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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e014221, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Feline Bartonella can be transmitted to humans through cat scratches or bites, and between cats, by the flea Ctenocephalides felis. The study was carried out in order to investigate the occurrence of Bartonella DNA in cats living in shelters and their ectoparasites and the relationship between the infection status of cats and ectoparasites they host. Bartonella DNA was detected in 47.8% of the cat blood samples, 18.3% of C. felis fleas, 13.3% of flea egg pools and 12.5% of lice pools. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae DNA were detected in cat fleas, while B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae were found in blood samples from bacteremic cats. Cats infested by positive ectoparasites showed approximately twice the odds of being infected. Our results indicate that shelter cats have high prevalence of Bartonella species that are known to be human pathogens. This highlights the importance of controlling infestations by ectoparasites to avoid cat and human infection.


Resumo Algumas espécies de Bartonella têm os felinos como principais hospedeiros reservatórios. Tais patógenos são transmitidos ao homem por intermédio da arranhadura ou mordedura de gatos e entre os gatos, por meio da pulga Ctenocephalides felis. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de DNA de Bartonella spp. em gatos de abrigos e seus ectoparasitas e a relação entre o estado de infecção dos gatos e dos ectoparasitas albergados por estes. Material genético bacteriano foi detectado em 47,8% das amostras de sangue de gatos, 18,3% das pulgas C. felis, 13,3% dos "pools" de ovos de pulgas e 12,5% dos "pools" de piolhos. DNA de B. henselae e B. clarridgeiae foi detectado em pulgas, e B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae e B. koehlerae, em amostras de sangue de gatos. Gatos infestados por ectoparasitas que carreavam DNA de Bartonella spp. demonstraram aproximadamente o dobro de chance de estarem infectados. Esses resultados indicam que os gatos de abrigos têm alta prevalência de infecção por espécies de Bartonella, capazes de causar doenças no homem. E também destacam a importância do controle e prevenção da infestação por ectoparasitas, no intuito de prevenir a infecção em gatos e humanos.

2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(3): 270-273, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751986

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar através de teste in vivo, a eficácia e o período residual de proteção do fipronil 10% "top spot" em cães infestados com diferentes cargas parasitárias de Ctenocephalides felis felis. Foram utilizados 24 cães da raça Beagle, compondo seis animais por grupo. Os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos. Os cães dos grupos controles I e II não receberam tratamento, enquanto que os cães dos grupos tratados I e II receberam tratamento com formulação de fipronil 10% "top spot". Os cães dos grupos controle I e tratado I foram infestados com 100 pulgas adultas não alimentadas, e os cães dos grupos controle II e tratado II foram infestados com 300 pulgas adultas não alimentadas. As infestações foram realizadas nos dias, -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 e +40 e nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42 foi realizada retirada mecânica e contagem de pulgas para avaliação. As eficácias pulguicidas, para o grupo tratado I, nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42, foram respectivamente 99,36%; 99,73%; 99,48%; 99,74%; 99,75%; 95,06% e 67,62%...


The objective of the study was to evaluate through in vivo test, the efficacy and residual period of protection of 10% fipronil "top spot" for dogs with different Ctenocephalides felis felis burdens of infestations. For this, 24 Beagles were used, divided into four groups of six dogs each. The dogs of the control groups I and II were not treated, while the dogs of the treated groups I e II were treated with the formulation of 10% fipronil "top spot". The dogs of the control group I and treated group I were infested with 100 unfed C. felis felis and dogs of group control II and treated II one were infested with 300 unfed C. felis felis each. Infestations were performed on days -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 and +40, and on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 fleas were mechanical removed and counted for evaluation. Efficacy for treated group I on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 was respectively 99.36%, 99.73%, 99.48%, 99.00%, 74.00%, 99.75%, 95.06% and 67.62%...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/parasitology , Ctenocephalides , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Chemical Compounds/analysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 286-288, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-470389

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the situation of flea species and distribution in the natural foci of plague in Baotou and provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of the disease.Method Flea specimens collected over the years and literature recordings were analyzed systematically.Results A total of 5 families,19 genera and 39 fleas were recorded,and 9 of them could be naturally infected with plague bacteria (Nosopsyllus laeviceps,Xenopsylla conformis,Neopsylla pleskei,Citellophilus tesquorum,Neopsylla bidentatiformis,Leptopsylla pavlovskii,Ophthalmopsylla praefecta,Rhadinopsylla insolita and Frontopsylla luculenta).There were 34 fleas in the north area,and 14 of them were regional fleas; there were 25 species in south area,and 5 were regional fleas.Conclusion Flea distribution in Baotou City has obvious regional characteristics,and these fleas can be naturally infected by the plague.

4.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 18(supl.1): 3738-3742, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-701789

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Identificar especies de ectoparásitos encontrados parasitando naturalmente un Oso melero, el cual fue encontrado muriendo en una vía cercana al pueblo de Bobare, estado Lara, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos. Al ingresar el animal a la sala de anatomía del DCV-UCLA para ser sometido a la técnica de taxidermia, se procedió a revisar a través de la palpación toda la superficie corporal del Oso, con la finalidad de tomar muestras de ectoparásitos presentes en el hospedador; los especímenes encontrados fueron colocados en un envase de vidrio conservados en alcohol isopropílico y posteriormente fueron llevados al Laboratorio de Parasitología Veterinaria del DCV-UCLA para su identificación taxonómica. Los ectoparásitos fueron observados en lupa estereoscópica y clasificados con ayuda de claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Se identificaron dos especies de artrópodos infestando naturalmente el Oso Melero, de las cuales se encuentra una garrapata macho clasificada como Amblyomma nodosum; y una pulga hembra identificada como Pulex irritans. Conclusiones. Estos artrópodos se han reportado parasitando naturalmente algunas especies de mamíferos, dentro de los cuales el Oso Melero se ha visto afectado por la acción de estos ectoparásitos; en Venezuela es el primer reporte de Pulex irritans afectando esta especie animal.


Objectives. Identify species of ectoparasites found naturally parasitizing an anteater, which was found dying on the roadside close to Bobare Village, State of Lara, Venezuela. Materials and methods. A dead anteater was brought to the anatomy Lab of the Decanato de Ciencias Veterinarias (DCV), Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado” (UCLA) for taxidermic purposes. First, all the skin and hairy areas of the animal were manually checked looking for ectoparasites; secondly, all detected specimens were collected, and placed in vials containing a solution of isopropilic alcohol 70°. Following this procedure, the vials were taken to the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory at DCV-UCLA to accomplish the taxonomic identification under a stereoscopic microscope, and with taxonomic keys. Results. Two specimens of arthropods were found, the first one was a male tick identified as Amblyomma nodosum, and the other one was a female flea of the genera Pulex irritans Conclusions. These ectoparasites have been reported as natural parasites of other mammals, and among them the anteaters have been often found parasitized by these arthropods. In Venezuela this is the first case of a Pulex irritans infecting Tamandua tetradactyla.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Siphonaptera , Xenarthra
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(4): 345-354, out.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660923

ABSTRACT

Ctenocephalides felis felis is one of the most important ectoparasites of dogs and cats throughout the world, because of its geographical distribution, dual parasitological action as an infesting agent and a vector of diseases, the economic losses and the acquired resistance against common insecticides. In Brazil, it surpasses Ctenocephalides canis in distribution, number of host species infested, prevalence and epidemiological importance. However, in some studies the species have been misidentified on the basis of their morphological characters included in taxonomic keys. The morphological variations of chaetotaxy, especially those on the dorsal margin of the hind tibia and lateral metanotal area (LMA), found in certain specimens, have sometimes been erroneously treated as hybrids, in spite of the nonexistence of the two species of Ctenocephalides in the same municipality or region. This review focuses on the characteristics used for interspecific diagnosis and intraspecific variations found between the species. Data on distribution, hosts, prevalence and parasitological action are also presented as an auxiliary means for recognizing the species.


Ctenocephalides felis felis é um dos mais importantes ectoparasitos de cães e gatos no mundo inteiro, em virtude de sua distribuição geográfica, dupla ação parasitológica como agente infestante e vetor de doenças, perdas econômicas e resistência adquirida contra inseticidas comuns. No Brasil, ela sobrepuja Ctenocephalides canis em distribuição, número de espécies de hospedeiros infestadas, prevalência e importância epidemiológica. Todavia, em alguns estudos, as espécies têm sido incorretamente identificadas pelos caracteres morfológicos incluídos em chaves taxonômicas. As variações morfológicas de quetotaxia, especialmente aquelas da margem dorsal da tibia posterior e área metanotal lateral (LMA) encontradas em certos exemplares, algumas vezes têm sido erroneamente consideradas como híbridas, a despeito da inexistência das duas espécies em um mesmo município ou região. Esta revisão aborda as características utilizadas para o diagnóstico interespecífico e variações intra-específicas encontradas entre as espécies. Dados sobre distribuição, hospedeiros, prevalência e atuação parasitológica são também apresentados como um meio auxiliar para o reconhecimento das espécies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Ctenocephalides/anatomy & histology , Ctenocephalides/classification
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(3): 237-242, July-Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653711

ABSTRACT

The present study examined occurrences of ectoparasites and identified them on dogs in rural regions in Brazil, and assessed the influence of climate on these parasites. Ectoparasites were randomly collected from 194 dogs living on farms located in Lavras (n = 92) and Nanuque (n = 102) during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, the same dogs in Lavras (n = 71) and Nanuque (n = 66) were resampled. During the experiment, fleas, ticks, lice and fly larvae were collected. The flea species Ctenocephalides felis was the most common ectoparasite collected from these dogs. The main tick species that infested the dogs in rural areas of Nanuque and Lavras was Amblyomma cajennense. In Lavras, the dogs had high levels of flea infestation (80.4 and 88.7% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and low levels of tick infestation (19.6 and 28.2% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively), without any significant differences in infestation rates between the seasons. In Nanuque, moderate levels of flea infestation (68.6 and 43.9% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and A. cajennense (65.7 and 47.0% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were observed, with significantly lower prevalence in the rainy season (p < 0.05). The presence of ectoparasites was evident at both times of the year, but the different temperatures may have influenced the occurrences of parasites in Lavras and Nanuque.


O presente estudo examinou a ocorrência e identificação de ectoparasitas em cães de áreas rurais no Brasil, e a influência do clima sobre esses parasitas. Ectoparasitas foram aleatoriamente coletados de 194 cães provenientes de fazendas localizadas em Lavras (n = 92) e Nanuque (n = 102) durante o período seco. No período chuvoso subsequente, os mesmos cães de Lavras (n = 71) e Nanuque (n = 66) foram re-amostrados. Durante o experimento, pulgas, carrapatos, piolhos e larvas de diptera foram coletados. A espécie de pulga Ctenocephalides felis foi o ectoparasita mais comumente encontrado desses cães. A principal espécie de carrapato que infestava os cães nas áreas rurais de Nanuque e Lavras foi Amblyomma cajennense. Em Lavras, os cães tinham altos níveis de infestação de pulgas (80,4 e 88,7% nas estações seca e chuvosa, respectivamente) e baixos níveis de infestação por carrapatos (19,6 e 28,2% nas estações seca e chuvosa, respectivamente), não sendo observada diferença significativa nas taxas de infestação entre as estações. Em Nanuque, níveis moderados de infestação por pulgas (68,6 e 43,9% nas estações seca e chuvosa, respectivamente) e A. cajennense (65,7 e 47,0% na estação seca e chuvosa, respectivamente) foram observadas, com prevalência significativamente menor na estação chuvosa (p < 0,05). A presença de ectoparasitas foi evidente em ambas as épocas do ano, mas as diferentes temperaturas poderiam ter influenciado a ocorrência de parasitas em Lavras e Nanuque.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Rural Health , Seasons
7.
Colomb. med ; 43(2): 175-180, Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659346

ABSTRACT

Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacteria who causes murine typhus. His importance is reflected in the high frequency founding specific antibodies against R. typhi in several worldwide seroepidemiological studies, the seroprevalence ranging between 3-36%. Natural reservoirs of Rickettsia typhi are rats (some species belonging the Rattus Genus) and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) are his vector. This infection is associated with overcrowding, pollution and poor hygiene. Typically presents fever, headache, rash on trunk and extremities, in some cases may occur organspecific complications, affecting liver, kidney, lung or brain. Initially the disease is very similar to other diseases, is very common to confuse the murine typhus with Dengue fever, therefore, ignorance of the disease is a factor related to complications or non-specific treatments for the resolution of this infection. This paper presents the most relevant information to consider about the rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi


Subject(s)
Rickettsia , Rickettsia typhi , Infections , Rats
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(3): 1257-1264, Sept. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638158

ABSTRACT

Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 species were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. We examined both juvenile and adult birds from both sexes. The overall prevalence was 16.2%; 66.7% of raptors were infested with a single type of external parasite. Lice were the most prevalent ectoparasites (91.7%), followed by feather mites and fleas (8.3%). Degeeriella fulva (72.7%), Craspedorrhynchus sp. (45.4%) and Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1%) (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) were recovered from wings, head and neck regions of red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni), Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) and Barn owl (Tyto alba). Low lice infestation level was observed. Nymphs and females of feather mites Kramerella sp. (Pterolichoidea, Kramerellidae) were recovered solely from Barn owl (T. alba); while one Caracara (Caracara cheriway) was infested by the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae). No clinical signs were observed in any infested bird. Probably the periodic use of organophosphorates was responsible of the low prevalence and lice infestation levels. The diversity of external parasites illustrates the importance of detailed revision of incoming and long-term captive raptors as part of responsible captive management. Five new hosts and geographic records are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1257-1264. Epub 2011 September 01.


Las aves rapaces albergan una gran variedad de ectoparásitos y la mayoría de ellos son específicos de acogida. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los ectoparásitos de aves de presa en cautiverio en México y verificar su impacto en la salud de las aves. Se estudiaron 74 rapaces (66 Falconiformes y ocho Strigiformes) de 15 especies, juveniles y adultos de ambos sexos que fueron confiscadas y mantenidas en el Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) en Los Reyes La Paz (20º22’ N, 98º59’ W), estado de México. La prevalencia fue de 16.2%; 66.7% de las rapaces estaban infestadas por un único tipo de ectoparásito. Los piojos fueron los más prevalentes (91.7%), seguidos por los ácaros y las pulgas (8.3%). Los piojos Degeeriela fulva (72.7%), Craspedorhynchus sp. (45.4%) y Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1%) fueron extraídos de las alas, cabeza y cuello de aguililla cola-roja (Buteo jamaicensis), aguililla migratoria (B. swainsoni), aguililla de Harris (Parabuteo unicinctus) y lechuza de campanario (Tyto alba). El ácaro Kramerella sp. fue extaído de T. alba; mientras que un Caracara (Caracara cheriway) estaba infestado por la pulga Echidnophaga gallinacea. No se observaron signos clínicos en ninguna de las aves infestadas. Probablemente el uso periódico de organofosforatos fue el responsable de la baja prevalencia y de los niveles de ingesta de piojos. La diversidad de ectoparásitos identificados ilustra la importancia de una detallada revisión de las rapaces en cautiverio. Cinco nuevos hospederos y registros geográficos son presentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Falconiformes/parasitology , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Lice Infestations/veterinary , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Flea Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Mite Infestations/epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 518-520, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643178

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the composition and distribution of animal reservoir of plague in Quanzhou city, Fujian province, and so as to accumulate basic data for making the plague prevention and control measures. Methods Rodents were captured by cages in six monitoring spots of Quanzhou city between 2000 and 2009. Then rodents and flea species were identified. Rats liver and spleen homogenates were detected of plague F1 antigen by reverse indirect hemagglutination test (RIHA); rats serum were detected of plague F1 antibody by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). ResultsA total of 26 264 rodents were captured between 2000 and 2009.Rattus norvegicus and Rattus flavipectus were dominant species, which were accounted for 45.97% (12 074/26 264)and 32.01%(8407/26 264), respectively. The account of Rattus flavipectus captured between 2005 and 2009 was (26.99 ± 2.46)% and (37.03 ± 3.79)% between 2000 and 2004. The difference was statistically significant (t =4.97, P < 0.05). Total rodent densities was (6.86 ± 1.44)%, including(5.36 ± 1.83)% in mountains and (6.81 ±1.66)% in coastal areas, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant(t =1.01, P > 0.05). Total flea index and flea infection rate of rodents were 1.39 ± 0.34 and (35.90 ± 5.34)%, respectively. Xenopsylla Cheopis index was 1.20 and free flea index was 0.009. Flea infection rate was (32.36 ± 0.96)% between 2005 and 2009, which was lower than (39.44 ± 0.39)% between 2000 and 2004(t =2.76, P < 0.05). ConclusionsThe major rodent species found in Quanzhou city is Rattus norvegicus. Xenopsylla Cheopis is the dominant flea species.Spreading of plague among Rattus is not found.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 685-688, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273113

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyzed the variant information on the indices regarding fleas from natural foci of Microtus plague in Sichuan epidemic area during 2000 to 2008.Methods Statistical and analytical methods were used on the surveillance data regarding Microtus fuscus plague.Results There were 19 flea species identified and the share of Callopsylla sparsilis was 62.79 percent while the share of Amphipsylla tuta tuta was 30.90 percent on Microtus fuscus plague.The infection rate of fleas and the flea index were the highest in October and the lowest in December and March.Species as Callopsylla sparsilis,Amphipsylla tuta tuta and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina could naturally infect the Yersinia pestis.Conclusion Microtus fuscus plague could become epidemic when animals and flea species were infected.We should emphasis on plague monitoring program so as to prevent the occurrence of the disease.

11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 30(2): 215-237, jun. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-560975

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La tungiasis, o infestación cutánea por la pulga Tunga penetrans, ocurre en comunidades muy pobres.Objetivo. Presentar la entidad en indígenas del Vaupés. Métodos. En primer lugar, se revisó el tema. Luego, se describió el área y la vivienda de los pacientes afectados; se detectaron los animales infestados con la zoonosis. Se iIustró el aspecto clínico y sus complicaciones y, posteriormente, se trataron los pacientes con creolina. Se logró hacer modificaciones en el piso de las malocas de dos comunidades, con humedad y arcilla, y se impartió educación a la comunidad sobre esta parasitosis. Resultados. El 95% de los 33.000 habitantes del Vaupés son indígenas. Algunos moran en viviendas de piso arenoso, seco, con detritos alimenticios y perros con tungiasis. Entre 1996 y 2007 confirmamos 942 casos del parasitismo. De los indígenas estudiados, 3 a 8 de cada 1.000 y 62% de los perros, presentaban tungiasis. Los pies se vieron afectados en 98% de los pacientes. Se presentaron casos graves con más de 20 lesiones, en niños y ancianos. Como complicaciones, se presentaron: infección secundaria, dolor, anoniquia, deformación y amputación de los dedos de los pies e imposibilidad para la marcha. Hubo sepsis mortal en tres pacientes. No se presentaron casos de tétanos. Los baños con creolina y la extracción del parásito fueron curativos, en hombres y animales. La modificación de los pisos redujo a cero la enfermedad en una comunidad. Conclusiones. La enfermedad es intradomiciliaria. El piso de la vivienda y la convivencia con perros infestados son ideales para adquirirla. La creolina, la humectación del piso y el cubrirlo con arcilla controlaron un foco de la enfermedad, actividad que podría generalizarse. Ésta es la primera investigación colombiana sobre la tungiasis, entidad conocida en Colombia desde que afectó a los soldados de Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, fundador de Santafé de Bogotá en 1538.


Introduction. Tungiasis, the skin infestation with the flea Tunga penetrans, occurs in poor communities.Objective. To present a study of this condition among native Amerindians from Vaupés (Colombia). Methods. After reviewing this topic, we present a description of the geographic area and the housing of the affected subjects; animal carriers infected with this zoonosis were also detected. We illustrate the clinical aspects and complications. Patients were treated with creolin (liquid cresol). We modified the floor of malocas in two communities using wet clay, and we educated the community on this parasite. Results. About 95% of the 33,000 inhabitants of Vaupés are native Amerindians. Some households have dry sandy floors, where food leftovers attract dogs infested with tungiasis. From 1996 to 2007 we confirmed 942 human cases of this parasitic disease. Among the native communities, 3 to 8 per 1,000 persons and 62% of the dogs have tungiasis. Feet were affected in 98% of the patients. Severe cases, with more than 20 lesions, occurred among children and the elderly. Complications included secondary infections, pain, anonychia (loss of toenails), toe deformities, amputation of toes and walking problems. Three patients died as a result of sepsis originating from toe infections. Topic use of liquid creolin and extraction of the parasite cured the problem in humans and dogs. Floor modifications eradicated the problem in one community. Conclusions. Tungiasis is an intradomiciliary disease. Favorable conditions for infestations include dry sandy floors and infected dogs. Treatment of the floors with creolin and wet clay resulted in control of one focus of the disease; this method could be applied more widely. This is the first known research study on tungiasis in Colombia, a disease that affected the soldiers of the Spanish Conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in the 1500s.


Subject(s)
Ectoparasitic Infestations , Poverty Areas , Sepsis , Siphonaptera , Zoonoses , Indigenous Peoples
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(1): 49-54, jan.-mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604635

ABSTRACT

In an region of Atlantic Rainforest corresponding to the geopolitical area of the Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, 160 small mammals were captured, of which 64 rodents and 96 marsupials from October 2005 to October 2007. There were collected in these hosts six flea species from three families (Ctenophthalmidae, Rhopalopsyllidae and Pulicidae), totalizing 162 specimens. Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia was the most common species found, followed by Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis. Philander frenatus and Micoureus paraguayanus were reported as new hosts to Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia and P. o. occidentalis was reported for the first time in the city of Rio de Janeiro.


Na Mata Atlântica área correspondente ao espaço geopolítico do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre outubro de 2005 e outubro de 2007, 160 pequenos mamíferos foram capturados, sendo 64 pequenos roedores e 96 marsupiais. Nestes hospedeiros, foram coletadas seis espécies de pulgas relacionadas a três famílias (Ctenophthalmidae, Rhopalopsyllidae e Pulicidae), totalizando 162 espécimes. Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis. Novos hospedeiros foram registrados, Philander frenatus e Micoureus paraguayanus para Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia, bem como a ocorrência de algumas espécies de Siphonaptera encontrados em novo espaço geopolítico, P. o. occidentalis e no município do Rio de Janeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Marsupialia/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Siphonaptera , Brazil
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 83(4): 339-342, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-492792

ABSTRACT

A tungíase é ectoparasitose causada pela penetração da Tunga penetrans na pele do hospedeiro. A infestação por essa pulga está associada à pobreza e ocorre em comunidades carentes na América do Sul e Central, no Caribe e na África sul-sahariana. No Brasil, é mais prevalente em assentamentos urbanos precários, áreas rurais e comunidades de pescadores em todo o país. O tratamento consiste na retirada dos parasitas e, nos casos com infecção secundária, antibioticoterapia. Até o momento, não há droga no mercado com eficácia clínica satisfatória. Relata-se caso de tungíase disseminada tratada com ivermectina oral.


Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic infection caused by the penetration of the sand flea Tunga penetrans into the skin of the host. Flea infestation is associated with poverty and occurs in resource-poor communities in South and Central America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is widespread in urban squatter settlements, villages in the rural hinterland and in traditional fishing communities along the coast. Standard therapy for tungiasis consists of removing the embedded flea with a sterile needle, and using an antibiotic agent in case of secondary infection. At present, there is no drug in the market with satisfactory clinical efficacy. We describe a case of generalized Tunga penetrans infestation that was treated with oral ivermectin.

14.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 654-656, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643285

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the outcome of the epidemiological investigation on an animal plague in Dingbian County of Shaanxi Province.Methods The region of 25 square kiolmeters(km2)in Hongliugou Town was selected as monitoring point of plague to investigate on host animals,etiology and serology.The epidemic area was classified,deratization and depulization were correspondingly adopted.Health education was carried out for prevention knowledge of plague,and questionnaire survey was conducted among residents and medical staff in the epidemic area.Result The average rat density in monitoring site was 8.38 rats per hectare in Hongliugou Town.Average rate infected with flea and flea index were 50.4%(56/111)and 1.81,respectively.The epidemic area was classified 3 types,and came up to the demand after corresponding measures adopted.In the epidemic area,the pass rate of the prevention and control knowledge were 62.00%(31/50)in residents and 92.98%(53/57) in medical staff.Conclusions Plague epizootic can be discovered by exercising regular monitoring and controlledimmed iately and effectively by taking the appropriate control measures.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 346-350, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287768

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the epidemiological significance of community-structural difference regarding both small mammal and flea communities on Rattus ftavipectus in Dehong and Baoshan areas,Yunnan province,during 1982 to 1996.Methods Methodologies as cluster analysis,communities dominated constitution and species diversity were used for data analysis.Results 75 490 small mammals of 27 species could be divided into three types:Ⅰ.Ruili habitat-communities dominated bv R.flavipectus (54.41%)and Suncus murinus(33.37%): Ⅱ.Longchuan and Yingiiang habitat-communities dominated by R.flavipectus(62.99%),S.murinus(23.25%)and Mus musculus(10.06%);Ⅲ.Baoshan habitat-community dominated by R.flavipectus(48.07%),S.murinus(19.56%)and Crocidura attenuats(14.37%).The captured 61 122 fleas of 11 species on R.flavipectus could be divided into three types: i.Ruili habitat-communities dominated by Xenopsylla cheopis(83.51%)and Lentistivslius ferinus(13.86%);ii.Longchuan and Yingjiang habitats X.cheopis(74.42%)and L.segnis(22.94%); iii.Baoshan habitat-communities dominated by L.segnis(70.62%)and X.cheopis(22.70%).There had been 1471 strains of Y.pestis isolated from the hosts of 7 species and vectors of 5 species in Dehong areas for the ten year period.36 strains of Y.pestis were isolated from host of one species and vectors of 2 species in Baoshan area for ten years.The constitution ratio of R.flavipectus and X.cheopis was higher in Dehong area with average as 58.70%and 78.97%respectively.However.the diversities of species among host and vector communities were low,with average as 1.010 and 0.625.On the contrary,the constitution ratios of R.flavipectus and X.cheopis were lower in Baoshan area.with an average as 48.07%and 22.70%respectively but the diversities of species among host and vector community were higher with the averages as 1.471 and 0.829 respectively.The main dominative flea species from 'group ii'to 'group iii'in the flea community had changed from X.cheopis to L.segnis.Conclusion The species diversity index of host and vector community was higher in Baoshan area,while the constitution ratio of main host and vector community was lower.This findings seemed to be the important factor of the decrease of plague prevalence in Baoshan area.

16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(7): 793-801, Nov. 2007. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-470345

ABSTRACT

This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi), and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii), some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Endemic Diseases , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Siphonaptera/microbiology , Horses/microbiology , Opossums/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/immunology , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Ticks/microbiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella henselae DNA, which is known as an etiologic agent of lymphadenitis, in fleas from dogs. METHODS: The Bartonella henselae infection was investigated in 42 fleas from 22 dogs in Korea. By using seminested PCR targeting pap31 gene, B. henselae DNA was amplified from fleas. RESULTS: B. henselae DNA was detected in seven fleas (7 of 42 fleas, 16.7 percent) from four dogs (4 of 22 dogs, 18.2 percent). To confirm these findings, we performed sequencing and identified the seven PCR products. Sequence analysis revealed that six sequences belonged to Huston-1 genogroup and one sequence to Marseille genogroup. CONCLUSION: These results may suggest that dogs could be an important source of B. henselae infection in children in Korea. This is the first report about the detection of B. henselae in fleas from dogs in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella , Child , DNA , Dogs , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Lymphadenitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Siphonaptera
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