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1.
Acta ortop. bras ; 30(2): e247996, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Many experimental models exist to better understand the necrosis of the femoral head etiology, both in terms of the species variety in which necrosis is induced and in the operative techniques used for treatment. Objective: This study has two main objectives, the first is to review the literature concerning experimental models of avascular necrosis of the growing femoral head, the second, to demonstrate the experimental pig model's reproducibility using a pilot study. Methods: This was a bibliographic review to describe the attempts over time to find the best species and technique for induction that would reproduce ischemic necrosis of the growing femoral head in humans. Simultaneously, a pilot study was performed to verify the replication of induction in pigs, the species that has more similarities with the human hip. The pilot's methodological analysis consists of conventional radiology and verification of possible anatomical, pathological changes. Results: In imaging exams; lateral sub-dislocation of the femur head and triangular appearance of the head were observed, characterizing its flattening; in macroscopic examination, the femoral head flattening with femoral neck widening and shortening was identified; in histology, the proliferation of articular cartilage with the presence of vascular granulation regenerative tissue, with osteoclasts and fibrocartilaginous tissue in the metaphyseal femoral neck region was identified. Conclusion: The experimental pig model can be used as a valuable tool for the reproducibility of anatomical, pathological changes in ischemic necrosis of the growing femoral head. The model is reproducible and feasible and can be beneficial for future studies on the anatomical pathology of necrosis of the growing femoral head. Level of Evidence III, Literature Review .


RESUMO Na tentativa de compreender melhor a etiologia da necrose da cabeça femoral, existe uma diversidade de modelos experimentais tanto no que diz respeito à variedade das espécies em que é induzida a necrose quanto nas técnicas operatórias utilizadas para o tratamento. Objetivo: Este trabalho tem fundamentalmente dois objetivos: a revisão da literatura concernente aos modelos experimentais da necrose avascular da cabeça do fêmur em crescimento e demonstrar a reprodutibilidade do modelo experimental do suíno por meio de um estudo piloto. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica descrevendo as tentativas ao longo do tempo em buscar qual seria a melhor espécie e técnica para indução que reproduzisse a necrose isquêmica da cabeça do fêmur em crescimento nos humanos. Simultaneamente foi feito um estudo piloto para verificar a replicação da indução na espécie suína, o espécime cujo quadril tem mais similaridades com o humano. A análise metodológica do piloto consiste na radiologia convencional e verificação das possíveis alterações anátomo patológicas. Resultados: Nos exames por imagem, foram observadas sub-luxação lateral da cabeça do fêmur e aparência triangular da cabeça, caracterizando o achatamento da mesma; no exame macroscópico, identificamos o achatamento da cabeça femoral com alargamento e encurtamento do colo; na histologia, identificamos a proliferação da cartilagem articular com presença de tecido regenerativo vascular de granulação, com osteoclastos e tecido fibrocartilaginoso na região metafisária do colo femoral. Conclusão: Podemos inferir que o modelo experimental suíno pode servir como ferramenta valiosa para a reprodutibilidade das alterações anátomo patológicas da necrose isquêmica da cabeça femoral em crescimento. O modelo é reprodutível e factível, servindo para estudos futuros sobre a anátomo patologia da necrose da cabeça do fêmur em crescimento. Nível de Evidência III, Revisão da Literatura .

2.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1152-1162, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910702

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the expression of connexin-43 (Cx43) in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head and osteoblasts in rats and its regulation mechanism.Methods:The model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (SIONFH) of rat was established. Micro-CT and HE staining were used to observe the degree of bone trabecular destruction and the incidence of empty lacunae. The expression levels of Cx43 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway related molecules and osteoblast-related proteins in model group and control group were detected by RT-PCT and Western blot. The osteoblast (OB) of rats was further isolated and cultured in vitro. Under treatment of dexamethasone (Dex), Cx43 expression in OB cells was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Western blot was used to detect the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) on the expression of related molecules of PI3K/Akt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Akt activator (SC79) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) were used to study the molecular mechanism of Dex regulation on Cx43 expression in OB cells. The regulatory relationship between β-catenin and Cx43 was investigated by immunoprecipitation and small interfere RNA (siRNA) technology.Results:The model of SIONFH in rats was successfully established, which proved that Cx43 expression level in the SIONFH model group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the expression level of Cx43 was positively correlated with the expression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway related molecules and osteoblast-related proteins Runx2, ALP and Collagen I Type (COL). In addition, in vitro culture of isolated rat OB cells, the expression of Cx43, p-PI3K, P-Akt and β-catenin in OB cells decreased gradually as the Dex action time went on. Moreover, SC79 pretreatment could significantly reverse the inhibitory effect of GCs on Cx43 expression, while LY294002 could significantly enhance the inhibitory effect of GCs on Cx43. In addition, the immunoprecipitation results showed that β-catenin expression was closely related to Cx43 expression, and further studies showed that β-catenin-siRNA could significantly down-regulate the expression of Cx43.Conclusion:Under the action of GC, the expression level of Cx43 in bone tissue and OB cells decreased significantly, and the possible mechanism was that GCs inhibited the expression of Cx43 by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which laid a new theoretical foundation for the further study of the role of Cx43 in the pathogenesis of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis.

3.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 929-937, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910675

ABSTRACT

Objective:To perform a prospective cohort study to identify individual susceptibility of glucocorticoid (GC) -associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GA-ONFH) and their clinical and genetic risk factors. Methods:The present prospective cohort study enrolled patients who received their first GC therapy between July 2015 and January 2018 at Zhongshan Hospital. All patients did not receive any GC treatment before enrollment. Further, they planned to start GC treatment with the dose (equivalent prednisone) of ≥30 mg/d, lasted ≥3 weeks, or pulse dose ≥200 mg/d, lasted ≥3 d. Blood samples were collected before GC treatment to evaluate bone metabolism and its released factors. Hip MRI was performed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th and 24th month to diagnose GA-ONFH. All patients were followed-up for ≥2 years. The endpoint was regarded as diagnosis of GA-ONFH or completion of 2 years follow-up. Lasso regression was performed to determine which clinical features were associated with GA-ONFH. A nested case-control sub-cohort (A, n=12) was established prospectively based on the main cohort by 1∶1 matching. Whole exome sequencing was performed to screen differential and functional candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion-deletions (SNP/InDels). Another sub-cohort (B, n=50) was constructed retrospectively in patients with GA-ONFH and non-ONFH patients received standard high dose GC treatment for more than two years. The candidate SNP/InDels were verified by Sanger sequencing based on the patients from sub-cohort B. Results:A total of 96 patients were enrolled of which 88 of them (32 males and 56 females, mean age 42.30 years) completed follow-up. Eight cases (9.1%) were diagnosed with GA-ONFH. The median time from the start of GC therapy to the diagnosis of ONFH was 53.00(34.00,13.50) days. The baseline characteristics, such as age, sex and body mass index, indicated no significant difference between the ONFH group and the non-ONFH group. The cumulative GC dose of the ONFH patients in the first month was higher than that of non-ONFH [32.74(29.55, 47.05) mg/kg vs. 24.00(21.10, 29.45) mg/kg, Z=-2.410, P=0.016]. However, there was no significant difference of patients who underwent pulse therapy (37.5% vs. 10.0%, adjusted χ 2=2.829, P=0.093). The ratio of serum apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoB/ApoA1) in patients with ONFH was higher than that in non-ONFH group before GC use [0.95(0.80, 1.50) vs. 0.70(0.60, 0.80), Z=-2.875, P=0.000]. Due to the multicollinearity, Lasso regression model was performed to reduce overfitting. All variables were included in the model. The results suggested that higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, lower serum β-c-terminal telopeptide (β-CTX) and higher cumulative GC dose in the first month were the top three risk factors of GA-ONFH. This model had an accuracy of 0.982 in internal validation. Seven differential candidate SNP/InDels were found by whole exome sequencing of sub-cohort A. We further verified these SNP/InDels in sub-cohort B. The patients with COLEC12 mutation (rs2305027, G1816A) were at risk of GA-ONFH ( OR=6.00, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.73). Conclusion:Higher first-month GC dose, lower serum β-CTX level before treatment, higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio and COLEC12 mutation (rs2305027, G1816A) could increase the risk of GA-ONFH.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a risk assessment and prediction system for early osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in order to predict the collapse risk.@*METHODS@#The risk assessment system for early necrosis and collapse of femoral head was established based on the combination of Steinberg stage, ABC typing and the proportion of the proximal sclerotic rim. Firstly, Steinberg stage system was applied. ABC typing was applied to predict risk in stage I, type C was risk free, type B was low risk, type A and type BC were medium risk, type A-C and type AB were high risk. The classification of proximal sclerotic rim was first applied when the Steinberg stage was Ⅱ-Ⅲ, and type 2 was expected to be low risk. If the classification of proximal sclerotic rimwas type 1, then the ABC typing was applied, type C was risk-free, type B was low risk, type A and type BC were medium risk, type A-C and type AB were high risk. According to this prediction system, the collapse risk of femoral head in 188 cases(301 hips) were predicted by retrospective analysis. All the hips were enrolled at the out-patient department of orthopedic in Guang'anmen Hospital attached to China Academy of Chinese Medical Science. The consistency of the prediction results of three doctors and one doctor at different times were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Among them, 136 cases were male, 52 were female. 75 cases were single hip, 113 were double hip. The age of the patients wa 19 to 64(42.61±12.07) years. The natural course of disease was 0.33 to 5.00(3.62±1.93) years. 206 hips in 301 hips had collapsed, with a collapse rate of 68.44%. In the risk-free group, none hip had collapsed, with a collapse rate of 0%. In the low-risk group, 9 hip in 91 hips had collapsed, with a collapse rate of 9.89%. In the medium-risk group, 12 hip in 19 hips had collapsed, with a collapse rate of 63.16%. And in the high risk group, 185 hips in 190 hips had collapsed, with a collapse rate of 97.37%. They were significantly differences in their collapse rate (@*CONCLUSION@#The risk assessment and prediction system for early ONFH selects different methods to predict the risk of collapse according to the imaging characteristics of different stages, which is combines with the comprehensive assessment of multiple risk factors. The system is applicable to a wide range, simple operation and convenient for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Female , Femur Head/diagnostic imaging , Femur Head Necrosis/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the relationship between osteonecrosis of femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture and serum bone metabolism, vascular active factors, and analyze the risk factors.@*METHODS@#Total 150 patients with femoral neck fracture who underwent reduction and internal fixation from April 2016 to April 2019 were selected, including 83 males and 67 females. According to whether there was necrosis of femoral head after operation, they were divided into necrosis group(32 cases) and non necrosis group (118 cases). Before operation and 1, 3, 5 days after operation, the serum levels of beta-C terminal cross-linked telopeptides of typeⅠ collagen(β-CTX), N-telopeptide of typeⅠ procollagen(PINP), nitric oxide (NO), Endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. The risk factors of postoperative femoral head necrosis were analyzed by logistic regression model. The value of serum indexes in predicting postoperative femoral head necrosis was analyzed by ROC curve.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of serum PINP and β-CTX between necrotic group and non necrotic group before operation and 1, 3 and 5 days after operation(@*CONCLUSION@#The content of serum NO and ET-1 on the first day after operation can predict the necrosis of femoral head.


Subject(s)
Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head , Femur Head Necrosis/etiology , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Osteonecrosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the related factors of aseptic necrosis of femoral head after closed reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.@*METHODS@#From January 2009 to January 2016, 236 patients with femoral neck fracture were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with 3 hollow lag screws, including 111 males and 125 females, aged from 19 to 89 (50.17±12.88) years. According to the follow-up results, the correlation of aseptic necrosis of femoral head was analyzed. Univariate analysis of age, gender, injured side, body weight, injury mechanism, preoperative waiting time, Garden classification and whether there was comminution of femoral neck cortex was conducted to obtain the independent variables with significant difference. Then binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the independent risk factors of avascular necrosis of femoral head.@*RESULTS@#The average follow-up period of 236 cases was 4.58 years. There were significant differences in the range of injury (24.69% vs. 5.16%, @*CONCLUSION@#High energy injury, preoperative waiting time (>48 h) and comminution of femoral neck cortex were independent risk factors for aseptic necrosis of femoral head. In addition, cortical comminution on the pressure side and tension side of the femoral neck is a strong prognostic risk factor for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, because it indicates a more serious and complex injury mechanism.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Femur Neck , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fractures, Comminuted , Humans , Male , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(3): 93-106, ago. 2020. tab, graf, il.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143921

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de las localizaciones, causas y hallazgos radiológicos específicos de los procesos avasculares óseos. Se define como isquemia ósea a las alteraciones ocasionadas por déficit de irrigación, llevando a la destrucción del hueso. Existen diferencias entre necrosis isquémica e infarto óseo, en base al sitio óseo de afectación. La etiología traumática es la más frecuente y suele ser unilateral. Los sitios de presentación más frecuentes son: cabeza femoral y humeral, rodilla y semilunar. La resonancia magnética (RM) es considerada la modalidad de imagen más sensible y específica, tanto para el diagnóstico temprano como estadificación y control. El conocimiento de las causas, características radiológicas y sus diferentes fases evitan el diagnóstico erróneo de otras etiologías, como las primarias o infecciosas, facilitando un correcto algoritmo terapéutico.


Abstract The aim of this article is to review the locations, causes and specific radiological findings of avascular bone processes. Bone ischemia is defined as the alterations caused by irrigation deficit, leading into the bone destruction. However, there are differences between ischemic necrosis and bone infarction, based on the bone site of involvement. The most frequent etiology is traumatic and is usually unilateral. The most frequent sites of presentation are: femoral and humeral head, knee, and lunate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for early diagnosis, staging and control. The knowledge of the causes, radiological findings and their different phases avoid the erroneous diagnosis of other lesions, such as primary or infectious, facilitating a correct therapeutic algorithm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Osteonecrosis/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases/classification , Bone Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the risk factors of osteonecrosis of femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture in young patients, to describe the quality of life of patients with surviving femoral head, and to quantify the predictive factors.@*METHODS@#From January 2013 to December 2016, 172 patients (174 hips) with femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and cannulated screw internal fixation were selected for retrospective analysis. The general data of the patients were summarized, including age, gender, body mass index, trauma mechanism, trauma operation interval, trauma season and whether the internal fixation was removed. The imaging data included the Garden classification and Pauwel classification of fractures, femoral head retroversion angle, postoperative fracture reduction, screw distribution. Single factor analysis and multi-factor Logistic regression analysis were carried out to explore the risk factors of femoral head necrosis and internal fixation failure. The patients who survived the internal fixation were followed up. The quality of life of the patients was evaluated by the health survey of SF-36. The Harris score of hip joint function was used to evaluate the hip joint function. The predictors of the quality of life of the patients after the operation of femoral neck fracture were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#Total 172 patients(174 hips) were included in the study, 29 patients(16.67%) had necrosis of the femoral head. In multivariate Logistic regression analysis, the significant differences were reduction quality (=0.126, =0.027) and posterior inclination angle (=4.380, =0.010). One hundred and thirty six patients (137 hips) who survived the femoral head were included in the quality of life survey. Harris score was 90.14±7.92, including excellent 96 hips (70.07%), good 28 hips (20.44%), medium 13 hips (9.49%) and poor 0 hip. In SF-36 score, physical health summary (PCS) was 46.12±9.12, mental health summary(MCS) was 50.21±3.97, there was no linear correlation between them (>0.05). In multiple linear regression analysis, the variables with significant difference in PCS were reduction quality and retroversion angle, and the variables with significant difference in MCS were fracture displacement and trauma mechanism.@*CONCLUSION@#Poor reduction quality and posterior inclination angle>15° are the risk factors of femoral head necrosis. The function of hip joint and MCS of patients with femoral neck fracture recovered well, but PCS could not recover to the average level of normal people. The reduction quality and retroversion angle could be used as the predictors of PCS, and the displacement and trauma mechanism of fracture could be used as the predictors of MCS.


Subject(s)
Femoral Neck Fractures , Femur Head , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Osteonecrosis , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) combined with β tricalcium phosphate bioceramic bone in the treatment of non traumatic necrosis of the femoral head in ARCO stageⅡ.@*METHODS@#From January 2017 to December 2018, 100 patients (160 hips) with ARCO stageⅡnon traumatic necrosis of the femoral head were divided into PRP group and control group. In PRP group, 50 patients (80 hips), 22 males and 28 females, aged from 18 to 65 (43.47± 7.23) years, with a course of 4 to 18 (15.8±2.9) months, underwent core decompression and bone grafting combined with PRP implantation. There were 50 cases (80 hips) in the control group, including 27 males and 23 females, aged 20 to 63 (45.72± 7.43) years, and the course of disease was 6 to 19 (14.9±3.8) months. Hip X-ay film was followed up after operation. Harris score and VAS score were used to evaluate the curative effect, and the survival rate of hip joint was recorded.@*RESULTS@#All patients had good wound healing, no infection, thrombosis and other complications. All patients were followed up for 12 to 14 (12.0±0.4) months. Twelve months after operation, the image expression of PRP group was better than that of control group(@*CONCLUSION@#Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) combined with artificialbone for core decompression and bone grafting can change the situation of simple artificial bone implantation and uncertain curative effect, improve the success rate of this operation, effectively reduce the collapse rate of femoral head necrosis in the early and middle stage, delay or even avoid hip replacement.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Artemisinins , Bone Transplantation , Decompression, Surgical , Female , Femur Head/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Naphthoquinones , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1447-1453, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the reproducibility of the femoral head perfusion index by enhanced MRI and the predictive value of the Herring lateral pillar classification after the progression of early stage of Perthes disease (X-ray modified Waldenström stage Ia, Ib, IIa) to stage IIb.@*Methods@#From October 2016 to November 2018, a total of 30 children with early stage of Perthes disease were enrolled, including 29 males and 1 female, aged 7.5±1.0 years (range 6.3 to 9.5 years). All patients were evolved by unilateral with left 24 cases and 6 cases on the right side. There were 1 case in stage Ia, 16 cases in stage Ib and 13 cases in stage IIa. At the initial evaluation, X-ray films and enhanced MRI were performed. Three observers measured the femoral head perfusion index on the enhanced MRI. The ratio of the pixels in the affected ossified nucleus perfusion area to the pixels in the contralateral femoral skull nucleus was recorded. A total of 30 cases were measured with repeated evaluation at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks. The second measurement was independent of the first measurement results. The average of the two measurements was regarded as the final measurement results. At 3 months follow-up, anteroposterior and Lauenstein frog-lateral radiographs were taken. The follow-up duration was end at the stage IIb progression. The Herring lateral pillar of the femoral head was determined on the X-ray films. The differences in the early MRI femoral head perfusion index were compared between the different lateral column types.@*Results@#The ICC values of the femoral head perfusion index between the three observers were 0.876. The ICC values measured by the 1/3 perfusion index of the lateral femoral head were 0.729. The ICC values of the femoral head perfusion index measured by the same observer at different times were 0.932. The ICC values measured by the 1/3 perfusion index of the lateral femoral head were 0.805. A total of 30 children were followed to stage IIb at 6.49±5.12 months (range 2.3 to 22.1 months). There were 13 cases of type A and type B and 17 cases of type C. The sputum perfusion index of type A and type B was 59.77%±17.12% (range 25%-85%), and that of group C was 13.47%±10.65% (range 2%-23%). The difference between groups was statistically significant (t=8.563, P=0.000). The 1/3 perfusion index of the lateral femoral head of the A and B groups was 75.62%±15.03% (range 50%-95%), while the C type was 22.24%±12.28% (range 5%-45%) with significant difference (t=10.621, P=0.000).@*Conclusion@#The measurement of femoral head perfusion index on enhanced MRI has almost perfect agreement between and within observers across multiple rounds of study. In children with early Perthes disease, enhanced MRI has predictive effect on the Herring lateral pillar classification after progression to stage IIb.

11.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1440-1446, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803316

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the clinical effects of the implantation of porous tantalum rod under three-dimensional (3D) C-arm positioning in the treatment of ARCO I and II non-traumatic femoral head necrosis.@*Methods@#Fifty patients (58 hips, 39 males and 11 females, mean age 33.52 years) with non-traumatic femoral head in ARCO I-II were included from January 2009 to December 2011. All patients received implantation of porous tantalum rod. The 3D C-arm X-ray positioning was used in 24 patients (29 hips), while traditional C-arm X-ray positioning was performed in the other patients. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Harris score and superior rate were evaluated at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 years after the surgery. Total hip arthroplasty was regarded as the end event for survival rate.@*Results@#In the 3D C-arm X-ray positioning group, the VAS score decreased from 7.17±1.00 points preoperatively to 2.38±0.86 points at half year, to 2.10±1.40 points at 1 year, to 2.38±1.66 points at 2 years, and to 2.21±1.47 points at 4 years postoperatively (F=98.78, P=0.00). Meanwhile, the Harris score increased significantly from 73.97±3.49 points preoperatively to 89.90±1.93, 89.93±3.26, 89.21±5.83, 88.57±5.70 points at the follow up, respectively (F=84.35, P=0.00). According to the analysis of the pre-operative and post-operative image data, there was no significant difference in progress in the ARCO staging at 23 hips duration the follow-up. Four hips were developed to ARCO III and two hips to ARCO II. Thus, the success rate of operation was 79% (23/29). There were two hips underwent total hip arthroplasty, so the survival rate of femoral head was 93% (27/29). The trend of VAS score and Harris score in the C-arm X-ray positioning group was in accordance with the 3D C-arm X-ray positioning group but without statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The operation duration 31.38±3.96 min, blood loss 36.72±5.59 ml, the ratio of distance of metal rod to bone cortex in femoral neck 0.48±0.10, and the distance of mental rod to center of necrosis 0.18±0.07 cm in 3D C-arm X-ray positioning group was superior to C-arm X-ray positioning group (respectively 41.97±4.64 min, 41.49±4.46 ml, 0.46±0.06, 0.23±0.10 cm, P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#The implantation of tantalum rod in treating ARCO I-II non-traumatic femoral head necrosis can increase the function of hip joint, relieve the symptoms of necrosis of femoral head, alleviate the progress of femoral head necrosis in X-ray, and obtain a higher survival rate. The 3D C-arm positioning in surgical operation could improve the accuracy and safety of surgery.

12.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1432-1439, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803315

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the efficacy of core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting with impacted bone grafting in treating bilateral femoral head necrosis.@*Methods@#From January 2011 to January 2017, a total of 44 patients with bilateral femoral head necrosis (88 hips) were admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, including 35 males and 9 females with aged 34.9±7.2 years old (ranged from 22-48 years). Core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell and impacted bone grafting were conducted to each hip joint for every patient. All patients were followed up for every 3 months at the first year postoperatively and for every 6 months thereafter. The following clinical measurement were recorded, Harris hip score (HHS), visual analogue score (VAS), the anterior-posterior and frog lateral radiographs, and CT. The 5-year survival rate of the hip was calculated with the endpoint event being defined as a need for total hip arthroplasty or other surgical intervention, or a HHS less than 70.@*Results@#The postoperative follow-up duration was 50.5±34.2 months in the impacted bone grafting group and 54.0±33.1 months in the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells group. Fifteen hips in the impacted bone grafting group and 13 hips in the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell group failed during the follow-up. The 5-year cumulative survival rates of the hips in two groups were 64.7% and 72.1%, respectively [HR=1.178, 95%CI(0.561, 2.477)]. In the impacted bone grafting group, the 5-year survival rates of the hip joints at the ARCO IIIB+IIIC and IIIA stages were 42.9% and 74.2%, respectively [HR=3.258, 95%CI(1.172, 9.059)]. In the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell group, the 5-year survival rates of hips at the ARCO stage I, II and IIIA stages were 50.0%, 75.3%, and 71.4%, respectively (χ2=0.757, P=0.685). Age, gender, BMI, preoperative HHS and etiology did not affect the effects of core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting or impacted bone grafting (P>0.05). The preoperative VAS of the impacted bone grafting group and the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting group were 4.80±0.62 and 3.27±1.17, respectively (t=8.625, P<0.001). At the last follow-up, the VAS was reduced to 2.84±1.95 and 2.25±2.08, respectively (t=2.712, P=0.01; t=7.087, P<0.001) with significant difference in postoperative VAS between the two groups (t=2.489, P=0.017). The preoperative HHS of the impacted bone grafting group and the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting group were 77.02±5.03 and 82.57±5.71, respectively (t=7.822, P<0.001). At the last follow-up, the HHS increased to 81.57±12.81 and 83.55±12.87, respectively. The difference between the preoperative and postoperative HHS was statistically significant in the impacted bone grafting group (t=2.389, P=0.021) but not in the core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting group (t=0.451, P=0.654). There was no significant difference in postoperative HHS between the two groups (t=1.353, P=0.183).@*Conclusion@#Both impacted bone grafting and core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting are safe and effective methods in treating femoral head necrosis. The ARCO stage is a risk factor affecting the prognosis of hips after impacted bone grafting, which has no effect on the mid-term survival of hips after core decompression with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell grafting.

13.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1424-1431, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803314

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the early diagnosis and treatment options for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH).@*Methods@#Retrospective analysis was conducted in 73 patients with unilateral SONFH from January 2010 to June 2017. There were 27 males and 46 females, aged 34.26±10.35 years (range, 20-45 years). The following type of cases were included, 21 cases of ARCO I, 24 cases of IIa, 8 cases of IIb, 18 cases of IIc and 2 cases of IIIa. Patients with ARCO I were limited in weight and were treated with low molecular weight heparin sodium and ginkgo dharma drugs after excluding bleeding risk. Core decompression was performed in patients with ARCO IIa and IIb vascularized greater trochanter bone transfer was conducted in patients with IIc and IIIa. During the follow-up duration, when the ARCO I progressed to ARCO IIa and IIb, the core decompression was performed. When the ARCO IIa and IIb progressed to the ARCO IIc or IIIa, the vascularized greater trochanter bone transfer was conducted. Vascularized greater trochanter bone combined with the tantalum rod was implanted in ARCO IIIb. The femoral head reconstruction with the larger trochanter bone flap or joint replacement was performed in ARCO IIIc and above. The Harris hip score was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. The femoral head survival curve of SONFH was drawn with the end of joint replacement.@*Results@#All 73 patients were followed up for an average of 29 months (range, 18 to 48 months). After treatment of 21 patients with ARCO I, a total of 14 (67%) patients had no ARCO staging progress. After 6 months, three patients progressed to ARCO IIb and 4 patients progressed to ARCO IIc. All 32 patients with ARCO IIa and IIb were treated, of which 25 (78%) did not progress but 4 patients progressed to ARCO IIIa at 6 months. Only one patient progressed to ARCO IIIb at 6 months, and 2 patient progressed to ARCO IIIc at 12 months. There were 18 patients with ARCO IIc underwent treatment, of which 14 patients (78%) did not progress but 2 patients progressed to ARCO IIIa at 6 months and 2 patients progressed to ARCO IIIc at 24 months and to ARCO IV at 42 months, respectively. Two patients of ARCO IIIa, 1 patient did not progress and the other one progressed to ARCO IV at 36 months. The Harris hip score was 90.48±5.36 before treatment and 91.76±8.19 at the last follow-up. The difference was not statistically significant (t=1.231, P=0.402). The Harris hip score of patients with ARCO IIa and IIb in creased from 75.22±8.30 to 84.47±16.77 with statistically significant difference (t=5.624, P<0.001). The Harris hip score of patients with ARCO IIc and IIIa increased from 59.80±9.24 to 77.75±20.75 with statistically significant difference (t=12.033, P<0.001). Four patients eventually underwent arthroplasty. The femoral head survival rate was 98.6% at 2 years and 94.5% at 4 years.@*Conclusion@#The SONFH can be diagnosed early by screening, and is treated by different reserving hip methods according to severe stages. The short-term clinical effects are satisfied.

14.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 677-681,687, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754209

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between vascular endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism and the pathogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis (ANFH).Methods The eNOS full-length CDS fragments,containing 894G or 894T separately,was subcloned into lentiviral expression vector,and then infect the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).The contents of nitric oxide NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in cell culture supernatant were detected in a time-dependent manner.The luciferase-labeled reporter plasmid pNF-κB-luc was co-transfected with the reference control plasmid pRL-TK into HUVEC cells infected with LV-eNOS-894G,LV-eNOS-894T,and control lentivirus (LV-NC) for 48 h.The luciferase activity of each group was detected.The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB protein and eNOS protein in HUVEC cells were detected by Western blot assay.The HUVEC cells in each group were co-cultured with hFOB1.19 cells,and the concentration of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or osteocalcin (OCN) in the supernatant were detected at different time points.Results The contents of NO and cGMP in the cell culture supernatant of the full-length lentivirus expressing eNOS gene (containing 894G or 894T) were significantly higher than that in the empty cell group and the empty vector group,and the contents of NO and cGMP in the cell culture supernatant of the 894G group were significantly higher than that of 894T group (P < 0.01).Compared with blank cells,the expression levels of NF-κB/p65 protein and eNOS protein were significantly increased in cells expressing eNOS,and the expression of NF-κB/p65 protein in 894G group was significantly increased than 894T group,but there was no difference in eNOS protein expression between the 894G and 894T groups;each group of HUVEC cells were co-cultured with hFOB1.19 osteoblasts,and at each of the same time points,the concentrations of ALP and OCN in the cell culture supernatant expressing lentivirus were significantly higher than that in the empty cell group and the empty vector group,and the ALP and OCN concentrations in the cell culture supernatant of the 894G group were significantly higher than those in the 894T group.Conclusions The eNOS gene exon G894T mutation reduces the levels of nitric oxide and cGMP produced by vascular endothelial cells through the eNOS-NO pathway,affecting the expression levels of NF-κB/p65 protein and eNOS protein,and reducing osteoblast activity,and blood supply to blood vessels.It may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to femoral head necrosis.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:Direct anterior approach has been reported to be associated with a risk of reaming the anterior column of the acetabulum,but there is little evidence supporting this opinion.OBJECTIVE:To reveal differences in the bone stock of the anterior and posterior columns between the direct anterior approach and the posterolateral approach in total hip arthroplasty by CT measurement.METHODS:Sixty cases of primary total hip arthroplasty through direct anterior approach (n=30) or posterolateral approach (n=30) at Fuzhou Second Hospital of Xiamen University from October 2015 to December 2017 were enrolled.The cross-sectional area of the anterior and posterior column of the acetabulum,the height of the anterior and posterior column,acetabular diameter,and anteversion were measured by CT.All researchers had 5-10 years of clinical experience,and the surgeons were associate chief physicians or above.The trial has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Fuzhou Second Hospital of Xiamen University on June 1,2017.All patients signed the written informed consents.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) The postoperative cross-sectional area of the anterior and posterior column of the acetabulum,and the height of the anterior and posterior column in the two groups were less than those at baseline (P < 0.05),the acetabular diameter was larger than that at baseline (P < 0.01),and the anteversion showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).The area of the anterior column in the direct anterior approach group was higher than that in the posterolateral approach group (P < 0.05),and other parameters were insignificantly different between two groups (P > 0.05).(2) in summary,compared with posterolateral approach in total hip arthroplasty,direct anterior approach leads to increased area of the anterior column,and made no effect on other parameters.Thereafter,direct anterior approach is not a risk factor for eccentric reaming the anterior column of acetabulum,and the conclusion needs to be confirmed by multicenter,prospective randomized controlled trials.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a worldwide problem, and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Its pathogenesis is still the focus of research in this field. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of autophagy gene Beclin1 in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head and the effect of 3-methyladenine on Beclin1. METHODS: Thirty-six 5-month-old Japanese white rabbits (provided by Xi'an Dilepu Biological Resource Development Co., Ltd.) were included and randomly divided into control group (intramuscular injection of normal saline), avascular necrosis of the femoral head group (intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone) and 3-methyladenine group (intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone and 3-methyladenine), with 12 rabbits in each group. The injection was conducted four times, with 1 week in between. The animals from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks for sample taken. Vacant bone lacunae were counted under optical microscope. mRNA and protein expression levels of Beclin1 were detected by RT-PCR and western blot assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Histomorphological observation under optical microscope showed that the rate of vacant lacunae in the avascular necrosis of the femoral head and 3-methyladenine groups was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in the 3-methyladenine group than that in the avascular necrosis of the femoral head group (P < 0.05). (2) Glucocorticoid could rapidly stimulate the expression of Beclin1 mRNA in the femoral head tissue, and the protein level was significantly increased at the first two weeks, suggesting that autophagy was activated. 3-Methyladenine could inhibit this process. (3) These findings indicate that enhanced autophagy gene Beclin1 expression is important for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. 3-Methyladenine can regulate Beclin1, thereby controlling autophagy, which alleviates the occurrence and development of avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary study has prepared three-dimensional printing β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold loaded with icariin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of three-dimensional printing β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold loaded with icariin in the repair of rabbit models of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits (provided by Qinglongshan Laboratory Animal Center of Nanjing) were selected to establish the steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The 27 model rabbits underwent core decompression and debridement, were randomly divided into three groups, and then implanted with autologous bone, β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold, three-dimensional printing β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold loaded with icariin (composite scaffold group) , respectively. The micro-CT scanning and pathological observation were performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Micro-CT showed that at 4 weeks after implantation, trabecular bone was observed around and in implants in each group. In the autologous bone group, there were a large number of trabecular bones in the grafting area at 8 weeks, and the trabecular bone structure was dense at 12 weeks after implantation. In the tricalcium phosphate and composite scaffold groups, the scaffolds were well integrated with the bone interface. At 4 weeks after implantation, there was a certain amount of trabecular bone surrounding the scaffold, and trabecular grew into the scaffold until 8 weeks in the composite scaffold group. At 4 weeks after implantation, few thin trabecular bone was visible, and extensive trabecular bone formation was observed around the scaffold at 8 weeks in the tricalcium phosphate group. (2) Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that there were many mature osteoblasts, and few cartilage matrix, newly born bones integrated well to the implants at 12 weeks in the autologous bone and tricalcium phosphate groups. In the composite scaffold group, there were many cartilage matrixes, and newly born bones integrated poorly to the implants. (3) Masson staining showed that at 12 weeks after implantation, the osteogenic capacity in the composite scaffold group was lower than that in the autologous bone group (P < 0.05) , but higher than that in the tricalcium phosphate group (P < 0.05) . (4) TRAP staining results at 12 weeks after implantation revealed that the amount of osteoclast in composite scaffold group was less than that in the tricalcium phosphate group (P < 0.05) , and was not significantly different from the autologous bone group (P> 0.05) . (5) Immunohistochemical staining at 12 weeks after implantation revealed that the positive rate of vascular endothelial growth factor in the composite scaffold group was higher than that in the tricalcium phosphate group (P < 0.05) , and lower than that in the autologous bone group (P < 0.05) . (6) In summary, three-dimensional printing β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold loaded with icariin implanted into the rabbit model of osteonecrosis of the femoral head can promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the viability of osteoclasts, promote the angiogenesis, and contribute to the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.

18.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 120-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763962

ABSTRACT

Except when caused by direct and definite mechanisms (e.g., injury of the vessels to the femoral head), the pathophysiology of avascular necrosis of the femoral head has not yet been fully elucidate. While non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head is known to be caused by alcohol, steroids and various diseases, it may also occur without such events in a patient's history. Herein, a case of bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head caused by asymptomatic adrenal cortex incidentaloma which was initially misdiagnosed as idiopathic is reported along with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Cushing Syndrome , Femur Head Necrosis , Head , Humans , Necrosis , Steroids
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare computer measurement semi automatic quantitative detection software system with ultra thin layer pathological section to confirm the avascular necrosis percentage of the femoral head, and provide reference for clinical treatment options.@*METHODS@#From June 2012 to December 2013, the X-ray and MRI of 24 patients(24 hips on unilateral) were reviewed, who had avascular necrosis of the femoral head at late stage (stage III and IV) according to the ARCO international staging system, and performed by total hip arthroplasty. There were 15 males and 9 females, with an average age of (65.1±8.8) years old ranging 33 to 74 years old. Based on imaging system combined with computer aided technology(CAD) system and postoperative ultrathin slice, the volume of the area of femoral head necrosis were calculated. Then combining with the total volume of the femoral head was calculated by X-ray, the percentage of each femoral head necrosis area was calculated as a percentage of the whole ball head in both methods.@*RESULTS@#For 24 hips, the normal femoral head volume was (39.58±3.29) cm³ on average of X-ray film, the necrotic volume was (20.00±3.04) cm³ on average of MRI by the calculation of computer. The necrotic volume occupying in the volume of the normal femoral head was (42.92±6.09)% on average ranged. The necrotic lesion size was larger than 40% in 16 hips, 30% to 40% in 8 hips, 1 ess than 30% in 0 hip. Under the pathological section, the necrosis volume was (19.89±3.17) cm³, the necrotic volume occupying in the volume of the normal femoral head was (40.33±6.36)%. The necrotic lesion size was larger than 40% in 12 hips, 30% to 40% in 11 hips, 1 ess than 30% in 1 hip. In computer and general measurement, the two entire femoral head volume difference was (0.113±0.466) cm³, there was no significant difference using these measurements(=-1.186, =0.248). After the linear correlation statistics analysis, there was a positive correlation relationship in necrotic volume between computer software and pathology measurement(γ=0.980, =0.000).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The severity of the necrotic femoral head is closely related to the percentage of necrotic area. When the ratio of necrotic lesions and the whole femoral head is greater than 30%, the patients' clinical symptoms tend to aggravate, the probability of total hip arthroplasty increased significantly. It have great significances in femoral head necrosis installment, judge the prognosis, guide the selection of treatment and monitoring curative effect.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Female , Femur , Femur Head , Femur Head Necrosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Hip , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore long-term outcomes of Chiari osteotomy for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in children with type Catterall III or IV, and to analyze clinical effect of osteotomy angle on clinical and radiographic results.@*METHODS@#From March 2005 to July 2013, 26 children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with type Catterall III or IV were treated by Chiari osteotomy, including 17 males and 9 females, aged from 4 to 13 years old with an average of (8.9±2.6) years old. Children were divided into low osteotomy angle group and high osteotomy angle group. according to osteotomy angle. There were 10 children in low osteotomy angle group with an osteotomy angle of 10 degrees, including 8 boys and 2 girls, aged from 4 to 13 years old with an average of (9.2±3.3) years old; while there were 16 children in high osteotomy angle group with an osteotomy angle of 15 degress, including 9 boys and 7 girls, aged from 6 to 12 years old with an average of (8.8±2.1) years old. HHS score before operation and at the latest follow-up were recorded to observe clinical results. CE angle of hip joint, acetabular index, Sharp angle, Shenton's line continuity, femoral head coverage, acetabular depth ratio were recorded to compare radiographic results. Stulberg classification was analyzed to compare reshaping ability of femoral head.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-six children were followed up for 4.5 to 12.0 years with an average of (7.9±1.8) years. All incisions were healed at stage I for 10 to 14 days, with an average of(12.3±1.1) days. No inflammation, skin necrosis and injury of vessel and nerve occurred. All osteotomies achieved bone union for 8 to 13 weeks, with an average of(9.8±1.4) weeks. HHS score increased from 75.8±6.5 before operation to 93.5±2.5 at the latest follow-up in low osteotomy angle group(<0.05), and form 77.6±6.2 to 97.8±1.6 in high osteotomy angle group (<0.05). HHS score of high osteotomy angle group at the latest follow-up was higher than that of low osteotomy angle group (<0.05). The acetabular index decreased from (10.1±2.5)° before operation to (4.5±1.3)° at the latest follow-up in low osteotomy angle group (<0.05), and from (10.7±3.3)° before operation to (2.0±1.1)° in high osteotomy angle group (<0.05). The acetabular index of high osteotomy angle group at the latest followup was better than low osteotomy angle group(<0.05). There was no significant difference in CE angle, Sharp angle, Shenton's continuity, femoral head coverage, acetabular depth ratio between two groups. According to Stulberg classification, the femoral head reshaping ability in high osteotomy angle group was better than that of low osteotomy angle group(<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chiari osteotomy with 15° for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in children with type Catterall III or IV could effectively decrease index of acetabulum, and helpful for femoral head reshaping ability, then in further improve clinical effects.


Subject(s)
Acetabulum , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Femur Head , Hip Joint , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Osteotomy , Treatment Outcome
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