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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 94-107, ene. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372487

ABSTRACT

Basil (Ocimum basilicumL.) is a medicinal species used in several areas, such as food, medicines and cosmetics, and the understanding of its physiological behavior under environmental conditions is of paramount importance for the improvement of cultivation methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different water availability under physiological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, in three distinct genotypes: 'Alfavaca basilicão', 'Gennaro de menta' and 'Grecco à palla', during two different phenological stages (vegetative and reproductive). It was found that the water deficit promotes physiological changes to tolerate water stress, and the studied genotypes have different routes to achieve this physiological tolerance, which culminates in a distinct accumulation of metabolites in plants, and can be considered interesting if the final product is the production of essential oils.


La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) es una planta medicinal utilizada en varias áreas: alimenticia, medicinal e industria cosmética; es de suma importancia el entendimiento de su comportamiento fisiológico bajo diferentes condiciones ambientales con el fin de mejorar los procesos del cultivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de diferentes disponibilidades hídricas en las características fisiológicas, bioquímicas y metabólicas en tres genotipos de albahaca: "Alfavaca basilicão", "Gennaro de menta" y "Grecco à palla" durante dos etapas fenológicas (vegetativa y reproductiva). Fue encontrado que el déficit hídrico promueve cambios fisiológicos con el fin de tolerar el estrés hídrico. Los genotipos estudiados presentaron diferentes rutas para alcanzar esta tolerancia fisiológica, la cual culmina con distintas acumulaciones de metabolitos en las plantas, y puede ser considerado interesante si el producto final es la producción de aceites esenciales.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Water/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/physiology , Soil Moisture
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 87 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379165

ABSTRACT

Um dos principais grupos de conservantes utilizados na maioria dos cosméticos são os parabenos que em muitos estudos demonstraram que podem provocar reações alérgicas como dermatite de contato, entre outras sensibilizações cutâneas. A fim de minimizar esses problemas, a indústria está produzindo cosméticos livres de conservantes ou de origem natural e em associações aos sintéticos. Dentre os conservantes naturais utilizados, podemos citar os óleos essenciais como uma alternativa viável. Diante deste contexto o presente trabalho visa avaliar experimentalmente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial de Conobea scoparioides Cham. & Schltdl., conhecida popularmente como pataqueira, o efeito de sua associação com parabenos e de sua eficácia como conservante em bases cosméticas. A composição do óleo essencial foi avaliada, indicando que este é composto em sua maior parte por terpenos, tendo éter metílico do timol (39,2%), timol (33,8 %) e α-felandreno (15,9%) como compostos majoritários. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e do timol foi acessada através da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), cujos resultados em µg/mL para o óleo essencial e o timol foram respectivamente: Staphylococcus aureus 650,70 e 284,90, Escherichia coli 721,53 e 271,20, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1748,00 e > 2.000, Burkholderia cepacia 833,03 e 1.077,70, Candida albicans 521,43 e 172,61 e Aspergillus brasiliensis 300 e 400. O efeito sinérgico da associação do óleo essencial com os parabenos foi realizado através de um delineamento experimental centroide simplex para uma mistura de metilparabeno, propilparabeno e óleo essencial frente aos mesmos micro-organismos utilizados na determinação da atividade antimicrobiana. As concentrações ideais obtidas pela análise estatística para cada componente em µg/mL foram: 1120 para o metilparabeno, 350 para o propilparabeno e 675 para o óleo essencial. O teste de eficácia do sistema conservante em formulação cosmética foi efetuado empregando as concentrações ideais e mais duas concentrações superiores e uma abaixo do ideal. Para todas as cepas microbianas desafiadas o resultado do teste foi de redução total da carga microbiana inoculada nos sete dias de ensaio e nenhum aumento até o vigésimo oitavo dia o que demonstra a eficácia da associação do óleo essencial com os conservantes sintéticos. O óleo essencial de C. scoparioides apresentou um potencial antimicrobiano importante tanto sozinho como em associação com conservantes sintéticos. Estes resultados sugerem que esse óleo pode ser usado para compor um sistema conservante para formulações cosméticas contendo uma menor quantidade de sintéticos


One of the main groups of preservatives used in most cosmetics are parabens, that many studies have shown that they can cause allergic reactions such as contact dermatitis, among other skin sensitizations. To minimize these problems, the industry is producing cosmetics preservative free or using natural products instead and their combination with the synthetics. Among the natural preservatives used, we can mention essential oils as a viable alternative. In this context, the present work aims to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the Conobea scoparioides Cham. & Schltdl. essential oil, popularly known as pataqueira, the effect of its association with parabens and its effectiveness as a preservative in cosmetic bases. The essential oil composition was analyzed, indicating that it is composed mostly of terpenes, with thymol methyl ether (39.2%), thymol (33.8%) and -phelandrene (15.9%) as major compounds. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil and thymol was accessed through the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), whose results in µg/mL for essential oil and thymol were respectively: Staphylococcus aureus 650.70 and 284.90, Escherichia coli 721, 53 and 271.20, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1748.00 and > 2,000, Burkholderia cepacia 833.03 and 1,077.70, Candida albicans 521.43 and 172.61 and Aspergillus brasiliensis 300 and 400. The synergistic effect of the association of essential oil with parabens was performed through a centroid simplex experimental design for a mixture of methylparaben, propylparaben and essential oil against the same microorganisms used in the antimicrobial activity evaluation The ideal concentrations obtained by statistical analysis for each component in µg/mL were: 1120 for methylparaben, 350 for propylparaben and 675 for essential oil. The effectiveness test of the preservative system in cosmetic formulation was carried out using the ideal concentrations plus two higher concentrations and one below the ideal. For all challenged microbial strains, the test result was a total reduction of the inoculated microbial load in the seven days of testing and no increase until the twenty-eighth day, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the association of essential oil with synthetic preservatives. C. scoparioides essential oil showed an important antimicrobial potential both alone and in association with parabens. These results demonstrated that it can be used to compose a preservative system for cosmetic formulations containing lower amounts of synthetics


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Cosmetics , Plantaginaceae/classification , Parabens/pharmacology , Skin , Burkholderia cepacia/classification , Additives in Cosmetics , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22210297, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364441

ABSTRACT

Abstract Medicinal and aromatic plants have been widely using in folk medicine as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The aim of this study was to determine essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of T. spicata, L. X Intermedia, S. macrantha and R. officinalis. Essential oil components of these plants were obtained by water vapor distillation method using Neo-Clevenger apparatus. Essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The main components of these plants are carvacrol (74.26 %) and γ-terpinene (10.28%) in T. spicata, 1,8-cineol (32.48%), linalool (24.38%) and camphor (14.73%) in L. X Intermedia, p-cymene (56.70%), carvacrol (10.96 %) in S. macrantha and camphor (18.26 %), α-pinene (15.51%), 1,8-cineole (11.86%) and borneol (10.39%) in R. officinalis were determined. T. spicata and S. macrantha showed strong effects against three microorganisms. L. X Intermedia and R. officinalis showed strong activity against Candida albicans, while they had moderate effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928140

ABSTRACT

Essential oils(EOs) from Chinese medicinals, which can be used as adjuvants and exert certain therapeutic effect, are directly used in Chinese medicine formulas. Conventional research strategy for EOs from Chinese medicinals is to compare the efficacy of the prescriptions before and after the addition of EOs, and the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of EOs remain unclear. In modern research on EOs from Chinese medicinals, the method for studying chemical penetration enhancers is often used, which fails to reflect the overall efficacy of EOs. This study clarified the property regularity of EOs from Chinese medicinals as transdermal penetration enhancers, and thereby proposed a research model which integrated the medicinal and adjuvant properties of EOs from Chinese medicinals via "component-delivery-effect" characterization route. The core concept is that constituents of EOs from Chinese medicinals and their delivery process play a key role in their external application. This research model is expected to serve as a reference for further research on EOs from Chinese medicinals for transdermal application.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Administration, Cutaneous , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927942

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from Chinese medicine are popular in the fields such as medicine, food, and cosmetics because of their unique biological characteristics. However, since essential oils are lipophilic compounds with high volatility, poor stability, and strong irritation, various preparation technologies need to be employed to improve stability, reduce irritation, and increase bioavailability. At present, a variety of preparation technologies have been applied to the encapsulation of essential oils. Various encapsulation strategies are formed because of different delivery systems featured with multiple principles and characteristics and are widely used to improve the stability of essential oils. Essential oils of Chinese medicine are widely used in the medical field, and they are under continuous innovation and development in clinical research, the pharmaceutical industry, medical products, etc. The present study summarized various delivery systems that could improve the stability of essential oils and reviewed the applications of essential oils encapsulated in the delivery systems in the medical field to provide re-ferences for the improvement of stability of essential oils and their safety, efficiency, and wide use in the medical field.


Subject(s)
China , Oils, Volatile
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(4): 21-30, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376418

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition ofCurcuma longa,Pimenta dioica,Rosmarinus officinalis, andSyzygiumaromaticumessential oils (EOs) and their antifungal and anti-conidiogenic activity againstFusarium verticillioides. The chemical profile of the EOs was determined by GC/MS. The antifungal and anti-conidiogenic activities were evaluated by the agar dilution method. The tested concentrations were 1000ppm, 500ppm, 250ppm and 125ppm.S. aromaticumEO exhibited the highest antifungal effect, followed byP. dioicaand to a lesser extentC. longa. The major compounds of these EOs were eugenol (88.70% inS. aromaticumand 16.70% inP. dioica), methyl eugenol (53.09% inP. dioica), and α-turmerone (44.70%), β-turmerone (20.67%), and Ar-turmerone (17.27%) inC. longa.Rosmarinus officinalispoorly inhibited fungal growth; however, it was the only EO that inhibited conidial production, with its major components being 1,8-cineole (53.48%), α-pinene (15.65%), and (−)-camphor (9.57%). Our results showed that some compounds are capable of decreasing mycelial growth without affecting sporulation, and vice versa. However, not all the compounds of an EO are responsible for its bioactivity. In the present work, we were able to identify different major compounds or mixtures of major compounds that were responsible for antifungal and anti-conidiogenic effects. Further experiments combining these pure components are necessary in order to achieve a highly bioactive natural formulation against the phytopathogenic fungusF. verticillioides.


RESUMEN El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la composición química de los aceites esenciales (AE) deCurcuma longa,Pimenta dioica,RosmarinusofficinalisySyzygiumaromaticum, y su actividad antifúngica y anti-esporuladora contraFusarium verticillioides. La composición de los AE se analizó por CG-EM. La actividad antifúngica y anti-esporuladora se evaluó a través del método de dilución en agar usando las siguientes concentraciones: 1.000, 500, 250 y 125ppm. El AE deS. aromaticumdemostró el mayor efecto antifúngico, seguido del deP. dioicay, en menor medida, delC. longa. Los compuestos principales de estos AE fueron eugenol (88,70% enS. aromaticumy 16,70% enP. dioica), metileugenol (53,09% enP. dioica) y α-turmerona (44,70%), β-turmerona (20,67%) y Ar-turmerona (17,27%) enC. longa. El AE deR. officinalisfue el que menor efecto inhibitorio presentó sobre el crecimiento fúngico, pero fue el único que inhibió la producción de conidias; sus principales componentes fueron 1,8-cineol (53,48%), α-pineno (15,65%) y (−)-alcanfor (9,57%). Nuestros resultados demostraron que algunos compuestos son capaces de disminuir el crecimiento del micelio deF. verticillioidessin afectar la esporulación, y vice versa. Sin embargo, no todos los compuestos de un AE son responsables de su bioactividad. En el presente trabajo, pudimos identificar diferentes compuestos o mezclas de compuestos que fueron responsables de los efectos antifúngicos y anti-esporuladores. Se necesitan nuevos experimentos que evalúen la combinación de estos compuestos puros para lograr una formulación bioactiva y de origen natural para el control deF. verticillioides.

7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1381-1390, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355675

ABSTRACT

The utilization of antimicrobials in animal production, causes selection of resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of alternatives in association with preventive antibiotic therapy in swine feed during the growing and finishing phases. 1,045 animals were used from 60 to 190 days of age and were subjected to six treatments with 16 repetitions as follows: 1) antibiotic free; 2) antibiotics; 3) prebiotic; 4) probiotic; 5) essential oils; and 6) organic acid. Animals were weighted, and clinical history was recorded including mortality and diarrhea. At the abattoir, pneumonia index and gastric ulcers were investigated. The cost for each treatment was discussed. No difference between treatments were observed (P>0.05) regarding feed conversion rate (2.64±0.03), overall average weight gain (107.06±0.9kg), average daily weight gain (856.49±7.7g) and carcass weight (92.4±0.7kg). The application injectable drugs in animals presenting clinical symptoms, represented US$ 0.56/intervention, without difference between the treatments (P>0.05). Furthermore, independently of the treatment, high frequency of pneumonia was observed (>0.90). No difference for the degree of gastric ulcer nor feces consistency were observed (P>0.05). The utilization of antibiotic therapy and alternatives to antibiotics in feed did not produce benefits to the production indices and sanitary performances of the animals.(AU)


A utilização de antimicrobianos na produção animal provoca seleção de bactérias resistentes. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a utilização de alternativas associadas à antibioticoterapia preventiva na alimentação de suínos nas fases de recria e de terminação. Foram utilizados 1.045 animais de 60 a 190 dias de idade, submetidos a seis tratamentos com 16 repetições, como segue: 1) sem antibióticos; 2) com antibióticos; 3) prebióticos; 4) probióticos; 5) óleos essenciais; e 6) ácidos orgânicos. Os animais foram pesados, e a história clínica foi registrada, incluindo mortalidade e diarreia. No abatedouro, foram investigados índices de pneumonia e úlceras gástricas. O custo de cada tratamento foi discutido. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05) em relação à taxa de conversão alimentar (2,64 ± 0,03), ao ganho de peso médio geral (107,06 ± 0,9kg), ao ganho de peso médio diário (856,49 ± 7,7g) e ao peso de carcaça (92,4 ± 0,7kg). A aplicação de medicamentos injetáveis em animais com quadro clínico representou US$ 0,56/intervenção, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). Além disso, independentemente do tratamento, foi observada alta frequência de pneumonia (>0,90). Não foi observada diferença para o grau de úlcera gástrica nem na consistência das fezes (P>0,05). A utilização de antibioticoterapia e de alternativas aos antibióticos na ração não trouxe benefícios aos desempenhos zootécnico e sanitário dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Animal Feed/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 443-462, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368583

ABSTRACT

Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. is a tree native to central and southern Chile. Also it found in part of Argentina. It is abundant in wet swampy localities from sea level to an altitude of 1700 m. This tree is sacred for the Mapuche culture; it is used in folk medicine in such as inflammatory and painful processes. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that this plant contains mainly sesquiterpenes of the drimane type, flavonoids, essential oils, phytosterols and some lignans. These drimanes have attracted interest because of their antifeedant, plant growth regulation, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The objective of this review is to establish clearly the phytochemistry and biological activity of Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. Articles based on other varieties are not considered.


Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. es un árbol nativo del centro y sur de Chile. También se encuentra en parte de Argentina. Es abundante en localidades pantanosas y húmedas desde el nivel del mar hasta una altitud de 1700 m. Este árbol es sagrado para la cultura mapuche. Se utiliza en la medicina popular para tratar enfermedades como procesos inflamatorios y dolorosos. Los estudios fitoquímicos han demostrado que esta planta contiene principalmente sesquiterpenos del tipo drimano, flavonoides, aceites esenciales, fitoesteroles y algunos lignanos. Estos drimanos han despertado interés debido a sus propiedades antialimentarias, regulación del crecimiento de las plantas, propiedades citotóxicas, antimicrobianas e insecticidas. El objetivo de este examen es establecer claramente la fitoquímica y la actividad biológica de Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. No se consideran los artículos basados en otras variedades D. winteri var winteri.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Drimys/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Lignans/analysis
9.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 31-48, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356541

ABSTRACT

Resumen La gota de la papa o tizón tardío es una de las enfermedades más agresivas que atacan los cultivos de papa y en poco tiempo los destruye, ocasionando enormes pérdidas económicas, es producida por el fitopatógeno Phytophthora infestans, oomyceto que ha tomado gran importancia debido a sus efectos devastadores y las dificultades para lograr su erradicación. Los fungicidas de naturaleza química representan un problema debido al uso inadecuado, lo que hace muy difícil eliminar la enfermedad por la aparición de nuevas especies resistentes. Existen nuevas alternativas para su control, basadas en el uso de sustancias de naturaleza vegetal, y la aplicación de nuevas herramientas capaces de realizar edición de genes, reprogramar o eliminar secuencias de ADN/ARN, favoreciendo así, la obtención de cultivos libres de sustancias tóxicas. En esta revisión, se presentan los métodos existentes de biocontrol: como aceites esenciales, metabolitos microbianos, herramientas moleculares y el uso de sustancias biodegradables que favorecen el manejo y prevención de plagas, que ayudan a mitigar la problemática ambiental generada por el uso de fungicidas de naturaleza química.


Abstract The drop of the potato or late blight is one of the most aggressive diseases that attack the potato crops and in a short time destroys them, causing great economic losses, it is produced by the phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans, oomyceto that has taken great importance due to its devastating effects and difficulties in achieving its eradication. Fungicides of a chemical nature represent a problem due to the affected use, which makes it very difficult to eliminate the disease due to the appearance of new resistant species. There are new alternatives for its control, based on the use of substances of the plant nature, and the application of new specific tools to perform gene editing, reprogram or eliminate DNA / RNA sequences, thus favoring the obtaining of cultures free of toxic substances . In this review, specific biocontrol methods are presented, such as essential oils, microbial metabolites, molecular tools and the use of biodegradable substances that favor the management and prevention of pests, which help mitigate the environmental problems generated by the use of fungicides from chemical nature.

10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251367

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.


Resumo Este estudo relata a ação de óleos essenciais de cinco plantas na atividade de acetilcolinesterases (AChE) nativas e recombinantes de Rhipicephalus microplus. A atividade enzimática do extrato de acetilcolinesterase nativa suscetível (S.AChE) e resistente (R.AChE) e da enzima recombinante (rBmAChE1) foi determinada. Um teste de inibição da AChE foi utilizado, para verificar o efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre a atividade enzimática. Óleos essenciais de Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var. dulcis inibiram a atividade de S.AChE e R.AChE. Os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus inibiram S.AChE e R.AChE de maneira semelhante, mas mostraram maior inibição sobre R.AChE. O óleo de E. globulus inibiu a AChE nativa, mas sem diferença entre a S.AChE e a R.AChE; no entanto, 71% de inibição para rBmAChE1 foi observada. O óleo de Mentha piperita também inibiu S.AChE e R.AChE, mas houve inibição significativa apenas nas concentrações mais altas testadas. O óleo de Cymbopogon winterianus não inibiu a AChE. Estudos adicionais são necessários com os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus que inibiram a R.AchE, devido ao problema de R. microplus resistente aos organofosforados ter como alvo AChE. O óleo de C. winterianus pode ser usado contra populações de R. microplus, que são resistentes a organofosforados, porque suas propriedades acaricidas agem por mecanismos diferentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Acaricides/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase , Larva
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906008

ABSTRACT

Volatile oil is widely distributed in Chinese medicinal materials with complex chemical components. The main components are terpenes, aromatics, aliphatics, and nitrogen and sulfur containing. It has a variety of pharmacological activities. Such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-aging and so on. It is widely used in medical and health care, agricultural efficiency enhancement, and daily products. In recent years, there have been a large number of studies on the pain relief of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) essential oils, but there is no systematic generalization. The author found that the mechanism of TCM essential oils to exert analgesic effects mainly includes regulation of the central nervous system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antispasmodic and analgesic effects by consulting Chinese and foreign literatures in recent years, but the exact mechanism needs to be further verified. This article reviews the research progress of TCM essential oil pain relief from the aspects of pain classification, generation, analgesic mechanism and combination of other technologies, in order to provide reference for related research in the future.

13.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 49(3): 641-655, Sep.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156308

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este estudo avaliou a toxicidade e a atividade antimicrobiana frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus dos óleos essenciais de Pimenta dioica Lindl. e Citrus sinensis L. Os óleos essenciais (OE) foram extraídos por hidrodestilação, com caracterização química através de cromatografía gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM). Os parâmetros físico-químicos foram determinados de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. O ensaio de toxicidade seguiu o bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, os OE aprovados neste ensaio seguiram para avaliação das suas propriedades biológicas. A atividade antimicrobiana seguiu a metodologia descrita pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute utilizando o método de difusão de disco, diluição em caldo para concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e posterior concentração bactericida mínima para avaliar a ação dos OE frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. Ambos os OE apresentaram toxicidade baixa, e assim foram avaliados quanto as propriedades biológicas antimicrobianas. Ambos os OE apresentaram potenciais bactericidas frente aos microrganismos testados, exibindo resultados satisfatórios para a ação deles. Os resultados indicam que os OE avaliados são compostos por substâncias que propiciam e incentivam sua aplicação em virtude de seus potenciais para atividade biológicas moluscicida e antimicrobiana.


SUMMARY This study evaluated the toxicity and antimicrobial activity in the face of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus of essential oils of Pimenta dioica Lindl. and Citrus sinensis L. The essential oils (EO) were extracted by hydrodistillation, with chemical characterization by gas chromatography coupled and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Physicochemical parameters were determined according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. The toxicity test followed the bioassay with Artemia salina Leach, the EO approved in this assay followed to evaluate its biological properties. The antimicrobial activity followed the methodology described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute using the disc diffusion method, broth dilution for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and subsequent minimum bactericide concentration for to evaluate the action of EO against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both OE showed low toxicity, and thus were evaluated for the biological antimicrobial properties. Both OE presented bactericidal potential against the microorganisms tested, showing satisfactory results for their action. The results indicate that the evaluated OE are composed of substances that provide and encourage their application due to their potentials for biological molluscicide and antimicrobial activity.

14.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(3): 30-40, dic. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289151

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Adjunctive treatment for periodontal disease is quite varied and depends on many factors. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of 0.12% chlorhexidine and essential oils associated with scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and methods: The sample included 42 patients randomly assigned to three groups. Decrease in periodontal status was measured with the World Health Organization's periodontal probe by analyzing probe depth values and level of clinical insertion at 3, 4, and 5 months. Statistical analysis of the progress of the three therapies was conducted using Student's t, Anova, and Tukey tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: The obtained values demonstrated that 0.12% chlorhexidine is more effective in all of its follow ups, whereas no significant difference existed between essential oils and the control group. A significant difference was observed over time in each separate treatment. Conclusión: Chlorhexidine at a 0.12% concentration associated with root scaling and planing is better than essential oil therapies for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.


Resumen Introducción: el tratamiento coadyuvante de la enfermedad periodontal es muy variado y depende de muchos factores. El objetivo del presente artículo fue comparar la efectividad entre clorhexidina al 0.12 % y aceites esenciales asociados al raspado y alisado radicular en el tratamiento de periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: la muestra estuvo conformada por 42 pacientes distribuidos aleatoriamente en 3 grupos. La disminución del estado periodontal se midió con la sonda periodontal de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, analizando los valores profundidad al sondaje y el nivel de inserción clínica a los 3, 4 y 5 meses. Para el análisis estadístico de la evolución de las 3 terapias se empleó la t de Student, análisis de varianza y test de Tukey con un nivel de significancia de p < 0.05. Resultados: los valores obtenidos demostraron que la clorhexidina al 0.12 % es más efectiva en todos sus controles; mientras que no existe diferencia significativa entre aceites esenciales y el grupo control. Existe diferencia significativa a través del tiempo en cada tratamiento por separado. Conclusión: la clorhexidina al 0.12 %> asociada al raspado y alisado radicular es superior a los tratamientos con aceites esenciales en el tratamiento de la periodontitis crónica.


Resumo Introdução: o tratamento coadjuvante da doença periodontal é muito variado e depende de muitos fatores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comprar a efetividade entre clorexidina ao 0.12% e aceites essenciais associados à raspagem e alisamento radicular no tratamento de periodontite crónica. Materiais e métodos: a amostra esteve conformada por 42 pacientes distribuídos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos. A diminuição de estado periodontal se mediu com a sonda periodontal as Organização Mundial da Saúde analisando os valores profundidade à sondagem e nível de inserção clínica aos 3, 4 e 5 meses. A análise estatística da evolução das 3 terapias, se realizou empregando t de Student, Anova e teste de Tukey com um nível de significancia de p < 0.05. Resultados: os valores obtidos demostraram que a clorexidina ao 0.12% é mais efetiva em todos seus controles, enquanto não existe diferença significativa entre aceites essenciais e o grupo controle. Existe diferença significativa através do tempo em cada tratamento por separado. Conclusão: a clorexidina ao 0.12% associada à raspagem e alisamento radicular é superior aos tratamentos com aceites essenciais no tratamento da periodontite crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Periodontitis , Periodontal Diseases , Oils, Volatile , Chlorhexidine , Mouthwashes
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 769-776, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142521

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fumigant activities for three essential oils; Garlic oil (Allium sativum L); Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) were assessed at different concentrations against the adult and 20-days old larval stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the laboratory. The accumulative mortality was observed at different exposure periods (3, 5 and 7 days). The residual effect of garlic oil that was the effective oil, on the treated wheat grains was evaluated with respect to histological changes in the liver, kidney, and stomach of rat fed on this treated wheat. The results showed that the mortality rates of treated stages increased with increasing the time of fumigation treatment. Moreover the highest essential oils toxicity at the Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for exposure periods (3, 5 and 7 days) to fumigation were (126, 53, and 47 mg/L air) for adult stage and were (79, 62, and 41 mg/L air) for larval stage, respectively in the case of Garlic oil treatment. While, the lowest essential oils effective was Nigella oil at the Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for exposure periods (3, 5 and 7 days) to fumigation were (3594, 629, and 335 mg/L air) for adult stage and were (1040, 416, and 227 mg/L air) for larval stage, respectively. The toxicity effect of various essential oils against adults and larvae of T. castaneum at the LC50at 7 days fumigation could be arranged in descending order as follows: Garlic oil, Chili pepper oil, and Nigella oil. The histological changes showed that the organs slightly affected at the fumigation for 3 days. It may be concluded that the garlic essential oil is the good effective fumigant to control T. castaneum in the stored products and it recommended that the fumigation period does not exceed 3 days. The garlic essential oil has the potential for applications in IPM programs for stored-grain pests because of its high volatility and fumigant activity and its safety.


Resumo Atividades fumigantes de três óleos essenciais - óleo de alho (Allium sativum L.); pimenta-malagueta (Capsicum annuum L.) e Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) - foram avaliadas em diferentes concentrações contra adultos e larvas de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) com 20 dias de idade em laboratório. A mortalidade acumulada foi observada em diferentes períodos de exposição (3, 5 e 7 dias). O efeito residual do óleo de alho, ou seja, o óleo eficaz, nos grãos de trigo tratados foi avaliado em relação às alterações histológicas no fígado, rim e estômago de ratos alimentados com esse trigo tratado. Os resultados mostraram que as taxas de mortalidade dos estágios tratados cresceram com o aumento do tempo de exposição ao tratamento de fumigação. A maior toxidade dos óleos essenciais nos valores de Concentração Letal Média (CL50) para os períodos de exposição (3, 5 e 7 dias) à fumigação foi (126, 53 e 47 mg/L ar) para a fase adulta e (79, 62 e 41 mg/L ar) para a fase de larva, respectivamente no caso do tratamento com o óleo de alho, enquanto que o óleo essencial menos eficaze foi o óleo de Nigella, com valores de CL50 para os períodos de exposição (3, 5 e 7 dias) à fumigação (3594, 629 e 335 mg/L ar) para a fase adulta, e (1040, 416 e 227 mg/L ar) para a fase de larva, respectivamente. O efeito da toxidade de vários óleos essenciais contra adultos e larvas de T. castaneum em LC50 aos sete dias de fumigação pôde ser organizado em ordem decrescente, como segue: óleo de alho, óleo de pimenta e óleo de Nigella. As alterações histológicas mostraram que os órgãos foram levemente afetados na fumigação por três dias. Pode-se concluir que o óleo essencial de alho é um bom fumigante efetivo no controle de T. castaneum nos produtos armazenados, e recomendou-se que o período de fumigação não ultrapassasse três dias. O óleo essencial de alho tem potencial para aplicações em programas de Integrated Pests Management (IPM) para pragas de grãos armazenados, devido à sua alta volatilidade, atividade fumigante e respectiva segurança.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tribolium , Coleoptera , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Safety , Mammals
16.
Rev. ADM ; 77(5): 247-251, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146814

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se ha documentado que, para tener mejores resultados en el control del biofilm oral, es necesario el uso de controles químicos, antes o después del cepillado dental. Entre éstos, encontramos los enjuagues de aceites esenciales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del enjuague con aceites esenciales antes o después del cepillado, en el control del biofilm dental. Material y métodos: El estudio se realizó con 27 voluntarios. Los participantes fueron seleccionados y agrupados. El grupo 1 fue el control, que empleó su técnica de cepillado habitual y dos grupos experimentales que, además del cepillado con dentífrico, usaron un enjuague de aceites esenciales durante ocho días, ya sea antes (grupo 2) o después del cepillado dental (grupo 3). La cuantificación del número de superficies teñidas en los tres grupos, tanto el estado inicial como posterior al uso de los enjuagues, se hizo con el índice de O'Leary y un revelador de placa tritonal, el cual permitió la observación del biofilm de forma clínica, así como su grado de patogenicidad. Resultados y conclusión: El análisis estadístico estableció que no existe diferencia significativa entre no usar y usar el enjuague con aceites esenciales antes o después del cepillado (AU)


Introduction: It has been documented that, to have better results in the control of oral biofilm, it is necessary to use chemical control, before or after tooth brushing. Among these, we find the essential oil rinses. Objective: To determine the activity of the rinse with essential oils before or after brushing, in the control of the dental biofilm. Material and methods: The study was conducted with 27 volunteers. The participants were selected and grouped. Group 1 was the control, which used its usual brushing technique and two experimental groups that, in addition to brushing with toothpaste, used a mouthwash of essential oils, for eight days, either before (group 2) or after tooth brushing (group number 3). For the quantification of the number of stained surfaces in the three groups, to record both the initial and subsequent state of the use of the rinses, it was done with the O'Leary index and a tritonal developer, which allowed the observation of the biofilm of clinical form, as well as its degree of pathogenicity. Results and conclusion: The statistical analysis established that there is no significant difference between not using and using the rinse with essential oils before or after brushing (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Oils, Volatile , Biofilms , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Toothbrushing , Oral Hygiene Index , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Dental Plaque , Mexico
17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215774

ABSTRACT

Aims: To review the phytomedicinal researches on endemic plants of Northern Cyprus and to assess the plants of their DNA barcoding status.Study Design:A review.Methodology:This work reviewed available and accessible original articles in EBSCO, Ovid MEDLINE®, PubMed®, ScienceDirectTM, Scopus®and Web of ScienceTMdatabases on phytomedicinal investigations and BOLD System, MMDBD version 1.5 and GenBank®on DNA barcodes of the endemic plants of Northern Cyprusuntil May, 2020. Using keywords searches related to phytochemistry, biological activity and DNA barcoding, DNA Sequences and the data obtain evaluated and the information that does not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. We believe that this information would tentatively help researchers to ethically explore these plants for their Medicinal and Aromatic potentials.Results:Only 6 of the 20 endemic plants of Northern Cyprus were phytopharmaceutically investigated,while DNA sequences of 5 were foundto be deposited in the publicly accessible databases accounting for30% and 25% of the total plants respectively Conclusion:Endemism is related to uniqueness in features including the phytomedicinal features, thus Northern Cyprus endemic plants holdample of such. However the results of this review showed that only few were harnessed for their medicinal properties and hence the need for their pharmacological properties and comprehensive barcoding for proper authentication, detection of adulteration, and quality control.

18.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 290-294, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132385

ABSTRACT

Abstract Essential oils, which may be extracted from several parts of plants, have different biological activities. The Brazilian Cerrado has a large variety of plants that yield essential oils, even though many have not been studied yet. Taking into account the biodiversity of this biome, this study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative activity of essential oils extracted from three species of plants of the Cerrado in Goiás state: Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg, Protium ovatum (Engl. in Mart.) and Cardiopetalum calophyllum (Schltdl.). Essential oils were extracted from both C. adamantium and C. calophyllum leaves and from P. ovatum leaves and green fruits by hydrodistillation carried out by a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The following major chemical constituents were identified in the essential oils under investigation: β-myrcene (62.00%), spathulenol (28.78%), germacrene-B (18.27%), β-caryophyllene oxide (16.40%), β-caryophyllene (14.00%), α-pinene (11.30%), viridiflorol (9.99%), limonene (7.30%) and (Z,E)-pharnesol (6.51%). The antiproliferative activity was evaluated in different human tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (M059J). A normal human cell line was included (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts). Results showed that essential oils from C. adamantium leaves got the lowest values of IC50 in all strains of tumor cells under evaluation. They were significantly lower than the ones of the normal cell line, an evidence of selectivity. It is worth mentioning that this is the first report of the antiproliferative activity of essential oils from C. adamantium , P. ovatum and C. calophyllum against human tumor cells.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais podem ser extraídos de várias partes das plantas e apresentam diversas atividades biológicas. O Cerrado brasileiro possui uma grande variedade de plantas produtoras de óleos essenciais muitas delas ainda não estudadas. Levando-se em consideração a biodiversidade desse bioma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antiproliferativa dos óleos essenciais extraídos de três espécies de plantas ocorrentes no Cerrado do estado de Goiás: Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg, Protium ovatum (Engl. in Mart.) e Cardiopetalum calophyllum (Schltdl.). Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos das folhas de C. adamantium e C. calophyllum e das folhas e frutos verdes de P. ovatum por hidrodestilação, usando o aparelho do tipo Clevenger. A composição química dos óleos essenciais foi determinada pelo método de Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada à Espectrometria de Massas (CG-EM). Os constituintes químicos majoritários identificados nos óleos essenciais estudados foram: β-mirceno (62,00%), espatulenol (28,78%), germacreno-B (18,27%), óxido de β-cariofileno (16,40%), β-cariofileno (14,00%), α-pineno (11,30%), viridiflorol (9,99%), limoneno (7,30%) e (Z,E)-farnesol (6,51%). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada em diferentes linhagens de células tumorais humanas: adenocarcinoma de mama (MCF-7), adenocarcinoma cervical (HeLa) e gliobastoma (M059J), além de, uma linhagem celular humana normal (GM07492A, fibroblastos pulmonares). O óleo essencial das folhas de C. adamantium exibiu menores valores de CI50 em todas as linhagens celulares tumorais avaliadas, sendo menores que aquele obtido na linhagem celular normal, indicando seletividade. Este é o primeiro relato da atividade antiproliferativa dos óleos essenciais de C. adamantium , P. ovatum e C. calophyllum contra células tumorais humanas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile , Annonaceae , Burseraceae , Myrtaceae , Calophyllum , Brazil , Plant Leaves , Hydrogen
19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206307

ABSTRACT

Although fungus being part of the commensal skin micro-structuring, various pathogenic commensals colonizes on human skin leading to superficial fungal infections. Owing to the resistance of present therapeutic treatments available, microbial resistance and serious hypoallergic reactions have been a concern to explore the phyto-therapeutic nutrients for treatment of fungal infections. One such plant essential oil-based formulation is thyme oil derived from the leaves of thymus vulgaris. The aim of present work i.e. development of thyme oil based microemulsion for treatment of fungal infections due to candida and trichophyton species. The thyme oil loaded microemulsion based gel was constructed using D-optimal design and the optimized final formulation contains 0.82% of oil, 9.22% of Smix and 89.95% of water. The optimized microemulsions was pale yellow to amber transparent microemulsion with globule size of 14.23 ± 0.3 nm, zeta potential of -0.69 mV and PDI value 0.00143 indicating a stable microemulsion. The microemulsion based gel formed had a pH of 6.03, appreciable viscosity and rheological properties. The drug release of formulation was 100.0 ± 0.22%. The % of drug permeated in skin layers was found to be 15.53 ± 0.22%. While % drug retention on the skin surface was found to be 26.32 ± 0.26% and within skin layers was found to be 58.47 ± 0.22%. The microemulsion based MBG was found to be safe on the dermis and efficacious then the marketed product and hence, promises its utilization as a safe and efficacious formulation for treatment of dermal infections.

20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 1-14, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102863

ABSTRACT

Aromatic and medicinal plants (AMPs) have great potential for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, which are used by the pharmaceutical and food industry. In addition, they are part of ancestral medicine and the livelihood of many families in regional economies. Argentina has a high number of AMPs. However, the intensive extraction system (overexploitation), together with other anthropic actions, puts them at risk. The "peperina de las lomas" (Hedeoma multiflora Benth. (Lamiaceae)) is within this problem. This native species, xerophyte, is distributed in central Argentina, in stony mountain areas, forming small bushes. In this work, the existing information of the species was collected, covering from its environmental problems to the most recent investigations, oriented towards its conservation and the development of its germplasm. These data will serve to promote activities aimed at preventing the degradation of this resource and promoting its sustainable use.


Las plantas aromáticas y medicinales (PAMs) tienen un gran potencial para la síntesis de metabolitos secundarios, los cuales son utilizados por la industria farmacéutica y alimentaria. Además, son parte de la medicina ancestral y el sustento de muchas familias de las economías regionales. Argentina posee un alto número de PAMs. Sin embargo, el sistema de extracción intensivo (sobreexplotación), junto a otras acciones antrópicas, las coloca en riesgo. La "peperina de las lomas" (Hedeoma multiflora Benth. (Lamiaceae)) se encuentra dentro de esta problemática. Esta especie nativa, xerófita, se distribuye en el centro de Argentina, en zonas pedregosas serranas, formando pequeñas matas. En este trabajo se recopiló la información existente de la especie abarcando, desde su problemática ambiental hasta las investigaciones más recientes, orientadas a su conservación y al desarrollo de su germoplasma. Estos datos servirán para promover actividades destinadas a evitar la degradación de este recurso y propiciar su aprovechamiento sustentable.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile , Argentina , Endangered Species , Sustainable Development
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