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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

ABSTRACT

This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.


Subject(s)
Triticum , Flavonoids , Phenolic Compounds , Plant Weeds/physiology , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Onions , Antioxidants , Swine , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases , Hydrogen Peroxide
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Powders , Thyroid Hormones , Blood Glucose , Fruit
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907152

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of circadian rhythm genes on flavonoids biosynthesis in safflower and its molecular mechanism. Methods Based on the transcriptome and metabolomic database of safflower corolla, we screened the circadian rhythm genes that correlate with biosynthesis of flavonoids in safflower. qPCR was used to quantify the expressions of circadian rhythm genes in different flowering stages at different time points in a single day. LC-MS was performed to determine the accumulation of flavonoids. The correlation between them was analyzed as well. Yeast Two-Hybrid experiment was used to verify the interactive proteins of these genes. Results Seven circadian rhythm genes PRR1, PRR2, ELF3, FT, PHYB, GI and ZTL were obtained. PRR1 gene was positively correlated with flavonoids accumulation (r≥0.7). The full length of PRR1 is 3 201 bp, encoding 421 amino acids, which is highly homologous with rice OsPRR73 gene and named as CtPRR1 (GenBank accession number: MW492035). CtPRR1 was mainly expressed in flowers, and the expression level increased in the daytime and declined in the evening gradually. Correspondingly, the content of flavonoids showed an opposite variation. Both of them displayed a circadian rhythm with a negative correlation (r≥−0.7). In addition, 2 heat shock proteins along with 3 AP2 transcription factors interacting with CtPRR1 protein were obtained via Yeast Two-Hybrid experiment. Conclusion CtPRR1 negatively regulated the safflower flavonoids accumulation in a circadian rhythm way, which may be affected by these interacting proteins.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 425-432, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To determi ne the contents of total fla vonoids i n Scutellaria barbata standard decoction ,evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity ,establish the fingerprint and conduct chemical pattern recognition analysis. METHODS The contents of total flavonoids in S. barbata standard decoction (calculated by scutellarein )were determined by ultraviet-visible spectrophotometry. In vitro antioxidant activity of S. barbata standard decoction was investigated by free radical scavenging tests of 1,1-diphenyl- 2-trinitrophenylhydrazine(DPPH)and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid )ammonium salt (ABTS);HPLC method was adopted. Using scutellarin as reference ,the fingerprints of 16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction were drawn and evaluated by Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatogram Fingerprint (2004 A edition ),and the common peaks were determined;Pearson correlation analysis was carried out by using SPSS 24.0 software to screen substances with in vitro antioxidant activity. Taking them as variables ,cluster analysis and principal component analysis were carried out by using SPSS 24.0 and SIMCA 14.1 software. RESULTS The linear range of total flavonoids were 2.106-21.06 μg/mL(R2=0.999 3);RSDs of precision , reproducibility and stability tests (120 min)were all lower than 2%;the recovery was 100.62%(RSD=0.55%,n=6);the contents of total flavonoids were 0.634-1.053 mg/mL. Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DPPH radical scavenging experiment ranged 1.120-3.602 mg/mL,and IC 50 of ABTS radical scavenging e xperiment range d 0.684-1.327 mg/mL. The results of correlation analysis showed that the content of total flavonoids Δ 基金项目 :河北省高校省级重点学科建设项目 (No.冀教 in S. barbata standard decoction was negatively correlated 高〔2013〕4号);承德医学院自然科学研究计划项目(No.201824) *讲师,硕士。研究方向:中药质量控制 。电话:0314-2291186。 with the IC 50 of DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical E-mail:duyilongww@sina.com scavenging experiment ,and the correlation coefficients were # 通信作者 :教授,硕士。研究方向 :中药质量控制 。电话: -0.976 and -0.940 respectively(P<0.01). There were 18 0314-2291186。E-mail:phf2301@163.com common peaks in the fin gerprints of 16 batches of S. barbata 中国药房 2022年第33卷第4期 China Pharmacy 2022Vol. 33 No. 4 ·425· standard decoction ;the s imilarities were 0.964-0.997. A total of 4 common peaks were identified ,such as scutellarin (peak 8), scutellarein(peak 14),luteolin(peak 15),apigenin(peak 17).In the HPLC fingerprints of S. barbata standard decoction ,the peak areas of peak 3-4,8-9,12-15 and 17 were significantly negatively correlated with the IC 50 of DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical scavenging experiment (P<0.05). The results of cluster analysis showed that 16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction could be clustered into two categories ,of which S 2,S7-S8 and S 14-S16 were clustered into one category ,S1,S3-S6 and S 9-S13 were clustered into one category. By principal component analysis ,16 batches of S. barbata standard decoction were divided into two categories ,of which S 2,S4,S7 and S 14-S16 were clustered into one category ,and S 1,S3,S5-S6 and S 8-S13 were clustered into one. The comprehensive scores were high in the samples of S 4,S13,S15. CONCLUSIONS Established HPLC fingerprint and chemical pattern recognition analysis method can be used to evaluate the quality of S. barbata standard decoction ; peak 3-4,8-9,12-15 and 17 and total flavonoids are the potential material basis for S. barbata standard decoction to scavenge DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 191-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the imp rovement effects of total flavonoids of Psidium guajava leaves on myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. METHODS Ten rats were randomly selected from 60 healthy SD rats as the normal group ; other 50 rats established hypertensive model ,and 44 rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into model group , anisomycin group [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)activator,1 mg/kg],total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group (200 mg/kg total flavonoids+ 1 mg/kg anisomycin )and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group (200 mg/kg) by random volume mass ranking method ,with 11 rats in each group. Rats in normal group and model group were given 3% hydroxymethylcellulose sodium solution ,and other groups were given relevant solution intragastrically ,once a day ,for consecutive 6 weeks. Blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ),cardiac index and left ventricular index were measured. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β)and IL- 6 in myocardial tissue were detected. The pathomorphological changes of myocardial tissue were observed. The expression of p 38 MAPK, phosphorylated p 38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK),extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2),phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK1/2),c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK)in myocardial tissue were detected. RESULTS Compared with normal group ,the systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,mean arterial pressure ,cardiac index ,left ventricular index as well as the levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 and protein expression of p-p 38 MAPK,p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in myocardial tissue were increased significantly in anisomycin group and model group (P<0.05);it was also found that hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes ,disorder of myocardial fibers ,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue between myocardial fibers,increased infiltration of inflammatory cells ,etc. Compared with anisomycin group and model group ,the le vels of above indexes in total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves+ anisomycin group and total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group were decreased significantly (P<0.05); cardiomyocytes were 163.com slightly larger and arranged reasonably ;the degree of myocardial hypertrophy,looseness,edema and proliferation of connective tissue were relieved ,and the improvement effect of total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves group was more significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The total flavonoids of P. guajava leaves can reduce blood pressure and improve myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive model rats. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of p38 MAPK signal pathway activity and the expression of inflammatory factors.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931252

ABSTRACT

The compounds in leaf and stem extracts of Astragalus emarginatus Labill.(AEL),a plant species used in traditional Lebanese medicine,were investigated for antioxidant properties.First,the activity of various extracts was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity,oxygen radical absorption ca-pacity,and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazy l-hydrate assays.The extract obtained using 30%ethanol showed the greatest activity.The antioxidant compounds in this extract were screened using a hy-phenated high-performance liquid chromatography-2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)radical(ABTS+)system before being separated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible diode array detection.Approximately 40 compounds were identified.Hydroxycinnamates(caffeic,ferulic,and p-coumaric acid derivatives)and flavonoids(quercetin,luteolin,apigenin,and isorhamnetin derivatives)were the two main categories of the identified compounds.The active compounds were identified as caffeic acid de-rivatives and quercetin glycosides.In addition,the catechol moiety was shown to be key to antioxidant activity.This study showed that AEL is a source of natural antioxidants,which may explain its medicinal use.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930159

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae on learning and memory impairment mice induced by sodium nitrite. Methods:75 mice were divided into blank group, model group, Kangnaoshuai capsule group, Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids group and Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids+inhibitor group according to the random number table method, with 15 mice in each group. The Kangnaoshui Capsule group was administered with Kangnaoshui Capsule 585 mg/kg, the Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids group was administered with the Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids 97.5 mg/kg, the Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids group and the inhibitor group were administered with the Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids by intragastric administration 97.5 mg/kg, and intraperitoneal injection of 0.072 mg/kg ICI182780 for 21 days, once a day. The model was established on the 22nd day. Except for the blank group, the other mice were injected with sodium nitrite intraperitoneally to replicate the mice model with impaired learning and memory capability. The learning and memory capabilit of mice were detected with water maze method, and the estrogen receptor in hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry β (estrogen receptor β, ERβ). The expression of ERβ in hippocampus and the expression of phosphorylated P38 (P-P38) and the protein contents of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated death promoter (Bad) and Caspase-3 in the apoptotic system was detected by Western blot. The kit was used to detect MDA,SOD and NO protein content in hippocampus. Results:The latency of Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids group was significantly shorter than the model group, the number of crossing platform and the residence time in the target quadrant were significantly increased ( P<0.01); The expression of ERβ Protein in mice hippocampus (0.371 ± 0.010 vs. 0.124 ± 0.009), Bcl-2 protein (1.146 ± 0.028 vs. 0.726 ± 0.016) and the contents of SOD [(153.657 ± 6.385) U/mg vs. (67.719±5.845) U/mg] increased significantly ( P<0.01); The expression of P-P38/P38 protein (0.412 ± 0.043 vs.0.806 ± 0.069), Bad protein (0.421 ± 0.010 vs.0.633 ± 0.010), Caspase-3 protein (0.923 ± 0.042 vs.1.437 ± 0.033), and the content of MDA [(8.669 ± 0.662) nmol/mg vs. (11.772 ± 1.054) nmol/mg] and NO [(4.259 ± 0.225) nmol/mg vs. (10.805 ± 0.415) nmol/mg] decreased significantly ( P<0.01). In addition, ER blocker can antagonize the above recovery and improvement effects of Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids group. Conclusion:Rhizoma Drynariae total flavonoids can regulate memory impairment, inhibit neuronal apoptosis and reduce oxidative stress in sodium nitrite model mice through ER-P38/MAPK signal pathway.

9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2245-2249, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish the fingerprints of Xanthoceras sorbifolia and determine the contents of flavonoids . METHODS HPLC was adopted . Using epigallocatechin as reference ,the fingerprints of 11 batches(No. S1-S11)of X. sorbifolia were drawn with Similarity Evaluation System of Chromatographic Fingerprints of TCM (2004A edition ). The similarity evaluation was conducted ,the common peaks were also confirmed . Cluster analysis (CA)and principal component analysis (PCA)were also performed. Epigallocatechin was selected as internal reference ,and quantitative analysis of multi -components by single marker (QAMS)was used to determine the contents of gallocatechin ,catechin,epicatechin,dihydromyricetin,taxifolin and myricetin in 16 batches(No. S1-S16)of X. sorbifolia. The results were compared with the results of one point external standard method and standard curve method . RESULTS There were 15 common peaks in 11 batches of X. sorbifolia,and the similarity of them were 0.910-1.000. A total of 7 common peaks were identified ,i.e. galliccatechin(peak 1),epigallocatechin(peak 2),catechin(peak 3),epicatechin(peak 5),dihydromyricetin(peak 6),taxifolin(peak 14)and myricetin (peak 15). The results of CA showed that S5-S7 and S 9 were clustered into one category ,S8 and S 11 were clustered into one category ,S10 were clustered into one category,S1-S4 were clustered into one category . The results of PCA showed that accumulative variance contribution rate of 3 principal components was 99.24%;S5-S7 were clustered into one category ,S8-S11 were clustered into one category ,S3 and S 4 were clustered into one category ,S1 and S 2 were clustered into one category . With the exception of myricetin and a partial batches (S12,S14-S16) of catechin ,the RSDs measured by the three methods for galliccatechin ,catechin (remaining batches ), epicatechin,dihydromyricetin and taxifolin in 16 batches of X. sorbifolia were less than 4% (n=3). CONCLUSIONS The established HPLC fingerprint and the method for content determination can be used for the quality control of X. sorbifolia. QAMS method can be used for the content determination of galliccatechin,epicatechin,dihydromyricetin and taxifolin .

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942775

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of piperine on human breast cancer cells. Methods: The effect of piperine on proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was investigated using colony formation assays, wound healing assays, Matrigel migration assays, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting assays. Results: Piperine inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed colony formation. Cell reduction at the G 0 / G 1 phase and cell arrest at the G 2 /M phase were observed in breast cancer cells. However, the significant effect was only demonstrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, cancer cell migration was suppressed by piperine at low concentration. RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays showed that piperine downregulated Rac1 gene and protein expression. Conclusions: Piperine could inhibit growth and migration of breast cancer cells by reducing Rac1 gene and protein expression.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942774

ABSTRACT

Objective: To enhance the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of quercetin contents of Allium cepa peel extract by novel nanosuspension technology. Methods: Nanoprecipitation approach was successfully used for the formulation of nanosuspension. To obtain pharmaceutical-grade nanosuspension with minimum particle size and polydispersity index, sodium lauryl sulphate was selected as a stabilizer. Important formulation parameters were statistically optimized by the response surface methodology approach. The optimized nanosuspension was subjected to stability and in vitro dissolution testing and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta sizer. To evaluate the preeminence of nanosuspension over coarse suspension, comparative bioavailability studies were carried out in male albino rats. The pharmaceutical potential of developed nanosuspension was evaluated by antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity studies. Results: The optimized nanosuspension showed an average particle size of 275.5 nm with a polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 0.415 and -48.8 mV, respectively. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average particle size of nanosuspension was below 100 nm. The formulated nanosuspension showed better stability under refrigerated conditions. Nanosuspension showed an improved dissolution rate and a 2.14-fold greater plasma concentration of quercetin than coarse suspension. Moreover, the formulated nanosuspension exhibited enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial potential and was non-toxic. Conclusions: Optimization of nanosuspension effectively improves the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of Allium cepa extract.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and oxidative damage in hepatic and renal tissues of rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS+Boswellia serrata extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). LPS (1 mg/kg) and the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before LPS) were administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The levels of liver enzymes, albumin, total protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), interleukin (IL)-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiol groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Results: The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, and BUN, IL-6, MDA in the LPS group were markedly increased (P<0.001) while albumin, total protein, and total thiol concentration, as well as SOD and CAT activities, were decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Boswellia serrata extracts diminished the levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, BUN, IL-6, and MDA (P<0.01 and P<0.001), and elevated the concentration of total protein and total thiol and SOD and CAT activities (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions: The ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata reduces LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and oxidative damage, thus ameliorating hepatic and renal function.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941599

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of Harpephyllum caffrum bark infusion as well as its effects on glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 - induced oxidative stress in rat hepatic tissue. Methods: Harpephyllum caffrum infusion was prepared from dried plant materials (40 g) infused in boiling water (400 mL) for 20 min at room temperature. The antioxidative and inhibitory activities against carbohydrate digestive enzymes of the infusion were determined using established protocols. The liver tissues of rats were used for glucose uptake assay and to evaluate the infusion's effect on endogenous antioxidant, glucogenic, and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 -induced hepatic injury. Results: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion significantly reduced ferric iron (FRAP) and free radicals (OH • and DPPH) in a dose- dependent manner. It inhibited -amylase and -glucosidase activities and increased glucose uptake in hepatic tissues. FeSO 4 significantly decreased glutathione concentration, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities while increasing malondialdehyde level, glycogen phosphorylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase activities. However, treatment with Harpephyllum caffrum infusion reversed FeSO 4 -induced changes. Characterization of the infusion revealed the presence of catechol, O-pyrocatechuic acid, mequinol, maltol, and glycoside derivatives. Conclusions: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion demonstrates antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials in in vitro models of type 2 diabetes as depicted by its ability to inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes, mitigate oxidative imbalance, and regulate glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in oxidative hepatic injury.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941598

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play important roles in regulating host defense against pathogenic infections. This review provides information on the role of miRNAs in the antimycobacterial immune response and summarizes their possible diagnostic utility. It was compiled using scientific literature retrieved from such databases as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed Central. Relevant articles published in the English language until December 2020 were taken into consideration. It has been revealed that specific host miRNAs induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can target diverse factors and pathways in immune signaling to ensure longer pathogen survival inside the phagocytes. The potential use of miRNAs in tuberculosis diagnosis or therapeutic strategies has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, despite considerable efforts devoted to miRNA profiling, further studies are needed to elucidate the full potential of miRNAs as novel tuberculosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To elucidate the cytotoxic effect of the secondary metabolites of Barrientosiimonas humi (B. humi) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: The extract was obtained from the fermentation of B. humi and fractionation of the crude extract was conducted via column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of the B. humi extract was determined by using MTT assay and real-time cellular analysis. Morphological changes, cell cycle profiles, mode of cell death, and caspase expressions of control and treated breast cancer cells were determined. Results: The ethyl acetate extract isolated from B. humi was cytotoxic against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. One of the dichloromethane (DCM) fractions, designated as DCM-F2, exhibited the strongest activity among all the fractions and thereby was selected for further studies. DCM-F2 had selective cytotoxicity on target cells by inducing apoptosis, particularly in the early stage, and cell cycle arrest. Treated cells caused inhibition of cell cycle progression at 72 h leading to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the G0/G1 population. DCM-F2 treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas DCM-F2 treated MCF-7 cells showed a caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. Five compounds were successfully isolated from B. humi. Cyclo (Pro-Tyr) was the most cytotoxic and selective compound against MCF-7 cells. Conclusions: B. humi ethyl acetate extract exhibits significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941596

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the protective role of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract in a depression model through modulating oxidant/antioxidant enzyme system and inflammatory status. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively along with HPLC. Rats were divided into six groups. The normal control and the intoxicated groups received normal saline, and the standard group received imipramine, while the remaining groups received 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract. All groups received treatments for 14 d. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were then administered i.p. (0.83 mg/kg) to all groups except the normal control group. After 24 h, anxiety and depression-like behaviors were evaluated by performing behavioral analysis (open field, tail suspension, forced swim, sucrose preference test), and determining total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and biochemical parameters [malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6]. Results: Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of phenols and flavonoids and HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid. Total oxidant status was significantly decreased, while total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased in the Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract treated groups. Moreover, Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract diminished malondialdehyde, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione activities. Conclusions: Glinus lotoides ethanolic crude extract shows significant antidepressant activity by modulating oxidative and biochemical parameters that supports its folkloric use in traditional systems of medicine.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the anti-tumor effects of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract (PAME) compared with cyclophosphamide against Ehrlich solid tumors in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (n=40) were divided into five groups: normal control mice, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with normal saline, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally once a day for 14 d, or 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg PAME orally once a day for 14 d. Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level (TNF-α), and apoptosis-regulatory gene expression were evaluated. Results: Treatment of mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumors with PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg orally significantly decreased tumor volume, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers and TNF-α level in comparison with mice with Ehrlich solid tumors receiving normal saline. whereas PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract has potent antitumor activity in mice. Therefore, the extract might be considered as an alternative anticancer agent against tumors, however, additional studies especially in the clinical setting are required to confirm this finding.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941594

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly caused by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (FSS) and Schisandra chinensis Fructus (FSC) oils in mice. Methods: Mice were orally administered a single dose of Schisandrae Fructus oils. Serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG), triglyceride transfer protein (TTP), apolipoprotein B48 (Apo B48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), alanine aminotransfease (ALT) and liver index were measured at 6-120 h post-dosing. Results: FSS and FSC oil caused time and dose-dependent increases in serum and hepatic TG levels, with maximum increases in the liver (by 297% and 340%) at 12 h post-dosing and serum (244% and 439%) at 24-h post-dosing, respectively. Schisandrae Fructus oil treatments also elevated the levels of serum TTP by 51% and 63%, Apo B48 by 152% and 425%, and VLDL by 67% and 38% in mice, respectively. FSS and FSC oil treatments also increased liver mass by 53% and 55% and HGF by 106% and 174%, but lowered serum ALT activity by 38% and 22%, respectively. Fenofibrate pre/ co-treatment attenuated the FSS and FSC oil-induced elevation in serum TG levels by 41% and 49% at 48 h post-dosing, respectively, but increased hepatic TG contents (by 38% and 33%, respectively) at 12 h post-dosing. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence to support the establishment of a novel mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia by oral administration of FSS oil (mainly increasing endogenous TG) and FSC oil (mainly elevating exogenous TG).

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of protein extract of kenaf seed (PEKS). Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography techniques were employed for protein characterization. Antioxidant activity of PEKS was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The protective effect of PEKS on sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) induced oxidative stress was evaluated using the in vitro red blood cell model, while the effect of PEKS on diclofenac-induced oxidative stress was examined in vivo in rats. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma were used for anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of PEKS. Results: PEKS revealed similar protein bands on SDS-PAGE under reduced and non-reduced conditions. Several acidic proteins were present in native PAGE. PEKS showed antioxidant properties by scavenging DPPH with an IC 50 of 24.58 μg. PEKS exhibited a protective effect on NaNO 2 induced oxidative stress in red blood cells by restoring the activity of stress markers. In addition, PEKS alleviated diclofenac-induced tissue damage of the liver, kidney, and small intestine. PEKS showed an anticoagulant effect in both in vivo and in vitro experiments by enhancing normal clotting time. PEKS did not affect prothrombin time but increase activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, PEKS inhibited adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusions: PEKS protects tissues from oxidative stress and exhibits antithrombotic activity.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941592

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is set to be the most common etiology of serious liver diseases in numerous nations when accompanied by obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is further histologically categorized into the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL; steatosis without hepatocellular injury) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is characterized by the coexistence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation and is accompanied by hepatocyte injury (ballooning), either with or without fibrosis. NAFL is considered the benign and reversible stage arising from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. However, NASH is a more progressive stage of NAFLD, due to the increased risks of evolving more serious diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. This concept, however, has been lately challenged by a hypothesis of multiple parallel hits of NAFLD, in which steatosis and NASH are separate entities rather than two points of the NAFLD spectrum, not only from a set of histological patterns but also from a pathophysiological perspective. The current review highlights the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, and its progression towards steatohepatitis, with special focus on the novel imminent therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular aspects and the pathogenic pathways involved in the development, and progression of NAFLD.

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