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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310167, jun. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1555016

ABSTRACT

La clorhidrorrea congénita es un trastorno genético infrecuente pero importante caracterizado por una alteración grave del balance hidroelectrolítico como resultado de un defecto en la absorción intestinal de cloruros. Los niños afectados presentan diarrea persistente, deshidratación y malnutrición; el control médico y del desarrollo son complejos. Mejorar la detección prenatal es esencial para facilitar la atención del paciente, las intervenciones tempranas y el asesoramiento genético informado. Sin embargo, a pesar de los avances de la medicina, la naturaleza compleja y la escasa frecuencia de esta entidad, constituyen un desafío para la detección prenatal. En este estudio, se reporta el caso de una embarazada donde los estudios por imágenes de resonancia magnética fetales identificaron en forma efectiva las características típicas de la clorhidrorrea congénita. Se proveen conocimientos sobre las complejidades del diagnóstico y se sugieren caminos para las estrategias de detección temprana de esta enfermedad.


Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare but significant genetic disorder characterized by severe electrolyte imbalances resulting from impaired intestinal chloride absorption. Affected children experience persistent diarrhea, dehydration, and malnutrition, complicating medical and developmental care. The enhancement of prenatal detection is crucial for improved patient management, early interventions, and informed genetic counseling. However, despite advancements in medicine, the complex nature and rarity of CCD make prenatal detection challenging. In this study, we report a fetal case where prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effectively identified the distinctive characteristics of CCD, providing insights into the complexities of diagnosis and suggesting avenues for enhanced early detection strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Diarrhea/congenital , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Diarrhea/etiology , Genetic Counseling
2.
Rev. Fed. Centroam. Obstet. Ginecol. ; 28(1): 12-26, 25 de abril de 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552701

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Las gestaciones múltiples sugieren un mayor riesgo de mortalidad perinatal. Dentro de estas estadísticas, la muerte de un solo gemelo ocurre en hasta el 6% de los embarazos múltiples. La incidencia general después de las 20 semanas de gestación (sdg) se estima entre el 2.6% y el 6.2% de todos estos embarazos. Se ha demostrado que es la coriónicidad, más que la cigosidad, la que influye en el resultado de esta complicación, debido a la angioarquitectura placentaria de las circulaciones en los embarazos monocoriónicos. Las tasas de pérdida de hasta el 30-50% se han asociado con embarazos monocoriónicos y monoamnióticos. Si ocurre antes de las 14 sdg, el embrión puede desaparecer; entre las 14 y las 20 sdg, el feto se reduce en tamaño y volumen. Y, si ocurre después de 20 sdg, el feto permanece dentro del útero hasta el final de la gestación. CASO CLÍNICO: femenina de 18 años de edad, quien acudió a revisión obstétrica con reporte ultrasonográfico de un embarazo gemelar monocorial biamniótico de 30.4 sdg, y muerte de uno de los gemelos. Tras demostrar estabilidad hemodinámica del feto sobreviviente, así como estabilidad materna, se decidió internamiento para monitoreo estrecho. Una semana después desarrolló trabajo de parto pretérmino y se decidió la interrupción de la gestación de manera urgente. Se obtuvo un recién nacido masculino con edad gestacional sugestiva de 32 sdg, con dificultad respiratoria y requirió hospitalización para monitoreo estrecho del recién nacido prematuro. Madre egresó a las 48 horas, nunca desarrolló datos de coagulación intravascular diseminada (CID) y el recién nacido se mantuvo en hospitalización aproximadamente 3 semanas y media hasta que se egresó por adecuada adaptación. Nunca se demostró afectación neurológica o de algún otro órgano o sistema. CONCLUSIONES: Los factores más importantes al considerar el riesgo para el gemelo sobreviviente son la edad gestacional a la que ocurre la muerte del otro feto, y la corionicidad. El manejo debe incluir ecografías seriadas y programadas para el crecimiento. Estudios de Doppler arterial/venoso periférico e intracardiaco y una resonancia magnética al menos 3 semanas después de la muerte fetal para buscar cambios en el cerebro del gemelo sobreviviente. A pesar de que existen casos reportados de manejo conservador, es necesario el seguimiento estricto de datos de CID maternos, así como de desprendimiento prematuro de placenta normoinserta. (provisto por Infomedic International)


BACKGROUND: Multiple gestations suggest an increased risk of perinatal mortality. Within these statistics, death of a single twin occurs in up to 6% of multiple pregnancies. The overall incidence after 20 weeks gestation (sdg) is estimated to be between 2.6% and 6.2% of all such pregnancies. Chorionicity, rather than zygosity, has been shown to influence the outcome of this complication, due to the placental angioarchitecture of the circulations in monochorionic pregnancies. Loss rates of up to 30-50% have been associated with monochorionic and monoamniotic pregnancies. If it occurs before 14 sdg, the embryo may disappear; between 14 and 20 sdg, the fetus is reduced in size and volume. And, if it occurs after 20 sdg, the fetus remains inside the uterus until the end of gestation. CLINICAL CASE: 18-year-old female, who attended an obstetric check-up with an ultrasonographic report of a biamniotic monochorionic twin pregnancy of 30.4 sdg, and death of one of the twins. After demonstrating hemodynamic stability of the surviving fetus, as well as maternal stability, it was decided to hospitalize her for close monitoring. One week later she developed preterm labor and it was decided to terminate the pregnancy urgently. A male newborn was obtained with a gestational age suggestive of 32 sdg, with respiratory distress and required hospitalization for close monitoring of the premature newborn. Mother was discharged at 48 hours, never developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the newborn remained in hospital for approximately 3 and a half weeks until he was discharged due to adequate adaptation. No neurologic or other organ or system involvement was ever demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The most important factors when considering the risk to the surviving twin are the gestational age at which the death of the other fetus occurs, and chorionicity. Management should include serial and scheduled ultrasounds for growth. Peripheral arterial/venous and intracardiac Doppler studies and MRI at least 3 weeks after fetal death to look for changes in the brain of the surviving twin. Although there are case reports of conservative management, close monitoring of maternal DIC data, as well as normoinsert placental abruption, is necessary.     (provided by Infomedic International)

4.
Medisan ; 28(2)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558519

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La mortalidad infantil es un fenómeno sanitario relacionado directamente con las condiciones de vida deletéreas, tanto del hogar del infante como de factores socioeconómicos e higiénico-sanitarios adversos. Objetivo: Caracterizar las desigualdades de la mortalidad infantil, según condiciones diferenciales de vida en dos distritos poblacionales de Santiago de Cuba. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo, de tipo ecológico exploratorio, en el municipio Santiago de Cuba, en el trienio 1995-1997. Las unidades de análisis estuvieron constituidas por las áreas de salud enmarcadas en dos distritos poblacionales de la ciudad. Resultados: Se estratificaron ambos distritos poblacionales, según sus condiciones de vida, en asentamientos con condiciones de vida menos desfavorables y más desfavorables. Se estimó mayor mortalidad infantil en el asentamiento con condiciones de vida más desfavorables (8,7 fallecidos por 1000 nacidos vivos), donde predominaron como causas clínicas de muerte las asfixias, la anoxia e hipoxias y causas clínicas reducibles por buena atención en el parto. Conclusiones: Se identificó un perfil diferencial de mortalidad infantil, según las condiciones de vida, al interior de los asentamientos poblacionales de los distritos urbanos de Santiago de Cuba. Los riesgos distintivos de muerte infantil fueron a expensas del componente neonatal, en lo fundamental por causas clínicas reducibles por buena atención en el parto.


Introduction: Infant mortality is a health phenomenon directly related to the deleterious living conditions of both the infant's home and adverse socioeconomic and sanitary factors. Objective: To characterize inequalities in infant mortality according to differential living conditions in two populations districts of Santiago de Cuba. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory ecological study was carried out in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba in 1995-1997. The units of analysis were constituted by the areas framed in two populations districts of the city. Results: Bothe population districts were stratified, according to their living conditions, in settlements with less unfavorable and more unfavorable living conditions. Higher infant mortality was estimated in the settlement with more unfavorable living conditions (8.7 deaths per 1000 live births), where asphyxia, anoxia and hypoxia predominated as clinical causes of death and clinical causes reducible for good care at birth. Conclusions: A differential profile of infant mortality, according to living conditions, was identified within the population settlements of the urban districts of Santiago de Cuba. The distinctive risks of infant death were at the expense of the neonatal component, mainly for clinical causes reducible by good care at birth.

5.
Medisan ; 28(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558506

ABSTRACT

La guía para la atención prenatal es el marco regulatorio de las normas de obstetricia para el control y cuidado de las gestantes, con énfasis en aquellas que poseen el grupo sanguíneo RhD negativo. La aloinmunización por anti-D es la causa más frecuente y grave de la enfermedad hemolítica del recién nacido. Para un diagnóstico temprano de la embarazada con dicho grupo sanguíneo, resulta necesario determinar los anticuerpos antieritrocitarios involucrados. En la presente comunicación se resalta la función del laboratorio de inmunohematología en el seguimiento de la gestante con grupo de sangre RhD negativo.


The guide for prenatal care is the regulatory mark of obstetrics norms for the control and care of pregnant women, with emphasis on those who have the RhD negative blood group. Alloimmunization by anti-D is the most frequent and serious cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn. For an early diagnosis of the pregnant woman with said blood group, it is necessary to determine the red blood cell antibodies involved. This communication highlights the role of the immunohematology laboratory in the follow-up of pregnant woman with RhD negative blood type.

6.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558541

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: la insuficiencia placentaria es la causa más común del retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, que puede provocar alteraciones cardiovasculares. Recientemente, se han desarrollado terapias con eritropoyetina que protegen los tejidos cardiacos con hipoxia. Objetivo: evaluar la influencia de la eritropoyetina recombinante humana con bajo contenido de ácido siálico (NeuroEPO) en el corazón fetal en un modelo de insuficiencia placentaria en ratas. Métodos: se utilizaron 14 ratas Wistar gestadas con ligadura unilateral de la arteria uterina derecha en el día 16 de la gestación. Ese mismo día, a siete ratas se le administró NeuroEPO (0,5 mg/kg/día subcutáneo por tres días) y al resto placebo. En el día 20 de la gestación los fetos se dividieron en cuatro grupos: un grupo control, un grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, un grupo control NeuroEPO y un grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino y NeuroEPO. En los fetos se obtuvo el peso placentario, peso fetal y la eficacia placentaria. En el estudio histológico se cuantificó el número de cardiomiocitos, número de vasos sanguíneos y cantidad de las fibras de colágenos. Resultados: el grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino presentó una disminución del peso fetal, del número de cardiomiocitos, del número de vasos sanguíneos y un aumento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas (p<0.05). Al tratar con NeuroEPO a los fetos con retardo en el crecimiento intrauterino, aumentó el peso fetal, aunque el peso no fue similar al control. El resto de las variables se comportaron semejantes al control. Conclusiones: la administración de esta molécula mejoró el peso fetal y permitió un equilibrio adecuado en el desarrollo del corazón fetal, quizás, debido a los efectos citoprotectores de esta molécula.


Foundation: placental insufficiency is the most common cause of intrauterine growth retardation, which can cause cardiovascular alterations. Recently, erythropoietin therapies have been developed that protect hypoxic cardiac tissues. Objective: To evaluate the influence of human recombinant erythropoietin with low sialic acid content (NeuroEPO) on the fetal heart in a rat model of placental insufficiency. Methods: 14 Wistar rats gestated with unilateral ligation of the right uterine artery on day 16 of gestation were used. That same day, seven rats were administered NeuroEPO (0.5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for three days) and the rest received placebo. On day 20 of gestation, the fetuses were divided into four groups: a control group, a group with intrauterine growth retardation, a NeuroEPO control group, and a group with intrauterine growth retardation and NeuroEPO. In the fetuses, placental weight, fetal weight and placental efficiency were obtained. In the histological study, the number of cardiomyocytes, number of blood vessels and quantity of collagen fibers were quantified. Results: the group with intrauterine growth retardation presented a decrease in fetal weight, the number of cardiomyocytes, the number of blood vessels and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers (p<0.05). When fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were treated with NeuroEPO, fetal weight increased, although the weight was not similar to the control. The rest of the variables behaved similar to the control. Conclusions: the administration of this molecule improved fetal weight and allowed an adequate balance in the development of the fetal heart, perhaps due to the cytoprotective effects of this molecule.

7.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558547

ABSTRACT

Fundamento la placenta humana es un misterio. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico cobra importancia en la búsqueda de factores en los que se pueda trabajar para evitar las muertes fetales. Objetivo determinar las alteraciones macroscópicas y microscópicas de la placenta y sus anejos en especímenes procedentes de muertes fetales. Métodos se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y trasversal, en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, en el período comprendido entre 2021 y 2023. Fueron analizadas 58 placentas y sus anejos, recibidos en el departamento de Anatomía Patológica. Se estudiaron las alteraciones macroscópicas y microscópicas de la placenta. Resultados tuvieron mayor representación las placentas y cordones anormalmente pequeños (24,14 % y 63,79 % respectivamente); la inserción marginal del cordón (36,21 %), las rupturas, las torciones (8,62 %), los quistes (6,90 %), el edema (77,59 %), la necrosis fibrinoide (72,41%), las vellosidades inmaduras, la villitis (43,10 %), el excesivo número de nudos sincitiales (3,48 %), la esclerosis fibromuscular (20,69 %), la presencia de fibrina (82,76 %), la funisitis (29,31%), la esclerosis fibromuscular (20,69 %) y la corioamnionitis (31,03 %). Conclusiones los resultados evidenciaron predominio de las alteraciones microscópicas, como son la fibrina, la necrosis fibrinoide y el edema. Teniendo en cuenta estos factores, se podrán tomar las medidas necesarias para evitar una muerte fetal.


Foundation the human placenta is a mystery. The anatomopathological diagnosis becomes important in the search for factors that can be worked on to avoid fetal deaths. Objective to determine the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the placenta and its annexes in specimens from fetal deaths. Methods a descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital, in Cienfuegos, from 2021 to 2023. 58 placentas and their annexes, received in the Pathological Anatomy Department, were analyzed. Macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the placenta were studied. Results abnormally small placentas and cords were more represented (24.14 % and 63.79 % respectively); marginal cord insertion (36.21 %), ruptures, twists (8.62 %), cysts (6.90 %), edema (77.59 %), fibrinoid necrosis (72.41 %), immature villi, villitis (43.10 %), excessive number of syncytial knots (3.48 %), fibromuscular sclerosis (20.69 %), the presence of fibrin (82.76%), funisitis (29.31 %), fibromuscular sclerosis (20.69 %) and chorioamnionitis (31.03 %). Conclusions the results showed a predominance of microscopic alterations, such as fibrin, fibrinoid necrosis and edema. Taking these factors into account, the necessary measures can be taken to avoid fetal death.

8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559722

ABSTRACT

La membrana amniótica (MA), ubicada en el lado interno de la placenta fetal, ha sido objeto de múltiples investigaciones para intentar dilucidar su papel embriológico y su potencial celular terapéutico. Actualmente las limitaciones del estudio en fetos humanos hacen que parte de su funcionamiento sea una incógnita, sin embargo algunos estudios clínicos y básicos nos dan luz sobre su papel en la médica moderna. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura desde 1960 hasta 2022, empleando bases de datos como PubMed, SciELO y Scopus, siendo incluidos un total de 50 artículos y dos textos de embriología. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa fue sintetizar la información sobre la angiogénesis y su importancia clínica. La información recopilada permitió evidenciar que las propiedades de curación de la piel del feto se deben a factores intrínsecos del feto, y a que las células epiteliales amnióticas humanas poseen una diferenciación similar a las células madre embrionarias, con la capacidad de diferenciación similar al de las células mesenquimales, resaltando su importancia clínica por sus características regenerativas. En conclusión, el desarrollo embrionario humano sigue siendo relativamente inexplicable, pero su conocimiento ha permitido grandes avances, que podrían ser útiles en terapias de regeneración, reparación de tejidos y órganos lesionados.


The amniotic membrane, located on the inner side of the fetal placenta, has been the subject of multiple investigations to try to elucidate its embryological role and its therapeutic cellular potential. Currently, the limitations of the study in human fetuses mean that part of its functioning is unknown, however, some clinical and basic studies shed light on its role in modern medicine. A bibliographic review of the literature was carried out from 1960 to 2022, using databases such as PubMed, SciELO and Scopus, including a total of 50 articles and two embryology texts. The objective of this narrative review was to synthesize information on angiogenesis and its clinical importance. The information collected made it possible to show that the healing properties of the fetal skin are due to intrinsic factors of the fetus, and that human amniotic epithelial cells have a differentiation similar to embryonic stem cells, with the differentiation capacity similar to that of mesenchymal cells, highlighting their clinical importance due to their regenerative characteristics. In conclusion, human embryonic development remains relatively inexplicable, but its knowledge has allowed great advances, which could be useful in regeneration therapies, repair of injured tissues and organs.

10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 40(3): e00085523, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534137

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este estudo avaliou a associação do peso ao nascer, idade gestacional e crescimento intrauterino com a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) aos 22 e 30 anos, nas coortes de nascimentos de 1982 e 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A DMO foi medida por absorciometria por raios X com dupla energia (DXA), a associação foi avaliada usando análise de variância e a regressão linear múltipla para o controle de confundimento por: sexo, renda familiar ao nascer, tabagismo materno na gestação, escolaridade materna, cor da pele materna e índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional. Foi testado se a gordura corporal na vida adulta era mediadora da associação analisada, por meio da G-computation Formula. Foram avaliados 6.803 participantes das coortes de 1982 e 1993, aos 30 e 22 anos, respectivamente. O peso ao nascer teve associação com a DMO em todos os sítios, com maior diferença no colo femoral. Os nascidos com menos de 2.000g apresentaram, em média, -0,036g/cm2 (IC95%: -0,064; -0,008) de DMO no colo femoral em comparação àqueles com mais de 3.500g. Aqueles com escore-z de crescimento intrauterino com pelo menos 1,28 desvio padrão abaixo da média apresentaram, em média, -0,013g/cm2 (IC95%: -0,024; -0,002) de DMO na coluna lombar, em relação aos com escore-z acima da média. A análise de mediação mostrou que gordura corporal na idade adulta não mediou a associação. As condições de nascimento foram associadas com a densidade mineral óssea na vida adulta, e a identificação dos fatores precoces relacionados à perda de DMO é essencial devido à inversão demográfica em progresso em países de média e baixa renda.


Abstract: This study assessed the association of birth weight, gestational age, and intrauterine growth with bone mineral density (BMD) at 22 and 30 years of age in the 1982 and 1993 birth cohorts in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the association was assessed using analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression was used to control for confounding factors: sex; household income at birth; maternal smoking during pregnancy; maternal schooling; maternal ethnicity/skin color; and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The study tested whether body fat in adulthood was a mediator of the association analyzed, using the G-computation Formula. A total of 6,803 participants from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts were evaluated at 30 and 22 years of age, respectively. Birth weight was associated with BMD at all sites, with a greater difference at the femoral neck. Individuals born weighing less than 2,000g had on average -0.036g/cm2 (95%CI: -0.064; -0.008) of BMD in the femoral neck than individuals weighing more than 3,500g. Individuals with an intrauterine growth z-score at least 1.28 standard deviation below the mean had an average of -0.013g/cm2 (95%CI: -0.024; -0.002) of BMD in the lumbar spine compared with individuals with an above-average z-score. The mediation analysis showed that body fat in adulthood did not mediate the association. Birth conditions have been associated with BMD in adulthood and the identification of early factors related to bone loss is essential due to the demographic inversion that has been taking place in low- and middle-income countries.


Resumen: Este estudio evaluó la asociación del peso al nacer, la edad gestacional y el crecimiento intrauterino con la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) a los 22 y 30 años de edad, en las Cohortes de Nacimiento de 1982 y 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La DMO se midió mediante absorciometría de rayos X de doble emisión (DXA), y la asociación se evaluó mediante ANOVA y regresión lineal múltiple para controlar la confusión por sexo, ingresos familiares al nacer, tabaquismo materno durante el embarazo, escolaridad materna, color de piel materno e índice de masa corporal antes del embarazo. Se comprobó si la grasa corporal en la edad adulta era un mediador de la asociación analizada, utilizando G-computation Formula. Se evaluaron 6.803 participantes de las cohortes 82 y 93, de 30 y 22 años, respectivamente. El peso al nacer se asoció con la DMO en todos los sitios, con la mayor diferencia en el cuello femoral. Los nacidos con un peso inferior a 2.000g tuvieron una media de -0,036g/cm2 (IC95%: -0,064; -0,008) de DMO en el cuello femoral, que aquellos con más de 3.500g. Aquellos con una puntuación z de crecimiento intrauterino de al menos 1,28 desviaciones estándar por debajo de la media presentaron un promedio de -0,013g/cm2 (IC95%: -0,024; -0,002) de DMO en la columna lumbar, con relación a aquellos con un puntaje z superior a la media. El análisis de mediación mostró que la grasa corporal en la edad adulta no medió la asociación. Las condiciones de nacimiento se asociaron con la DMO en la edad adulta, y la identificación temprana de factores relacionados con la pérdida de DMO es esencial debido a la inversión demográfica que ha estado ocurriendo en los países de ingresos medios y bajos.

11.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390624, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533361

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the degree of maturation and development of fetal pig segmental intestinal tissue with that of spheroids created by in-vitro reaggregation of dissociated fetal intestinal cells after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Methods: Fetal pig small intestines were transplanted as segmental grafts into the omentum and subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice or enzymatically treated to generate single cells. Spheroids made by in-vitro reaggregation of these cells were transplanted into the subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice. The segmental grafts and spheroids were harvested four and eight weeks after transplantation, and the structural maturity and in-vivo development of these specimens were histologically evaluated. Results: The spheroids were engrafted and supplied blood vessels from the host mice, but an intestinal layered structure was not clearly observed, and there was almost no change in size. On the other hand, the segmental grafts formed deep crypts in the mucus membrane, the inner circular layer, and outer longitudinal muscles. The crypts of the transplanted grafts harvested at eight weeks were much deeper, and the smooth muscle layer and the enteric nervous system were more mature than those of grafts harvested at the fourth week, although the intestinal peristaltic wave was not observed. Conclusions: Spheroids created from fetal small intestinal cells could not form layered structures or mature sufficiently. Conversely, segmental tissues structurally matured and developed after in-vivo transplantation and are therefore potential grafts for transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous/veterinary , Fetal Tissue Transplantation/veterinary , Fetal Organ Maturity
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 77(1): e20220811, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1550752

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify scientific evidence regarding nursing care for parents who have experienced grief following fetal demise. Methods: an integrative review of original studies was conducted across six databases. The studies were classified according to the level of evidence. Results: the qualitative analysis of the nine studies comprising the sample involved thematic categories, exploring the impact of perinatal loss on families, inadequate communication by healthcare professionals, and the importance of a holistic approach in care. The role of the nurse is highlighted in making a positive contribution to the team, emphasizing participation in training and the provision of essential information. Final Considerations: grieving affects not only family dynamics but also the social environment, emphasizing the urgency of a more empathetic and comprehensive approach. Care should be holistic, going beyond technical nursing assistance, and addressing the biopsychosocial context of the parents.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar evidencia científica sobre el cuidado de enfermería a padres que han experimentado el duelo ante la pérdida fetal. Métodos: revisión integradora de estudios originales realizada en seis bases de datos y clasificados según el nivel de evidencia. Resultados: el análisis cualitativo de los nueve estudios que conformaron la muestra abordó categorías temáticas, explorando el impacto de la pérdida perinatal en las familias, la comunicación inadecuada por parte de los profesionales de la salud y la importancia de un enfoque holístico en la atención. Se destaca la importancia del papel del enfermero en la contribución positiva al equipo, haciendo hincapié en la participación en capacitaciones y la provisión de información esencial. Consideraciones Finales: la experiencia del duelo afecta no solo la dinámica familiar, sino también el entorno social, evidenciando la urgencia de un enfoque más empático y comprensivo. El cuidado debe ser holístico, trascendiendo la asistencia técnica de enfermería, con un enfoque en el contexto biopsicosocial de los padres.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar evidências científicas acerca do cuidado de enfermagem aos pais que vivenciaram o luto diante do óbito fetal. Métodos: revisão integrativa de estudos originais realizada em seis bases de dados e classificados quanto ao nível de evidência. Resultados: a análise qualitativa dos nove estudos que compuseram a amostra envolveu categorias temáticas, explorando o impacto da perda perinatal nas famílias, a comunicação inadequada por parte dos profissionais de saúde e a importância de uma abordagem holística na assistência. Destaca-se a importância do papel do enfermeiro na contribuição positiva para a equipe, enfatizando a participação em capacitações e o fornecimento de informações essenciais. Considerações Finais: a vivência do luto impacta não apenas a dinâmica familiar, mas o meio social, evidenciando a urgência de uma abordagem mais empática e compreensiva. O cuidado deve ocorrer de forma holística, transcendendo a assistência técnica de enfermagem, com abordagem do contexto biopsicossocial dos pais.

13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1556816

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La valoración ultrasonográfica del peso fetal permite valorar el crecimiento y bienestar fetal pudiendo estimar el peso al nacimiento, factor determinante para el pronóstico vital. Objetivos: Determinar el margen de error ecográfico del peso fetal estimado (PFE) en relación con el peso al nacer de los neonatos de la Maternidad del Hospital de Clínicas entre los años 2020 y 2022 Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en mujeres que tuvieron un parto en el lugar y el período mencionado, y que contaban con ecografía obstétrica de crecimiento realizada con menos de 7 días respecto al nacimiento. Se calculó el error del PFE mediante la fórmula: (Peso al Nacer - Peso Fetal Estimado) / Peso al Nacer) x 100. Se contrastó el error del peso fetal estimado con el índice de masa corporal, diabetes y estados hipertensivos del embarazo, utilizando t de Student y con la edad gestacional y edad materna mediante el índice de Pearson tomando valores estadísticamente significativos menores a 0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 258 pacientes. El margen de error ecográfico del PFE fue de 8,3% DE ± 7. Se obtuvo un valor p para el IMC de 0,228, diabetes p 0,915, estados hipertensivos p 0,967, días en que se realizaba la ecografía p 0,5 y edad gestacional el p 0,001. Conclusiones: El margen de error ecográfico del PFE se encuentra por debajo de los parámetros internacionales. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa con la edad gestacional, no así con las otras variables.


Introduction: Ultrasonographic assessment of fetal weight allows assessment of fetal growth and well-being and can estimate birth weight, a determining factor for vital prognosis. Objectives: Determine the ultrasound margin of error of the estimated fetal weight (EFP) in relation to the birth weight of neonates at the Maternity Hospital of the Hospital de Clínicas between the years 2020 and 2022. Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on women who had their birth in the aforementioned place and period and who had an obstetric growth ultrasound performed less than 7 days after birth. The error of the EPF was calculated using the formula: (Birth Weight - Estimated Fetal Weight) / Birth Weight) x 100. The error of the estimated fetal weight was contrasted with the body mass index, diabetes and hypertensive state of pregnancy, using Student's t and with gestational age and maternal age using the Pearson index taking statistically significant values ​​less than 0.05. Results: 258 patients were included. The ultrasound margin of error of the EPF was 8.3% SD ± 7. A p value was obtained for BMI of 0.228, diabetes p 0.915, hypertensive states p 0.967, days in which the ultrasound was performed p 0.5 and age gestational p 0.001. Conclusions: The ultrasound margin of error of the EPF is below the international parameters. Statistically significant associations were found with gestational age, but not with the other variables.


Introdução: A avaliação ultrassonográfica do peso fetal permite avaliar o crescimento e bem-estar fetal e pode estimar o peso ao nascer, fator determinante para o prognóstico vital. Objetivos: Determinar a margem de erro ultrassonográfica do peso fetal estimado (PFE) em relação ao peso ao nascer dos neonatos atendidos na Maternidade do Hospital de Clínicas entre os anos de 2020 e 2022. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal com mulheres que tiveram o parto no local e período mencionados e que realizaram ultrassonografia obstétrica de crescimento menos de 7 dias após o nascimento. O erro do PFE foi calculado pela fórmula: (Peso ao Nascer - Peso Fetal Estimado) / Peso ao Nascer) x 100. O erro do peso fetal estimado foi contrastado com o índice de massa corporal, diabetes e estado hipertensivo da gestação, utilizando-se o teste de Student. t e com idade gestacional e idade materna utilizando o índice de Pearson assumindo valores estatisticamente significativos menores que 0,05. Resultados: foram incluídos 258 pacientes. A margem de erro ultrassonográfica do PFE foi de 8,3% DP ± 7. Obteve-se valor de p para IMC de 0,228, diabetes p 0,915, estados hipertensivos p 0,967, dias em que foi realizada a ultrassonografia p 0,5 e idade gestacional p 0,001. Conclusões: A margem de erro ultrassonográfica do PFE está abaixo dos parâmetros internacionais. Foram encontradas associações estatisticamente significativas com a idade gestacional, mas não com as demais variáveis.

14.
Radiol. bras ; 57: e20230129, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558820

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the effect of antenatal corticosteroid administration on fetal hemodynamics using longitudinal analysis of Doppler waveforms in the umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study that included 30 fetuses at risk for preterm birth. Twenty-eight pregnant women were treated with betamethasone for fetal lung maturation. Doppler examinations of the UA and MCA were performed once before and three or eight times after corticosteroid administration. We used a Bayesian hierarchical linear model. Reference ranges were constructed, and associations between variables (gestational age and pre-eclampsia) were tested. Results: The mean maternal age, gestational age at betamethasone administration, and gestational age at delivery were 32.6 ± 5.89 years, 30.2 ± 2.59 weeks, and 32.9 ± 3.42 weeks, respectively. On UA Doppler, there was a significant decrease in the pulsatility index (PI) after corticosteroid administration, with a mean of 0.1147 (credibility interval: 0.03687-0.191) in three observations and a median of 0.1437 (credibility interval: 0.02509-0.2627) in eight observations. However, there was no significant change in the Doppler MCA PI, regardless of gestational age and the presence or absence of pre-eclampsia. Conclusion: Although antenatal corticosteroid administration induced a significant decrease in the Doppler UA PI, we observed no change in the cerebral vasculature.


Resumo Objetivo: Estudar o efeito da administração antenatal de corticosteroides na hemodinâmica fetal mediante análise longitudinal do Doppler na artéria umbilical e artéria cerebral média (ACM). Materiais e Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo que incluiu 30 fetos com risco de nascimento pré-termo. Vinte e oito gestantes foram tratadas com betametasona para maturação pulmonar fetal. Os exames de Doppler da AU e da ACM foram realizados uma vez antes e depois da administração de corticosteroides, num total de três ou oito observações. Utilizamos o modelo linear hierárquico com abordagem Bayesiana. Foram construídos os intervalos de referência e testadas associações entre variáveis (idade gestacional e pré-eclâmpsia). Resultados: A média ± desvio-padrão da idade materna, idade gestacional na administração de betametasona e idade gestacional no parto foram 32,6 ± 5,89 anos, 30,2 ± 2,59 semanas e 32,9 ± 3,42 semanas, respectivamente. No Doppler da AU, verificou-se diminuição significativa do índice de pulsatilidade (IP) com a terapêutica com corticosteroides (média: 0,1147 [0,03687-0,191]; em três observações) (mediana: 0,1437 [0,02509-0,2627]; em oito observações). No entanto, não foi observada alteração significativa no IP do Doppler da ACM, independentemente da idade gestacional e do diagnóstico de pré-eclâmpsia. Conclusão: Os corticosteroides pré-natais induziram diminuição significativa no IP do Doppler da AU, mas não houve alteração na vasculatura cerebral.

15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 46: e, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559544

ABSTRACT

Abstract RhD alloimmunization in pregnancy is still the main cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and neonate (HDFN). Nevertheless, there are other antigens that may be associated with the occurrence of this phenomenon and that have been growing in proportion, given that current prevention strategies focus only on anti-RhD antibodies. Although not widespread, the screening and diagnostic management of the disease caused by these antibodies has recommendations in the literature. For this reason, the following review was carried out with the objective of listing the main red blood cell antigen groups described — such as Rh, ABO, Kell, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, among others — addressing the clinical importance of each one, prevalence in different countries, and recommended management when detecting such antibodies during pregnancy.

16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 41(1): 83-88, 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560408

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La mortalidad perinatal es un indicador que refleja el impacto de la atención materno-infantil de un país. Este estudio presenta nueve casos de la mortalidad perinatal ocurridos en el municipio de Panchimalco, El Salvador. La información se obtuvo de los informes de auditorías. Las madres de los fallecidos tenían edades entre 17 a 43 años, sin uso de anticonceptivos, con controles prenatales incompletos y un promedio de edad gestacional de 31 semanas, tres partos fueron atendidos en la comunidad. La mayoría de muertes perinatales ocurrieron antes del parto de causa desconocida y los nacidos vivos fueron prematuros. Se identificaron factores como el déficit en la atención integral a la mujer. Se requiere de nuevos estudios para determinar los principales factores que influyen en las muertes perinatales en El Salvador.


ABSTRACT Perinatal mortality is an indicator that reflects the impact of maternal and infant care in a country. This study presents nine cases of perinatal mortality that occurred in the municipality of Panchimalco, El Salvador. The information was obtained from audit reports. The mothers of the deceased infants were aged between 17 and 43 years, did not use contraceptive methods, had incomplete prenatal controls and averaged a gestational age of 31 weeks. Three deliveries were attended in the community. Most perinatal deaths occurred before delivery due to unknown causes, and live births were preterm. We identified factors such as deficits in comprehensive care for women. Further studies are needed to determine the main factors influencing perinatal deaths in El Salvador.

17.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 469-475, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013639

ABSTRACT

Aim To observe the effects of oral puerarin (Pue) on the maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rats and its fetal growth and development, so as to provide references for the application of Pue in the treatment of GDM. Methods The GDM rat model was established by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) into the tail vein of pregnant female rats, and the rats were treated with Pue orally for 12 days; the body weight and abortion of pregnant rats were recorded. The fasting blood glucose of pregnant rats was detected before and at the end of the treatment, and the glucose tolerance was tested on the 5th and 10th days after the administration of the drug. The cesarean sections were carried out on the 20th day of pregnancy. The blood glucose content of the fetal rats was detected, and the state of development was observed. The body weight and length were measured, as well as the placenta and the important organs weight, and the indexes of the organs were calculated. Results Compared with the model group, Pue could significantly reduce the fasting blood glucose of GDM pregnant rats and fetal rats, improve the glucose tolerance of pregnant rats, effectively alleviate the excessive weight gain of pregnant rats and overweight of fetal rats caused by GDM, and reduce the abortion rate; it could also reverse the decrease in the indexes of the organs of brain, heart, and liver, and the increase in the indexes of organs of kidney in fetal rats caused by GDM. Conclusions Pue can relieve the maternal and the fetal hyperglycemia in GDM, reduce the rate of miscarriage, reduce the incidence of macrosomia, and promote the development of vital fetal organs.

18.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 84(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533587

ABSTRACT

La displasia mesenquimal placentaria es una entidad poco frecuente, confundida al ultrasonido y macroscopía con mola parcial por las lesiones vesiculares y la presencia de feto. La microscopía revela vellosidades troncales hidrópicas con gran hiperplasia mesenquimal y lesiones vasculares prominentes, pero sin hiperplasia del epitelio trofoblástico. El feto, generalmente femenino, puede ser normal o presentar retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, malformaciones, tumores o cromosomopatías. Presentamos el estudio de cuatro casos de displasia mesenquimal placentaria; tres primigestas de 39 y 20 años de edad, y una segundigesta de 26 años. La mayor, del tercer trimestre, cursó con preeclampsia y mortinato de sexo femenino con anomalías pulmonar y esplénica, las otras dos presentaron sangrado vaginal y dolor pélvico y un caso fue un hallazgo en el control prenatal a las 8 semanas de gestación. En tres casos se observaron feto y embrion, dos de ellos tuvieron necropsia.


Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare entity, confused with ultrasound and macroscopy with partial mole due to vesicular lesions and the presence of a fetus. Microscopy reveals hydropic trunk villi with great mesenchymal hyperplasia and prominent vascular lesions but without hyperplasia of the trophoblastic epithelium. The fetus, usually female, may be normal or present malformations, tumors or chromosomopathies. We present the study of four cases of placental mesenchymal dysplasia; three first-pregnancies, aged 39 and 20, and a second-pregnancy, aged 26. The oldest in the third trimester presented with preeclampsia and a female stillbirth with pulmonary and splenic anomalies, the other two presented vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain and one case was a finding in prenatal control at 8 weeks of gestation. In three cases, fetus and embryo were observed, two of them had a necropsy.

19.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 33: e-33202, Jan.-Dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: De etiologia desconhecida, a hiperêmese gravídica é um quadro caracterizado por vômitos persistentes, perda de 5% ou mais do peso, cetonúria, hipocalemia e desidratação. Acredita-se que a gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG) provoque aumento das náuseas e vômitos por meio de seu estímulo à produção de estrogênio pelo ovário, provocando a exacerbação dos sintomas do "enjoo matinal". OBJETIVO: Logo, essa revisão narrativa tem como objetivo analisar as repercussões fetais do quadro de hiperêmese gravídica. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas buscas em Sistema Online de Busca e Análise de Literatura Médica - MEDLINE®. Sendo utilizadas os Medical Subject Headings (MeSh terms) e seus sinônimos: "hyperemesis gravidarum", "fetal risks", sendo selecionados ao todo 13 artigos. RESULTADOS: Os estudos demonstraram que a hiperêmese gravídica pode trazer malefícios para mãe e feto. A gestante pode apresentar distúrbios eletrolíticos, encefalopatia de Wernicke, fraqueza muscular, disfunções emocionais como depressão, ansiedade e estresse pós-traumático. DISCUSSÃO: Os estudos revelaram que a patologia pode estar relacionada ao risco aumentado para desfechos adversos no nascimento, como baixo peso ao nascer, nascimento prematuro e pequena estatura para idade gestacional. Ademais, alguns estudos relataram os riscos prejudiciais no neurodesenvolvimento do recém-nascido, como problemas psicológicos e comportamentais na idade adulta, redução à sensibilidade à insulina, e comorbidades (obesidade e doenças cardiovasculares) além de distúrbios de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. CONCLUSÃO: Gestantes que apresentam o quadro de hiperêmese gravídica devem ser regularmente acompanhadas com consultas entre 1 a 2 semanas, conforme a gravidade do caso e o mais precocemente possível tratadas, a fim de evitar maiores complicações tanto maternas quanto fetais.


INTRODUCTION: Of unknown etiology, hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition characterized by persistent vomiting, 5% or more weight loss, ketonuria, hypokalemia and dehydration. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is believed to cause increased nausea and vomiting through its stimulation of estrogen production by the ovary, causing exacerbation of "morning sickness" symptoms. OBJECTIVE: Thus, this narrative review aims to analyze the fetal repercussions of hyperemesis gravidarum. METHODS: Searches were performed in the Online Medical Literature Analysis and Search System - MEDLINE®. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSh terms) and their synonyms were used: "hyperemesis gravidarum", "fetal risks", being selected a total of 13 articles. RESULTS: The studies showed that hyperemesis gravidarum can bring harm to mother and fetus. The pregnant woman may present electrolyte disturbances, Wernicke's encephalopathy, muscle weakness, emotional dysfunctions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. DISCUSSION: The studies revealed that hyperemesis gravidarum may be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some studies reported harmful risks in neurodevelopment of the newborn, such as psychological and behavioral problems in adulthood, reduced sensitivity to insulin, and comorbidities (obesity and cardiovascular diseases) and neurodevelopmental disorders. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women who present with hyperemesis gravidarum should be followed up with consultations between 1 to 2 weeks, according to the severity of the case and treated as early as possible in order to avoid further complications both maternal and fetal.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Hyperemesis Gravidarum , Fetal Development , Hyperemesis Gravidarum/complications
20.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534855

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de zinc puede ser un factor mediador en los trastornos del crecimiento fetal en la descendencia de la gestante diabética. Se persiguió como objetivo determinar la influencia de un suplemento con zinc sobre la morfometría externa corporal y craneofacial en fetos de ratas diabéticas con hiperglucemias moderadas. Durante la gestación, ratas diabéticas y controles fueron suplementadas por vía oral con sulfato de zinc (50 mg/kg-pc) o no recibieron tratamiento. Los fetos descendientes del grupo diabético suplementado presentaron niveles similares a los controles en las variables de crecimiento somático determinadas. La suplementación con zinc a ratas diabéticas favoreció el crecimiento intrauterino en los fetos. Los resultados de esta investigación constituyen aportes para dilucidar los requerimientos de zinc que permitan prevenir los trastornos del crecimiento fetal en la descendencia de gestantes diabéticas.


Zinc deficiency may be a mediating factor in fetal growth disorders in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women. The objective was to determine the influence of a zinc supplement on external body and craniofacial morphometry in diabetic rat fetuses with moderate hyperglycemia. During gestation, diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg bw) or received no treatment. The fetuses descendants of the supplemented diabetic group had levels similar to the control ones in the determined somatic growth variables. Zinc supplementation to diabetic rats favoured intrauterine growth in fetuses. The results of this research constitute a contribution to elucidate zinc requirements that allow preventing fetal growth disorders in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Zinc , Fetal Growth Retardation
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