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1.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 879-884, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998193

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the community structure and dynamics of parasitic fleas on the body surface of host animals and nested fleas in different seasons in the natural foci of wild rat plague in Yulong County,Yunnan Province, to explore the relationship between seasonal fluctuation of fleas and the prevalence of plague among animals, so as to provide evidence for plague prevention and control in the natural foci. MethodsNanxi Village, Huangshan Town, the core area of plague epidemic in Yulong County, was selected as the monitoring sample area in December 2019 (winter), August 2020(summer), October 2020(autumn) and March 2021(spring). Host animals were captured by rattrap at night and rat nests were excavated for collecting parasitic fleas on host animals and rat nest fleas in different seasons. Excel 2010 and SPSS 26.0 software were used to analyze the data, and Chi square test was used to compare the rate. Community ecological indicators were used to analyze the community structure and species diversity of the host animals and their parasitic fleas. ResultsA total of 355 vector fleas were captured, belonging to 7 species of 5 genera in 2 families. 441 small animals were captured and 138 rat body fleas were detected with the flea infection rate of 14.51% and the flea index 0.31. 96 effective rat holes were excavated and 217 fleas were detected with the flea infection rate of 35.42% and the flea index 2.26. Among the four seasons, the flea infection rates of rat body and rat nests were higher in summer and winter, showing a significant difference in general (χ2=15.851, P<0.01; χ2=16.398, P<0.01). The dominant species of flea community were Ctenophthalmus quadratus, Stenischia humilis, Neopsylla specialis and Frontopsylla spadix, with a dominance index of 0.434, 0.254, 0.180 and 0.110, respectively. The diversity and evenness of rat body fleas showed a distribution characteristic of decreasing, increasing and then decreasing again with season changes, and both were the highest in spring, while the ecological dominance showed an opposite trend. The diversity and evenness of rat nest fleas showed a distribution characteristic of increasing first and then decreasing in summer, autumn and winter, with the highest in autumn, while the ecological dominance was diametrically opposite. ConclusionThe fleas community structure is relatively stable in Yulong County, but the number of species in the community is unevenly distributed by seasons, and the status of dominant species is prominent. Local authorities should carry out timely preventive deratization and depulization measures according to the results of daily monitoring, so as to effectively avoid the prevalence and spread of plague among animals in plague foci.

2.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2022 Jan; 59(1): 12-21
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216860

ABSTRACT

eas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) are important vectors of plague and murine typhus in many parts of the world. Currently, about 2700 flea species were described in the world. The most common vector flea Xenopsylla cheopis is found throughout India, but X. astia, and X. brasiliensis are found less and limited in distribution associated with the domestic rats such as Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Bandicota bengalensis. Bubonic plague is a major flea-borne disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, transmitted from rats to humans via the rodent flea, X. cheopis. A major outbreak of plague and high mortality occurred in India. After 1966 with the 3 decadal intervals, plague cases occurred only during the year 1994 reported in 5 different states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and New Delhi and subsequently plague cases occurred during 2002 and 2004 after the one-decade interval in Himachal Pradesh (2002). Another outbreak of bubonic plague was reported in Dangud village, Barkhot tehsil, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand during October 2004. Ctenocephalides fleas are common in cats and dogs, which are the main vectors of bacteria rickettsiae, such as Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, R. conorii, and Bartonella henselae. Molecular and serological evidence also confirms the presence of R. typhi, R. conorii R. felis and B. henselae pathogens in cats and other fleas in India. Flea bites and flea-borne dermatitis are common in men and pet animals. Because of the re-emergence of the plague, updated information on fleas and flea-borne diseases are essential to control the flea vectors and flea-borne diseases in India. Hence, this comprehensive review updates the available information on fleas and fleas transmitted diseases in India.

3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153051

ABSTRACT

The number of domestic animals living with human beings is rapidly increasing in parallel with an enhanced risk of transmission of their parasites and the pathogens they might carry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of hematophagous arthropods infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil and to remark the implications of their occurrence on the epidemiology and control of selected veterinary and human diseases. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites infesting domestic cats, dogs and horses were collected for their respective hosts and identified. Overall, ectoparasites were sampled from 86 domestic animals, living in different anthropic settings. A total of 401 specimens (344 ticks and 57 fleas) were collected from different hosts [i.e., 10 (2.49%), 96 (23.94%) and 295 (73.57%) from cats, dogs and horses, respectively]. Two flea (i.e., Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis) and 5 tick species (i.e., Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) were identified. This study provides data on the ectoparasite fauna infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil. The diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should not be underestimated, considering the role that hematophagous arthropods display as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.(AU)


O número de animais domésticos infestados por ectoparasitos vivendo em estreito contato com seres humanos está aumentando, elevando o risco de infecção pelos patógenos transmitidos por vetores. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a ocorrência de ectoparasitos infestando animais do nordeste do Brasil e discutir as implicações desse parasitismo na epidemiologia e no controle de doenças de importância médico-veterinária. De janeiro de 2017 a abril de 2019, artrópodes foram coletados de gatos, cães e cavalos, e identificados morfologicamente. Ectoparasitos foram removidos de 86 animais infestados provenientes de áreas urbanas e rurais. Foram identificados 401 espécimes (344 carrapatos e 57 pulgas) coletados de diferentes hospedeiros (10 (2,49%), 96 (23,94%) e 295 (73,57%) de gatos, cães e cavalos, respectivamente. Duas espécies de pulgas (Ctenocephalides canis e Ctenocephalides felis) e cinco espécies de carrapatos (Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentornitens, Rhipicephalus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) foram identificadas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ectofauna de animais domésticos do nordeste do Brasil. Portanto, o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses parasitos não devem ser subestimados, considerando que os artrópodes aqui relatados podem veicular patógenos de importância médico-veterinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ticks , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Siphonaptera , Horses/parasitology , Brazil , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus , Ctenocephalides , One Health , Amblyomma
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e009321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351872

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oils (EOs) of Illicium verum and Pelargonium graveolens were evaluated for lethality, inhibition of development and residual efficacy against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis. Their chemical composition was characterized by means of gas chromatography with a flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection. Mortality at different immature stages and among adult fleas was measured through in vitro filter paper tests at different concentrations of EOs. The chemical characterization of I. verum volatile oil showed that E-anethole (79.96%) was the major constituent, while the major compounds in P. graveolens were citronellol (29.67%) and geraniol (14.85%). Insecticidal activity against both immature and adult flea stages were observed. The EO of I. verum had insecticidal activity for approximately 18 days, while the EO activity of P. graveolens lasted for 13 days. The pulicidal activity of I. verum remained above 70% for up to 9 days, while the activity of P. graveolens was 41.7% for up to 2 days. Essential oils, especially that of I. verum, showed insecticidal activity for flea control at different life cycle stages and have potential for the development of ectoparasiticides (biopesticides) for veterinary use.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais (OE) de Illicium verum e Pelargonium graveolens foram avaliados quanto à letalidade, inibição do desenvolvimento e eficácia residual contra a pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis. Sua composição química foi caracterizada por meio de cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama e espectrometria de massas. A mortalidade entre os diferentes estágios imaturos e pulgas adultas foi avaliada por meio de testes in vitro em papel filtro, contendo diferentes concentrações de OEs. A caracterização química do óleo volátil de I. verum mostrou que o E-anetol (79,96%) foi o constituinte majoritário, enquanto os principais compostos de P. graveolens foram citronelol (29,67%) e geraniol (14,85%). Foi observada atividade inseticida contra os estágios imaturos e adulto da pulga. O OE de I. verum teve atividade inseticida por aproximadamente 18 dias, enquanto o de P. graveolens durou 13 dias. A atividade pulicida de I. verum permaneceu acima de 70% até o 9º dia, enquanto a atividade de P. graveolens foi de 41,7% até o 2º dia. Os óleos essenciais, principalmente de I. verum, apresentam atividade inseticida para o controle de pulgas em diferentes estágios do ciclo de vida e têm potencial para o desenvolvimento de ectoparasiticidas (biopesticidas) de uso veterinário.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Illicium/chemistry , Pelargonium/chemistry , Ctenocephalides/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/veterinary
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(2): 170-177, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. Tungiasis is probably the most neglected of all Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). It occurs in South America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa and affects marginalized populations where people live in extreme poverty. In endemic communities the prevalence can be up to 30% in general population and 85% in children. Over time, chronic pathology develops characterized by hyperkeratosis, edema around the nail rim, fissures, ulcers, deformation and loss of nails. This leads to a pattern of disabilities, eventually resulting in impairment of mobility.Dimeticones are a family of silicon oils with a potential to kill parasites located on top or inside the epidermis by a physical mode of action. They are considered the treatment of choice for pediculosis capitis and pediculosis pubis. With regard to tungiasis, the so called rear abdominal cone of the parasites has been identified as a target for treatment with dimeticones. NYDA®, a mixture of two dimeticones with different viscosity, is the only dimeticone product for which data on the mode of action, efficacy and safety with regard to tungiasis exists. The product has been shown highly effective against embedded sand fleas, even in very intense infection with more than 500 parasites situated on top of each other. A randomized controlled trial showed that seven days after a targeted application of NYDA® 97% (95% CI 94-99%) of the embedded sand fleas had lost all signs of viability.Comprehensive toxicological investigations on the dimeticones contained in NYDA® showed that there is practically no risk of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, teratogenicity, and other toxicity. The safety of dimeticones was also demonstrated in clinical trials with a total of 106 participants with tungiasis, in which not a single adverse event was observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/therapeutic use , Tungiasis/drug therapy , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Neglected Diseases/parasitology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e022819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138081

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different substrates for larval development of Ctenocephalides felis felis during its biological cycle. Eight hundred eggs of C. felis felis from a flea maintenance colony were used. Different diets were formulated, in which the main substrates were meat flour, powdered milk, sugar, lyophilized bovine blood, tick metabolites and lyophilized egg. The flea eggs were placed in test tubes (10 per tube) and approximately 2 g of the diet to be tested was added to each tube. There were 10 replicates for each substrate. After 28 days, each tube was evaluated individually for the presence of pupae and emerged adults. The following percentages of the larvae completed the cycle to the adult stage: 67% in diets containing tick metabolites; 55%, meat flour; 39%, dehydrated bovine blood; 14%, powdered milk; and less than 1% in diets containing sugar, lyophilized bovine blood, lyophilized egg or wheat bran. It was concluded that among the diets tested, the one constituted by tick metabolites as the substrate was shown to be the most satisfactory for maintaining a laboratory colony of C. felis felis, followed by the one containing meat flour.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes substratos no desenvolvimento larval de Ctenocephalides felis felis durante seu ciclo biológico. Foram utilizados 800 ovos de C. felis felis, oriundos de colônia de manutenção de pulgas. Diferentes dietas foram formuladas, contendo como substratos principais a farinha de carne, leite em pó, açúcar, sangue bovino liofilizado, metabólitos de carrapato e ovo liofilizado. Foram distribuídos 10 ovos por tubo de ensaio, aos quais foram acrescidos as dietas a serem testadas, realizando-se10 repetições para cada substrato. Após 28 dias, cada tubo foi avaliado individualmente pela presença de pupas e adultos emergidos. Nas dietas que continham metabólitos de carrapato, 67% das larvas completaram o ciclo até a fase adulta; 55% nas que continham farinha de carne; 39% contendo sangue bovino desidratado; 14% com leite em pó, e menos de 1% em dietas contendo açúcar, sangue bovino liofilizado, ovo liofilizado e farelo de trigo. Conclui-se que, entre as dietas testadas, a constituída por metabólitos de carrapato como substrato, mostrou-se a mais satisfatória para a manutenção de colônia laboratorial de C.felis felis, seguida da que continha farinha de carne.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Culture Techniques/methods , Ctenocephalides/growth & development , Larva/growth & development
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 728-734, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057990

ABSTRACT

Abstract Free-ranging and feral dogs represent a group of unattended companion animals. They impact wild animal populations by predating native species, displacing predators and introducing exotic pathogens. The aim of this work was to describe the molecular occurrence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Mycoplasma and Bartonella in feral dogs. The study was carried out in the last relict of a protected area in Mexico City. Blood clots samples from 19 dogs were obtained and analyzed for detection of specific fragments of the 16S-rRNA gene for Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Mycoplasma and citrate synthase (gltA) for Bartonella and Rickettsia. Our results showed that DNA from three bacteria species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis) was present with frequencies ranging from 5.3 to 15.8%. This is the first record of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and M. haemocanis in dogs from México, and also the first finding of Ehrlichia canis in Mexico City. It is important to perform surveillance of feral dog populations in order to identify the impact of these pathogens on wild animal populations and Public Health in order to establish prevention and protection programs.


Resumo Cães errantes e selvagens representam um grupo de animais de companhia livres. Eles impactam as populações de animais selvagens pela predação de espécies nativas, deslocando predadores e introduzindo patógenos exóticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a ocorrência molecular de Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Mycoplasma e Bartonella em cães selvagens. O estudo foi realizado no último ecossistema de uma área protegida na Cidade do México. Amostras de coágulos sanguíneos de 19 cães foram obtidas e analisadas para detecção de fragmentos específicos do gene 16S-rRNA para Anaplasma, Ehrlichia e Mycoplasma e citrato sintase (gltA) para Bartonella e Rickettsia. Nossos resultados mostraram que o DNA de três espécies de bactérias (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis e Mycoplasma haemocanis) estava presente com frequências variando de 5,3 a 15,8%. Este é o primeiro registro de B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii e M. haemocanis em cães do México, e também a primeira descrição de Ehrlichia canis na Cidade do México. É importante realizar a vigilância das populações de cães selvagens para identificar o impacto desses patógenos nas populações de animais silvestres e na Saúde Pública, a fim de estabelecer programas de prevenção e proteção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Rickettsia/genetics , Bartonella/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichia/genetics , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals, Wild , Mexico/epidemiology , Mycoplasma/genetics
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 553-559, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761766

ABSTRACT

The Alataw Pass, near the Ebinur Lake Wetland (northwest of China) and Taldykorgan (east of Kazakhstan), is a natural habitat for wild rodents. To date, little has been done on the surveillance of Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp. from fleas in the region. Here we molecularly detected Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp. in wild rodent fleas during January and October of 2016 along the Alataw Pass-Kazakhstan border. A total of 1,706 fleas belonging to 10 species were collected from 6 rodent species. Among the 10 flea species, 4 were found to be positive for Wolbachia, and 5 flea species were positive for Bartonella. Molecular analysis indicated that i) B. rochalimae was firstly identified in Xenopsylla gerbilli minax and X. conforms conforms, ii) B. grahamii was firstly identified in X. gerbilli minax, and iii) B. elizabethae was firstly detected in Coptopsylla lamellifer ardua, Paradoxopsyllus repandus, and Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps. Additionally, 3 Wolbachia endosymbionts were firstly found in X. gerbilli minax, X. conforms conforms, P. repandus, and N. laeviceps laeviceps. BLASTn analysis indicated 3 Bartonella species showed genotypic variation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 Wolbachia endosymbionts were clustered into the non-Siphonaptera Wolbachia group. These findings extend our knowledge of the geographical distribution and carriers of B. rochalimae, B. grahamii, B. elizabethae, and Wolbachia spp. In the future, there is a need for China-Kazakhstan cooperation to strengthen the surveillance of flea-borne pathogens in wildlife.


Subject(s)
Bartonella , Ecosystem , Lakes , Rodentia , Siphonaptera , Wetlands , Wolbachia , Xenopsylla
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(5): 759-760, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038280

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Human, dog, and cat fleas, as well as bedbugs, feed by biting their victims, causing acute prurigo, which is aggravated in sensitized victims (papular urticaria). The lesions appear in the classic "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" pattern. There are two main explanations: the parasites "map" the skin area in search of the best places to bite, and their removal when victim scratches, and then reattach to the skin. Treatments aim to control pruritus, as well as hypersensitivity reactions when necessary. Prevention is based on environmental control measures. The "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" sign is a definitive marker for diagnosis and the parasite´s identification and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bedbugs , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Pruritus/etiology , Photography , Cats/parasitology , Dogs/parasitology , Siphonaptera , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Insect Bites and Stings/pathology
10.
Hig. aliment ; 31(272/273): 90-96, 30/10/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876170

ABSTRACT

O caldo de cana é uma bebida popular e amplamente comercializada por ambulantes em diversas cidades brasileiras. Esse tipo de comércio deve cumprir as boas práticas determinadas pela legislação, uma vez que pode propiciar as Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos (DTA) pela venda de bebidas contaminadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições higienicossanitárias e microbiológicas da produção de caldo de cana no município de Curitiba em 10 pontos de venda. O estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: avaliação de cinco parâmetros relativos às condições estruturais e dos manipuladores, por meio de um roteiro de inspeção; e avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do caldo de cana, por meio da coleta de duas amostras em cada ponto de venda. Foi observado que 60% dos comerciantes manipulavam dinheiro simultaneamente ao preparo do caldo e não utilizavam luvas. Além disso, em 40% havia a presença de insetos, 30% apresentavam estrutura precária e 10% dos manipuladores não usavam cabelos presos. Dos locais avaliados, 60% tiveram amostras classificadas como impróprias para o consumo, sendo observados valores superiores a 2 Log.NMP/mL de coliformes termotolerantes, em que todas estavam contaminadas por E. coli. Por fim, a melhoria no cumprimento das boas práticas relaciona-se com a qualidade microbiológica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos no presente estudo, foi visto que se faz necessária a implementação de medidas para a capacitação deste grupo de comerciantes sobre as boas práticas e constante atuação de vigilância de seu cumprimento, preservando a saúde da população no sentido de prevenir as DTA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Saccharum/microbiology , Street Food , Food Microbiology , Brazil , Food Inspection , Food Handling
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 290-296, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Lice Infestations/veterinary , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Rodentia/microbiology , Rodentia/parasitology , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Canidae/microbiology , Canidae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Marsupialia/microbiology , Marsupialia/parasitology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(4): 527-530, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830038

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.


Resumo Sifonápteros são insetos parasitos de animais endotérmicos e Ctenocephalides felis e Pulex irritans são importantes parasitos dos cães. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da altura da pelagem de cães sobre as espécies de pulgas em diferentes meses do ano. Foram coletadas mensalmente, durante um ano, 10 a 15 pulgas em 14 cães de uma propriedade rural no município de Bagé, RS, Brasil. Os cães foram divididos em dois grupos: “pelo curto” e ”pelo longo”, com 07 cães em cada grupo, com altura da pelagem inferior e superior a 5 cm, respectivamente. Coletou-se 2.057 pulgas, 1.541 (74,91%) C. felis e 516 (25,08%) P. irritans. O número de indivíduos de C. felis e de P. irritans foi influenciado significativamente, pelo comprimento do pelo dos animais e pelos diferentes meses do ano. Houve maior variação do número de indivíduos das duas espécies, durante os meses, em cães de pelos longos e a curva de aumento populacional acompanhou o aumento das temperaturas médias mensais. Os resultados são importantes para o melhor conhecimento de aspectos comportamentais de comunidades de pulgas em cães e para o planejamento de estratégias de controle desses parasitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Animal Fur/parasitology , Brazil , Dogs , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Flea Infestations/etiology , Siphonaptera , Animal Fur/anatomy & histology
13.
Infectio ; 20(2): 97-100, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-777005

ABSTRACT

El tifus murino es una enfermedad infecciosa de carácter zoonótico causada por Rickettsia typhi . Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 13 años edad, procedente del área urbana de la ciudad de Cali, quien presentó un cuadro febril asociado a taquipnea y exantema maculopapular generalizado en tronco y extremidades. Durante las primeras 48 h en la UCI pediátrica desarrolló rápido deterioro clínico, fiebre persistente, aumento de reactantes de fase aguda, presencia de infiltrados pulmonares intersticiales bilaterales y derrame pleural, requiriendo ventilación mecánica no invasiva. Se inició tratamiento con doxiciclina frente a la sospecha de una posible infección por agentes rickettsiales. Veinticuatro horas más tarde la paciente presentó mejoría clínica, resolución del exantema y retiro de la ventilación no invasiva. Por medio de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta se evidenciaron títulos de 1:512 frente al grupo del tifus, constatando el diagnóstico probable de tifus murino.


Murine typhus is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Rickettsia typhi . We report a case of a 13-year old female patient from the urban area of the city of Cali, who presented with fever, associated with tachypnoea and generalised maculopapular exanthema on the trunk and limbs. During the first 48 h in the paediatric ICU, she rapidly deteriorated, with persistent fever, increased acute phase reactants, bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion requiring noninvasive ventilation. Treatment with doxycycline was initiated due to a suspected infection by rickettsial agents. Twenty-four hours later the patient presented clinical improvement and resolution of the exanthema, thus the non-invasive ventilation was withdrawn. By means of a indirect immunofluorescence test, titres of 1:512 were shown against the typhus group, leading to the probable diagnosis of murine typhus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Respiratory Insufficiency , Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne , Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne , Urban Area , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Rickettsia typhi , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Zoonoses , Doxycycline , Colombia , Fever , Clinical Deterioration , Alphaproteobacteria
14.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875222

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the species of fleas and ticks of Cerdocyon thous from the state of Pernambuco. Animals (n = 20) were examined, with 30% (6/20) ectoparasitized. Fleas (n = 16) and ticks (n = 17) parasitizing free-living crab-eating fox and captive in state of Pernambuco were collected. The fleas were identified as: Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides felis; and the ticks were: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. The presence of ectoparasites of domestic animals parasitizing C. thous, suggests a close contact of this species to the peridomicile. Furthermore, this is the first report of the occurrence of A. ovale in C. thous in northeastern Brazil.(AU)


Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de pulgas e carrapatos de Cerdocyon thous provenientes do estado Pernambuco. Foram examinados 20 animais, estando 30% (6/20) ectoparasitados. Foram coletadas 16 pulgas e 17 carrapatos em cachorros-do-mato de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco. As pulgas foram identificadas como: Pulex irritans e Ctenocephalides felis; e os carrapatos foram: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato e Amblyomma ovale. A presença de ectoparasitos de animais domésticos parasitando C. thous, sugere a aproximação de indivíduos desta espécie ao peridomicílio. Além disso, este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de A. ovale em C. thous no nordeste brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ctenocephalides/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Siphonaptera/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
15.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ; (12): 334-336, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672809

ABSTRACT

The authors report a case of human dermal complications by Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) in a 28 years old woman who dwell in rural area in Mazandaran province, Iran. Furthermore, in the current report clinical manifestations, etiology and different aspects of infestation were discussed elaborately. And the importance of controlling fleas was highlighted as well.

16.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ; (12): 334-336, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233330

ABSTRACT

The authors report a case of human dermal complications by Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) in a 28 years old woman who dwell in rural area in Mazandaran province, Iran. Furthermore, in the current report clinical manifestations, etiology and different aspects of infestation were discussed elaborately. And the importance of controlling fleas was highlighted as well.

17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1144-1150, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289564

ABSTRACT

Objective To group and characterize natural plague foci in China.Methods A novel two-class typing method as well as a three-indication nomenclature method were established to group and characterize the natural plague foci,on the basis of eco-geographical landscapes of plague foci,genetics of Yersinia pestis,zoology of rodent reservoirs and the entomology of flea vectors.Results A total of 12 distinct natural plague foci (including 19 subtypes) as well as their biological features were characterized.Conclusion Natural plague foci in China were grouped and characterized in this study.

18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 79-82, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223071

ABSTRACT

Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Ctenocephalides/physiology , Flea Infestations/diagnosis
19.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2011 Sept; 48(3): 125-132
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142781

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Appreciating how Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, spreads among black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies (BTPD), is vital to wildlife conservation programs in North American grasslands. A little-studied aspect of the system is the role of Y. pestis vectors, i.e. fleas, play in the spreading of plague in natural settings. We investigated the genetic structure and variability of a common prairie dog flea (Oropsylla hirsuta) in BTPD colonies in order to examine dispersal patterns. Given that this research took place during a widespread plague epizootic, there was the added advantage of gaining information on the dynamics of sylvatic plague. Methods & Results: Oropsylla hirsuta were collected from BTPD burrows in nine colonies from May 2005 to July 2005, and eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to generate genotypic data from them. Gene flow estimates revealed low genetic differentiation among fleas sampled from different colonies. Nested- PCR plague assays confirmed the presence of Y. pestis with the average Y. pestis prevalence across all nine colonies at 12%. No significant correlations were found between the genetic variability and gene flow of O. hirsuta and Y. pestis prevalence on a per-colony basis. Conclusion: Oropsylla hirsuta dispersal among BTPD colonies was high, potentially explaining the rapid spread of Y. pestis in our study area in 2005 and 2006.

20.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 441-443, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643069

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the data collected from surveillance sites in Shanxi province in epidemiological investigations during 2004 - 2008 and understand the influence of such factors as rat density and vectorial quantities on plague epidemic intensity, thus provide some scientific basis for plague control and prevention. Methods To collect the data of surveillance during 2004 - 2008 in the 12 counties of plague surveillance by retrospective method. Sort and analyze the collected data according to the requirement of operational scheme for plague surveillance-calculate the rat density of spermophilus dauricus, meriones meridianus and the small rodents, and the flea index and the flea infection ratio of body flea, burrow track, cave. The results of serological tests were analyzed at the same time. Results As showed in the results, the mean density of spermophilus dauricus was 1.12 merely in each hectare, and that of meriones meridianus and small rodents were 7.42%(2130/28 700) and 8.03%(3886/48 400), respectively. The flea infection rate of spermophilus dauricus and meriones meridianas were 25.78% ( 1933/7497 ) and 44.19% (2028/4598), respectively;the flea index of spermophilus dauricus and meriones meridianus were 0.59 and 1.84, respectively. The number of nests excavated with flea for spermophilus dauricus was 70, and the numbers of nests and flea were 362 and 333, respectively. The flea infection rate was 19.34 % (70/362), and the flea index was 0.92. The number of nests excavated with flea for meriones meridianus was 34, and the numbers of nests and flea were 177 and 124, respectively. The flea infection rate was 19.21%(34/177), and the flea index was 0.70. The number of caves explored for spermophilus dauricus was 7171,and the number of burrows with flea was 62, so the flea infection rate was 0.86%(62/7171 ), and the flea index was 0.01. Conclusions With a relatively high density and large quantity and considering the epidemic features of animal plague in periphery provinces in recent years, plague may still happen and spread in Shanxi province diespite the negative results of all those serological tests, by means of importing from other provinces.

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