(6?)-Ib-cr among isolated strains. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive, hospital-based study included 119 Escherichia coli strains was conducted. A designed questionnaire used for demographic data collection and the attitude toward antimicrobials usage. Clinical specimens were processed for aerobic bacterial isolation and identification. Antimicrobial sensitivity performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique according to the CLSI guidelines. Presence of qnrA and aac(6?)-Ib-cr genes was assessed by multiplex PCR. Results: Most strains of Escherichia coli originated from urine 53.8% (64/119) and wounds 42.9% (51/119) specimens. Meropenem had the best effect against tested strains with susceptibility of 85% (101/119). Multiplex PCR assay, using specific primers, demonstrated that 41.2% (49/119) and 37.8% (45/119) of isolated Escherichia coli possessed qnrA and aac(6?)-Ib-cr genes respectively. Conclusion: The high rate of qnrA and aac (6)-Ib-cr genes among Escherichia coli necessitate the usage of molecular tools in detecting the genetic determinants of drug resistance microorganisms in countries such as Sudan.

Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(1): 101-110, mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441190


Abstract Escherichia coli is one of the main human pathogens causing different hospital- and community-acquired infections. During the period from January 2013 to March 2015, 1.96% (32/1632) of E. coli isolates recovered at the Hospital Regional de Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego province, were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs). These isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (91%) and/or ceftazidime (28%). No resistance to carbapenems was detected. Twenty-six isolates were positive for blaCTX-M gene, grouped as CTX-M-1/15 (54%); CTX-M-9/14 (25%); CTX-M-2 (17%); and CTX-M-1/15 plus CTX-M-9/14 (4%). Five TGC-resistant strains were positive for blaCMY gene, while one strain harbored TEM-19 ESBL. Twelve isolates were identified as ST131 E. coli hyperepidemic clone, and one as ST69. Genome sequence analysis of seven blaCTX-M-15 E. coli selected isolates confirm the circulation of ST131, ST617 and ST405 international high-risk clones in the city of Ushuaia.

Resumen Escherichia coli es uno de los principales patógenos humanos causantes de diferentes infecciones de inicio hospitalario y comunitario. Se determinó que el 1,96% (32/1.632) de los aislamientos de E. coli recuperados entre enero de 2013 y marzo de 2015 en el Hospital Regional de Ushuaia, provincia de Tierra del Fuego, fueron resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación (CTG). Estos aislamientos fueron resistentes a cefotaxima (91%) y/o a ceftazidima (28%). No se detectó resistencia a los carbapenemes. Veintiséis aislamientos fueron positivos para el gen blaCTX-M, agrupados como CTX-M-1/15 (54%), CTX-M-9/14 (25%), CTX-M-2 (17%) y CTX-M-1/15 más CTX-M-9/14 (4%). Cinco cepas resistentes a CTG dieron positivo para el gen blaCMY, mientras que un aislamiento presentó la BLEE TEM-19. Doce aislamientos se identificaron como clon hiperepidémico E. coli ST131 y uno como ST69. El análisis de las secuencias del genoma de siete aislamientos seleccionados de E. coli blaCTX-M-15 confirmó la circulación de los clones internacionales de alto riesgo ST131, ST617 y ST405 en la ciudad de Ushuaia.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219417


Quinolone antibiotics have been commonly used to treat cases of multiple antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, quinolone antibiotics have so much been resisted by infectious bacterial agents. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of some clinical isolates of E. coli to some commonly used quinolone antibiotics and the determination of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance genes. Our results showed the plasmid quinolone-resistance genes in the following prevalence: qnr genes: qnr S (71.4 %); qnr B (15.4 %); qnr S and B (12.1 %); aac (6) lb-cr (4 %); Efflux genes: oqxA (7.7 %); oqxB (25.3 %); qepA (12.1 %); oqxA and oqxB (5.5 %). We conclude that there is a high frequency of Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples in South-Eastern Nigeria. These could be responsible for the high incidence of quinolone resistance reported in Enugu. There is a need for whole-genome sequencing to map out all resistance genes.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442116


Objetivo. Determinar los factores higiénico-sanitarios asociados a la contaminación microbiológica de la carne de pollo comercializada en los mercados municipales de El Salvador. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en los 33 mercados municipales de las cabeceras departamentales de El Salvador. La muestra se calculó a partir de 456 puestos de venta, obteniendo un total de 256 puestos. Por cada puesto se obtuvo una muestra de carne de pollo. El análisis microbiológico se realizó en el Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública. Se calcularon frecuencias, porcentajes, medidas de tendencia central y de asociación utilizando SPSS versión 21. Resultados. En el 74% de las muestras se encontró Escherichia coli, en el 24%, Staphylococcus aureus y en el 16%, Salmonela spp. La presencia de Salmonella spp, estuvo asociada con el no uso de desinfectante para las manos y no utilizar toalla para secarse las manos. La presencia de E. coli estuvo asociada al uso de accesorios personales y la inadecuada temperatura de almacenamiento. Mientras que la presencia de S. aureus, estuvo asociada a la falta de lavado de manos, no utilizar toalla para secarse las manos y no utilizar delantal. Conclusión. Las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de los manipuladores y de los puestos de venta están asociadas a la contaminación microbiológica en la carne de pollo comercializada en El Salvador.

Objective. To determine the hygienic-sanitary factors associated with the microbiological contamination of chicken meat sold at the municipal markets of El Salvador. Materials and methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 municipal markets of the 14 departmental capitals of El Salvador. The sample consisted of 256 out of 456 possible market stalls. A sample of chicken meat was obtained from each market stall. The microbiological analysis was conducted at the National Public Health Laboratory. Frequencies, percentages, measures of central tendency and association were calculated with SPSS version 21. Results. Escherichia coli was found in 74% of the samples, Staphylococcus aureus in 24% and Salmonella spp. in 1%. The presence of Salmonella spp. was associated with not using hand sanitizer and not using towels for drying the hands. S. aureus was associated with the use of personal accessories and improper storage. The presence of S. aureus was associated with the lack of hand washing, not using a towel to dry the hands and not wearing an apron. Conclusion. The hygienic-sanitary conditions of the handlers and the market stalls were associated with microbiological contamination of chicken meat marketed in El Salvador.

Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 47: e14022022, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444537


O Brasil é um país que possui um litoral onde se deparam grandes cidades e com grande fluxo de atividades humanas, o que pode levar a contaminação por microrganismos e parasitos. Diante desse contexto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência parasitária e microbiológica em areia de praias de São Luís, Maranhão. Para tal, foram coletadas quatro amostras de três praias, totalizando assim 12 amostras, cada área foi dividida em quatro faixas distintas, sendo duas secas e duas úmidas, e para cada amostra foram introduzidos coletores estéreis na areia com profundidade de 20 centímetros. As amostras foram identificadas e colocadas em caixa de isopor e foram conduzidas ao laboratório para análises, a parasitológica foi através do método de sedimentação espontânea e centrifugação e para a microbiológica utilizou-se o kit COLItest® para determinação de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (Escherichia coli). As areias, 100% (12/12) encontravam-se positivas para helmintos e/ou protozoários, sendo que o helminto e protozoário de maior ocorrência foram: 100% (12/12) Trichuris trichiura e 83,3% (10/12) Giardia lamblia, respectivamente. As análises microbiológicas, apresentaram 66,6% (8/12) com contaminação por coliformes totais, e 58,3% (7/12) para Escherichia coli, o ponto de coleta 3 da areia seca da praia de São Marcos (Sm3S) apresentou a maior contaminação por Escherichia coli (4,33x102 UFC/mL). As praias da orla marítima chamada Litorânea em São Luís estão contaminadas por parasitas como também por bactérias oriundas de fontes que entraram em contato com fezes seja de animais ou de humanos. Assim, aumenta-se a probabilidade de indivíduos que frequentem esses ambientes de adquirirem infecções.

Brazil has a coastline with large cities and a great flow of human activities, which can lead to contamination by microorganisms and parasites. Given this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitic and microbiological events in the sand of beaches in São Luís, Maranhão. Therefore, four samples were collected from three beaches, thus totaling 12 samples. Each area was divided into four distinct segments, two dry and two wet, and for each sample, sterile collectors were inserted into the sand at a depth of 20 centimeters. The samples were identified, placed in a Styrofoam box, and taken to the laboratory for analysis. The parasitological analysis was performed through spontaneous sedimentation and centrifugation, while the microbiological analysis used the COLItest® kit to determine total and thermotolerant coliforms (Escherichia coli). All the sand samples were positive (100%) for helminths and/or protozoa, and the most frequent helminth and protozoan were Trichuris trichiura (100%; n=12 ) and Giardia lamblia (83.3%; n=10), respectively. Microbiological analyses showed that 66.6% (8/12) were contaminated by total coliforms and 58.3% (7/12) by Escherichia coli. Collection point 3 of dry sand from São Marcos beach (Sm3S) showed the highest contamination by Escherichia coli (4.33x102 CFU/mL). The beaches on the seafront called Litorânea in São Luís are contaminated by parasites and fecal bacteria from animals or human sources on the beach. Thus, the probability of acquiring infections increases among individuals visiting these environments.

Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 39(2): e00205322, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421024


Na região Amazônica, cidades como Santarém, no Estado do Pará, Brasil, ainda carecem de Estações de Tratamento de Água para atender toda a população. Nesses locais, medidas domiciliares de desinfecção da água são importantes para preservar a potabilidade e evitar efeitos indesejáveis na saúde. Este estudo avaliou experimentalmente o efeito das medidas domiciliares na eliminação de Escherichia coli em amostras de água. As técnicas avaliadas para esse trabalho foram: (i) hipoclorito de sódio 2,5%; (ii) fervura; (iii) filtro de cerâmica; e (iv) exposição solar. Foram testadas amostras, combinando-se diferentes concentrações de E. coli (entre 3 e 100 unidades formadoras de colônias/100mL). Os resultados mostraram que as medidas domiciliares de desinfecção foram eficazes na eliminação da E. coli, com exceção do filtro de cerâmica, cujas amostras de água, mesmo após a filtragem, apresentaram-se positivas para o crescimento da bactéria. Considerando que a distribuição da água tratada não chega à maior parte da população que reside em Santarém e em áreas periurbanas, como em comunidades quilombolas e ribeirinhas, o uso das medidas como hipoclorito de sódio 2,5%, fervura e exposição solar poderão favorecer a promoção da saúde e diminuir a ocorrência de surtos de doenças diarreicas veiculadas pela água.

In the Amazon region, cities such as Santarém, in the state of Pará, Brazil, still lack Water Treatment Stations to serve the entire population. In these places, household methods of water disinfection are important to preserve potability and avoid undesirable health effects. Our study experimentally evaluated the effect of household methods for eliminating Escherichia coli in water samples. The techniques evaluated for this study were: (i) sodium hypochlorite 2.5%; (ii) boiling; (iii) ceramic filter, and (iv) sun exposure. Samples were tested, combining different concentrations of E. coli (from 3 to 100 colony forming units/100mL). The results showed that household disinfection methods were effective in eliminating E. coli; except for the ceramic filter, the water of which was still positive for their growth, even after filtration. Considering that the distribution of treated water does not reach most of the population living in Santarém and in peri-urban areas, such as the quilombola and riverside communities, the use of such methods as sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, boiling, and sun exposure may favor health promotion and reduce the occurrence of outbreaks of dysentery transmitted by water.

En la región Amazónica, las ciudades como Santarém, en el estado de Pará, Brasil, todavía carecen de Estaciones de Tratamiento de Agua para atender a toda la población. En estos lugares, las medidas de desinfección domiciliaria del agua son importantes para preservar la potabilidad y evitar efectos indeseables en la salud. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de medidas domiciliarias en la eliminación de Escherichia coli en muestras de agua. Las técnicas evaluadas en este trabajo fueron: (i) hipoclorito de sodio al 2,5%; (ii) hervir el agua; (iii) filtro cerámico y (iv) exposición al sol. Se probaron muestras combinando diferentes concentraciones de E. coli (entre 3 y 100 unidades formadoras de colonias/100mL). Los resultados mostraron que las medidas de desinfección domiciliaria fueron efectivas en la eliminación de E. coli, con excepción del filtro cerámico que presentó un resultado positivo para su crecimiento en las muestras de agua, aún después de filtrada. Considerando que la distribución de agua tratada no llega a la mayoría de la población residente en Santarém y en áreas periurbanas como comunidades quilombolas y ribereñas, el uso de técnicas como el hipoclorito de sodio al 2,5%; hervir el agua o exponerla al sol pueden favorecer una promoción de la salud y reducir el surgimiento de brotes de enfermedades diarreicas transmitidas por el agua.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 56: e0513, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431403


ABSTRACT Background: Bacterial resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) is present worldwide. Empirical antibiotic therapy is often needed, and the use of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, is common. This study aimed to analyze the urine cultures from 2,680 outpatients in January 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022, with bacterial counts above 100,000 CFU/mL in which Escherichia coli was the etiological agent. Methods: We monitored the resistance of ESBL-positive and ESBL-negative strains to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and evaluated resistance rates. Results: Significantly higher fluoroquinolone resistance rates were observed among ESBL-positive strains in all years studied. Furthermore, a significant increase in the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was observed between 2021 and 2022 in ESBL-positive and -negative strains, as well as from 2020 to 2021 among the ESBL-positive strains. Conclusions: The data obtained in the present study showed a tendency towards an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance among ESBL-positive and -negative E. coli strains isolated from urine cultures in Brazil. Since empirical antibiotic therapy with fluoroquinolones is commonly used to treat diverse types of infections, such as community-acquired urinary tract infections, this work highlights the need for continuous monitoring of fluoroquinolone resistance among E. coli strains circulating in the community, which can mitigate the frequency of therapeutic failures and development of widespread multidrug-resistant strains.

Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e48, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432080


ABSTRACT Objective. Colistin is an antibiotic of last resort for treating serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, the misuse of colistin, especially as an animal growth promoter, has contributed to increasing antimicrobial resistance, mediated mainly through plasmid transfer of the mcr-1 gene. This study assessed the prevalence of phenotypic and molecular colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Ecuador in healthy humans and their chickens and pigs. Methods. Fecal samples were collected from humans and their chickens and pigs in two rural coastal and Amazon regions between April and August 2020. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated and identified using conventional techniques. Phenotypic resistance was determined using the broth microdilution technique, and the mcr-1 gene was detected using conventional polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 438 fecal samples were obtained from 137 humans, 147 pigs and 154 chickens. The prevalence of E. coli isolates was 86.3% (378/438) and K. pneumoniae, 37.4% (164/438). Overall, the mcr-1 gene was found in 90% (340/378) of E. coli isolates, with higher prevalences found in isolates from coastal regions (96.5%, 191/198), humans (95.6%, 111/116) and chickens (91.8%, 123/134); for K. pneumoniae, the gene was found in 19.5% (32/164) of isolates, with equal distribution between regions and hosts. Only four isolates, two E. coli and two K. pneumoniae, showed phenotypic resistance: mcr-1 was present in both E. coli strains but absent in the K. pneumoniae strains. Conclusions. Despite a low prevalence of phenotypic resistance to colistin, the high prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in E. coli is of concern. Ecuador's ban on using colistin in animal husbandry must be enforced, and continual monitoring of the situation should be implemented.

resumen está disponible en el texto completo

RESUMO Objetivo. A colistina é um antibiótico de último recurso para o tratamento de infecções graves por bactérias Gram-negativas. Entretanto, o uso indevido da colistina, principalmente como promotor de crescimento animal, tem contribuído para o aumento da resistência a antimicrobianos, principalmente por transferência horizontal do gene mcr-1 mediada por plasmídeos. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de resistência fenotípica e molecular à colistina em Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae no Equador em humanos hígidos e em galinhas e porcos por eles criados. Métodos. Entre abril e agosto de 2020, foram coletadas amostras de fezes de habitantes de duas regiões litorâneas e amazônicas do Equador e de galinhas e porcos por eles criados. Bactérias Gram-negativas foram isoladas e identificadas por meio de técnicas convencionais. A resistência fenotípica foi determinada pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo, e o gene mcr-1 foi detectado por reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional. Resultados. Foram obtidas 438 amostras fecais de 137 humanos, 147 suínos e 154 galinhas. A prevalência de isolados de E. coli foi de 86,3% (378/438), e de K. pneumoniae, 37,4% (164/438). Em geral, o gene mcr-1 foi encontrado em 90% (340/378) dos isolados de E. coli, com maiores prevalências encontradas em isolados de regiões litorâneas (96,5%, 191/198), humanos (95,6%, 111/116) e galinhas (91,8%, 123/134); para K. pneumoniae, o gene foi encontrado em 19,5% (32/164) dos isolados, com igual distribuição entre regiões e hospedeiros. Somente quatro isolados, dois de E. coli e dois de K. pneumoniae, demonstraram resistência fenotípica: o gene mcr-1 estava presente em ambas as cepas de E. coli, mas ausente nas de K. pneumoniae. Conclusões. Apesar da baixa prevalência de resistência fenotípica à colistina, a alta prevalência do gene mcr-1 em E. coli é preocupante. É preciso fiscalizar a proibição ao uso agropecuário de colistina no Equador e implementar o monitoramento contínuo da situação.

Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1371-1378, dic. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1428291


A nivel mundial, el 44% de las aguas residuales domésticas no se tratan de forma segura, la recolección y tratamiento de aguas residuales, se ha convertido en un desafío, particularmente en áreas urbanas de bajos ingresos dentro de los países en desarrollo, donde las aguas residuales pueden fluir sin tratar a transportes de aguas pluviales o canales de drenaje informales. No es raro encontrar efluentes, desechos sólidos, excretas humanas y descargas líquidas de industrias y hospitales en las aguas superficiales de muchas zonas urbanas de los países en desarrollo. El proceso de tratamiento de aguas residuales puede ser llevado en lagunas mediante reacciones tanto oxidativas como reductoras. En la capa superior de la laguna, donde las aguas residuales son aeróbicas, ocurre el mecanismo convencional de la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno aeróbico (DBO) y se produce la oxidación del amoníaco. La capa inferior de la laguna es anaerobia, y en esta zona tiene lugar la digestión de los sólidos del lodo, un intermedio, la zona facultativa permite la respiración con aceptores de electrones terminales distintos del oxígeno, esto permite reacciones como la desnitrificación. Los gases producidos en las zonas inferiores se estabilizan en la zona aeróbica por disolución oxígeno, y esto reduce los problemas de olores. Este estudio tiene como objetivo, estudiar el descenso de coliformes fecales en lagunas aireadas de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales en la ciudad de Lima, Perú. Los resultados señalan que la separación diferencial de las aguas tratadas, experimentó un descenso del 13 al 26% de coleiformes fecales en todas las lagunas de tratamiento(AU)

Globally, 44% of domestic wastewater is not treated safely, and wastewater collection and treatment has become a challenge, particularly in low-income urban areas within developing countries, where wastewater may flow untreated into stormwater conveyances or informal drainage channels. It is not uncommon to find effluents, solid wastes, human excreta, and liquid discharges from industries and hospitals in the surface waters of many urban areas in developing countries. The wastewater treatment process can be carried out in lagoons through both oxidative and reductive reactions. In the upper layer of the lagoon, where the wastewater is aerobic, the conventional mechanism of aerobic biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) occurs and ammonia oxidation occurs. The lower layer of the lagoon is anaerobic, and in this zone the digestion of the sludge solids takes place, an intermediate, the facultative zone allows respiration with terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen, and this allows reactions such as denitrification. The gases produced in the lower zones are stabilized in the aerobic zone by dissolving oxygen, and this reduces odor problems. The objective of this study is to study the decrease of fecal coliforms in aerated lagoons of wastewater treatment plants in the city of Lima, Peru. The results indicate that the differential separation of the treated waters experienced a decrease from 13 to 26% of fecal coleiforms in all treatment lagoons(AU)

Wastewater/analysis , Peru
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422126


La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es una de las preocupaciones más importantes a nivel mundial, ya que determina un aumento de la morbimortalidad de los pacientes y el incremento de los costos de la atención de salud; problema cuyo abordaje debe ser realizado bajo el enfoque de Una Salud. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar la resistencia antimicrobiana en Escherichia coli provenientes de muestras cecales de bovinos de carne faenados en frigoríficos de la zona del Arroyo Mburicao, Asunción-Paraguay, de setiembre a noviembre de 2021. Fueron colectadas 181 muestras de ganados provenientes de la Región Oriental y Occidental, y cultivadas en agar cromogénico suplementados con ciprofloxacina, colistina, cefotaxima y meropenem. Las colonias aisladas fueron identificadas, genotipificadas (PCR convencional) y sometidas a pruebas de susceptibilidad. El principal hallazgo fue la confirmación de la resistencia a las fluoroquinolonas en un 8,3% debida a la portación de los genes Qnr S, Qnr B y aac-6´-Ib-cr, involucrados en el mecanismo plasmídico de resistencia a quinolonas. Además, la resistencia acompañante encontrada en los aislamientos resistentes del 100% a tetraciclina y 53% a trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol. No se encontraron aislamientos con resistencia a cefotaxima, colistina y meropenem. Los resultados obtenidos son de suma relevancia para la generacion de conocimiento sobre los perfiles de resistencia de microorganismos en el sector veterinario, pudiendo contribuir a la elaboración de guías nacionales para el uso prudente de antimicrobianos y apoyando al trabajo multisectorial en la lucha para la contención de la resistencia antimicrobiana.

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most critical concerns worldwide since it determines an increase in patient morbidity and mortality and the increase in healthcare costs, a problem whose approach must be carried out under the One Health approach. The main objective of this work was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from cecal samples of cattle for meat slaughtered in meat processing plants in the Arroyo Mburicao area, Asunción-Paraguay, from September to November 2021. One hundred eighty one samples of cattle from the Eastern and Western Region were collected, and cultured on chromogenic agar supplemented with ciprofloxacin, colistin, cefotaxime, and meropenem. Isolated colonies were identified, genotyped (conventional PCR) and subjected to susceptibility tests. The main finding was the confirmation of resistance to fluoroquinolones in 8.3% due to the carrying of genes Qnr S, Qnr B and aac-6'-Ib-cr, involved in the plasmid mechanism of resistance to quinolones. In addition, the accompanying resistance found in the isolates was 100% resistant to tetracycline and 53% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Isolates with resistance to cefotaxime, colistin and meropenem were not found. The results obtained are highly relevant for the generation of knowledge about the resistance profiles of microorganisms in the veterinary sector. It can contribute to the development of national therapeutic guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials, and supporting multisectoral work in the fight to contain antimicrobial resistance.

Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 70(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422768


Abstract Introduction: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) produced by gram-negative bacteria have been associated with increased hospital morbidity and mortality, longer hospital stays, use of carbapenems, and higher health care costs. Few studies have assessed the risk factors for infection by ESBL-producing germs in intensive care units (ICU). Objective: To determine the risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) by ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in an ICU of a public tertiary care hospital and to assess the impact of this type of infection on mortality. Materials and methods: A case-control study with a 1:2 ratio (97 cases and 194 controls) was conducted in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a public tertiary care hospital in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia) between January 2016 and December 2019, and in which a HAI by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli (cases: n=97) or K. pneumoniae or E. coli with a normal antibiotic resistance pattern (controls: n=194) was documented. Bivariate analyses were performed using the chi-squared and the Mann-Whitney U tests. A logistic regression model was used in the multivariate analysis, and a two-tailed test was performed with the p-values obtained in the bivariate analyses. Results: ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were identified in 57 (58.76%) and 40 (41.24%) patients, respectively. These isolates were obtained mainly from urine samples (30,92%), followed by peritoneal fluid (27.80%). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of urinary tract infection on admission to the ICU was identified as a risk factor (OR=5.63, 95%CI: 1.918-16.53;; p=0.002). The mortality rate was 28.17% (26.29% in the controls and 31.95% in the cases), but no significant difference was observed between groups (p=0.311). Conclusion: Urinary tract infection on admission to the ICU was a risk factor for HAIs by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between cases and controls in terms of mortality.

Resumen Introducción. Las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) producidas por gérmenes gram negativos se han asociado con aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad hospitalaria, mayor estancia hospitalaria, uso de carbapenémicos y mayores costos de atención en salud. Existen pocos trabajos que evalúen los factores de riesgo para infección por gérmenes productores de BLEE en unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI). Objetivo. Determinar los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Escherichia coli productoras de BLEE en una UCI de un hospital público de tercer nivel de atención y evaluar el impacto de este tipo de infección en la mortalidad. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles con relación 1:2 realizado en pacientes críticamente enfermos admitidos entre enero de 2016 y diciembre de 2019 a la UCI de un hospital público de tercer nivel de Bogotá D.C., Colombia, y en los que se documentó una IAAS por K. pneumoniae o E. coli productoras de BLEE (casos; n=97) y por K. pneumoniae o E. coli con fenotipo de resistencia natural (controles; n=194). Se realizaron análisis bivariados mediante las pruebas de chi-cuadrado y U de Mann-Whitney. En el análisis multivariado se usó un modelo de regresión logística, con una prueba de dos colas con los valores p obtenidos en los análisis bivariados. Resultados. Se identificaron aislamientos de K. pneumoniae y de E. coli productoras de BLEE en 57 (58,76%) y 40 (41,24%) de los casos, respectivamente y estos aislamientos se obtuvieron principalmente de muestras de orina (30.92%), seguido de líquido peritoneal (27.83%). En el análisis multivariado, la presencia de infección de vías urinarias al ingreso a UCI fue identificada como factor de riesgo (OR=5.63, IC95%:1.918-16.527; p=0,002). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 28.17% (26.29% en los controles y 31.95% en los casos), pero no se observó una diferencia significativa entre grupos (p=0.311). Conclusión. La infección de vías urinarias al ingreso a la UCI fue un factor de riesgo para la IAAS por K. pneumoniae o E. coli productoras de BLEE. Además, no se observó una diferencia significativa entre los casos y controles en términos de mortalidad.

Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(3)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449970


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern since infections by resistant pathogens are associated with higher mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the prevalence of Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum and AmpC beta-lactamase (ESBL) in urine samples from patients at the Hospital Metropolitano de Santiago in Dominican Republic. Methods: Pathogen identification and antibiogram were carried out by the automated systems BD Phoenix or Microscan®. General information and past medical history were gathered from patients with a positive urine culture for E. coli. Manual ESBL/AmpC screening was performed with the commercial ESBL+AmpC screen disc kit from Liofilchem Laboratory, Italy. Results: One or both of the studied phenotypes were present in 36% of the analyzed isolates. Among the risk factors for the detection of E. coli producing ESBL and/or AmpC in urine were male gender, advanced age, placement of urinary catheter, arterial hypertension, neoplasms, and coexistence of two or more comorbidities. Apart from cephalosporins resistance, isolates producing ESBL and/or AmpC also showed higher resistance to other antibiotics, such as gentamicin (66.7%), ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (83.3%), and ampicillin (91.7%). Furthermore, 85% of the ESBL/AmpC producing samples were multidrug resistant (resistant to 1 or more drugs in at least 3 different antibiotic categories). Conclusions: The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance found in this study highlights the importance of implementing national and global measures to tackle the problem, especially in developing countries such as the Dominican Republic, where resources are scarce.

Introducción: La resistencia antimicrobiana es un grave problema global, pues las infecciones causadas por patógenos resistentes están asociadas con una mayor mortalidad y morbilidad. Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia de aislados de Escherichia coli productores de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y tipo AmpC procedentes de muestras de orina de pacientes del Hospital Metropolitano de Santiago en la República Dominicana. Métodos: La identificación del patógeno y el antibiograma fueron llevados a cabo mediante los sistemas automáticos BD Phoenix o Microscan®. Se recolectó información general y la historia médica de pacientes con un cultivo de orina positivo para E. coli. La detección de BLEE/AmpC se realizó de manera manual con el estuche comercial ESBL+AmpC de Liofilchem Laboratory, de Italia. Resultados: Un 36 % de las muestras analizadas mostraron uno o ambos fenotipos estudiados. Como factores de riesgo para la detección en orina de E. coli productoras de BLEE o AmpC se encontraron: sexo masculino, edad avanzada, colocación de un catéter urinario, hipertensión, neoplasmas y coexistencia de comorbilidades. Además de resistencia a las cefalosporinas, los aislados productores de BLEE y AmpC revelaron también elevada resistencia a otros antibióticos como gentamicina (66,7 %), ciprofloxacina y levofloxacina (83,3 %), y ampicilina (91,7 %). Un 85,0 % de las muestras productoras de BLEE/AmpC fueron multidrogorresistentes. Conclusiones: La elevada prevalencia de resistencia antimicrobiana encontrada en este estudio refleja la importancia de tomar medidas nacionales y globales para contener el problema, especialmente en países en desarrollo como República Dominicana, donde los recursos son escasos.

Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449971


Introducción: La presencia de enterobacterias multirresistentes en los hospitales es cada vez más frecuente. Objetivos: Describir la variación de la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos en aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Escherichia coli e identificar la frecuencia de aislados multirresistentes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado entre el 1 de enero de 2018 y 31 de diciembre de 2021. Se estudió la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos por el método de difusión de discos Bauer-Kirby a 220 aislados (111 de K. pneumoniae y 109 de E. coli) obtenidos de muestras clínicas (sangre, lesiones de piel, catéteres vasculares, secreciones traqueobronquiales y de herida quirúrgica) de pacientes hospitalizados en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Aleida Fernández Chardiet, provincia Mayabeque, Cuba. Resultados: Durante los 4 años de estudio, en los aislados de K. pneumoniae la resistencia mostró tendencia a crecer en el tiempo para todos los antimicrobianos probados, excepto para amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico con tendencia a decrecer de -3,34. La diferencia porcentual de la resistencia del año 2021 con respecto al 2018 fue mayor para meropenem, cloranfenicol y amikacina (108,3 %, 70,2 % y 70,2 %, respectivamente). Aun así, los datos mostraron significación estadística para los antibióticos cefepima, aztreonam y meropenem (p ≤ 0,05). En cuanto a los aislados de E. coli, la resistencia mostró tendencia a decrecer en ocho de los antimicrobianos investigados, pero el cloranfenicol y amikacina evidenciaron una tendencia al incremento de 3,65 y 4,83, respectivamente. La diferencia porcentual entre los años extremos del estudio en nueve antimicrobianos mostró valores inferiores al 50,0 %. Los datos evidenciaron significación estadística (p ≤ 0,05) para cefotaxima y ampicilina/sulbactam. Conclusiones: Hubo variación en la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos en los aislados de K. pneumoniae y E. coli durante los 4 años del estudio. Además, se observó una alta prevalencia de aislados multirresistentes.

Introduction: The presence of multidrug resistant enterobacteria in hospitals is increasingly frequent. Objectives: To describe the variation of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates obtained from clinical samples of patients who were hospitalized and to identify the frequency of multidrug resistant isolates. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was performed between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2021. The antimicrobial susceptibility was analyzed using the Bauer- Kirby disc diffusion method of 220 isolates (111 K. pneumoniae and 109 E. coli) obtained from clinical samples (blood, skin lesions, vascular catheters and tracheobronchial and surgical wound secretions) of patients hospitalized at the Hospital teaching surgical - clinic Aleida Fernández Chardiet, located in the province of Mayabeque, Cuba. Results: In the K. pneumoniae isolates during the four years of the study, resistance showed a tendency to increase over time, for all antibiotic tested, except for amoxicillin / ácid clavulánic, which showed a tendency to decrease from 3.34. The percentage difference of the resistance between the year 2021 in relation to 2018 were greater for meropenem, chloramphenicol and amikacin (108.3%, 70,2% y 70.2% respectively). Even so, the data provided evidence that showed statistical significance for the antibiotics cefepime, aztreonam y meropenem (p ≤ 0,05). Regarding the E. coli isolates, resistance showed a tendency to decrease over the course of the four years of the study in eight of the investigated antibiotics. chloramphenicol and amikacin showed an increasing trend of 3.65 y 4.83 respectively. The percentage difference between the extreme years of the study in nine antimicrobials showed values lower than 50.0%. The data provide elements to suggest the presence of statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05) for cefotaxim y ampicilin/sulbactam. Finally, 83.87% of K. pneumoniae isolates and 80.73% of E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Conclusions: There was variation in the susceptibility to antibiotic in the K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates during the four years of the study. In addition, a high prevalence of multiresistant isolates was observed.

Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449984


Introducción: Las biopelículas constituyen un factor clave en el desarrollo de enfermedades infecciosas y la resistencia a fármacos para su control. Nuevas estrategias terapéuticas incluyen productos naturales como agentes antibiopelículas. Sin embargo, la comparación de los resultados suele ser difícil debido a la falta de homogeneidad y estandarización en los métodos empleados para estudiar la formación de biopelículas in vitro. Objetivo: Estandarizar un ensayo de adhesión en microplaca de Escherichia coli para su uso en el cribado de potenciales agentes antibiopelículas. Métodos: Se utilizó el método de adherencia en microplaca y la tinción con violeta cristal. Se evaluó la influencia de condiciones experimentales como la concentración bacteriana, el medio de cultivo y el tiempo de incubación. Resultados: Se identificaron como condiciones óptimas para la formación de biopelículas: el medio Luria Bertani (LB), la concentración bacteriana a 105 UFC/mL y un tiempo de incubación de 24 h. Conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que las condiciones de cultivo influyen en la formación de biopelículas. Se determinaron las condiciones de cultivo óptimas para la formación de biopelículas de E. coli, que podrían emplearse en futuros estudios acerca del efecto de productos naturales sobre la inhibición o destrucción de biopelículas.

Introduction: Biofilms are a key factor in the development of infectious diseases and drug resistance for their control. New therapeutic strategies include natural products as anti-biofilm agents. However, comparing results is often difficult due to the lack of homogeneity and standardization of the methods used to study biofilm formation in vitro. Objective: To standardize an Escherichia coli microplate adhesion assay for potential anti-biofilm agents screening. Methods: The microplate adhesion method and crystal violet staining were used. The influence of experimental conditions such as bacterial concentration, culture medium, and incubation time were evaluated. Results: Optimal conditions for biofilm formation included: Luria Bertani (LB) medium, bacterial concentration at 105 CFU/mL, and an incubation time of 24 hours. Conclusions: The results showed that culture conditions influence biofilm formation. Optimal culture conditions for the formation of E. coli biofilms were determined, which could be used in further studies on the effect of natural products on the inhibition or destruction of biofilms.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219442


Aim: The study aimed to assess the bacterial load of in rectal swabs from cattle by isolating Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli, and determining the multidrug-resistant pattern of the isolates. Study Design: The study is a clinical-veterinary laboratory investigation involving the isolation and determination of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile of Enterococcus spp and E. coli isolated from cattle rectal. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Yelwa and Gubi campuses Farm centers of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi, Nigeria, in period extended from April to June 2021. Methodology: Fresh rectal swab samples were collected from the randomly selected cattle and labeled. The samples were immediately transported and processed in the Microbiology laboratory at Yelwa Campus, and the bacterial load of each sample was determined using standard techniques. Enterococcus spp and E. coli were isolated using differential culture media followed by an appropriate biochemical identification test. The isolates were subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Results: In Yelwa, the highest microbial load is 2.7 x 1012 CFU/g. while the lowest microbial load is 2.0 x 1012 CFU/g. In the Gubi campus, the highest microbial load is 3.4 x 1012 CFU/g. while the lowest microbial load is 2.7 x 1012 CFU/g. Both in Yelwa and Gubi ,the result showed that most isolates of Enterococcus spp and E. coli are multidrug-resistant. In Yalwa some of the isolates showed 100% resistance against Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Ampicillin, and Streptomycin, while Gentamycin gave the lowest multidrug resistance (57.4%). In Gubi, the highest was to ampicillin with (90.6%) frequency, while the lowest resistance was found in Chloramphenicol (11.3%). In Yelwa, a high percentage resistance (92.6%) was observed in Streptomycin, and Cephalexin has the lowest (20.4%). In Gubi, all the E. coli isolates had 100% resistance against sulfamethoxazole, and the lowest was in Ofloxacin (43.4%). Conclusion: This study found that cattle in the area are reservoirs of bacteria that are both part of the normal flora and opportunistic pathogens, and harbored resistance phenotypes. It is therefore advocated that the use of these animals’ faeces as manure should be done with caution, particularly after pre-treatments.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223688


Background & objectives: Majority of the studies of hospital-acquired diarrhoea conducted in Western countries have focused on the detection of Clostridium difficile in stool samples. Limited Asian and Indian literature is available on hospital-acquired diarrhoea. This study was aimed to describe the aetiological profile for hospital-acquired diarrhoea in children aged below five years. Methods: One hundred children aged one month to five years who developed diarrhoea (?3 loose stools for >12 h) after hospitalization for at least 72 h were enrolled. Children who were prescribed purgatives or undergoing procedures such as enema and endoscopy or those with underlying chronic gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from the study. Stool samples from the enrolled children were subjected to routine microscopic examination, modified Ziel- Nielson (ZN) staining for Cryptosporidium and culture for various enteropathogens. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the strains of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli. Rotavirus detection was done using rapid antigen kit. Toxins (A and B) of C. difficile were detected using enzyme immunoassay. Results: Of the 100 samples of hospital-acquired diarrhoea analysed, diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) was found to be the most common organism, detected in 37 per cent of cases (enteropathogenic E. coli-18%, enterotoxigenic E. coli-8%, enteroaggregative E. coli-4% and mixed infections-7%). Cryptosporidium was detected in 10 per cent of cases. Rotavirus was detected in six per cent and C. difficile in four per cent of cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the aetiological profile of hospital- acquired diarrhoea appears to be similar to that of community-acquired diarrhoea, with DEC and Cryptosporidium being the most common causes. The efforts for the prevention and management of hospital-acquired diarrhoea should, thus, be directed towards these organisms.

Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): [456-462], oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424346


La colonización fecal en lactantes por bacterias resistentes a los antimicrobianos es un potencial riesgo para futuras terapias antibióticas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia y características sociodemográficas de lactantes portadores fecales de enterobacterias resistentes a ciprofloxacina (PFRC) y sus genes de resistencia asociados. Analizamos muestras fecales de 41 niños lactantes residentes en el distrito de Talara-Piura, Perú, en 2019. Evaluamos la presencia de 3 genes de resistencia a quinolonas: aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB y oqxA y 2 de betalactamasas: bla CTX-M, bla PER-2.El 68% de lactantes fueron PFRC, Escherichia coli (83,3%) fue el más frecuente. El análisis genotípico detectó: oqxA (41,1%), qnrB (26,7%) y aac(6')-Ib-cr (20%) y al gen bla CTX-M en el 93,3% de los aislados con betalactamasas. La elevada frecuencia de PFRC nos alertan sobre el potencial riesgo en la pérdida de utilidad de esta familia antibiótica en el área de estudio.

Fecal colonization by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in infants is a potential risk for future antibiotic therapy. We aimed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of infants who were fecal carriers of ciprofloxacin-resistant enterobacteriaceae (FCCRE) and their associated resistance genes. We analyzed fecal samples from 41 infants from the district of Talara, Piura, Peru in 2019. The presence of 3 quinolone resistance genes was evaluated: aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and oqxA as well as of 2 beta-lactamase genes: bla CTX-M,bla PER-2. We found that 68% of infants were FCCRE, Escherichia coli (83.3%) was the most frequent bacteria. The genotypic analysis detected: oqxA (41.1%), qnrB (26.7%), aac(6')-Ib-cr (20%) and the bla CTX-M gene (93.3%) of the isolates with beta-lactamases. The high frequency of FCCRE alerts us of the potential risk of this antibiotic family becoming less useful over time.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , beta-Lactamases , Drug Resistance , Infant, Newborn , Quinolones , Escherichia coli , Peru , Enterobacteriaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents