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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(3): 110-117, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392449

ABSTRACT

La hiperglicemia y/o diabetes inducida por esteroides, se define como la elevación de la glicemia, causada por la acción de los fármacos glucocorticoideos, sobre el metabolismo de los carbohidratos, y presenta una prevalencia entre un 20% al 50%, en pacientes sin diabetes previa, existiendo mayor riesgo para esta patología en pacientes con diabetes pre-existente, obesidad, uso crónico de esteroides o en dosis altas, entre otros. El diagnóstico se rige por los criterios para diabetes en la mayoría de los casos. No obstante, existen casos en donde la hiperglicemia por esteroides es sub-diagnosticada. Su manejo se basa en el tratamiento farmacológico (antidiabéticos orales, subcutáneos e insulina) y no farmacológico (dieta y ejercicio), tomando en cuenta, el patrón glicémico, peso, edad, co-morbilidades, dosis, tipo y tiempo de uso de los esteroides. La relevancia de conocer como diagnosticar y tratar dicha patología, se debe al riesgo de ingreso hospitalario, de infección, de mala cicatrización y de mortalidad en casos no tratados. En vista del aumento del uso de glucocorticoides en la actualidad, se hace una revisión del abordaje terapéutico de la hiperglicemia y diabetes inducida por esteroides.


Hyperglycemia and Steroid-induced Diabetes is defined as the elevation of glycemia caused by the action of glucocorticoid drugs on carbohydrate metabolism, with a prevalence between 20% and 50% in patients without Diabetes. Though, there is a greater risk of this pathology in patients with pre-existing Diabetes, Obesity, chronic use of steroids or in high doses, among others. In most cases, the diagnosis is governed by the criteria of Diabetes; however, there are cases where hyperglycemia Steroid-induced is under-diagnosed. Its management is based on pharmacological treatment (oral and subcutaneous hypoglycemic agents and insulin) and non-pharmacological treatment (diet and exercise), in accordance with the glycemic pattern, weight, age, co-morbidities, dose, type and the duration of the use of steroid. The relevance of knowing how to diagnose and treat this pathology is the risk of hospital admission, infection, poor healing and mortality in untreated cases. In view of the increased use of glucocorticoids nowadays, a review is made about the therapeutic approach to hyperglycemia and steroid-induced Diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Steroids/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/therapy
2.
Bol. venez. infectol ; 32(2): 90-94, julio - diciembre 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362827

ABSTRACT

La mucormicosis es una infección fúngica producida por hongos del orden Mucoral, que se desarrolla con mayor frecuencia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, caracterizada por producir invasión de vasos sanguíneos con posterior trombosis e isquemia del área de lesión lo que produce manifestaciones rinocerebral, cutánea, gastrointestinal, diseminada y miscelánea. En la actualidad con el resurgimiento del Coronavirus y el uso desmedido de esteroides se ha evidenciado un incremento en los casos de Mucormicosis asociados a esta patología. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 55 años de edad, quien recibió tratamiento para infección presuntiva por COVID-19 y que desarrolló manifestaciones clínicas de mucormicosis rino-orbito- cerebral


Mucormycosis is a fungal infection produced by fungi of the Mucoral order, which develops more frequently in immunocompromised patients, characterized by causing invasion of blood vessels with subsequent thrombosis and ischemia of the lesion area which produces rhinocerebral, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, disseminated manifestations and miscellaneous. At present, with the resurgence of the Coronavirus and the excessive use of steroids, there has been an increase in the cases of Mucormycosis associated with this pathology. The case of a 55- year-old patient is presented, who received treatment for presumptive infection by COVID-19 and who developed clinical manifestations of rhino-orbito-cerebral Mucormycosis, with subsequent mycological diagnosis

3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(4): 180-185, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1366880

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de intolerancia a múltiples medicamentos (MDIS, por sus siglas en inglés) se caracteriza por la intolerancia a dos o más medicamentos no relacionados. Tiene una prevalencia baja y es común en pacientes con polifarmacia. A pesar de que las reacciones adversas a los medicamentos son muy frecuentes, es raro que los pacientes debuten con este síndrome, el cual tiene implicaciones clínicas de leves a graves que afectan su vida; de acuerdo con esto varían el abordaje y su manejo. La sintomatología presentada varía desde síntomas gastrointestinales como reflujo gastroesofágico, dolores musculares y cefalea, hasta síntomas cutáneos; estos son los más frecuentes, tales como urticaria y erupciones maculopapulares o presentaciones menos comunes como el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson. El MDIS es causado por una amplia variedad de fármacos; por ello el conocimiento del síndrome, así como un adecuado interrogatorio de los antecedentes del paciente, es necesario para realizar un diagnóstico oportuno e instaurar un manejo adecuado y preventivo, evitando reacciones adversas que pongan en riesgo su vida. Con los hallazgos del cuadro clínico en la paciente, y basados en los antecedentes alérgicos presentados anteriormente a diferentes medicamentos no relacionados entre ellos, más la presentación de un rash maculopapular generalizado posterior a la administración de trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol se realiza el diagnóstico de MDIS. Se decide cambiar de medicamento por fosfomicina, con una consecuente evolución favorable. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/physiopathology , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects , Loratadine/administration & dosage , Polypharmacy , Fosfomycin/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e717, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351984

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La administración epidural de esteroides constituye un pilar del tratamiento del dolor radicular cervical y lumbosacro. Objetivo: Describir los mecanismos fisiológicos y características farmacológicas de los corticosteroides utilizados en el tratamiento del dolor, así como las complicaciones derivadas de la administración epidural de esteroides particulados. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión no sistemática de la literatura en bases de datos científicas como Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, OVID y el buscador académico Google Scholar, en los meses de julio a septiembre del año 2020. Desarrollo: Los corticoides utilizados en la medicina del dolor son derivados de la prednisolona. Estos se clasifican en particulados (de depósito, de suspensión) o no particulados (de dilución), en función de la presencia o ausencia de un componente molecular sólido (moléculas tipo éster, insolubles en agua). Los fármacos más empleados son la dexametasona, betametasona, triamcinolona y metilprednisolona. Conclusiones: La administración epidural de esteroides particulados está relacionada con la incidencia de complicaciones graves, aunque poco frecuentes, como paraplejía, tetraplejía, infarto de la médula espinal, hemorragia y edema cerebral. La evidencia disponible muestra una efectividad analgésica similar a los compuestos no particulados. Por lo tanto, no se recomienda su utilización rutinaria durante el abordaje del espacio epidural(AU)


Introduction: Epidural administration of steroids is a cornerstone for the treatment of cervical and lumbosacral radicular pain. Objective: To describe the physiological mechanisms and pharmacological characteristics of the corticosteroids used for pain treatment, as well as the complications derived from the epidural administration of particulate steroids. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the literature was carried out, from July to September 2020, in scientific databases such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, OVID and the academic search engine Google Scholar. Development: The corticoids used in pain medicine are derived from prednisolone. These are classified into particulate (deposit, suspension) or non-particulate (dilution), depending on the presence or absence of a solid molecular component (ester-type molecules, insoluble in water). The most commonly used drugs are dexamethasone, betamethasone, triamcinolone, and methylprednisolone. Conclusions: The epidural administration of particulate steroids is related to the incidence of serious, although infrequent, complications, such as paraplegia, tetraplegia, spinal cord infarction, hemorrhage and cerebral edema. Available evidence shows analgesic effectiveness similar to that of non-particulate compounds. Therefore, its routine usage is not recommended during the managment of the epidural space(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dexamethasone , Prednisolone , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Analgesics , Quadriplegia
5.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 75-79, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342235

ABSTRACT

Los antibióticos y analgésicos han sido descritos frecuentemente como las principales causas de toxicidad hepática. Los esteroides anabólicos se han relacionado también con alteraciones en sistemas como el cardiovascular o el hepático; en este último causan colestasis, carcinoma hepatocelular, hiperplasia regenerativa nodular y sangrado de varices, secundario a hipertensión portal. Es importante entonces considerar los esteroides anabólicos como factores de riesgo para hepatotoxicidad. Se presenta el primer caso en Colombia y uno de los pocos en Latinoamérica, de colestasis asociada únicamente al uso de estanozolol. Se trata de un paciente de 21 años, en tratamiento con el medicamento para incrementar la masa muscular, que presentó compromiso hepático de tipo colestásico. Se descartaron otras posibles causas de ictericia, mediante la escala CIOMS/RUCAM se llegó a establecer causalidad entre el consumo de estanozolol y la colestasis. El objetivo de este reporte es hacer una descripción no reportada en la literatura colombiana y poco común en la literatura mundial.


Antibiotics and pain relievers have been frequently described as the main causes of liver toxicity. Anabolic steroids have also been linked to alterations in systems such as cardio-vascular or liver. In the latter, they seem to cause cholestasis, hepatocellular carcinoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia and variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension. It is important to consider them as factors associated with hepatotoxicity. The first case in Colombia and one of the few in Latin America of cholestasis associated only to the use of Stanozolol is presented in a 21-year-old patient under treatment with the drug to increase muscle mass. The patient presented with cholestatic liver involvement. Other possible causes of jaundice were ruled out. From the CIOMS / RUCAM scale, causality was established between the consumption of Stanozolol and cholestasis. The objective of this case is to report a case not found in Colombian literature and little reported in world literature.


Antibióticos e analgésicos têm sido frequentemente descritos como as principais causas de toxicidade hepática. Os esteroides anabolizantes também têm sido relacionados a alterações em sistemas como cardiovasculares ou hepáticos; neste último, causam colestase, carcinoma hepatocelular, hiperplasia nodular regenerativa e sangramento varicoso, secundário à hipertensão portal. Portanto, é importante considerar os este-roides anabolizantes como fatores de risco para hepatotoxicidade. O primeiro caso é apresentado na Colômbia e um dos poucos na América Latina, de colestase associada apenas ao uso de estanozolol. Paciente de 21 anos, em tratamento com fármaco para aumento de massa muscular, apresentou acometimento hepático colestático. Outras possíveis causas de icterícia foram descartadas, a escala CIOMS / RUCAM estabeleceu causalidade entre o consumo de estanozolol e colestase. O objetivo deste relatório é fazer uma descrição não relatada na literatura colombiana e rara na literatura mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Stanozolol , Anabolic Agents , Cholestasis , Testosterone Congeners , Jaundice , Liver
6.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 12(1): 1237-1240, abr.-sep. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1381266

ABSTRACT

En los ámbitos científico e institucional existe controversia sobre el manejo idóneo de la bron- quiolitis en pacientes pediátricos. El objetivo de este trabajo es valorar el nivel de evidencia cientí- fica que existe sobre el manejo de la bronquiolitis para determinar si las recomendaciones actuales son o no adecuadas. Se realizó una revisión sis- temática de artículos científicos consultando di- versas bases de datos, sin restricción de fecha, en los idiomas español e inglés. Se incluyó literatura gris mediante búsqueda manual. No se hicieron restricciones respecto al tipo de estudio. Se re- visaron los resúmenes y en los casos necesarios los artículos completos, teniéndose en cuenta fi- nalmente todos los artículos que incluían apor- tes sobre el manejo adecuado de la bronquiolitis. Como resultado la mayoría de las recomenda- ciones realizadas por las sociedades fueron a tra- vés de guías de práctica clínica o artículos de opinión, concluyendo que no se cuenta con un esquema de tratamiento adecuado para tratar la bronquiolitis aguda, existiendo un manejo erróneo con el uso de esteroides y antibióticos, mientras que uno de los tratamiento más viables y costo efectivos queda en el olvido como es la solución hipertónica al 3%, la cual ha demostra- do reducción de la estancia hospitalaria...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchodilator Agents , Steroids , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Hypertonic Solutions
7.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 12(1): 1241-1244, abr.-sep. 2021. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1381274

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Tolosa-Hunt es una entidad poco frecuente cuya etiopatogenia y mecanismos fi- siopatológicos son controversiales, se caracteri- za por cefalea asociada a parálisis de uno o más nervios craneales, diplopía, estrabismo y ptosis palpebral, ocasionados por el compromiso del seno cavernoso o la fisura orbitaria superior. Su diagnóstico es un reto y se aborda dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de las oftalmoplejías dolorosas. Con el objetivo de describir y actua- lizar el conocimiento sobre esta enfermedad se presenta el caso de una paciente de 14 años que acudió a consulta por cefalea intensa, dolor ocu- lar y afección de nervios craneales. Los hallazgos clínicos y la resonancia magnética confirmaron el diagnóstico del síndrome de Tolosa Hunt...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Cavernous Sinus , Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome/diagnosis , Ophthalmology , Diplopia/complications , Eye Pain
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 537-543, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anabolic substances have been increasingly used by bodybuilders and athletes with the goal of improving performance and aesthetics. However, this practice has caused some concern to physicians and researchers because of unknowledge of consequences that the indiscriminate and illicit use of these substances can cause. Thus, this study analyzed the effects of two commercially available anabolic steroids (AS), Winstrol Depot® (Stanozolol) and Deposteron® (Testosterone Cypionate), in the neuronal density of limbic, motor and sensory regions on the cerebral cortex and in CA1, CA2, CA3 regions of the hippocampus. A total of 60 Swiss mice were used (30 males and 30 females), separated into three groups: control and two experimental groups, which received the AAS. From each brain, homotypic and semi-serial samples were taken in frontal sections from areas established for the study. The results showed that females treated with testosterone cypionate presented a reduction in all regions tested and the ones treated with Stanozolol showed a decrease in some hippocampal areas. Regarding male animals, stanozolol led to a decrease in neuron number in one hippocampal region. These data allow us to conclude that supra-physiological doses of steroids used in this study, can cause considerable damage to nervous tissue with ultrastructural and consequently behavioral impairment. These changes could interfere with the loss of physical yield and performance of athletes and non-athletes and may cause irreparable damage to individuals making irresponsible use of anabolic steroids.


Resumo As substancias anabólicas tem sido cada vez mais utilizadas por fisiculturistas e atletas com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho e a estética. No entanto, essa prática tem causado algumas preocupações aos médicos e pesquisadores, devido ao desconhecimento das consequencias que o uso indiscriminado e ilícito dessas substâncias podem causar. Diante disso, este estudo analisou os efeitos de dois esteroides anabolizantes (EA) comercialmente disponíveis, Winstrol Depot® (Stanozolol) e Deposteron® (cipionato de testosterona), na densidade neuronal das regiões corticais límbica, motora e sensitive bem como das áreas CA1, CA2, CA3 do hipocampo. Foram utilizados 60 camundongos Swiss (30 machos e 30 fêmeas), separados em três grupos: controle e dois grupos experimentais, que receberam o EA. De cada cérebro, foram coletadas amostras homotípicas e semi-seriadas em cortes frontais das áreas estabelecidas para o estudo. Os resultados mostraram que as fêmeas tratadas com cipionato de testosterona apresentaram uma redução em todas as regiões analisadas já as fêmeas tratadas com Stanozolol mostraram uma diminuição em algumas áreas do hipocampo. Em relação aos animais machos, o stanozolol levou a uma diminuição na densidade neuronal em uma região do hipocampo. Estes dados nos permitem concluir que doses supra fisiológicas de esteroides utilizadas neste estudo podem causar danos consideráveis ao tecido nervoso com comprometimento ultraestrutural e consequentemente comportamental. Essas alterações podem interferir na perda de rendimento físico e no desempenho de atletas e não atletas e podem causar danos irreparáveis a indivíduos que fazem uso irresponsável destes EA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Stanozolol/adverse effects , Testosterone Congeners , Hippocampus , Neurons
9.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-8, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281176

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos bioquímicos e histopatológicos da administração de diclofenaco e cetoprofeno na regeneração óssea em modelo de defeito calvarial em ratos. Material e Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 108 ratos Wistar que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos, aos quais foi realizada osteotomia de 6 mm de diâmetro na calvária. O grupo A (controle) recebeu solução salina; O Grupo B recebeu 2 mg / kg de cetoprofeno e o Grupo C recebeu 2 mg / kg de diclofenaco. Todos os tratamentos foram administrados intraperitonealmente a cada 12 horas durante 3 dias. A regeneração óssea foi avaliada pelas características bioquímicas (fosfatase alcalina e cálcio sérico) e histopatológicas (contagem de osteócitos e células de osteoblastos) aos 15 e 30 dias. Resultados:Na avaliação bioquímica, os níveis de fosfatase alcalina no grupo cetoprofeno foram significativamente menores em comparação com o grupo diclofenaco em 15 e 30 dias (p= 0.015 e p= 0.001; respectivamente). No entanto, os níveis séricos de cálcio não mostraram diferença entre os grupos de estudo aos 15 e 30 dias (p= 0.42 p= 0.81; respectivamente). Na análise histopatológica, a contagem de osteoblastos e osteócitos foi significativamente menor no grupo cetoprofeno em comparação ao grupo diclofenaco aos 15 e 30 dias (p< 0,05). Conclusão: A administração de cetoprofeno tem efeitos bioquímicos e histopatológicos negativos de maior intensidade na regeneração óssea em comparação com a administração de diclofenaco. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of diclofenac and ketoprofen administration on bone regeneration in a calvarial defect model in rats. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 108 Wistar rats that were randomly distributed in three groups, to which an osteotomy of 6 mm in diameter was performed in the calvaria. Group A (control) was given saline solution; Group B received ketoprofen 2 mg/kg and Group C received diclofenac 2 mg/kg. All treatments were administered intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 3 days. Bone regeneration was evaluated by biochemical (alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium) and histopathological (osteocyte and osteoblast cell count) characteristics at 15 and 30 days. Results: In the biochemical evaluation, alkaline phosphatase levels in the ketoprofen group were significantly lower compared to the diclofenac group at 15 and 30 days (p= 0.015 and p= 0.001; respectively). However, serum calcium levels did not show the difference between the study groups at 15 and 30 days (p= 0.42 and p= 0.81; respectively). In the histopathological analysis, the count of osteoblasts and osteocytes was significantly lower in the ketoprofen group compared to the diclofenac group at 15 and 30 days (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The administration of ketoprofen has negative biochemical and histopathological effects of greater intensity on bone regeneration compared to the administration of diclofenac (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats , Bone Regeneration , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Diclofenac , Ketoprofen
10.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 89(12): 994-1001, ene. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375565

ABSTRACT

Resumen ANTECEDENTES: El lupus eritematoso sistémico es una enfermedad autoinmunitaria y multisistémica. El daño pericárdico es la complicación cardiaca más común y el taponamiento cardiaco es infrecuente, más aún en embarazadas y con lupus eritematoso sistémico. OBJETIVO: Exponer las características clínicas, diagnósticas, tratamiento y evolución del taponamiento cardiaco en una embarazada que inició con lupus eritematoso sistémico y valorar la información de la bibliografía a propósito de otros casos. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 24 años, con 27.5 semanas de embarazo, con anasarca, disnea que evolucionó a ortopnea y dolor torácico punzante de tres semanas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax mostró cardiomegalia grado II, campos pulmonares congestivos y derrame pleural a la altura de los senos cardiofrénicos. En el ecocardiograma se encontró derrame pericárdico de 500 mL, con datos de taponamiento cardiaco. Tuvo deterioro progresivo con afectación de la capacidad pulmonar e insuficiencia renal aguda con aumentos progresivos de creatinina; se encontró hemodinámica inestable, con pulso paradójico e hipotensión. Anticuerpos antinucleares positivos y proteinuria. La biopsia renal reportó patrones histopatológicos correspondientes a nefritis lúpica. Se trató con pulsos esteroideos y ciclofosfamida por vía intravenosa. El derrame pericárdico desapareció por medio de una ventana subxifoidea y la extracción del líquido del pericardio. La evolución posterior fue satisfactoria para la madre y su hijo. CONCLUSIÓN: El taponamiento cardiaco es infrecuente en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico y más raro aún durante el embarazo. Es una urgencia clínica que requiere atención multidisciplinaria porque el embarazo, en una paciente con lupus eritematoso sistémico, implica mayor riesgo de complicaciones sistémicas, como se señala en la bibliografía.


Abstract BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystemic disease of unknown etiology, whose clinical manifestations are heterogeneous. Pericardial involvement is the most common cardiac complication; however, the development of cardiac tamponade is rare, and even more so in pregnant patients presenting with SLE. OBJECTIVE: To present the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and evolution of cardiac tamponade in a pregnant patient that presents with systemic lupus erythematosus. CLINICAL CASE: A 24-year-old patient, who is 27.5 weeks pregnant, presenting with anasarca, dyspnea that evolved to orthopnea and stabbing chest pain for three weeks. Her chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly grade II, congestive lung fields and pleural effusion at the level of cardiophrenic sinuses. The echocardiogram found a 500 mL pericardial effusion with evidence of cardiac tamponade. Progressive deterioration with compromised lung capacity, and the appearance of acute renal failure with progressive increases in creatinine; showing hemodynamic instability characterized by paradoxical pulse and hypotension. With positive Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) and proteinuria, renal biopsy reports histopathological patterns corresponding to lupus nephritis, treated with steroid pulses and intravenous cyclophosphamide in a risk-benefit assessment, with subsequent satisfactory maternal-fetal evolution. CONCLUSION: Cardiac tamponade is not common in patients with SLE, and it is even rarer as the initial manifestation, even more so during pregnancy. It is a clinical emergency and requires multidisciplinary management since pregnancy in a patient with SLE implies an increased risk of systemic complications.

11.
Med. lab ; 25(3): 569-580, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343146

ABSTRACT

La glomerulonefritis rápidamente progresiva mediada por complejos inmunes (GMNRP II) es un síndrome clínico caracterizado por el rápido deterioro de la función renal asociado a hematuria, edemas y oliguria. Histológicamente se manifiesta como una glomerulonefritis crescéntica, con la presencia de depósitos granulares en la inmunofluorescencia. Aunque es una enfermedad rara, es grave y puede evolucionar a una enfermedad renal crónica, por lo cual es fundamental su identificación temprana. A continuación, se presenta una revisión sobre este tipo de glomerulonefritis, con énfasis en su etiología y en las opciones terapéuticas existentes en la actualidad


Rapidly progressive immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (RPGNMN II) is a clinical syndrome characterized by severe deterioration of renal function associated with hematuria, edema, and oliguria. It is histologically characterized as a crescentic glomerulonephritis, with the presence of granular deposits on immunofluorescence. Although it is a rare condition, it is a potentially serious disease that may progress to chronic renal disease, therefore its early identification is essential. Here we present a review of this form of glomerulonephritis, with emphasis on its etiology and the currently available therapeutic options


Subject(s)
Glomerulonephritis , Purpura , IgA Vasculitis , Steroids , Biopsy , ISCOMs , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Kidney Failure, Chronic
12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0010, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280122

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology that can affect the eye. The most common ocular manifestation related to VKH is bilateral diffuse uveitis associated to exudative retinal detachment. Although these patients respond well to steroid pulse therapy, we report a case of a 44-year-old female patient presenting bilateral exudative retinal detachment and clinical diagnosis of VKH, who did not respond to the first cycle of 3-day pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. The exudation was reabsorbed only after a second cycle of steroid therapy.


RESUMO A doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é inflamatória e de etiologia desconhecida, podendo afetar o olho. A manifestação ocular mais comum relacionada à doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é a uveíte difusa bilateral associada ao descolamento exsudativo da retina. Embora esses pacientes respondam bem à pulsoterapia com esteroides, relatamos um caso de paciente de 44 anos que apresentou descolamento exsudativo bilateral da retina com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada que não respondeu ao primeiro ciclo de pulsoterapia de 3 dias com metilprednisolona. A exsudação apenas reabsorveu após uma segunda rodada de terapia com esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Retinal Detachment/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
13.
Hepatología ; 2(1): 273-281, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396580

ABSTRACT

La función metabólica y de excreción está determinada principalmente por la actividad hepática, esto predispone al hígado a lesión inducida por toxicidad, en donde la disfunción es mediada directa o indirectamente por xenobióticos y/o sus metabolitos. La enfermedad hepática inducida por fármacos (DILI) es una condición poco frecuente, que se relaciona hasta con el 50% de las insuficiencias hepáticas agudas, y de ahí su importancia. La lesión directa puede estar dirigida a hepatocitos, conductos biliares y estructuras vasculares; no obstante, diferentes xenobióticos pueden interferir con el flujo de bilis mediante el bloqueo directo de proteínas de trasporte en los canalículos. Actualmente no existen marcadores absolutos para el diagnóstico de esta entidad y las manifestaciones clínicas pueden ser variables, desde el espectro de alteraciones bioquímicas en ausencia de síntomas, hasta insuficiencia hepática aguda y daño hepático crónico, por lo cual es principalmente un diagnóstico de exclusión basado en evidencia circunstancial. A partir de esta inferencia, se han desarrollado escalas y algoritmos para evaluar la probabilidad de lesión hepática inducida por medicamentos, tóxicos, herbales o suplementos. En la mayoría de los casos, es característico que la condición del paciente mejore cuando se elimina el fármaco responsable del daño. Aunque el patrón colestásico generalmente tiene mejores tasas de supervivencia en comparación con otros patrones, también se asocia con un alto riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad hepática crónica o ser el desencadenante de manifestaciones inmunológicas en el hígado. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente con patrón colestásico de DILI por uso de esteroides anabólicos.


Metabolic and excretory function is determined mainly by liver activity which can make this organ susceptible to toxic injury, where dysfunction is directly or indirectly mediated by xenobiotics and/ or their metabolites. Drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is a rare condition, which is associated with up to 50% of acute liver failure, and hence its importance. Direct injury can be directed to hepatocytes, bile ducts, and vascular structures, however, different xenobiotics can interfere with bile flow by directly blocking transport proteins in the canaliculi. Currently there are no definite markers for the diagnosis of this condition, and clinical manifestations can be variable, including biochemical changes in the absence of symptoms to acute liver failure and chronic liver damage, which makes it mainly an exclusion diagnosis based on clinical evidence. Scales and algorithms have been developed to assess the probability of drug, toxic, herbal, or supplement-induced liver injury. In most cases, the patient's condition typically improves when the drug responsible for the injury is removed. Although the cholestatic pattern generally has better survival rates compared to other patterns, it is also associated with a high risk of developing chronic liver disease or acting as a trigger for immune disorders in the liver. The clinical case of a patient with a cholestatic pattern of DILI due to the use of anabolic steroids is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholestasis , Testosterone Congeners , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Liver Diseases
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 142 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378940

ABSTRACT

Os esteroides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA) são utilizados clinicamente para tratar diferentes doenças, porém propagou-se o uso não terapêutico por atletas de elite e fisiculturistas, com o intuito de aumentar a massa muscular e melhorar o desempenho físico. O uso de substâncias ergogênicas, como fármacos estimulantes e narcóticos analgésicos no esporte, foi proibido em 1967 pelo International Olympic Committee (COI), mas somente em 1976 os EAA entraram para a lista de substâncias proibidas. O uso de EAA está associado a diversos efeitos adversos, principalmente cardiovasculares, neuroendócrinos e distúrbios psiquiátricos, além de dislipidemia, elevação dos marcadores inflamatórios e disfunção endotelial. As análises toxicológicas constam como a maneira mais eficaz de minimizar o doping no esporte. O material é fornecido pelo atleta durante as competições ou treinamentos e previne que os competidores alcancem vantagem competitiva devido ao uso de EAA. A utilização de métodos para amostragem alternativos tem ganhado força, devido à necessidade de técnicas mais práticas que utilizam pouco volume de amostra e possuem facilidade de armazenamento. O dried urine spots é um método no qual pequenas amostras de urina são aplicadas em papéis de filtro para análises qualitativas ou quantitativas. Ele se caracteriza por ser uma técnica rápida, fácil, simples e barata para a coleta, armazenamento e distribuição, além de minimizar os riscos de infecção, podendo ser utilizado na rotina. A técnica de paper spray (PS-MS) foi desenvolvida a partir da relevância de métodos como o dried blood spots por proporcionar análises mais rápidas, apresenta alta especificidade, capacidade de analisar diferentes analitos simultaneamente, baixo limite de detecção e dispensa a necessidade de reagentes específicos. Sendo assim, neste trabalho foi desenvolvido e validado o método de screening de EAAs em dried urine spots por ionização por paper spray acoplada à espectrometria de massas. O método apresentou limites de detecção entre 2-15ng/mL e presença de três interferentes endógenos. Os dez analitos de interesse deste estudo são estáveis por 150 dias em temperatura ambiente. Dessa forma, a análise de EAAs em dried urine spots por PS-MS demonstra grande potencial para se tornar um método alternativo no monitoramento rápido de drogas de abuso


Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are used clinically to treat different diseases, but non-therapeutic use has spread among elite athletes and bodybuilders, with the aim of increase muscle mass and improve physical performance. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned the use of ergogenic substances, such as stimulating drugs and analgesic narcotics in sports, in 1967, but only in 1976, AAS were included on the list of prohibited substances. The use of AAS is associated with several adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and psychiatric disorders, in addition to dyslipidemia, elevated inflammatory markers and endothelial dysfunction. Toxicological analyzes are the most effective approach to minimize doping in sport. The material is provided by the athlete during competitions or training and prevents competitors from achieving a competitive advantage due to the use of AAs. The use of alternative sampling methods has gained strength, due to the need for more practical techniques that use low sample volume and can be easily storage. Dried urine spots are a method, which a small amount of urine samples is applied to filter papers for qualitative or quantitative analysis. It is characterized by being a fast, easy, simple and inexpensive technique for collection, storage and distribution, in addition to minimizing the risks of infection, and can be used in the routine. The paper spray technique (PS-MS) was developed based on the relevance of methods such as dried blood spots for providing faster analysis, high specificity, ability to analyze different analytes simultaneously, low detection limit and for eliminating the need for specific reagents. Therefore, this work developed and validated a screening method for AAS in dried urine spots by paper spray-mass spectrometry ionization. The method provided detection limits between 2-15ng/mL and the presence of three endogenous interferents. The ten analytes of interest in this study are stable for 150 days at room temperature. Thus, the analysis of AAS in dried urine spots by PS-MS demonstrates great potential to become an alternative method for the rapid monitoring of drugs of abuse


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Sports/classification , Steroids/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Athletes/classification , Performance-Enhancing Substances , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders , Doping in Sports/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Physical Functional Performance , Narcotics/adverse effects
15.
Case reports (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. En línea) ; 6(2): 156-164, July-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Myositis is a rare complication of extra-articular anabolic steroid injections, while osteitis has not been reported as an adverse effect from this cause. This case report provides information about imaging findings of these two entities. Case presentation: A 37-year-old male, bodybuilder, presented pain and edema in the left gluteal region, associated with functional limitation, 5 days after receiving an intramuscular anabolic steroid injection (stanozolol). The man underwent an ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis with contrast, which allowed making the diagnosis of myositis of the left gluteus maximus and osteitis of the iliac bone. The patient was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin for 10 days, without complications. No surgical management was required. Conclusion: Myositis is a rare complication of anabolic steroid injections and the pathophysiological mechanism of this substance is unknown. Osteitis, on the other hand, is an even rarer complication and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case associated with this cause. Given the findings, the myositis reported herein has an infectious nature; however, further studies are required to demonstrate the actual causal association.


RESUMEN Introducción. La miositis es una complicación muy rara de las inyecciones extraarticulares de esteroides anabólicos y la osteítis no ha sido reportada como efecto adverso por esta causa. El presente reporte de caso aporta información sobre los hallazgos imagenológicos de estos dos tipos de inflamaciones. Presentación del caso. Paciente masculino de 37 años, dedicado al fisicoculturismo, quien cinco días después de recibir una inyección de estano-zolol presentó dolor y edema en la región glútea izquierda asociados a limitación funcional. El sujeto asistió a consulta por este motivo y se le realizó una ecografía y una resonancia magnética contrastada de pelvis, cuyos resultados permitieron diagnosticarle miositis del glúteo mayor izquierdo y osteítis del hueso ilíaco. Se indicó tratamiento con piperacilina-tazobactam y vancomicina por 10 días y no se requirió manejo quirúrgico dado que se obtuvieron buenos resultados. Conclusión. La miositis es una complicación rara de las inyecciones de esteroides anabólicos en donde el mecanismo fisiopatológico de estas sustancias es incierto. Por su parte, la osteítis es una complicación aún más rara de la cual se presenta el primer caso conocido por esta causa. Dados los hallazgos se plantea que la miositis reportada es de tipo infecciosa; sin embargo, se requieren estudios adicionales que demuestren la asociación causal real.

16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 543-546, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Central giant cell granuloma is a rare osseous tumor affecting young patients with anatomical and functional compromise of the maxilla and mandible. Steroid injection therapy constitutes a less invasive treatment modality for disease control in selected cases. Retinal ischemia is a reported complication of multiple medical procedures, including dental interventions, and may lead to loss of vision with poor prognosis. We report a case of retinal arteriolar ischemic disease following central giant cell granuloma management with local injected corticosteroids.


RESUMO O granuloma central de células gigantes é um tumor ósseo raro que afeta pacientes jovens com comprometimento anatômico e funcional da maxila e mandíbula. A terapia com injeção de esteroides constitui uma modalidade de tratamento menos invasiva para o controle da doença em casos selecionados. A isquemia retiniana é uma complicação relatada em vários procedimentos médicos, incluindo intervenções odontológicas, e pode levar à perda da visão com mau prognóstico. Relatamos um caso de doença isquêmica arteriolar da retina após o tratamento com granuloma central de células gigantes com corticosteroides injetados locais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Bone Neoplasms , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Ischemia/chemically induced , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Granuloma, Giant Cell , Granuloma, Giant Cell/drug therapy , Mandible
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1589-1594, Nov. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143649

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by muscle weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, and decreased reflexes due to upper and lower motor neurons death. It can be present in both sexes (55-65 years), but with predominance in males. However, in female patients, ALS presents its first symptoms when they are already postmenopausal, when then the incidence ratio of the disease is practically equal between the sexes, which leads to a probable involvement of sex hormones in the development and protection against ALS. The aim of this systematic review, which used the PRISMA consensus and NOS (New Castle-Ottawa Scale) score, was to evaluate the evidence of the action of hormone therapy in women with ALS. The Medline and Cochrane databases were accessed from March 2019 to June 2019, and only full-text articles in Spanish, English, and Portuguese were included. Only four articles matched our inclusion criteria. Postmenopausal women who used exogenous estrogen did not have the same protective factor as women still under the action of endogenous estrogen in the same age group. There was also no increase in the survival of these women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy
18.
Dolor ; 30(72): 10-13, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362051

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor lumbar es uno de los principales motivos de consulta en diferentes escenarios clínicos; entre las causas más frecuentes de dolor lumbar se encuentra el canal lumbar estrecho, discopatía y radiculopatías, por lo que se han establecido diferentes modalidades de tratamiento que incluyen medidas invasivas, como las inyecciones de esteroides epidurales vía caudal. Objetivo: Evaluar la mejoría del dolor lumbar después de la aplicación de esteroides epidurales caudales no particulados en la población con dolor crónico lumbar bajo secundario a canal lumbar estrecho, discopatía y radiculopatía lumbar de un hospital en Bogotá, Colombia. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se evaluó la reducción del dolor, en pacientes con diagnóstico de dolor lumbar crónico secundario a canal lumbar estrecho, radiculopatía, discopatía, mediante escala visualanáloga del dolor EVA seis meses después de la aplicación de dexametasona 8 mg vía epidural caudal en 147 pacientes en un período de 2 años. Resultados: Se evaluaron 147 pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico, de los cuales 58.32% eran mujeres y 47.76% hombres, con edades entre 44 y 77 años, de los cuales 50% eran mayores o igual a 65 años y 75% mayor o igual a 77 años. En la evaluación inicial del dolor lumbar, se encontró que el 50% de los pacientes tenían una EVA inicial mayor o igual a 8/10 y el 75% informó un EVA inicial 10/10. Se encontró que el canal lumbar estrecho fue la principal causa de dolor lumbar en el 53,06% de los pacientes, seguido de la enfermedad del disco lumbar el 49,66% y en el tercer lugar, los pacientes con radiculopatía lumbar correspondieron al 19.73% de la población. Sobre la mejoría del dolor de una manera particular, se encontró una mayor reducción del dolor en pacientes con enfermedad de disco lumbar 48,21%, seguido de estrecho canal lumbar estrecho 41,37% y radiculopatías lumbares 33,3%. En el análisis comparativo por patología aislada, la intervención no presentó una mejora considerable, sin embargo, cuando más de una de las entidades estudiadas coexistieron en el mismo paciente, hubo una mejoría significativa del dolor, por lo que en el 66,5% de los pacientes diagnosticados con un canal lumbar estrecho y radiculopatía, la mejoría de la lumbalgia y la radiculopatía disminuyó, de la misma forma que los pacientes que presentaron discopatía y radiculopatía tuvieron un alivio del dolor del 66% y, finalmente, aquellos con discopatía y canal lumbar estrecho, 60% tuvieron una reducción del dolor después del procedimiento. Conclusión: La aplicación de esteroides no particulados vía epidural caudal proporciona una mejora sintomática significativa en un porcentaje considerable de pacientes sometidos al procedimiento, especialmente en aquellos que tienen más de una de las causas de dolor lumbar crónico expuesta, por lo que se constituye en una medida invasiva de tratamiento efectivo para el dolor lumbar en este tipo de pacientes.


Introduction: Low back pain is one of the main reasons for consultation in different clinical scenarios; among the most frequent causes of low back pain is the narrow lumbar canal, discopathy and radiculopathies, which is why different modalities have been established of treatment including invasive measures such as injections of epidural steroids caudal via. Objective: To evaluate the improvement of lumbar pain after application of non-particulate caudal epidural steroid via in the population with chronic low lumbar pain in the narrow lumbar canal, discopathy and lumbar radiculopathy of a military hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Methodology: A retrospective observational study was performed in which the pain reduction measured by visual analogous scale of pain VAS was evaluated six months after the application of dexamethasone 8 mg caudal epidural via in 147 patients in a period of 2 years Results: 147 patients with chronic low back pain were evaluated, of which 58.32% were women and 47.76% men, with ages between 44 and 77 years, of which 50% were greater than or equal to 65 years and 75 % greater than or equal to 77 years. Concerning the initial evaluation of lumbar pain, it was found that 50% of the patients had an initial VAS greater than or equal to 8/10 and 75% reported an initial VAS 10/10. Regarding the prevalence of causes of low back pain in the evaluated patients, it was found that the narrow lumbar canal was the main cause in 53.06% of the patients, followed by lumbar disc disease 49.66% and in the third place patients with lumbar radiculopathy corresponded 19.73% of the population. About pain improvement in a particular way, greater pain reduction was found in patients with lumbar disc disease 48.21%, followed by narrow lumbar canal 41.37% and lumbar radiculopathies 33.3%. In the comparative analysis due to isolated pathology, the intervention did not present a considerable improvement, however, when more than one of the entities studied coexisted in the same patient, there was a significant improvement in pain, thus 66.5% of the patients diagnosed with a canal. Narrow lumbar and radiculopathy improved, in the same way those patients who presented with discopathy and radiculopathy 66% had relief of pain and finally those with discopathy and narrow lumbar canal 60% had pain reduction after the procedure. Conclusion: The application of non-particulate steroid via caudal epidural provides significant symptomatic improvement in a considerable percentage of patients undergoing the procedure, especially in those who have more than one of the causes of chronic low back pain exposed and evaluated, thus being able to constitute an invasive measure of effective treatment for low back pain in this type of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Steroids/administration & dosage , Injections, Epidural , Low Back Pain/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Pain Measurement , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Low Back Pain/etiology
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1414-1416, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136140

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The relationship between acute pancreatitis and the administration of glucocorticoids is unclear because most reported cases have been diagnosed with systemic vascular diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, which may be responsible for pancreatitis. A 22-year-old woman with eye involvement of a newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted to our hospital. Pulse intravenous methylprednisolone therapy was given at 1mg/kg day for 3 days, and oral prednisolone at 40 mg/day thereafter. During pulse steroid therapy, she had abdominal pain, back pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting. Her physical examination was compatible with acute abdomen and peritonitis. Abdomen Computerized Tomography scan revealed diffuse liquid perihepatic and perisplenic area with heterogeneity around the mesentery. Due to the symptoms of acute abdomen, explorative laparotomy was performed. There was diffuse free fluid in the abdomen and edematous changes were observed around the pancreas. Amylase and lipase from intraabdominal fluid were studied and found to be high. The postoperative prednol dose was reduced carefully. On the sixth postoperative day, the drain was removed, and the patient was discharged without any problem. Physicians should keep in mind that acute pancreatitis may also be a cause of differential diagnosis of newly developed abdominal pain in patients receiving pulse steroid therapy with a normal level of serum amylase and lipase.


RESUMO A relação entre pancreatite aguda e a administração de glicocorticoides é incerta pois a maioria dos casos relatados foram diagnosticados com doenças vasculares sistêmicas, como lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que pode causar pancreatite. Uma paciente de 22 anos com envolvimento ocular e lúpus eritematoso sistêmico recém-diagnosticado foi admitida em nosso hospital. Pulsoterapia intravenosa com metilprednisolona 1mg/kg foi administrada por 3 dias. Depois disso, a paciente foi tratada com prednisolona oral 40 mg/dia. Durante a pulsoterapia com corticoides, a paciente apresentava dor abdominal, dor nas costas, distensão, náusea e vômitos. O exame físico era compatível com quadro de abdome agudo e peritonite. Tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou líquido difuso na região perihepática e periesplênica, com heterogeneidade ao redor do mesentério. Devido aos sintomas de abdome agudo, foi realizada laparotomia exploradora. Havia líquido livre difuso no abdome e alterações edematosas foram observadas em torno do pâncreas. A amilase e lipase do líquido intra-abdominal foram analisadas e consideradas elevadas. A dose pós-operatória de prednol foi reduzida com cuidado. No sexto dia de pós-operatório, o dreno foi retirado, e a paciente recebeu alta sem qualquer problema. Médicos devem lembrar que a pancreatite aguda também pode ser uma causa de diagnóstico diferencial para dor abdominal recém-desenvolvida em pacientes recebendo pulsoterapia com corticoides e com níveis normais de amilase e lipase séricas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/chemically induced , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones
20.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(5): 242-251, Sep.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since December 2019, health systems worldwide have faced the pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The pandemic began in China and has spread throughout the world. This new coronavirus has a high transmission capacity and elevated lethality in people over 60 years old and in those with risk factors (obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension); those characteristics have a different proportion in each country. At present, there is no specific, effective, and safe treatment to treat this virus. In this review, an analysis is made on the differences in epidemiological aspects of the disease and its presentation in pediatric patients; the poorly-based recommendation for using an empirical combination of antimalarials plus antimicrobials as antiviral treatment; the indication of intravenous steroids; and the possible influence of antihypertensive drugs on the course of the disease.


Resumen A partir de diciembre de 2019, los sistemas de salud de todos los países se han enfrentado a la pandemia causada por un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), el cual fue notificado por primera vez en China y se ha esparcido por todo el mundo. Este nuevo coronavirus posee una alta capacidad para transmitirse. A escala mundial la letalidad ha sido más alta en la población mayor de 60 años y en aquellos que tienen factores de riesgo (obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión arterial sistémica). Sin embargo, estas características varían en proporción en cada país. Hasta el momento no hay un tratamiento específico, eficaz y seguro para combatir este virus. En este artículo se realiza un análisis sobre las diferencias globales en los aspectos epidemiológicos y con relación a su presentación en pacientes pediátricos, así como de la recomendación, con pobre fundamento, del uso de la combinación de antimaláricos y antimicrobianos empíricos como antivirales. También se analizan la indicación de esteroides intravenosos y la posible influencia de los fármacos antihipertensivos en el curso de la enfermedad.

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