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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940720

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Liuwei Dihuangwan on memory function of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice by regulating autophagy through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) pathway. MethodSix male senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice of SPF grade aging 6 months were assigned to a normal group, and 24 male SAMP8 mice of SPF grade aging 6 months were randomly divided into a model group, a donepezil group (0.747 mg·kg-1), and high- and low-dose Liuwei Dihuangwan groups (2.700 and 1.350 g·kg-1), with 6 mice in each group. The mice were treated with drugs by gavage for 2 months. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory abilities of mice in each group. Nissl staining was used to observe the neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. The positive expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) in the cortex and hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of the mammalian ortholog of yeast ATG6 (Beclin-1), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease 3 (Caspase-3), Caspase-9, Akt, p-Akt, FoxO3a, and p-FoxO3a. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed prolonged escape latency (P<0.05,P<0.01), reduced number of platform crossings and the residence time in the target quadrant (P<0.01), decreased neurons with reduced volume and dispersed distribution in the cortex and hippocampus, increased positive expression of LC3B (P<0.01), elevated expression of Beclin-1 and ATG5 in the cortex (P<0.01), declined Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01), up-regulated Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression (P<0.01), and decreased expression levels of p-Akt/Akt and p-FoxO3a/FoxO3a (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the donepezil group and the Liuwei Dihuangwan groups showed shortened 3 d escape latency (P<0.05,P<0.01), increased number of platform crossings (P<0.01), and prolonged residence time in the target quadrant (P<0.01). In the donepezil group, the number of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus was increased. In the Liuwei Dihuangwan groups, the number of neurons and Nissl bodies increased with denser distribution and lower degree of cell damage. The positive expression of LC3B in the cortex and hippocampus was decreased in the donepezil group and Liuwei Dihuangwan groups (P<0.01). The expression of Beclin-1 was decreased in the Liuwei Dihuangwan groups (P<0.01). The expression of ATG5 was decreased in the donepezil group and the low-dose Liuwei Dihuangwan group (P<0.01). The donepezil group and the Liuwei Dihuangwan groups showed the increased expression level of Bcl-2 in the cortex (P<0.01), decreased expression level of Caspase-3 (P<0.01), reduced expression level of Caspase-9 (P<0.05,P<0.01), and elevated expression levels of p-Akt/Akt and p-FoxO3a/FoxO3a (P<0.01). ConclusionLiuwei Dihuangwan can effectively improve the learning and memory abilities of the SAMP8 mice and protect neurons. Its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling pathway, down-regulation of the expression of ATG5, Beclin-1, and LC3B, and the inhibition of apoptosis.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905913

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effective components, targets, and possible mechanisms of Wenshen Yangxue prescription in improving endometrial receptivity of aged female mice based on network pharmacology and experimental verification. Method:Based on Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM) and Integrative Pharmacology-based Research Platform of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the components and targets of Wenshen Yangxue prescription were retrieved, and the targets of ovulatory dysfunctional infertility were collected from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and GeneCards with "anovulatory sterility" and "anovulatory infertility" as keywords. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on STRING and the core targets of Wenshen Yangxue prescription against ovulatory dysfunctional infertility were screened by Cytoscape, followed by Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of the core targets in DAVID database. Then, the "medicinal-component-target-pathway" network was established and the core targets were verified by animal experiment. Result:A total of 253 components and 326 targets of Wenshen Yangxue prescription, 819 disease targets, and 74 common targets were screened out. The common targets were mainly involved in the biological processes such as positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process, positive regulation of cell proliferation, response to estradiol, aging, response to oxidative stress, and angiogenesis. The GO term of response to oxidative stress and five of the top 20 KEGG pathways were analyzed. According to the "medicinal-component-target-biological process/pathway" network, 41 chemical components in 20 medicinals participated in hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal pathway, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway by affecting 35 targets. The results of animal experiment showed that the prescription could increase the expression of PI3K, phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), forkhead box O3A (FoxO3A), and phosphorylated FoxO3A (p-FoxO3A) in uterus of aged female ICR mice. Conclusion:Wenshen Yangxue prescription interferes with oxidative stress and PI3K/Akt/FoxO3A signaling pathway by influencing Akt1, dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and other targets, thereby improving endometrial receptivity of aged female mice.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942824

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the effect of climatic and environmental factors on the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom province in 2018. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data on cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence were collected from the Disease Control and Prevention Center in Qom province. Climatic and environmental data including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST), and soil moisture were extracted using satellite images. Data of altitude and sunny hours were provided based on shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model and hemispherical viewshed algorithm, respectively. The associations of climatic and environmental variables with the incidence of the disease were analyzed by Pearson correlation method. The ArcGIS 10.3 software was used to determine the geographical distribution of these factors. Results: There were positive correlations between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the two climatic factors: LST and sunny hours per day (P=0.041, P=0.016), and it had weak negative correlations with the digital elevation model (P=0.27), soil moisture (P=0.54), and NDVI (P=0.62). The time delay analysis showed that in one-, two-, and three month periods, the correlations increased with a 95% confidence interval. Accordingly, the correlation with the three-month time delay was positive and relatively strong between the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and LST and sunny hours (P=0.027, P=0.02); nevertheless, there were negative correlations between the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the soil moisture (P=0.27) and NDVI (P=0.62). Conclusions: As Qom is located in one of the semi-arid climate zones, topography and solar energy are important factors affecting the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in autumn. Therefore, appropriate disease control programs are recommended.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the immunostimulatory potential of cross-reactive molecule heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of filarial parasite Brugia malayi and Leishmania donovani. Methods: HSP60 of Brugia malayi (BmHSP60) was amplified using gene-specific primer, cloned in pTriEx4 vector, expressed in BL21-DE3 cells, and recombinant HSP60 (rHSP60) of 65 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA column. The recombinant protein was desalted by the dialysis membrane, and the presence of endotoxin level was determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The recombinant protein was tested for cell proliferation, nitric oxide release, expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and transcription factors (STATs) in vitro using murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1). Results: Higher cell proliferation indicated that BmHSP60 had immunostimulatory potential. rBmHSP60 exposure upregulated the expression of iNOS, STAT1, STAT4, Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12), and nitric oxide release. In addition, no remarkable change was observed in the expression of IL-6, IL-10, and STAT3 in macrophage cell line J774A.1. The ELISA analysis showed the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12 were upregulated while IL-10 level was downregulated, revealing that BmHSP60 triggered a Th1 immune response. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that rBmHSP60 has immunogenic properties which effectively enhances the Th1 type immune responses, and can be used as an immunoprophylactic agent against leishmaniasis. Furthermore, in vivo studies are in progress to determine the protective role of rBmHSP60 against Leishmania donovani infection in a mouse model.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942822

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the active ingredients, potential targets, and mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis by bioinformatics method, and to explore the hypoglycemic effect of Rhizoma coptidis by in vitro experiments. Methods: The chemical components of Rhizoma coptidis were collected through database search, and oral bioavailability and drug-likeness were used for preliminary screening. The targets of Rhizoma coptidis and diabetes-related targets were collected by database retrieval and reverse docking techniques, and the biological process of cross-set proteins was analyzed. The inhibitory effects of Rhizoma coptidis on α-glucosidase, α-amylase activity, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined via in vitro experiments. In addition, the effects of Rhizoma coptidis on pre-adipocyte differentiation, absorption of glucose by adipocytes, and the level of intracellular triglyceride were investigated using the adipocyte differentiation model. Results: There were 11 potentially active ingredients in Rhizoma coptidis. IL-6, caspase-3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MYC, and estrogen receptor 1 were considered as the key genes. The bioinformatics analysis showed that Rhizoma coptidis played an anti-diabetic role mainly via biological processes and signaling pathways including hormone receptor activity, glutathione binding, steroid binding, etc. In vitro experiments showed that the extract of Rhizoma coptidis inhibited the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, and the generation of AGEs; meanwhile, the extract promoted the absorption of glucose by adipocytes. In addition, the extract of Rhizoma coptidis decreased triglyceride level. Conclusions: Our network pharmacology and in vitro experiments demonstrate the anti-diabetic effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis extract.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942821

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of Sang-Yod rice bran hydrolysates (SRH) and in combination with lisinopril against hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats with nitric oxide deficiency-induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Hypertensive rats were administered daily with SRH (500 mg/kg/day), lisinopril (1 mg/kg/day), or the combination of SRH and lisinopril by gastric lavage for the last 3 weeks of L-NAME treatment. Hemodynamic status, vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents, and vascular remodeling were assessed. Blood and aortic tissues were collected for measurements of oxidative stress markers, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin II, and protein expression. Results: L-NAME induced remarkable hypertension and severe oxidative stress, and altered contents of smooth muscle cells, elastin, and collagen of the aortic wall. SRH or lisinopril alone reduced blood pressure, restored endothelial function, decreased plasma ACEs and angiotensin II levels, alleviated oxidant markers and glutathione redox status, and restored the vascular structure. The effects were associated with increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and decreased expression of gp91phox and AT1R expression. The combination of SRH and lisinopril was more effective than monotherapy. Conclusions: SRH alone or in combination with lisinopril exert an antihypertensive effect and improve endothelial function and vascular remodeling through reducing oxidative stress and suppressing elevated renin-angiotensin system.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942820

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, epidemiological studies have concluded that a diet rich in plant-derived products plays a pivotal role in human health. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound primarily found in edible plants (e.g. strawberry, blueberry, apple, grape, persimmon, kiwi, and cucumber). Various preclinical studies have revealed that fisetin exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-osteoporotic, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic properties. Therefore, the pharmacological in vitro and in vivo studies on fisetin are discussed in this review. Additionally, this review would be useful for further study regarding the potential of natural products, notably fisetin, and its therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942819

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the effect of water extract of Thunbergia laurifolia on hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Methods: High-fat diet with 45 kcal% lard fat was used for obesity induction in ICR mice. The mice were fed with high-fat diet for 16 weeks, and during the last 8 weeks, they were treated with 200 mg/ kg/day of water extracts from Thunbergia laurifolia leaf, stem and flower. Serum biochemistry, liver histology, and protein expression were examined after the treatment. Results: Extracts from all of the three parts of Thunbergia laurifolia significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The stem and flower extracts improved glucose tolerance. All of the extracts significantly reduced serum TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Liver weight, triglyceride levels, and lipid accumulation were also decreased. Moreover, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase level was significantly decreased, while the levels of PPARα, phosphorylated AMPK, and phosphorylated Akt were significantly increased with treatment of Thunbergia laurifolia extracts. Conclusions: Thunbergia laurifolia extracts can ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by improving glucose and lipid homeostasis, which may be associated with stimulating phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt pathways.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942818

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the antiviral activity and phytochemicals of selected plant extracts and their effect on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway modulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A). Methods: A total of ten plant extracts were initially screened for their toxicities against HepG2 cells. The non-toxic plants were tested for their inhibitory effect on the expression of HCV NS5A at both mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays, respectively. The differential expression of the genes associated with MAPK pathway in the presence of NS5A gene and plant extract was measured through real-time PCR. Subsequently, the identification of secondary metabolites was carried out by phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Results: The phytochemical profiling of Berberis lyceum revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids, and glycosides. Similarly, quercetin, myricetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were identified through HPLC analysis. The methanolic extract of Berberis lyceum strongly inhibited HCV RNA replication with an IC50 of 11.44 μg/mL. RT-PCR and Western blotting assays showed that the extract reduced the expression of HCV NS5A in a dosedependent manner. Berberis lyceum extract also attenuated NS5Ainduced dysregulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Berberis lyceum extract strongly inhibits HCV propagation by reducing HCV NS5Ainduced perturbation of MAPK signaling.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942817

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anti-cancer activity of maslinic acid against colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and its possible mechanism. Methods: The inhibitory effect of maslinic acid was screened against five CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT 116, SW480, SW48, and LS 174T) via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were carried out using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and propidium iodide staining, respectively and subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Protein expression studies of inhibitor of κB kinase-β (IKK-β), checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and cyclin D1 were conducted using the JESS system. Results: Maslinic acid exhibited growth inhibitory effect in a doseand time-dependent manner in HT-29 and HCT 116 cell lines. A more prominent apoptosis induced by maslinic acid was observed in HCT 116 cell line. However, in HT-29 cell line, maslinic acid induced cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the G1-S transition, which was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin D1. The expression of unphosphorylated IKK-β protein was increased in both (HT-29 and HCT 116) cell lines after maslinic acid treatment. Conclusions: Maslinic acid inhibits the growth of HT-29 and HCT 116 cells in a different manner, induces cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells and causes apoptosis in HCT 116 cells partially via NF-κB pathway inhibition.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942816

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of p-coumaric acid against adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group received solvent; the p-coumaric acid group was treated with 100 mg/kg of p-coumaric acid orally for five consecutive days; the adriamycin group was administered with a single dose of adriamycin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), and the p-coumaric acid + adriamycin group was given p-coumaric acid five days before adriamycin administration. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and liver tissues were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemistrical studies. Moreover, the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in liver tissue were measured. Results: Treatment with p-coumaric acid protected the liver from the toxicity of adriamycin by attenuating the increase in alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lessening the decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin. p-Coumaric acid also raised the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, as well as decreased lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and hepatic IL- 1β expression. Additionally, histopathological study confirmed the protective effect of p-coumaric acid against liver damage. Conclusions: P-Coumaric acid can alleviate adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942815

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Celastrus paniculatus oil on the treatment of perinatal rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: In the perinatal stage, the rats were either isolated or administered with lead acetate to establish an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine served as the reference standard. Animals' behaviours were assessed through Y-maze, novel object preference, fear conditioning and residentintruder aggression tests. Oxidative stress parameters, bioamine concentration (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine), nerve growth factor, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Synaptophysin immunohistochemical assay was performed. Results: Celastrus paniculatus oil significantly improved behavioural parameters in Y maze, novel object preference, discrimination index, fear conditioning and resident intruder aggressive tests. The treatment groups showed a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Changes in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were restored by Celastrus paniculatus oil. Celastrus paniculatus oil increased nerve growth factor and decreased interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and TNF-α. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was also improved by Celastrus paniculatus oil with alleviated reactive gliosis, degeneration, and vascular proliferation. Conclusions: This research shows the therapeutic potential of Celastrus paniculatus oil for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942814

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of honokiol on oxidative damage in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Methods: HaCaT cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), following pretreatment with various concentrations of honokiol. The alleviating effects of honokiol on HaCaT cell viability and cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, mitochondrial dynamics, and inhibition of adenosine triphoaphate production against H2O2 were investigated. Western blotting analysis was used to analyze the expression levels of specific proteins. Results: Honokiol suppressed H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by blocking abnormal ROS accumulation. Honokiol also prevented apoptosis by inhibiting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reducing the activity of caspase-3 in H2O2-stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, honokiol attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of adenosine triphosphate content, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was markedly promoted by honokiol in H2O2-stimulated cells. Importantly, the anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferative activity of honokiol against H2O2 was further enhanced by adding an activator of AMPK, indicating that honokiol activated AMPK in HaCaT keratinocytes to protect against oxidative damage. Conclusions: The present results indicate that honokiol may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent against various oxidative stress-related skin diseases.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942813

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the pharmacological potential of Argemone mexicana in treating constipation and emesis by using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods: The spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects were evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum fragments loaded in a tissue organ bath. The response was recorded with an isotonic transducer attached with Power Lab Data Acquisition System. The laxative and antiemetic activities were assessed in BALB-c mice and poultry chicks challenged with carbamylcholine and copper sulphate stimulated emesis, respectively. Results: The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the extract were (267.75 ± 5.77) mg GAE/g and (73.86 ± 6.01) mg QE/g, respectively. Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmogenic effect on isolated rabbit jejunum segments with an EC50 value of 0.016 mg/mL, which was blocked by atropine (0.3 μM). Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmolytic effect in atropine treated jejunum fragments with an EC50 value of 2.185 mg/mL. Furthermore, Argemone mexicana extract relaxed potassium (80 mM)-induced contractions (EC50: 9.07 mg/mL), similar to a standard drug verapamil. The calcium channel blocker activity was confirmed by a rightward shift of concentration-response curve of calcium in the presence of Argemone mexicana extract (1-5 mg/mL) and verapamil (0.1-1 μM). In addition, the extract increased the distance travelled by a charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract and exhibited antiemetic effect on copper sulphate induced emesis in chicks. Conclusions: Argemone mexicana shows cholinergic agonist and calcium channel blocker activities, as well as antiemetic effect. It may be used as a potential agent for treating gastrointestinal disorders.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942812

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of aloin against chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group I (normal control), Group II (sham-operated), Group III (CCI control) and Group IV, V, VI, and VII, which underwent CCI surgery and then were administered with aloin (5 mg/kg, p.o.; 25 mg/kg, p.o.; 125 mg/kg, p.o.) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively for 14 days. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by silk ligatures (4-0) loosely placed around the sciatic nerve. Nociceptive thresholds against mechanical stimuli (Von-Frey filaments) and thermal stimuli (12 °C and 40 °C) were measured at mid-plantar paw region ipsilateral to the compressed nerve on day-3, 7, 11, and 14. The concentration of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β was estimated at day-7. At day 14, motor nerve conduction velocity was determined under urethane anesthesia (1.25 g/kg). Oxidative stress parameters (malondiadehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were estimated in sciatic nerve homogenates at day 14. Representative nerve samples were processed for histological investigations. Results: Aloin significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical and thermal allodynia. It also improved motor nerve conduction velocity and decreased oxidative stress in nerve tissues. In addition, it decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and restored the histoarchitecture of compressed sciatic nerve. Conclusions: Aloin mitigates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the afflicted sciatic nerve.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942811

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the hepatorenoprotective effects of Origanum vulgare L. against finasteride-induced oxidative injury in the liver and kidney of mice. Methods: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) analysis was utilized to yield a fingerprint of Origanum vulgare polyphenolic constituents. Thirty BALB/c mice received 0.5 mL/day distilled water, finasteride (25 mg/kg/day for 10 d), and 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day finasteride + Origanum vulgare extract with 6 mice per group for five weeks. On day 36, liver and kidney function as well as pro-and antiinflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10) cytokines were measured. The total antioxidant status, nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels as well as the activities of NO synthase and catalase were also evaluated. Histopathological study was conducted to assess the effect of Origanum vulgare extract on finasteride-induced renal and hepatic toxicities. Results: Twenty-five major polyphenolic compounds were identified in the Origanum vulgare extract by LC-ESI/MS. Origanum vulgare extract, especially at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day doses, significantly improved liver and kidney biochemical indices, decreased inflammatory cytokines, increased total antioxidant status and NO synthase and catalase activities, as well as decreased plasma NO and malondialdehyde levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the finasteride group. Histopathological results further confirmed the protective effect of Origanum vulgare extract. Conclusions: Origanum vulgare extract ameliorates finasteride-induced hepatic and renal biochemical and histopathological alterations, and restores antioxidant/oxidant balance.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942810

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the ameliorative effect of rice bran hydrolysates (RBH) on metabolic disorders, cardiac oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), and cardiac structural changes in high fat and high fructose (HFHF)-fed rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily fed either standard chow diet with tap water or an HFHF diet with 10% fructose in drinking water over 16 weeks. RBH (500 and 1 000 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to the HFHF-diet-fed rats during the last 6 weeks of the study period. At the end of the treatment, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, HRV, and cardiac structural changes were examined. Results: RBH administration significantly ameliorated metabolic disorders by improving lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemodynamic parameters. Moreover, RBH restored HRV, as evidenced by decreasing the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a marker of autonomic imbalance. Cardiac oxidative stress was also mitigated after RBH supplementation by decreasing cardiac malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, upregulating eNOS expression, and increasing catalase activity in the heart. Furthermore, RBH mitigated cardiac structural changes by reducing cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in HFHF-diet-fed rats. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that consumption of RBH may exert cardioprotective effects against autonomic imbalances, cardiac oxidative stress, and structural changes in metabolic syndrome.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942809

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism of action. Methods: Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata were extracted using chromatographic column method. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The production of nitric oxide was detected by Griess assay and the release of cytokines (IL-10 and TNF-α) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a, and CCL5/RANTES) was determined by ELISA to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Moreover, nuclear translocation of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analysis was performed to determine the expression of related proteins. Results: Total flavonoids extracted from Saussurea involucrata were 751.5 mg/g and the content of rutin was 506.5 mg/g. The production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, cytokines, and chemokines was effectively inhibited by total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Meanwhile, total flavonoids also suppressed the nuclear translocation of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 was remarkably reduced by treatment with total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Moreover, total flavonoids decreased the expression levels of p-IKKa/β, p-TBK1, p-p38, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Jun, and p-IRF3 in LPS-exposed RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions: Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata potentially inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, which may be related to inhibition of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942808

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether ethanol extracts of Chondracanthus tenellus (EECT) could improve immunomodulatory property of murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: Cell viability, phagocytic ability, and nitric oxide were measured. The levels of prostaglandin E

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942807

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the protective and therapeutic role of ginseng against silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO

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