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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936297

ABSTRACT

The Chinese Pharmacopoeia began to apply fingerprints (specific chromatogram) to quality control of traditional Chinese medicine in its 2010 edition, and in its 2015 and 2020 editions, new fingerprints (specific chromatogram) were added for improvement of the Pharmacopoeia-based national standards for drugs. This review analyzes the traditional Chinese medicine fingerprints (specific chromatogram) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010-2020) in terms of the number of varieties listed, application of fingerprints (specific chromatogram), selection of evaluation method, determination method, the selection of extraction or preparation solvents of the test samples. With the expansion of the application of fingerprints (specific chromatogram), the evaluation indicators are constantly improving. The future development of the fingerprints (specific chromatogram) is also discussed in light of the selection of appropriate extraction or preparation solvents to obtain effective substances, which is the basis for the establishment of the fingerprints; multiple fingerprints for one drug based on different functional indications or basic sources, which expands the application of the fingerprints; addition of technical guidelines for traditional Chinese medicine fingerprints to standardize the use of the fingerprints; and the regular revision, update and application expansion of the fingerprints to ensure its essential role in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Solvents
2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 32-37, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the spectru m-toxicity relationship of in vitro hepatotoxicity of aqueous extract from Euodia rutaecarpa. METHODS The aqueous extract from 16 batches of E. rutaecarpa from different habitats were prepared. The fingerprints of aqueous extract from E. rutaecarpa were established by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method and Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Fingerprint (2012A edition ),and common peaks were identified and the similarity was evaluated. Using normal human hepatocytes L 02 as subject ,inhibitory effect of aqueous extract from 16 batches of E. rutaecarpa to them were investigated. The spectrum-toxicity relationship of UPLC fingerprint of aqueous extract from E. rutaecarpa with the hepatotoxicity of hepatocytes L 02 was analyzed by grey relational analysis (GRA)and partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR). The corresponding compound of the chromatographic peak with the greatest correlation with the in vitro hepatotoxicity of E. rutaecarpa were isolated ,prepared and identified. RESULTS There were 27 common peaks in UPLC fingerprints of aqueous extract from 16 batches of E. rutaecarpa ,with similarity of 0.375-0.995. Totally 9 peaks were confirmed ,i.e. neochlorogenic acid (peak 5),chlorogenic acid (peak 9),cryptochlorogenic acid (peak 10),caffeic acid (peak 12),rutin (peak 16),hyperin(peak 17),dehydroevotarine(peak 19),evotarine(peak 24),rutecarpine(peak 25). The aqueous extract from 16 batches of E. rutaecarpa showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of L 02 cells(P<0.05 or P<0.01),and the inhibitory rate ranged from 6.68% to 67.95%. GRA showed that there were 18 common peaks with correlation degree greater than 0.8,which were peak 8>peak 3>peak 23>peak 7>peak 4>peak 9>peak 12>peak 2>peak 19>peak 6> 4928381。E-mail:799247687@qq.com peak 15>peak 5>peak 1>peak 17>peak 21>peak 26> peak 20>peak 14 in descending order of correlation degree. PLSR showed that there were 14 peaks with regression coefficient>0 and variable importance projection value >1,and the order of regression coefficient was peak 8>peak 3>peak 23> peak 2>peak 7>peak 4>peak 12>peak 9>peak 19>peak 5>peak 17>peak 26>peak 10>peak 15. Peak 8 had the greatest correlation with in vitro hepatotoxicity,and the corresponding compound of this peak was identified as 6-O-trans caffeoyl gluconic acid. CONCLUSIONS The in vitro hepatotoxicity of aqueous extract from E. rutaecarpa is the result of multiple component interaction,among which 6-O-trans caffeoyl gluconic acid shows closest relation with in vitro hepatotoxicity.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942334

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo compare the effects of different drying methods on volatile components of Pseudostellariae Radix. MethodThe samples were dried by different methods, including air drying, sun drying, hot air drying (40, 60, 80 ℃) and vacuum freeze drying. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was used to compare the changes of volatile components in the samples after different treatments. The samples were incubated at 80 ℃ and 500 r·min-1 for 15 min, the injection temperature was 85 ℃, the injection volume was 200 μL, the flow rate of carrier gas was from 2 mL to 150 mL during 20 min, and the temperature of IMS detector was 60 ℃. SE-54 capillary column (0.32 mm×30 m, 0.25 μm) was used, the column temperature was 60 ℃, and the analysis time was 35 min. The differential spectra of volatile components were constructed and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). ResultA total of 37 volatile components were identified from dried Pseudostellariae Radix. The number of compounds in descending order was ketones, aldehydes and alcohols. There were some differences in the volatile components in samples dried by different methods. And the volatile components in samples with sun drying, air drying and hot air drying at 40 ℃ were similar, compared with other drying methods, vacuum freeze drying and hot air drying at 80 ℃ had great effects on the volatile components of Pseudostellariae Radix, and the compounds in the samples with vacuum freeze drying were the least. ConclusionIn this study, GC-IMS for the detection and analysis of volatile components in Pseudostellariae Radix is established, which has the characteristics of high efficiency, nondestructive inspection and simple sample processing. This method can be used for the distinction of Pseudostellariae Radix dried by different methods. And hot air drying at 40 ℃ can effectively retain the volatile components of Pseudostellariae Radix, and achieve similar flavor to samples with sun drying and air drying.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2108-2112, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprints of Kangfuyan capsules and carry out chemical pattern recognition analysis,and simultaneously determine the contents of five components so as to promote the quality standard of the drug. METHODS High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)fingerprints of 11 batches of Kangfuyan capsules (S1-S11)were established by Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprint (2012 edition);identification and attribution analysis of chromatographic peaks were carried out by comparison with the chromatograms of the reference substance and the decoction pieces of single ingredient. SPSS 26.0 and SIMCA 14.1 software were used for cluster analysis and principal component analysis. HPLC method was used to determine the contents of matrine ,phellodendrine chloride ,rutin,forsythoside A and berberine hydrochloride. RESULTS There were 29 common peaks in the fingerprints for 11 batches of samples ,and the similarity was higher than 0.99. A total of 5 chromatographic peaks were identified ,which are matrine (peak 3),phellodendron chloride (peak 14),rutin (peak 20),forsythiaside A (peak 22) and berberine hydrochloride (peak 28). The results of cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that S 1-S9 were clustered into one category ,and S 10 and S 11 were clustered into another category. The contents of above 5 components were 29.320 5-60.144 3,0.621 6-1.076 6,1.025 9-2.830 5,2.899 3-6.212 7 and 4.425 1-8.581 6 mg/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The established fingerprint and content determination method are stable and reliable ,and can provide reference for the quality control of the preparation in combination with chemical pattern recognition analysis.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2077-2081, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941445

ABSTRACT

OBJECT IVE To provide scientific evidence for the quality standard research of Qingyi mixture (QM)qualitatively and quantitatively. METHODS The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)fingerprint of QM was established ,and the chemical pattern recognition analysis was carried out. At the same time ,the contents of 8 components such as chlorogenic acid in the preparation were determined. The determination was performed on Agilent SB-C 18 column with 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 ℃,and detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012 edition),SPSS 20.0 and SIMCA 14.1 were used to perform similarity evaluation ,cluster analysis (CA),principle component analysis (PCA)and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)of QM samples. RESULTS A total of 22 common peaks were calibrated by 15 batches of QM ,and the similarity was over 0.975. Twenty-two common peaks were assigned and 8 of them were identified. CA ,PCA and OPLS-DA divided the 15 batches of QM into two categories. Meanwhile,5 differential components were screened out ,i.e. peak 9(cichoric acid ),peak 14(baicalin),peak 18,peak 19 and peak 21 (baicalein). The contents of 8 components,such as chlorogenic acid ,ferulic acid ,cichoric acid ,hesperidin, baicalin,salvianolic acid B ,baicalein and paeonol ,were 0.077-0.094,0.165-0.190,0.100-0.114,0.083-0.107,0.556-0.615,0.288-0.314,0.152-0.188 and 0.114-0.128 mg/g,respectively. CONCLUSIONS The established HPLC fingerprint and content determination method can provide reference for the quality standard research of QM.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940777

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of multi-index components in Danggui Buxuetang with drug absorption simulating system (DASS) established by everted intestinal sac model. MethodThe intestinal absorption solution at different time points after administration of Danggui Buxuetang was collected and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), acetonitrile (A)-0.2% glacial acetic acid solution (B) was used as the mobile phase for gradient elution (0-16 min, 15%-23%A; 16-20 min, 23%-28%A; 20-25 min, 28%-30%A; 25-30 min, 30%A; 30-35 min, 30%-65%A; 35-45 min, 65%-95%A), the detection wavelength was 302 nm. HPLC fingerprint of intestinal absorption solution was established and the common peak was calibrated, and the relative cumulative absorption rate of each index component was calculated. The relative cumulative absorption curves of components were fitted with various mathematical models by DDSolver 1.0 to explore the absorption law of different components. ResultThe absorption process of C2 (calycosin-7-glucoside) and C6 in Danggui Buxuetang was in line with zero-order equation, C9 was best fitted by Weibull equation, and the remaining 7 components were in line with Makoid-Banakar equation. C1 with C2, C3, C5, C7 and C10, C2 with C5 and C7, C3 with C4, C5, C7 and C10, C4 with C6 and C10, C5 with C7, C6 with C10, C7 with C10, C8 with C9 were absorbed simultaneously during the absorption process. With the prolongation of time, the overall cumulative absorption rate of Danggui Buxuetang increased. At 120 min, the overall cumulative absorption rate of Danggui Buxuetang exceeded 38%, and reached 49.14% at 180 min. ConclusionTen ingredients in Danggui Buxuetang are absorbed in the jejunum, but absorption law of various components is different, which shows that the intestinal absorption of compound preparations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has multiple characteristics. Intestinal absorption study of TCM compound preparations with chemical composition as the index can reveal some of its absorption law, but it is not complete.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940677

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze and predict the potential quality markers (Q-Marker) in the Genuine medicinal materials Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus based on fingerprints and network pharmacology. MethodUltra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprints were established for 18 batches of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus ,combined with chemometric methods to screen out candidate Q-Marker components.Use network pharmacology to construct a "core component-target-pathway" network to predict the Q-Marker and core targets of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus,and then verify the biological activity of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus Q-Marker by molecular docking method. ResultThe 18 batches of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus use UPLC,GC-MS fingerprints combined with chemometric analysis,a total of 9 Q-Marker candidate components were screened out.Through network pharmacological analysis,it is predicted that nobiletin,neohesperidin,meranzin,naringin and D-limonene are the Q-Marker of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus,acting on the core targets transforming protein p21/H-Ras-1(HRAS),cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53),mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8),transcription factor AP-1(JUN),glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta(GSK3B),tumor necrosis factor(TNF),cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1(CDKN1A),cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha(PRKACA),cysteine aspartate-specific protease-9(Caspase-9),cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1(CREB1),exerting gastrointestinal motility and antidepressant,anti-inflammatory,anti-tumor,etc.; molecular docking shows that nobiletin,neohesperidin,meranzin,naringin and D-limonene and the selected 10 core targets have good binding ability,reflecting the better biological activity of the Q-Marker of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus. ConclusionThe Q-Marker of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus can be comprehensively predicted from the two aspects of volatile and non-volatile components,providing a reference for the quality control of Jiangxi Aurantii Fructus and the further study of its pharmacodynamic mechanism.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940528

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish an integrated method of fingerprint qualitative, multi-component quantitative analysis and chemometrics, and to evaluate the quality attributes and differences of Aurantii Fructus from different production areas and origins. MethodAnalysis was performed on COSMOSIL 5C18-MS-Ⅱ column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid solution for gradient elution (0-4 min, 19%A; 4-5 min, 19%-21%A; 5-18 min, 21%A; 18-19 min, 21%-28%A; 19-27 min, 28%A; 27-28 min, 28%-40%A; 28-36 min, 40%A; 36-37 min, 40%-50%A; 37-42 min, 50%-60%A; 42-46 min, 60%-95%A; 46-55 min, 95%-100%A), the flow rate was 1 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 30 ℃, the detection wavelength was set at 320 nm, and the injection volume was 10 μL. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of Aurantii Fructus from different production areas and origins were established. Then, the quality of 26 batches of samples was evaluated by cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). A method for the determination of 12 components was developed and verified, and a thermal map-based CA of Aurantii Fructus from different production areas and origins was carried out based on the content difference of samples. ResultThe fingerprint and determination methods were well verified. The similarity of HPLC fingerprint of 12 batches of Aurantii Fructus was 0.85-0.996, 20 common peaks were calibrated and 14 of them were assigned. The resolution and linear relationship of 12 components in quantitative analysis were good. The recovery rates were 99.2%-101.0% with RSD≤2.0%. The results of CA, PCA and OPLS-DA indicated that the differentiation of Aurantii Fructus in different production areas was great, and there were differences among different cultivars. ConclusionThe qualitative analysis of fingerprint and quantitative analysis of multiple indexes based on the same chromatographic analysis conditions are convenient, accurate and reliable, and combined with chemometrics, the identification and quality analysis of Aurantii Fructus from different production areas and origins can be realized, which can provide reference for quality control and evaluation of Aurantii Fructus.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940430

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the quality variation of Lonicera japonica flower from different harvesting periods by ultraviolet visible(UV-Vis) fingerprint combined with chemometrics. MethodTwenty-five L. japonica flower samples from five harvesting periods, including young bud stage,green bud stage,white bud stage,silver and golden flower stages, were collected, with five samples for each stage. UV-Vis fingerprints of L. japonica flower from different harvesting periods were established in the context of the optimum extraction method based on the single factor experiment. The results showed that the absorption values at 209,216,226,250,280,303,318, and 350 nm were significantly different. Moreover,after data pretreatment and normalization,multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA),partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA),and orthogonal PLS-DA (OPLS-DA)were performed by SIMCA-P+ to establish the quality variation model of L. japonicas flower from harvesting periods. ResultAs revealed by PCA and PLS-DA, L. japonicas flower samples from five harvesting periods were clustered separately and closely in a harvesting time-dependent manner, suggesting that the content of components contained in samples from different harvesting periods was highly distinct and correlated with harvesting periods. The pairwise comparison of OPLS-DA indicated that triterpenoids or volatile oils were the main components causing the changes from the young bud stage to the green bud stage,and the content of them decreased. The main components from the green bud stage to the white bud stage were triterpenoids (or iridoids),volatile oils,phenolic acids, or flavonoids,and the content of them decreased, which was consistent with the HPLC result of chlorogenic acid. From the white bud stage to the silver flower stage, the main components were iridoids (increasing in content) and triterpenoids (or volatile oils) (decreasing in content). The main altered components from the silver flower stage to the golden flower stage were triterpenoids (or volatile oils) whose content increased. ConclusionThis method is simple and feasible, which can provide references for the quality control of Chinese medicine.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940395

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the pharmacodynamic ingredients of Zhenqi Fuzheng granules (ZFG) for immunomodulatory through spectrum-effect relationship analysis, which provides experimental basis for improving the quality standard of ZFG. MethodEighteen batches of ZFG from six manufacturers were collected for analysis. The fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) were adopted as the mobile phase with gradient elution (0-15 min, 5%A; 15-23 min, 5%-8%A; 23-30 min, 8%-11%A; 30-45 min, 11%-18%A; 45-60 min, 18%-21%A; 60-67 min, 21%-23%A; 67-90 min, 23%-37%A), the detection wavelength was 220 nm. Chemometric analysis such as similarity analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were subsequently used to analyze the similarities and chemical differences among these samples. A cyclophosphamide-induced immunodeficiency mouse model was used to evaluate the immune-enhancing effects of the products from different manufacturers. The spectrum-effect relationship between HPLC fingerprints and the immunomodulatory effects was examined using Spearman bivariate correlation analysis. HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSn) was used to identify the spectrum-effect related peaks with electrospray ionization, positive and negative ion modes, and scanning range of m/z 100-1 500. ResultThe HPLC fingerprint of ZFG was established, and twenty peaks with good resolution were selected as common peaks. The results of quality analysis and pharmacodynamic test showed there were significant differences in both ingredients content and immune-enhancing effects of ZFG from different manufacturers. Through spectrum-effect relationship study, twelve peaks were screened as bioactive ingredients peaks. Thereafter, eight peaks among them were subsequently identified by HPLC-MSn. They were salidroside (peak 2), echinacoside (peak 5), calycosin-7-glucoside (peak 6), isomer of specnuezhenide (peak 7), isonuezhenide (peak 9), calycosin (peak 11), nuezhenide G13 or oleonuezhenide (peak 14), and formononetin (peak 18), respectively. ConclusionThere are differences in quality and efficacy of ZFG produced by different manufacturers. Through spectrum-effect relationship analysis, the medicinal ingredients of ZFG for immune-enhancing effects are screened, which can provide reference for the improvement of its quality standard.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940232

ABSTRACT

The quality of Chinese materia medica is the premise to ensure its safety and effectiveness in clinical application, and the standardization of Chinese materia medica quality is the most important to realize the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At present, the quality control system of Chinese materia medica has been transformed from a single chemical evaluation to the overall quality control guided by clinical efficacy. However, some quality control items of decoction pieces are still lacking or imperfect in the drug standard of prescription, which makes it difficult to guarantee the effectiveness and safety of Chinese materia medica in clinical application. Based on this, the quality control models and innovative ideas of Chinese materia medica were analyzed and discussed from the perspectives of chemical analysis, biological evaluation and clinical application in this paper. Aiming at the existing problems and actual needs in the control system of Chinese materia medica, this paper proposed the improvement strategies in accordance with the characteristics of TCM, in order to provide theoretical basis for the related research on quality control of Chinese materia medica.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940135

ABSTRACT

The quality of Chinese materia medica is the premise to ensure its safety and effectiveness in clinical application, and the standardization of Chinese materia medica quality is the most important to realize the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At present, the quality control system of Chinese materia medica has been transformed from a single chemical evaluation to the overall quality control guided by clinical efficacy. However, some quality control items of decoction pieces are still lacking or imperfect in the drug standard of prescription, which makes it difficult to guarantee the effectiveness and safety of Chinese materia medica in clinical application. Based on this, the quality control models and innovative ideas of Chinese materia medica were analyzed and discussed from the perspectives of chemical analysis, biological evaluation and clinical application in this paper. Aiming at the existing problems and actual needs in the control system of Chinese materia medica, this paper proposed the improvement strategies in accordance with the characteristics of TCM, in order to provide theoretical basis for the related research on quality control of Chinese materia medica.

13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1968-1973, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprints of Ligusticum sinense from different habitats ,screen differential components and determine their contents. METHODS Using Z-ligustilide as reference ,HPLC fingerprints of 12 batches of L. sinense were established by using Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprints of TCM (2012 edition);common peaks were identified and their similarities were evaluated. Cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA)and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)were performed to screen differential components with variable importance in the projection (VIP)>1 as standard ;meanwhile,the contents of above differential components were determined by the same HPLC method. RESULTS There were 17 common peaks in the fingerprints of 12 batches of L. sinense ,and their similarities ranged 0.989-1.000. A total of 9 common peaks were identified ,i.e. chlorogenic acid (peak 1),ferulic acid (peak 2), senkyunolide Ⅰ(peak 7),coniferyl ferulate (peak 9),E-ligustilide(peak 13),senkyunolide A (peak 14),Z-ligustilide(peak 17). CA results showed that 12 batches of L. sinense were divided into 3 categories,S1-S5(Wuning)were clustered into one category,S6-S8(Ruichang)were clustered into one category ,S9-S12(De’an)were clustered into one category ;the VIP values of peaks 2,13,14 and 17(corresponding to ferulic acid ,E-ligustilide,senkyunolide A ,and Z-ligustilide respectively )were all greater than 1,respectively. In S 1-S5,S6-S8 and S 9-S12 samples,the contents of ferulic acid were 0.488-0.533,0.603-0.658 and 0.415-0.433 mg/g,respectively;senkyunolide A were 1.184-1.295,1.450-1.588 and 1.307-1.377 mg/g,respectively;E-ligustilide were 0.118-0.125,0.130-0.135 and 0.223-0.229 mg/g,respectively;Z-ligustilide were 7.200-7.681,8.076-8.643 and 4.508-4.996 mg/g, respectively;the differences between two groups were statisti-cally significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Established ARS-11);fingerprint is simple and accurate ,and can be used for overall quality evaluation of L. sinense from different habitats by combining with multivariate statistical analysis. Ferulic acid , senkyunolide A ,Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide may be the differential components that affect the quality of L. sinense from different habitats ,the contents of the first 3 components in L. sinense from Ruichang are the highest ,and the content of E-ligustilide in samples from De’an is the highest.

14.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1956-1961, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprint of Huatan qushi huoxue decoction (HQHD),and to explore the effects of processing and decoction methods on its components. METHODS Using salvianolic acid B as reference ,HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of single and mixed decoction of crude drugs ,single and mixed decoction of processed products (original formula referred to 8 ingredients were crude drugs ;processed formula referred to processed products of Alisma orientale ,Salvia miltiorrhiza , Curcumae Radix and Bupleuri Radix ,and crude drugs of other ingredients ;single decoction referred to the mixing of each ingredient after being decocted separately ;mixed decoction refers to decocting after mixing all ingredients )were stablished by Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2012 edition). The similarity evaluation,common peak identification and attribution ,chemical pattern recognition analysis were also carried out. RESULTS There were 37 common peaks in each fingerprint of 10 batches of single and mixed decoction of crude drugs ,single and mixed decoction of processed ,the similarities with control fingerprint were higher than or close to 0.950. Nine common peaks were identified,i.e. rutin (peak 12),hesperidin(peak 13),salvianolic acid B (peak 16),quercetin(peak 20),silybin(peak 22), luteolin(peak 23),autrantio-obtusin(peak 29),23-acetylalismol C (peak 34),saikosaponin b 2(peak 35);decoction pieces of 8 ingredients all contributed to the fingerprints of HQHD. Principal component analysis (PCA)showed that the 4 kinds of HQHD samples were grouped into one category ,respectively. The clustering result of partial least squares-discriminant analysis was consistent with that of PCA. Corresponding components of peak 1,15,17,18 and 36,salvianolic acid B and luteolin m ay be the differential markers of the quality for mixed decoction samples of crude drugs and processed products ; corresponding components of peak 1,7,17-19,salvianolic acid B and hesperidin may be the differential markers of the quality for single decoction samples of crude drugs and processed products;corresponding components of peak 1,17-19,36, salvianolic acid B and luteolin may be the differential markers of the quality for single decoction and mixed decoction samples of crude drugs ;corresponding components of peak 7,17-19,21, hesperidin,salvianolic acid B ,rutin,luteolin and autrantio-obtusin may be the differential markers of the quality for single decoction and mixed decoction samples of processed products. CONCLUSIONS The established fingerprint of HQHD is stable and reliable. The quality differential components of different decoction samples are luteolin ,hesperidin,etc. The quality differential components of samples processed or not are rutin ,hesperidin,autrantio-obtusin,etc.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2146-2152, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936563

ABSTRACT

The quality control and evaluation methods of Schizonepeta tenuifolia were established by HPLC fingerprint, multi index component content determination and chemical pattern recognition to provide basis for the quality control of medicinal materials. The chemical components of 25 batches of Schizonepeta tenuifolia panicle medicinal materials and decoction pieces collected were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, and the common pattern of fingerprint was established. A total of 22 common chromatographic peaks were calibrated, and their similarity was more than 0.9. The samples were divided into three categories according to different producing areas by cluster analysis. The results of principal component analysis and cluster analysis were consistent. Finally, five differential markers of different batches of Schizonepeta tenuifolia were selected by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Through the identification of the reference substance, it was determined that peak 9 was hesperidin, peak 10 was rosmarinic acid, peak 13 was tilianin, peak 14 was quercetin, and peak 20 was pulegone. The quality evaluation method established in this study is stable and reliable, and is suitable for the quality control of Schizonepeta tenuifolia.

16.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1718-1723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerp rint of decoction pi eces and dispensing granules of Gardenia jasminoides ,to determine the contents of 6 components,so as to evaluate its quality combined with chemical pattern recognition. METHODS High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was used. Using geniposide as the reference ,Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (2012 edition)was used to draw the fingerprints of 20 batches of G. jasminoides decoction pieces and 10 batches of G. jasminoides dispensing granules. Similarity evaluation and common peaks identification were conducted. The same HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester ,geniposide, picrocrocin,rutin,crocin-Ⅰ and crocin- Ⅱ. ORIGIN 9.1 software was used for hierarchical clustering analysis ,and SIMCA 16.0 software was used for principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The differential components affecting the quality of decoction pieces and dispensing granules were screened by taking the variable importance in projection(VIP)value>1 as the standard. RESULTS There were 24 common peaks for both 20 batches of G. jasminoides decoction piece and 10 batches of G. jasminoides dispensing granules ;a total of 22 common peaks were found in the fingerprints of 30 batches of samples ,and the similarity was not lower than 0.96;six common peaks were identified ,i.e. deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester (peak 2),geniposide(peak 6),picrocrocin(peak 9),rutin(peak 11),crocin-Ⅰ(peak 15),crocin-Ⅱ(peak 17). Average contents of above 6 components in G. jasminoides decoction pieces were 1.04,57.00,1.30,1.03,9.63 and 0.99 mg/g, respectively;those of G. jasmin oides dispensing granules were 0.96,17.04,0.37,0.27,0.73 and 0.04 mg/g,respectively. PCA results showed that G. jasminoides decoction pieces and G. jasminoides dispensing granules were clustered into respective one category ,which was consistent with results of cluster analysis. There were 9 common peaks with VIP value >1, which were 16,14,3,17(crocin-Ⅱ),15(crocin-Ⅰ),18, 22, 2 (deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester) and 21. CONCLUSIONS The estab lished fingerprint and content determination method are simple and reproducible. Combined with chemical pattern recognition ,it can be used to evaluate the quality of decoction pieces and dispensing granules of G. jasminoides . Nine corresponding components represented by peak 16 and so on are the differential components that affect the quality of them.

17.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1712-1717, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprint of Tibetan medicine Adhatoda vasica ,and determine the contents of vasicine and vasicinone ,so as to comprehensively evaluate its quality combined with chemical pattern recognition. METHODS Using vasicine as control ,HPLC fingerprints of 11 batches of A. vasica were established with Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprints of TCM (2012 edition). The common peaks were identified and their similarities were evaluated. Cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA)and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed by using SPSS 25 software and SIMCA 14.1 software. The variable importance in the projection (VIP)value>1.0 was used as the standard to screen the differential components affecting the quality of A. vasica ;the contents of vasicine and vasicinone were determined by HPLC simultaneously. RESULTS A total of 23 common peaks were found ,and peak 2 was identified as vasicine ,and peak 4 was identified as vasicinone. Their similarities ranged 0.920-0.994. The results of CA showed that 11 batches of samples were clustered into 3 categories(distance was 14):S1-S8 as one category (origin:Yunnan,Tibet),S9 as one category (origin:Yunnan),S10-S11 as one category (origin:Sichuan);the results of P CA and OPLS-DA showed that S 9 and S10-S11 were divided into one category respectively ,and S1-S8 were further divided into 2 categories:S1,S4 as one category,S2-S3,S5-S8 as one category ;the common peaks with VIP value >1.0 included peak 2,peak 16,peak 21,peak 17,peak 1 and peak 13. Among 11 batches of samples , contents of vasicine and vasicinone were 4.12-10.22 and 0.60-3.26 mg/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Established edu.cn HPLC fi ngerprint and content determination method are simple and accurate ,and can be used for the quality evaluation of Tibetan medicine A. vasica ,by combining with chemical pattern recognition. Vasicine and other components may be the differential components that affect the quality of the drug.

18.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1700-1705, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIV E To establish the method for evaluating the quality o f Plantago asi atica and fried P. asiatica . METHODS The fingerprints of 15 batches of P. asiatica and 15 batches of fried P. asiatica were established by HPLC. The common peaks were identified with the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprinting of TCM (2012 edition), and similarity evaluation was performed. Analysis of chemical pattern recognition was performed by using SPSS 25.0 and SIMCA-P 14.1 software(cluster analysis ,principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares regression analysis ). The markers which affected the difference in the quality between P. asiatica and fried P. asiatica were screened with variable importance projection(VIP)value greater than 1. RESULTS There were 18 common peaks in the fingerprints of 15 batches of P. asiatica and 13 common peaks in the fingerprints of 15 batches of fried P. asiatica . A total of 8 common peaks were found in both of them. Their similarities were greater than 0.920. Two common peaks were identified as geniposidic acid ,acteoside. The results of cluster analysis showed that when the spacing was 10,the 30 batches of samples could be clustered into three categories ,with S 1-S5 as one,S16-S20 as one ,S6-S15 and S 21-S30 as one . The results of the pri ncipal component analysis showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first two principal components was 82.575% . The results of the orthogonal partial least squares regression analysis showed that the VIP values of the three common peaks were greater than 1,namely peak E(acteoside), peak D (geniposidic acid ) and peak G. CONCLUSIONS Established fingerprints are stable ,simple sina.com and rapid. It can be used for the quality evaluation of P. asiatica and fried P. asiatica ,by combining with analysis of chemical pattern recognition. Acteoside ,geniposidic acid and the component represented by peak G may be the markers affecting the difference in quality of P. asiatica and fried P. asiatica .

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928150

ABSTRACT

According to the polarity of different components in Sanpian Decoction, two fingerprints were established. Then the substance benchmark freeze-dried powder of 15 batches of Sanpian Decoction was prepared, followed by the determination of the fingerprints, index component content, and dry extract rates, the identification of attribution of characteristic peaks, and the calculation of similarities between these fingerprints and the reference(R), the content and transfer rate ranges of ferulic acid, sinapine thiocyanate, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, and the dry extract rate range. The results showed that the similarities of 15 batches of the substance benchmark fingerprints with R were all greater than 0.900.Further summarization of the characteristic peaks revealed that there were a total of 20 characteristic peaks in fingerprint 1, among which, eight were from Sinapis Semen, four from Paeoniae Radix Alba, six from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and two from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. A total of 16 characteristic peaks were observed in fingerprint 2, including one from Sinapis Semen, three from Paeoniae Radix Alba, eight from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and four from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The average dry extract rate of 15 batches of substance benchmarks was 18.25%, with a dry extract rate range of 16.28%-20.76%. The index component content and transfer rate ranges were listed as follows: 0.15%-0.18% and 38.81%-58.05% for ferulic acid; 0.26%-0.42% and 36.51%-51.02% for sinapine thiocyanate; 0.09%-0.15% and 48.80%-76.61% for liquiritin; 0.13%-0.24% and 23.45%-35.61% for glycyrrhizic acid. The fingerprint, dry extract rate, and index component content determination was combined for analyzing the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks in the classic prescription Sanpian Decoction.The established quality evaluation method for the substance benchmarks was stable and feasible, which has provided a basis for the quality control of Sanpian Decoction and the follow-up development of related preparations.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Paeonia , Quality Control , Thiocyanates
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928136

ABSTRACT

The fingerprint of Boenninghausenia albiflora var. albiflora was established by ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC), and the content of 12 active components including chlorogenic acid was determined. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to explore the indicator components of B. albiflora var. albiflora and a comprehensive evaluation system was created for the quality of B. albiflora var. albiflora. In this study, 33 batches of B. albiflora var. albiflora with different sources were collected and studied, and the UPLC fingerprint of B. albiflora var. albiflora was developed. There were 37 common peaks, of which 12 components were identified, and the content of these 12 components was measured. In combination of the common peaks and the content of chemical components, multivariate statistical analysis was performed, and the results showed that 6 components [daphnoretin, isoimperatorin, astragalin, imperatorin, neochlorogenic acid, and isoquercitrin(weight coefficient>0.1)] were selected as chemical markers for the quality of B. albiflora var. albiflora. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) analysis and chemometrics revealed that the quality of S32, S28 and S29 were superior, while that of S12, S7 and S16 were inferior. The quality evaluation method of B. albiflora var. albiflora constructed in this study was accurate and reliable, with simpleness and easiness to operate. It is suggested that the 6 above-mentioned active components could be used as indicator components for quality control of B. albiflora var. al-biflora. The samples were harvested during the flowering and fruiting period, which is from the beginning of July to the end of August.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Quality Control
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