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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

ABSTRACT

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Ecuador , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 437-447, mayo 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538171

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to optimize by response surface design, the extraction of the leaf essential oil (EO) from Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb., grown in Ecuador, using steam distillation. The factors used were extraction time (XTIE) of 60, 105 and 150 min and plant material/water ratio (XRMA) of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. The optimal combination was reached with XRMA 1:5 and XTIE 150 min, obtaining a process yield of 0.67%. The chemical composition of the EO analyzed by GC - MS was determined, where the main compounds were carvacryl acetate (44.01%), carvacrol (16.51%) and menthone (8.20%). The anti oxidant capacity of EO was evaluated using the FRAP and ABTS methodologies, with an IC 50 243.21 µmol Fe 2+ /g and 0.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of EO was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Escherich ia coli and Staphylococcus aureus .


El objetivo del estudio fue optimizar, mediante un diseño de superficie respuesta, la extracción d el aceite esencial (AE) de hojas de Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb. del Ecuador, mediante destilación por arrastre de vapor. Los factores fueron el tiempo de extracción (XTIE) de 60, 105 y 150 min, y relación de material vegetal/ agua destilada (XRMA) d e 1:3, 1:4 y 1:5. La combinación óptima se logró con XTIE 150 min y XRMA 1:5 para un rendimiento de 0,67%. Se determinó la composición química del AE por GC - MS donde los compuestos mayoritarios fueron acetato de carvacrilo (44,01%), carvacrol (16,51%) y me ntona (8,20%). Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del AE por las metodologías FRAP y ABTS, con CI 50 de 243,21 µmol Fe 2+ /g y 0,12 mg/mL, respectivamente. Además, se demostró la actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Es cherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Ecuador
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 142-151, ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554181

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents and antimic robial activity of the essential oil isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Tong & Y.M. Xia in S.Q. Tong from Vietnam was studied and reported. The techniques of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to characterize the chemical constituents of the essential oil while the microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The main compounds identified in the rhizome essential oil consist of ß - pinene (46.5%), ß - phellandrene (25.7%) and α - pinene (8.5%). The studied essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 15.32 µg/mL ± 0. 01, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The essential oil also displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) and Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), and IC 50 va lue of 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. This is the first report on the rhizome oil composition, as well as the antimicrobial of essential oils from A. menghaiensis . The paper discusses further the comparative analysis of essential oils from A. menghaiensis .


Se investigaron los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite escencial aislado de los rizomas de Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Ton g & Y. M. Xia en S.Q. Tong de Vietnam. Se usaron las técnicas de cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases con espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) para caracterizar los componentes químicos del aceite escencial, mientras que se utilizó un ensayo de microdilución para evaluar la actividad antimicrobial. Se identificaron los componentes principales en el aceite escencial del rizoma, compuesto de ß - pineno (46.5%), ß - fellandreno (25.7%) y α - pineno (8.5%). El aceite escencial estudiado inhibió el crecimie nto de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 con concentraciones de actividad mínima inhibitoria (MIC) de 15.32 µg/mL ± 0.01, y una m ediana de concentración inhibitoria (IC 50 ) de 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. El aceite escencial también mostró actividad contra Staphylococ cus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) y Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), y valor IC 50 de 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. Este es el primer reporte sobre la composición del aceite de rizoma, así como de las propiedades antimicrobianas d e los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis . El artículo discute el análisis comparativo de los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Alpinia/chemistry , Vietnam , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Alpinia/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Resumo Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

ABSTRACT

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.


Subject(s)
Vaginitis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Moringa , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 126-133, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006277

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo prepare oral nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil from Alpinia zerumbet fructus(EOFAZ) and to investigate its pro-absorption effect in vitro and distribution in vivo. MethodThe proteoglycan conjugate polysaccharides of vinegar-processed Bupleuri Radix-bovine serum albumin(VBCP-BSA) was prepared by Maillard reaction of VBCP and BSA. Taking VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, vitamin B12(VB12) as absorption enhancer, and medium chain triglycerides mixed with EOFAZ as oil phase, the nanoemulsions loaded with EOFAZ was prepared by high energy emulsification method. The particle size, particle size distribution, surface Zeta potential, EOFAZ content and appearance and morphology of the nanoemulsions were characterized, and fluorescein tracer method was used to investigate the absorption effect of fluorescein-labeled EOFAZ nanoemulsions in vitro and their distribution in vivo. ResultVBCP-BSA was formed by Maillard reaction for 48 h with high grafting rate. Using VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, the homogeneous pink nanoemulsions was prepared and denoted as EOFAZ@VBCP-BSA/VB12. The particle size of the nanoemulsions was less than 100 nm and the particle size distribution was uniform. The surface of the nanoemulsions was a weak negative charge, and the shape was spherical. The encapsulation rate of the nanoemulsions for EOFAZ was greater than 80%, which had a good absorption effect in vitro and could enhance liver accumulation after oral administration. ConclusionThe designed proteoglycan nanoemulsions can effectively load EOFAZ, promote oral absorption and enhance liver distribution, which can provide experimental basis for the development of oral EOFAZ liver protection preparations.

7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 22(6): 848-863, nov. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554454

ABSTRACT

The lack of effective conventional therapie s against dengue has created an interest in herbal preparations as alternative therapies. In the present study, in vitro effects of Cordia curassavica essential oil (EO) on both dengue virus replication and cytokine production were examined. Predictions of molecular interactions between EO compounds and virus and cell proteins were performed with AutoDock Vina. The EO inhibited replication of dengue virus serotypes at IC 50 < 30 µg/mL, and it reduced 87% TNF - α, 67% IL - 8 and 46% IFN - α in LPS - stimulated PBMCs. The main EO compounds were trans - ß - caryophyllene (21.4%), germacrene D (17.8%), α - copaene (16.5%), trans - ß - guaiene (8.2%), and α - pinene (6.0%). The first two compounds, δ - cadinene, α - muurolene, α - cubebene and ß - burbonene were coupled to proteins involved in the TLR - 4 cytokine effector pathway. 3,7 - Guaiadiene was coupled to the viral E and C proteins. This study demonstrates the potential of C. curassavica EO as a starting point for discovering novel therapeutic for dengue.


La falta de terapias eficaces para el dengue ha suscitado interés por preparados herbales como terapias alternativas. En el presente estudio se examinaron efectos in vitro del aceite e sencial (AE) de Cordia curassavica sobre la replicación del virus dengue y producción de citoquinas. Se realizaron predicciones de interacciones moleculares entre los compuestos del AE y proteínas virales y celulares con AutoDock Vina. El AE inhibió la rep licación de serotipos del virus a CI 50 < 30 µg/mL y redujo 87% TNF - α, 67% IL - 8 y 46% IFN - α en MNCP. Los principales compuestos del AE fueron trans - ß - cariofileno, germacreno D, α - copaeno, trans - ß - guaieno y α - pineno. Los dos primeros compuestos, el δ - cadineno, el α - muuroleno, el α - cubebeno y el ß - burboneno se acoplaron a proteínas implicadas en la vía efectora de citoquinas TLR - 4. El 3,7 - guaiadiene se acopló a las proteínas virales E y C. Este estudio demuestra el potencial del AE de C. curassavica como punto de partida para descubrir nuevas tera pias para el dengue.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cordia/chemistry , Dengue/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Cytokines/chemistry
8.
CienciaUAT ; 17(2): 165-180, ene.-jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447827

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La papaya es una fruta climatérica altamente perecedera. La antracnosis, enfermedad provocada por hongos, es una de las principales causas de pérdida poscosecha. La actividad de extractos vegetales ha permitido la inhibición del desarrollo de microorganismos, en particular se ha reportado la actividad antifúngica de aceites esenciales. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un recubrimiento biodegradable a base de quitosano con aceite esencial de cítricos, aplicado en etapa poscosecha, en las propiedades físicoquímicas, fisiológicas e inhibición del crecimiento del hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L.). El recubrimiento se preparó con quitosano, glicerol, ácido acético, aceite esencial de Citrus reticulata (0.5 %, 1.0 % y 1.5 %) y Tween® 80. La solución se aplicó con una brocha en la epidermis de los frutos de papaya y se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (24 °C ± 2 °C) por 10 d, junto con los frutos testigo. Las variables evaluadas en los frutos fueron color, pH, sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza, pérdida de peso, producción de CO2, de etileno y daño por antracnosis. Se utilizó un modelo estadístico completamente al azar. Los datos se sometieron al análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y comparación de medias por la prueba de Tukey (P < 0.05). El recubrimiento aplicado retrasó el cambio de color de la epidermis de los frutos de papaya, la pérdida de peso, firmeza y SST respecto a los frutos testigo. Los cambios estuvieron asociados a la modificación de la tasa de respiración y de producción de etileno de los frutos con recubrimiento. La matriz del quitosano conteniendo aceites escenciales, usada como recubrimiento, mejoró significativamente la vida de anaquel de la papaya y disminuyó más del 80 % el daño por antracnosis.


ABSTRACT Papaya is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. Anthracnose, a disease provoked by fungus, is one of the main causes of postharvest losses. The activity of plant extracts has allowed the inhibition of the development of microorganisms; in particular, the antifungal activity of essential oils has been reported. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of a biodegradable antifungal coating based on chitosan with citrus essential oil in the physicochemical and physiological properties and the antifungal activity of postharvest papaya (Carica papaya L.). The coating was prepared with chitosan, glycerol, acetic acid, essential oil of Citrus reticulata (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) and Tween® 80. The solution was applied with a brush to the epidermis of the postharvest papaya fruits and stored at room temperature (24 °C ± 2 °C) for 10 d. The variables evaluated in the fruits were color, pH, °Brix, firmness, weight loss, production of CO2 and ethylene and anthracnose damage. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed under a completely randomized design and a comparison of Tukey means (P < 0.05). The coating applied delayed the color change of the epidermis of the papaya fruits, these maintained the high firmness values with respect to the control fruits. The changes were associated with the modification of the respiration rate and ethylene production of the coated fruits. The chitosan matrix containing essential oils used as a coating significantly improved shelf life of papaya and decreased anthracnose damage by 80 %.

9.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 60(2)jun. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530098

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The successful treatment of oral candidiasis depends on three essential principles, namely: early and accurate diagnosis, correlation with predisposing factors or underlying diseases that compromise immunity, and appropriate use of antifungal drugs. Objectives: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of carvacrol against Candida albicans and to develop and evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity (diameter of inhibition zone) and physical properties (foaming capacity, spreadability and cleaning capacity) of an experimental dentifrice containing carvacrol. Methods: The carvacrol was incorporated into a dentifrice base at different concentrations and tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration and agar diffusion against Candida albicans and the physical properties. Data were analysed by ANOVA. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of carvacrol was 1041.67 ± 360.84 µg/mL. The dentifrice containing carvacrol C1 e C2 produced an inhibition zone of 27.50 ± 2.12 mm and 36.66 ± 2.08 mm, respectively (p<0.05). As for the physical properties, the dentifrices showed no foaming capacity, while their cleaning capacity and spreadability remained unaltered. Conclusions: The experimental dentifrices containing carvacrol showed antifungal activity. The incorporation of carvacrol significantly altered the foaming capacity of the formulations, without any significant effects on their cleaning capacity and spreadability(AU)


Introducción: El tratamiento exitoso de la candidiasis oral depende de tres principios esenciales, a saber: diagnóstico temprano y preciso, correlación con factores predisponentes o enfermedades subyacentes que comprometan la inmunidad y uso apropiado de medicamentos antimicóticos. Objetivos: Determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima de carvacrol contra Candida albicans y desarrollar y evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro (diámetro de la zona de inhibición) y las propiedades físicas (capacidad espumante, esparcibilidad y capacidad de limpieza) de un dentífrico experimental que contiene carvacrol. Métodos: El carvacrol se incorporó a una base dentífrica a diferentes concentraciones y se probó su concentración mínima inhibitoria y difusión en agar contra Candida albicans y las propiedades físicas. Los datos fueron analizados por ANOVA. Resultados: La concentración mínima inhibitoria de carvacrol fue 1041,67 ± 360,84 µg/mL. El dentífrico con carvacrol C1 y C2 produjo un halo de inhibición de 27,50 ± 2,12 mm y 36,66 ± 2,08 mm, respectivamente (p < 0,05). En cuanto a las propiedades físicas, los dentífricos no mostraron capacidad espumante, mientras que su capacidad de limpieza y esparcibilidad permanecieron inalteradas. Conclusiones: Los dentífricos experimentales que contenían carvacrol mostraron actividad antifúngica. La incorporación de carvacrol alteró significativamente la capacidad espumante de las formulaciones, sin efectos significativos sobre su capacidad de limpieza y esparcibilidad(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans
10.
European J Med Plants ; 2023 Feb; 34(2): 20-23
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219537

ABSTRACT

Piper betle leaf commonly known to be a Paan in India is eaten raw and sometimes with a mixture of areca nut. The leaf is consumed usually after a lunch or dinner. Traditionally the leaf is well known for a health benefits and also chewed as a mouth freshener. A wide range of researches on a Piper betle leaf suggest excellent nutritional benefits on the health. The edible leaf is also known for its specialized essential contents. The current research attempt is carried out to extract the essential oil from the leaf of Piper betle L. by a Hydro distillation method (Clevenger method). The research successfully concludes the extraction of oil with its efficacy towards the percentage of oil achieved during an extraction process.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Thymus Plant , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468952

ABSTRACT

Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Thymus Extracts/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Silver , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Food Preservation
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.

14.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 580-587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013842

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the hypnotic effect and safety of compound anshen essential oil. Methods Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to analyze the main active components of compound anshen essential oil. The mouse model of insomnia was established by intraperitoneal injection of para-chloro-phenyl alanine ( PC PA ) , combined with pentobarbital sodium sleep experiment and EEG characteristic monitoring in rats to study the hypnotic effect and mechanism. The safety of compound anshen essential oil was evaluated by acute toxicity test, skin irritation/allergy test and 90-day repeated administration toxicity test. The clinical effect and safety were evaluated by using the sleep monitoring technology for micro-motion sensitive mattress. Results Four components, including Atractylone (34.61%), (+) -Limonene (17.80%) , Linalool (11.63%), and Ocimene (11.67%) , were detected as the main active components of compound anshen essential oil. Compound anshen essential oil in-halation administration for seven days could effectively reduce the autonomic activity of insomnia mice, shorten the sleep latency (P <0.05) , improve the sleep duration, increase of neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain of mice with insomnia, and the medium dose group had better hypnotic effect. There was no death or adverse reaction in the safety evaluation test. The sleep balance index of 10 subjects with difficulty in falling a-sleep significantly increased (P <0.05), sleep latency was significantly shortened (P <0.05) , total sleep duration and sleep efficiency were improved, and no ad¬verse reactions were found after using the compound anshen essential oil for two days. Conclusions The compound anshen essential oil developed by the research team is safe and effective in relieving sleep disorders, which may be closely related to the co-regulation of the levels of neurotransmitters such as 5-HT and GABA by the four main active components.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 276-282, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972310

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disease with insulin deficiency and insulin resistance (IR) as the main etiology and is often accompanied by complications. Volatile oil is a volatile oily liquid extracted from natural plants, which has many pharmacological effects such as regulating Qi, relieving pain, inhibiting bacteria, and reducing inflammation. In recent years, there have been numerous reports on the treatment of T2DM by natural plant volatile oil and its effective components, which has become one of the new directions in the treatment of T2DM. With natural plant essential oil and its active components as the starting point, this paper comprehensively analyzed and summarized the material basis, mechanism, and signaling pathways of essential oil in the treatment of T2DM and its complications in China and abroad in recent years, and focused on the inhibitory effect of essential oil and its active components, such as carvacrol, paeonol, and β-caryophylene, on IR to improve T2DM by protecting pancreatic β-cells, inhibiting α-glucosidase activity, regulating the abundance and diversity of intestinal microbiota, and regulating glucose transporter protein type4 (GLUT4), adenylate 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways to provide some references for the volatile oil intervention in T2DM and the development of new green antidiabetic drugs.

16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 205-214, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms associated with autistic spectrum disorder. The essential oil of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson, usually known as ylang-ylang oil (YYO), is often used in aromatherapy as a mood-regulating agent, sedative, or hypotensive agent. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of YYO in alleviating anxiety, social and cognitive behaviors in autism-like rats were investigated.@*METHODS@#The prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model was used to induce autism-like behaviors in offspring rats. The effectiveness of prenatal sodium valproate treatment (600 mg/kg) on offspring was shown by postnatal growth observation, and negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Then three treatment groups were formed with varying exposure to atomized YYO to explore the effects of YYO on the anxiety, social and cognitive behaviors of the autistic-like offspring through the elevated plus-maze test, three-chamber social test, and MWM test. Finally, the monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rats were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography.@*RESULTS@#Offspring of VPA exposure rats showed autism-like behaviors. In the VPA offspring, medium-dose YYO exposure significantly elevated the time and entries into the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test, while low-dose YYO exposure significantly enhanced the social interaction time with the stranger rat in session 1 of the three-chamber social test. VPA offspring treated with YYO exposure used less time to reach the platform in the navigation test of the MWM test. YYO exposure significantly elevated the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the PFC of VPA offspring.@*CONCLUSION@#YYO exposure showed the effects in alleviating anxiety and improving cognitive and social abilities in the offspring of VPA exposure rats. The role of YYO was related to the regulation of the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine. Please cite this article as: Zhang N, Wang ST, Yao L. Inhalation of Cananga odorata essential oil relieves anxiety behaviors in autism-like rats via regulation of serotonin and dopamine metabolism. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 205-214.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Rats , Animals , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Serotonin/metabolism , Cananga/metabolism , Dopamine , Anxiety/drug therapy , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Oils , Disease Models, Animal
17.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 174-182, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006607

ABSTRACT

@#The present study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial potential of essential oils of Curcuma longa and Syzygium aromaticum against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Four identified bacterial isolates including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii were selected and their antibiotic sensitivity was checked by disc diffusion assay. C. longa and S. aromaticum were subjected to steam distillation to obtain their essential oils. The crude essential oils were fractioned by employing column chromatography. Crude essential oils and their fractions were evaluated for their antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentrations were calculated. All the selected bacterial isolates showed resistance to three or more than three antibiotic groups and were declared as multidrugresistant (MDRs). Crude essential oils of C. longa and S. aromaticum exhibited antimicrobial activity against all selected isolates but S. aromaticum activity was better than the C. longa with a maximum 19.3±1.50 mm zone of inhibition against A. baumannii at 1.04 µL/mL MIC. GC/MS analysis revealed the abundance of components including eugenol, eugenyl acetate, b- caryophyllene, and a- Humulene in both crude oil and fractions of S. aromaticum. While the main components of C. longa essential oil were Ar-tumerone, a–tumerone, b- Tumerone, I-Phellandrene, a-zingibirene, b- sesquiphellandrene, and p- Cymene. This study highlights that plant-based essential oils could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for which pathogens have developed resistance. C. longa and S. aromaticum carry compounds that have antimicrobial potential against multiple drug-resistant bacteria including MRSA. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii.

18.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 790-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005088

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To investigate the antibacterial action and skin sensitization by percutaneous administration of lavender essential oil (LEO), providing a basis for its antibacterial application of percutaneous administration. Methods The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of LEO on five types of bacteria, and to measure its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC); The effect of LEO on guinea pig skin irritation was observed by topical application, and its allergic reaction and allergic rate were evaluated; the levels of IgA, IgG, and IgE in the supernatant of serum and spleen tissue sensitized with dimethylbenzene and smeared with LEO were determined by the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), and the antibacterial ability, skin sensitization, and inflammation of LEO were comprehensively evaluated. Results The antibacterial circle experiment showed that LEO had an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Propionibacterium acnes; the antibacterial ability from strong to weak was Staphylococcus Epidermidis (8.25 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (15.00 mg/mL), Candida albicans (16.31 mg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (18.00 mg/mL), Propionibacterium acnes (20.78 mg/mL). The percutaneous administration of LEO did not cause skin sensitization and inflammatory reaction in guinea pigs. Compared with the blank group, the effect of topical LEO application on the weight of the guinea pig's spleen is not statistically significant (P>0.05), and the effect on the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG in the serum and spleen tissue of guinea pigs is not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions LEO has a certain antibacterial effect on five common pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes, and is safe for percutaneous administration. The results provide some reference for the development of LEO related products and their application in the field of dermatology.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1076-1086, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970579

ABSTRACT

Based on GC-MS and network pharmacology, the active constituents, potential targets, and mechanism of essential oil from Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis(EOGFA) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury were explored, and the effective constituents were verified by experiment. To be specific, GC-MS was used identify the constituents of the volatile oil. Secondly, the targets of the constituents and disease were predicted by network pharmacology, and the drug-constituent-target network was constructed, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of the core targets. Molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding affinity between the active constituents and the targets. Finally, SD rats were used for experimental verification. The I/R injury model was established, and the neurological behavior score, infarct volume, and pathological morphology of brain tissue were measured in each group. The content of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) by Western blot. A total of 22 active constituents and 17 core targets were screened out. The core targets were involved in 56 GO terms and the major KEGG pathways of TNF signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, and sphingolipid signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the active constituents had high affinity to the targets. The results of animal experiment suggested that EOGFA can alleviate the neurological impairment, decrease the cerebral infarct volume and the content of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and down-regulate the expression of VEGF. The experiment verified the part results of network pharmacology. This study reflects the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics of EOGFA. The mechanism of its active constituents is related to TNF and VEGF pathways, which provides a new direction for in-depth research on and secondary development of Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Network Pharmacology , Oils, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Interleukin-6 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Reperfusion Injury , Cerebral Infarction
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1066-1075, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970578

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to explore the antidepressant effect of the essential oil from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.(EOST) on the treatment of depression and its mechanism by using a combination of network pharmacology and the mouse model of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced depression. The chemical components in EOST were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS), and 12 active components were selected as the study objects. The targets related to EOST were obtained by Traditional Chinese Medicines Systems Pharmacology(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction database. The targets related to depression were screened out through GeneCards, Therapeutic Target Database(TTD), and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) database. The Venny 2.1 was applied to screen out the common targets of EOST and depression. The targets were imported into Cytoscape 3.7.2 to generate "drug-active component-diease-target" network diagram. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed using STRING 11.5 database and Cytoscape 3.7.2, and the core targets were screened out. DAVID 6.8 database was used for Gene Ontology(GO) func-tional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, and subsequently the enrichment results were visualized through the bioinformatics platform. The mouse model of depression was induced by intraperitoneally injecting with LPS in mice. Before modeling, mice were administrated orally with EOST. The antidepressant effect of EOST was evalua-ted by tail suspension test(TST), forced swimming test(FST), and novelty suppressed feeding test(NSFT) after modeling. The content of interleukin(IL)-1β was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β in the hippocampus were determined by Western blot. There were 12 main components and 179 targets in EOAT, of which, 116 targets were related to depression, mainly involved in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) signaling pathway. Biological processes such as synaptic signal transduction, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, and chemical synaptic transmission were involved. Molecular functions such as neurotransmitter receptor activity, RNA polymerase Ⅱ transcription factor activity, and heme binding were involved. In mice experiments, the results showed that EOST at 100 mg·kg~(-1) and 50 mg·kg~(-1) significantly shortened the immobility time in TST and FST as well as the feeding latency in NSFT compared with the model group, decreased the levels of serum IL-1β and NO, and reduced the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β in the hippocampus. In conclusion, EOST shows a good antidepressant effect in a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway manner. The mechanism may be attributed to the fact that EOST can down-regulate the protein expression levels of IL-1β and pro IL-1β, decrease the release of inflammatory factors, and reduce neuroinflammation response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile , Depression , Lipopolysaccharides , Network Pharmacology , Databases, Genetic , Calcium Signaling , Disease Models, Animal
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