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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

ABSTRACT

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.


Subject(s)
Vaginitis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Moringa , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Thymus Plant , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881

ABSTRACT

Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.


El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 49(2)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388601

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El aceite de sachainchi, es considerado un alimento de alto valor nutritivo por su elevado contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, tocoferoles y esteroles. Sin embargo, al igual que otros aceites de su categoría, es muy susceptible a la oxidación lipídica durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en la estabilidad oxidativa de aceite de sachainchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana). Se mezcló aceite esencial (AE) de M. mollis con 1, 2, 4, 6 y 8 g/kg de aceite de sachainchi y dos aceites controles (sin AE y con 0,02 g/kg de antioxidante comercial BHT). Todos los tratamientos fueron almacenados a T° ambiente (17 °C promedio). Se midió el índice de peróxido de los tratamientos a los 2, 5, 10 y 15 días de almacenamiento. Se encontró que dosis de 1, 2 y 4 g/kg de AE de M. mollis estabilizaron la oxidación lipídica del aceite de sachainchi hasta por 10 días de almacenamiento con igual efectividad que el antioxidante comercial BHT. Aunque este trabajo revela el potencial que tiene el AE de M. mollis como antioxidante natural en alimentos, es necesario evaluaciones con menores dosis y mayor tiempo de almacenamiento para fortalecer esta primera aproximación.


ABSTRACT Sacha inchi oil is considered a food of high nutritional value, due to its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols. However, like other oils in its category, it is very susceptible to lipid oxidation during storage. The objective was to evaluate the effect of Minthostachys mollis essential oil on the oxidative stability of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia huayllabambana). Essential oil (EO) of M. mollis was applied with 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg of sacha inchi oil and two controls (without EO and with 0.02 g/kg of commercial antioxidant BHT). All treatments were stored at room temperature (17 °C average) and the peroxide value of the treatments was measured at 2, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. It was found that doses of 1, 2 and 4 g/kg of M. mollis EO could stabilize lipid oxidation of sacha inchi oil for up to 10 storage days with equal effectiveness to the commercial antioxidant BHT. Although this work reveals the potential of M. mollis EO as a natural antioxidant in food, evaluations with lower doses and longer storage times are necessary to strengthen this first approximation.

5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 156-175, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393371

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordia were reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.


El propósito de esta revisión sistemática fue identificar la literatura disponible sobre el aceite esencial de especies del género Cordia. Este estudio siguió los elementos de informe preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas. La búsqueda se realizó en cuatro bases de datos: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct y Scopus hasta el 5 de junio de 2020, sin restricciones de tiempo ni de idioma. Sesenta de los 1.333 estudios reunidos inicialmente cumplieron los criterios de inclusión después del proceso de selección. Se informaron nueve especies de Cordia en los estudios seleccionados, de los cuales el 79% de los estudios evaluados informaron aceite esencial de Cordia curassavica. Los métodos de extracción de aceite esencial identificados fueron la hidrodestilación y la destilación al vapor. En cuanto a la aplicación biológica, las actividades antimicrobianas, antiinflamatorias, larvicidas y antioxidantes fueron las más reportadas. Los principales compuestos reportados para el aceite esencial fueron ß-cariofileno, α-humuleno, α-pineno, biciclogermacreno y sabineno. La información reportada en esta revisión sistemática puede contribuir científicamente al reconocimiento de la importancia del género Cordia.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cordia/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Monoterpenes/analysis
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e181097, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Essential oils from four Ocotea species collected in southern Brazil were evaluated for chemical composition using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The primary compound identified in O. acutifolia essential oil was an unsaturated tetracyclic diterpene, phyllocladene (67.7%), followed by a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, β-selinene (18.0%). The sesquiterpene fraction was predominant in oils from two collections of O. puberula; β-caryophyllene (25.2%) and globulol (22.6%) were the major compounds identified in collections 1 and 2, respectively. O. silvestris essential oil contained predominantly germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. These compounds were also predominant in essential oil from O. indecora leaves collected from shady habitats. By contrast, essential oil extracted from O. indecora grown under direct sunlight contained mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes, such as guaiol (30.2%), α-eudesmol (27.6%), and β-eudesmol (12.7%). Chemotaxis assays showed that Ocotea essential oils had no significant inhibitory activity on leukocyte migration compared with a chemotactic stimulant (lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli). However, the oils exhibited antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 500 µg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the in vitro antifungal and antichemotactic activities of essential oils from Ocotea species native to southern Brazil.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 104-108, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906741

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To analyze the effectiveness and safety of different concentrations of tea tree essential oil in the treatment of Demodex blepharitis. <p>METHODS: The clinical data of 120 patients(240 eyes)with blepharitis caused by Demodex infection in our hospital from June 2017 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the use of tea tree essential oil concentrations of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%, patients were divided into 4 groups(group A, group B, group C, group D), each group with 30 people. All patients were given meibomian gland massage, eyelid margin cleaning, and then scrubbed with different concentrations of tea tree oil to clean the eyelid margin. The number of demodex mites, clinical symptom score, clinical sign score, tear film break-up time(BUT), corneal fluorescein staining(FL)and SchirmerⅠtest(SⅠt)were compared before and 2, 4wk after treatment.<p>RESULTS: The number of Demodex mites, clinical symptom score, clinical sign score, BUT, FL and SⅠt were not statistically significant in the four groups before treatment(<i>P</i>>0.05). After treatment, the number of Dmodex mites, clinical symptom score, and clinical sign score in each group were lower than those before treatment, and the number of Demodex mites, clinical symptom score, and clinical sign score after 4wk of treatment in each group were lower than those after 2wk of treatment(all <i>P</i><0.008). After 2 and 4wk of treatment, the number, clinical symptom score and clinical signs score of Demodex mites in group A were the highest, while those in group D were the lowest(all <i>P</i><0.008). After treatment, the BUT of each group was higher than before treatment, and reached the peak in the 4wk. After 2 and 4wk of treatment, BUT among groups was highest in group D and lowest in group A(all <i>P</i><0.008). After treatment, FL and S I t of each group were lower than before treatment, and reached the lowest value in the 4wk. After 2 and 4wk of treatment, FL among the groups was the lowest in group D and the highest in group A(all <i>P</i><0.008). <p>CONCLUSION: Compared with 10% tea tree essential oil, 15% tea tree essential oil can effectively repel mites, relieve clinical symptoms and eye signs in patients with Demodex blepharitis, and is safer than 20% and 25% tea tree essential oils. As the preferred concentration of tea tree essential oil against Demodex blepharitis.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935057

ABSTRACT

@#Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is widely used as a common filling material in dentistry but still exhibits problems with secondary caries and fractures. Thus, the antibacterial and anti-caries performance of GIC needs to be further improved. In recent years, natural antimicrobial components have become more desirable due to their good biological properties and low drug resistance. In this review, the natural antimicrobial ingredients in GIC modification are classified, reviewed and summarized according to the different sources of antimicrobial ingredients. In terms of animal origin, chitosan and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate exhibit antimicrobial properties without affecting the mechanical properties of materials; propolis and bioactive enzymes have good biocompatibility; in terms of plant origin, polyphenols help improve the antimicrobial and mechanical properties of the material; arginine has a good remineralization effect; and plant essential oils have a certain ion release effect. In terms of microbial origin, antibiotics greatly improve the antibacterial properties of materials; in addition, the combined application of natural antimicrobial ingredients also exhibited excellent performance. Despite these advantages, the optimal addition concentration and biocompatibility in vivo are questions that need to be further explored before clinical applications can be achieved.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942775

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of piperine on human breast cancer cells. Methods: The effect of piperine on proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was investigated using colony formation assays, wound healing assays, Matrigel migration assays, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting assays. Results: Piperine inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed colony formation. Cell reduction at the G 0 / G 1 phase and cell arrest at the G 2 /M phase were observed in breast cancer cells. However, the significant effect was only demonstrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, cancer cell migration was suppressed by piperine at low concentration. RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays showed that piperine downregulated Rac1 gene and protein expression. Conclusions: Piperine could inhibit growth and migration of breast cancer cells by reducing Rac1 gene and protein expression.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942774

ABSTRACT

Objective: To enhance the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of quercetin contents of Allium cepa peel extract by novel nanosuspension technology. Methods: Nanoprecipitation approach was successfully used for the formulation of nanosuspension. To obtain pharmaceutical-grade nanosuspension with minimum particle size and polydispersity index, sodium lauryl sulphate was selected as a stabilizer. Important formulation parameters were statistically optimized by the response surface methodology approach. The optimized nanosuspension was subjected to stability and in vitro dissolution testing and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta sizer. To evaluate the preeminence of nanosuspension over coarse suspension, comparative bioavailability studies were carried out in male albino rats. The pharmaceutical potential of developed nanosuspension was evaluated by antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity studies. Results: The optimized nanosuspension showed an average particle size of 275.5 nm with a polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 0.415 and -48.8 mV, respectively. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average particle size of nanosuspension was below 100 nm. The formulated nanosuspension showed better stability under refrigerated conditions. Nanosuspension showed an improved dissolution rate and a 2.14-fold greater plasma concentration of quercetin than coarse suspension. Moreover, the formulated nanosuspension exhibited enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial potential and was non-toxic. Conclusions: Optimization of nanosuspension effectively improves the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of Allium cepa extract.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and oxidative damage in hepatic and renal tissues of rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS+Boswellia serrata extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). LPS (1 mg/kg) and the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before LPS) were administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The levels of liver enzymes, albumin, total protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), interleukin (IL)-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiol groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Results: The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, and BUN, IL-6, MDA in the LPS group were markedly increased (P<0.001) while albumin, total protein, and total thiol concentration, as well as SOD and CAT activities, were decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Boswellia serrata extracts diminished the levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, BUN, IL-6, and MDA (P<0.01 and P<0.001), and elevated the concentration of total protein and total thiol and SOD and CAT activities (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions: The ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata reduces LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and oxidative damage, thus ameliorating hepatic and renal function.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941599

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of Harpephyllum caffrum bark infusion as well as its effects on glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 - induced oxidative stress in rat hepatic tissue. Methods: Harpephyllum caffrum infusion was prepared from dried plant materials (40 g) infused in boiling water (400 mL) for 20 min at room temperature. The antioxidative and inhibitory activities against carbohydrate digestive enzymes of the infusion were determined using established protocols. The liver tissues of rats were used for glucose uptake assay and to evaluate the infusion's effect on endogenous antioxidant, glucogenic, and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 -induced hepatic injury. Results: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion significantly reduced ferric iron (FRAP) and free radicals (OH • and DPPH) in a dose- dependent manner. It inhibited -amylase and -glucosidase activities and increased glucose uptake in hepatic tissues. FeSO 4 significantly decreased glutathione concentration, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities while increasing malondialdehyde level, glycogen phosphorylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase activities. However, treatment with Harpephyllum caffrum infusion reversed FeSO 4 -induced changes. Characterization of the infusion revealed the presence of catechol, O-pyrocatechuic acid, mequinol, maltol, and glycoside derivatives. Conclusions: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion demonstrates antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials in in vitro models of type 2 diabetes as depicted by its ability to inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes, mitigate oxidative imbalance, and regulate glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in oxidative hepatic injury.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941598

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play important roles in regulating host defense against pathogenic infections. This review provides information on the role of miRNAs in the antimycobacterial immune response and summarizes their possible diagnostic utility. It was compiled using scientific literature retrieved from such databases as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed Central. Relevant articles published in the English language until December 2020 were taken into consideration. It has been revealed that specific host miRNAs induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can target diverse factors and pathways in immune signaling to ensure longer pathogen survival inside the phagocytes. The potential use of miRNAs in tuberculosis diagnosis or therapeutic strategies has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, despite considerable efforts devoted to miRNA profiling, further studies are needed to elucidate the full potential of miRNAs as novel tuberculosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To elucidate the cytotoxic effect of the secondary metabolites of Barrientosiimonas humi (B. humi) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: The extract was obtained from the fermentation of B. humi and fractionation of the crude extract was conducted via column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of the B. humi extract was determined by using MTT assay and real-time cellular analysis. Morphological changes, cell cycle profiles, mode of cell death, and caspase expressions of control and treated breast cancer cells were determined. Results: The ethyl acetate extract isolated from B. humi was cytotoxic against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. One of the dichloromethane (DCM) fractions, designated as DCM-F2, exhibited the strongest activity among all the fractions and thereby was selected for further studies. DCM-F2 had selective cytotoxicity on target cells by inducing apoptosis, particularly in the early stage, and cell cycle arrest. Treated cells caused inhibition of cell cycle progression at 72 h leading to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the G0/G1 population. DCM-F2 treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas DCM-F2 treated MCF-7 cells showed a caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. Five compounds were successfully isolated from B. humi. Cyclo (Pro-Tyr) was the most cytotoxic and selective compound against MCF-7 cells. Conclusions: B. humi ethyl acetate extract exhibits significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941596

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the protective role of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract in a depression model through modulating oxidant/antioxidant enzyme system and inflammatory status. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively along with HPLC. Rats were divided into six groups. The normal control and the intoxicated groups received normal saline, and the standard group received imipramine, while the remaining groups received 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract. All groups received treatments for 14 d. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were then administered i.p. (0.83 mg/kg) to all groups except the normal control group. After 24 h, anxiety and depression-like behaviors were evaluated by performing behavioral analysis (open field, tail suspension, forced swim, sucrose preference test), and determining total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and biochemical parameters [malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6]. Results: Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of phenols and flavonoids and HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid. Total oxidant status was significantly decreased, while total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased in the Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract treated groups. Moreover, Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract diminished malondialdehyde, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione activities. Conclusions: Glinus lotoides ethanolic crude extract shows significant antidepressant activity by modulating oxidative and biochemical parameters that supports its folkloric use in traditional systems of medicine.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the anti-tumor effects of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract (PAME) compared with cyclophosphamide against Ehrlich solid tumors in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (n=40) were divided into five groups: normal control mice, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with normal saline, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally once a day for 14 d, or 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg PAME orally once a day for 14 d. Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level (TNF-α), and apoptosis-regulatory gene expression were evaluated. Results: Treatment of mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumors with PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg orally significantly decreased tumor volume, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers and TNF-α level in comparison with mice with Ehrlich solid tumors receiving normal saline. whereas PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract has potent antitumor activity in mice. Therefore, the extract might be considered as an alternative anticancer agent against tumors, however, additional studies especially in the clinical setting are required to confirm this finding.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941594

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly caused by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (FSS) and Schisandra chinensis Fructus (FSC) oils in mice. Methods: Mice were orally administered a single dose of Schisandrae Fructus oils. Serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG), triglyceride transfer protein (TTP), apolipoprotein B48 (Apo B48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), alanine aminotransfease (ALT) and liver index were measured at 6-120 h post-dosing. Results: FSS and FSC oil caused time and dose-dependent increases in serum and hepatic TG levels, with maximum increases in the liver (by 297% and 340%) at 12 h post-dosing and serum (244% and 439%) at 24-h post-dosing, respectively. Schisandrae Fructus oil treatments also elevated the levels of serum TTP by 51% and 63%, Apo B48 by 152% and 425%, and VLDL by 67% and 38% in mice, respectively. FSS and FSC oil treatments also increased liver mass by 53% and 55% and HGF by 106% and 174%, but lowered serum ALT activity by 38% and 22%, respectively. Fenofibrate pre/ co-treatment attenuated the FSS and FSC oil-induced elevation in serum TG levels by 41% and 49% at 48 h post-dosing, respectively, but increased hepatic TG contents (by 38% and 33%, respectively) at 12 h post-dosing. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence to support the establishment of a novel mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia by oral administration of FSS oil (mainly increasing endogenous TG) and FSC oil (mainly elevating exogenous TG).

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of protein extract of kenaf seed (PEKS). Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography techniques were employed for protein characterization. Antioxidant activity of PEKS was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The protective effect of PEKS on sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) induced oxidative stress was evaluated using the in vitro red blood cell model, while the effect of PEKS on diclofenac-induced oxidative stress was examined in vivo in rats. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma were used for anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of PEKS. Results: PEKS revealed similar protein bands on SDS-PAGE under reduced and non-reduced conditions. Several acidic proteins were present in native PAGE. PEKS showed antioxidant properties by scavenging DPPH with an IC 50 of 24.58 μg. PEKS exhibited a protective effect on NaNO 2 induced oxidative stress in red blood cells by restoring the activity of stress markers. In addition, PEKS alleviated diclofenac-induced tissue damage of the liver, kidney, and small intestine. PEKS showed an anticoagulant effect in both in vivo and in vitro experiments by enhancing normal clotting time. PEKS did not affect prothrombin time but increase activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, PEKS inhibited adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusions: PEKS protects tissues from oxidative stress and exhibits antithrombotic activity.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941592

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is set to be the most common etiology of serious liver diseases in numerous nations when accompanied by obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is further histologically categorized into the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL; steatosis without hepatocellular injury) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is characterized by the coexistence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation and is accompanied by hepatocyte injury (ballooning), either with or without fibrosis. NAFL is considered the benign and reversible stage arising from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. However, NASH is a more progressive stage of NAFLD, due to the increased risks of evolving more serious diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. This concept, however, has been lately challenged by a hypothesis of multiple parallel hits of NAFLD, in which steatosis and NASH are separate entities rather than two points of the NAFLD spectrum, not only from a set of histological patterns but also from a pathophysiological perspective. The current review highlights the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, and its progression towards steatohepatitis, with special focus on the novel imminent therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular aspects and the pathogenic pathways involved in the development, and progression of NAFLD.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941591

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the hexane solvent fraction of Halymenia durvillei (HDHE) on triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: The phytochemical profile of HDHE was investigated by GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of HDHE against MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. The apoptotic and autophagic effects of HDHE were analyzed. The expression of molecular markers controlling apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was determined. Results: HDHE contains a mixture of fatty acids, mainly hexadecanoic acid. HDHE at a cytotoxic concentration induced apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 cells through mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and induction of apoptosis markers, and increased the expression of proteins related to DNA damage response. HDHE also induced the expression of LC-3, a marker of autophagic cell death at a cytotoxic concentration. Moreover, HDHE modulated the expression of ER stress genes. Conclusions: The hexadecanoic acid-enriched extract of Halymenia durvillei promotes apoptosis and autophagy of human triple-negative breast cancer cells. This extract may be further explored as an anticancer agent for triple-negative breast cancer.

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