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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1,supl.1): 90-100, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248585

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La criptococosis es una enfermedad producida por levaduras encapsuladas que se adquiere por la inhalación de propágulos infectantes de Cryptoccoccus, principalmente por la C. neoformnas y en menor frecuencia por la C. gatti. La distribución de este hongo es global, pero se encuentra de manera habitual en excretas de aves como las palomas. El principal compromiso en las personas es a nivel de los pulmones, del cerebro o de forma diseminada. La criptococosis en el sistema nervioso central (SNQ se presenta con meningoencefalitis, rara vez en forma de lesiones localizadas granulomatosas conocidas como criptococoma. Esta micosis es una causa frecuente de meningitis que se encuentra, especialmente, en los pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta enfermedad en el SNC son: cefalea, alteración del estado mental, fiebre, náuseas, vómito, deterioro visual, parálisis del sexto nervio craneal y signos de irritación meníngea, entre otras. El diagnóstico se realiza por medio de cultivo, microscopía del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) o detección del antígeno de criptococo. El tratamiento de la meningitis por criptococo se divide en tres fases: inducción, consolidación y mantenimiento. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anfotericina B, la flucitosina y el fluconazol.


SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a disease produced by encapsulated yeast that is acquired by inhalation of infecting Cryp-tococcus propagules, mainly by C. neoformnas and less frequently by C gatti. The distribution of this fungus is global, but it is commonly found in the excreta of birds such as pigeons. The main commitment in people is at the level of the lungs, the brain or in a disseminated way. Cryptococcosis in the central nervous system (CNS) presents with meningoencephalitis, rarely as localized granulomatous lesions known as cryptococcoma. This mycosis is a frequent cause of meningitis especially found in patients with HIV / AIDS. The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis in the CNS are: headache, altered mental status, fever, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment, sixth cranial nerve palsy, and signs of meningeal irritation, among others. Diagnosis is made by culture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, or by detection of cryptococcal antigen. The treatment of cryptococcal meningitis is divided into three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. The mainstays of treatment are amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole.

2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
3.
Infectio ; 24(4): 266-269, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114881

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La endocarditis fúngica es una enfermedad infecciosa agresiva e infrecuente, considerada una emergencia en los servicios hospitalarios. Se ha evidenciado una incidencia de 0-12% del total de las admisiones pediátricas por endocarditis infecciosa. La mortalidad por Candida spp se encuentra alrededor del 50-80% en todos los casos. La Candida lusitaniae afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con uso de dispositivos intravasculares y el empleo de antibióticos de amplio espectro. Reporte de caso: Se presenta el caso de un lactante menor quien es diagnosticado con fungemia y endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae en válvula nativa posterior a cirugía de corrección por transposición de grandes vasos. Discusión y Conclusiones: La endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae es una entidad poco frecuente, con una prevalencia menor al 2% constituyéndose un escenario desafiante en la práctica clínica. Se describen las características de un lactante menor quien presentó endocarditis fúngica ya definidas en la literatura mundial. Es imprescindible la detección temprana y una intervención terapéutica vertiginosa; puesto que, la persistencia del inoculo, la resistencia antimicótica y el retraso en el diagnóstico conllevan a una condición amenazante para la vida del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: Fungal infective endocarditis is an aggressive and infrequent disease, considered an emergency in hospital services. Candida mortality is around 50-80% in all cases. The Candida lusitaniae mainly affects immunocompromised patients with chronic venous access and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Case report: A minor infant is presented who is diagnosed with fungemia and infective endocarditis due to Candida lusitaniae in a native valve secondary to surgery by transposition of large vessels. Discussion and Conclusions: Candida lusitaniae infectious endocarditis is very rare, with a prevalence of less than 2% constituting a challenging scenario in clinical practice. The characteristics of fungemia and endocarditis already defined in the world literature are described. Early detection and a vertiginous therapeutic intervention are essential, since; latent infection, antifungal resistance and delay in diagnosis lead to a threatening condition for the patient's life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Candida , Endocarditis , Fungemia , Echinocandins , Infections/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(1): 153-165, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089112

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las infecciones oportunistas asociadas con Candida albicans han tenido gran repercusión en la salud pública por la mortalidad que generan en determinados grupos poblacionales. Aunque existen tratamientos farmacológicos disponibles, es evidente el aumento de la resistencia desarrollada por el agente patógeno, por lo que la determinación de los mecanismos de resistencia de las cepas presentes en las áreas hospitalarias es importante, ya que permitiría plantear mejores esquemas de tratamiento. Objetivo. Analizar la expresión de los genes ERG11, CDR1 y MDR1 en cepas de C. albicans aisladas de adultos mayores a su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Santa Sofía de Manizales, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron 29 muestras (21 resistentes y 8 sensibles) y se conformaron dos grupos de trabajo, uno de muestras con exposición al fluconazol y el otro sin esta. El ARN extraído se cuantificó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa en tiempo real (RT-qPCR). Resultados. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la expresión del gen MDR1 en el grupo de cepas de C. albicans resistentes. Dos de las cepas resistentes (104 y 62-2) expuestas al antifúngico presentaron valores muy elevados en la expresión de este gen. La expresión del ERG11 y del CDR1 no fue significativa en los grupos estudiados. Conclusión. El aumento de sobreexpresión del gen MDR1 indica que este puede ser el responsable de la resistencia; sin embargo, algunas cepas resistentes no sobreexpresaron los genes analizados, lo que indica que puede haber otros genes involucrados en la resistencia de las cepas estudiadas.


Abstract Introduction: Opportunistic infections associated with Candida albicans have had a great impact on public health due to the mortality they generate in certain population groups. Although pharmacological treatments are available, the resistance developed by the pathogen has become increasingly evident. For this reason, determining the mechanisms of resistance associated with the strains found in different hospital areas is important since it would help improving treatment plans. Objective: To analyze the expression of ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 genes in strains of C. albicans isolated from elderly patients at admittance in the intensive care unit of Hospital Santa Sofía in Manizales, Colombia. Materials and methods: A total of 29 samples (21 resistant and 8 sensitive) were selected and distributed in two working groups: with and without exposure to fluconazole. The extracted RNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: Significant differences were found in the expression of the MDR1 gene in the group of resistant C. albicans strains. Two of the resistant strains (104 and 62-2) exposed to the antifungal showed very high values in the expression of this gene. The expression of ERG11 and CDR1 was not significant among the groups studied. Conclusion: The increased overexpression of the MDR1 gene indicates that it may be responsible for the resistance. However, some resistant strains did not overexpress any of the genes analyzed, which indicates that there may be other genes involved in the resistance of the strains under study.

5.
Investig. enferm ; 222020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1119923

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los esfuerzos terapéuticos orientados a atender las micosis por Candidaspp. se han enfocado en el empleo de azoles; sin embargo, en la literatura científica se discute su beneficio, por los amplios y descritos mecanismos de resistencia. Objetivo: Describir los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por la especie Candida glabrata, con la intención de que sean considerados dentro de las variables de elegibilidad para la intervención. Método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa utilizando la pregunta orientadora: ¿cuáles son los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por la especie Candida glabrata? Veintinueve estudios obtenidos de la base de datos PubMed cumplieron los criterios del análisis crítico propuesto por el instrumento PRISMA, utilizado para la selección de los artículos incluidos para su revisión en este manuscrito. Las categorías bajo las cuales se organizaron los elementos de análisis fueron: sobrexpresión de bombas de eflujo y modificaciones en la enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Resultados: Los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por Candida glabrata están determinados principalmente por la regulación a la alza de bombas de adenosina-trifosfato Binding Cassette (ABC) y por la modificación del punto de unión con su blanco farmacológico: la enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Conclusión: Los mecanismos de resistencia expresados por Candida glabrata se asocian con la modificación estructural de la diana farmacológica y la sobreexpresión de bombas de eflujo de manera diferencial a otras especies. Se sugiere que Candida glabrata es intrínsecamente menos susceptible al fluconazol.


Introduction: Therapeutic efforts aimed at treating mycosis caused by Candida spp. have focused on the use of azoles; however, their benefits have been subject to discussion in scientific literature, due to the extensive and well-described resistance mechanisms. Objective: To describe the resistance mechanisms to fluconazole expressed by the Candida glabrata species, so they are considered within the variables of eligibility for intervention. Method: An integrative review was carried out using the guiding question: what are the fluconazole resistance mechanisms expressed by the Candida glabrata species? Twenty-nine studies obtained from the PubMed database met the criteria for the critical analysis proposed by the PRISMA instrument, which was used for the selection of articles for review included in this paper. The analysis elements were organized in the following categories: overexpression of efflux pumps and modifications in the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase. Results: The resistance mechanisms to fluconazole expressed by Candida glabrata are mainly determined by the upregulation of Adenosine triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC) pumps and by the modification of the point of attachment with its pharmacological target: the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase. Conclusion: The resistance mechanisms expressed by Candida glabrata are associated with the structural modification of the pharmacological target and the overexpression of efflux pumps, in a way different to other species. It is suggested that Candida glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to fluconazole.


Introdução: Os esforços terapêuticos voltados ao tratamento de micose por Candida spp. se focaram no uso de azóis; no entanto, na literatura científica discute-se seu benefício devido aos extensos e descritos mecanismos de resistência. Objetivo: Descrever os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos pela espécie Candida glabrata, com a intenção de serem considerados dentro das variáveis de elegibilidade para a intervenção. Método: Uma revisão integrativa foi realizada utilizando a questão norteadora: quais os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos pela espécie Candida glabrata? Vinte e nove estudos obtidos da base de dados PubMed atenderam os critérios de análise crítica proposta pelo instrumento PRISMA, utilizado para a seleção dos artigos incluídos para revisão neste manuscrito. As categorias sob as quais se organizaram os elementos de análise foram: superexpressão de bombas de efluxo e modificações na enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilase. Resultados: Os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos por Candida glabrata são determinados principalmente pela regulação positiva das bombas de adenosina-trifosfato Binding Cassette (ABC) e pela modificação do ponto de fixação com seu alvo farmacológico: a enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Conclusão: Os mecanismos de resistência expressos por Candida glabrata são associados à modificação estrutural da Diana farmacológica e a superexpressão de bombas de efluxo de maneira diferencial a outras espécies. Sugere-se que Candida glabrata é intrinsecamente menos susceptível ao fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida glabrata , Fluconazole
6.
Colomb. med ; 50(4): 293-298, Oct.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114722

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Candida auris is an emerging yeast frequently reported as resistant to multiple antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. This specie can colonize the patient's skin and has great ability for producing outbreaks in hospitals. C. auris is phylogenetically related to other Candida species, can be misidentified using conventional biochemical or commercial methods and requires specific technology for its identification. Case report: We report the first isolate of C. auris in Cali, Colombia, from a central venous catheter in a 37-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis and endocarditis who did not have symptoms of sepsis. The yeast was initially misidentified as C. haemulonii using the Phoenix system and subsequently identified as C. auris by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration; the isolate was susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B. Conclusions: This report contributes to knowledge of the epidemiology of C. auris infections in individuals with underlying disease and describes an isolate with a behavior different from what is usually reported.


Resumen Antecedentes: Candida auris es una levadura emergente, informada con frecuencia como resistente a diversos antifúngicos usados comúnmente para tratar infecciones por Candida. Esta especie puede colonizar la piel y tiene gran capacidad de producir brotes en ambientes hospitalarios. Está filogenéticamente relacionada con otras especies de Candida, es mal identificada por los métodos bioquímicos o comerciales, y requiere tecnología específica para su identificación. Reporte de caso: Se informa el primer aislamiento de C. auris en Cali, Colombia en un paciente de 37 años con artritis reumatoide y endocarditis, sin síntomas de sepsis, a partir de la punta de catéter venoso central. La levadura inicialmente se identificó como C. haemulonii por el sistema Phoenix® y posteriormente como C. auris por espectrometría de masas desorción/ionización láser asistida por una matriz con detección de masas por tiempo de vuelo (MALDI-TOF MS). Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima por el método de microdilución en caldo que mostró un aislamiento sensible a fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B. Conclusión: Este informe contribuye al conocimiento de la epidemiología de las infecciones por C. auris en individuos con enfermedad subyacente y describe un aislamiento con un comportamiento diferente a lo indicado en otros estudios.

7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 186-193, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003736

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar los principales factores de riesgo asociados a candidemia en neonatos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles retrospectivo pareado, desde enero de 2014 a diciembre de 2016. Los casos fueron pacientes con aislamiento en hemocultivo y/o líquido cefalorraquídeo de Candida spp. luego de sus primeras 48 horas intrahospitalarias y los controles fueron neonatos escogidos del censo estadístico de la sala de neonatología pareados según su fecha de admisión a sala (rango de 30 días), peso al nacer, edad gestacional y condición de egreso (vivo o fallecido). Por cada caso seleccionamos dos controles. Los factores de riesgo evaluados fueron la estancia intrahospitalaria mayor a 7 días, el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, ventilación mecánica, nutrición parenteral mayor a 5 días, procedimientos invasivos como colocación de accesos venosos centrales y cirugías abdominales y torácicas, enterocolitis necrosante y crecimiento de microorganismo bacteriano en hemocultivo previo a la candidemia. RESULTADOS: Durante el período de estudio hubo aislamiento de Candida spp. en 141 neonatos. Se encontró que el 49% fue de Candida parapsilosis con la mayor letalidad asociada. En el análisis multivariado se identificaron como factores de riesgo la estancia intrahospitalaria mayor a 7 días (OR = 17,0, 95% IC = 2,36-122,4), uso de líneas umbilicales (OR = 9,04, 95% IC = 1,55-52,5), exposición a cirugía (OR = 12,4, 95% IC = 1,76-87,3) y el uso de meropenem (OR = 4,62, 95% IC = 1,34-15,9). CONCLUSIÓN: La estancia intrahospitalaria prolongada mayor a 7 días y la exposición a cirugía fueron los factores de riesgo más importantes en este estudio para el desarrollo de candidemia neonatal.


OBJECTIVE: To identify the main risk factors associated with neonatal candidemia. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective paired case-control study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2016. The cases were patients with isolation in blood culture and/or cerebrospinal fluid of Candida spp. after their first 48 hours in the hospital and the controls cases were neonates chosen from the statistical census of neonatology paired according to their admission date (30-day range), birth weight, gestational age, and discharge condition (alive or deceased). For each case, we select two controls. The risk factors evaluated were intrahospital stay over seven days, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition longer than five days, invasive procedures such as central venous access and abdominal and thoracic surgeries, necrotizing enterocolitis and growth of bacterial microorganisms in blood culture before candidemia. RESULTS: During the study period, 141 patients developed candidemia. 49% of the cases corresponded to Candida parapsilosis with the highest associated lethality rate. The multivariate analysis identified as risk factors hospital stay longer than seven days (OR = 17.0, 95% CI = 2.36-122.4), use of umbilical lines (OR = 9.04, 95% CI = 1.55-52.5), abdominal and/or thoracic surgery (OR = 12.4, 95% CI = 1.76-87.3), and treatment with Meropenem (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 1.34-15.9). CONCLUSION: Prolonged intrahospital stay longer than seven days and thoracic and/or abdominal surgery were the most significant risk factors in this study for the development of neonatal candidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Candidemia/etiology , Panama/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/mortality
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 22(3): 171-175, Set-Dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-915548

ABSTRACT

O gênero Candida compreende leveduras redondas ou ovaladas que acarretam em uma diversidade de infecções que recebem o nome de candidíase. O curso dessas infecções depende muito do sistema imunológico do indivíduo. Candida albicans é a principal espécie envolvida em infecções no ser humano. Estudos indicam que esta espécie é responsável por 60% dos isolados de amostras clínicas. As infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são frequentemente tratadas com antifúngicos azólicos, principalmente, o fluconazol. A resistência a agentes antifúngicos, como a que acontece com o fluconazol, pode ter diferentes origens, dentre elas cita-se a alteração da enzima alvo, que por consequência diminui a ligação do fármaco, redução dos efeitos tóxicos da droga, aumento da quantidade de enzima alvo ou também pela acumulação intracelular da droga. Neste contexto, esta pesquisa avaliou o perfil de sensibilidade de isolados de Candida albicans frente ao fluconazol, com diferentes grupos de pacientes e diferentes sítios anatômicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade das leveduras com determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) ao fluconazol foi realizada utilizando - se o E-test em ágar Mueller-Hinton suplementado, seguindo o documento M44-A2, do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Os critérios para a classificação dos padrões de suscetibilidade seguiram o documento M27-A3. Nesta pesquisa foi constatado que 100% dos isolados de Candida albicans eram sensíveis ao fluconazol e que não houve diferença estatística nos valores de CIM, quando confrontado ao gênero, faixa etária, tipo de paciente, a única diferença encontrada nos valores de CIM, ocorreu quando se comparou ao sitio anatômico, pois os isolados de corrente sanguínea apresentaram os maiores valores de concentração inibitória mínima frente ao fluconazol.


The Candida genus comprises gram-positive round or oval yeasts, which lead to a diversity of infections known as candidiasis. The course of such infections depends greatly on the individual's immune system. Candida albicans is the main species involved in the infection in humans. Studies indicate that this species is responsible for 60% of isolates from clinical samples. Fungal infections caused by yeasts of the Candida genus are often treated with azole antifungals, mainly fluconazole. Resistance to antifungal agents such as fluconazole can have different origins, among which the alteration of the target enzyme, which consequently decreases the drug's binding, the reduction in the toxic effects of the drug, the increase in the amount of enzyme or intracellular accumulation of the drug. Within this context, this study assessed the sensitivity profile of Candida albicans isolates against fluconazole, with different patient groups and different anatomical sites. The assessment of yeast susceptibility with the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to fluconazole determined using the E-test on supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar, following the M44-A2 document from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The susceptibility patterns were classified according to criteria in document M27-A3. In this study, 100% of Candida albicans isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, and no statistical difference were presented in MIC values when compared to gender, age and patient type, with the only difference found in MIC values occurring when compared to the anatomical site, since bloodstream isolates presented the highest values of minimum inhibitory concentration against fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Candida , Fluconazole , Disease Resistance
9.
Kasmera ; 46(1): 61-69, ene.-jun 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008093

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) es un microorganismo cuya importancia como agente infeccioso ha permanecido a través de los años, pero que se ha convertido en una emergencia y un grave problema de salud pública, como respuesta a la evolución en su comportamiento ante los antimicrobianos de primera línea para su tratamiento y al surgimiento de cepas multi-resistentes, lo que amerita el uso de alternativas terapéuticas que permitan su control. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento in vitro de M. tuberculosis ante el antimicótico fluconazol, para su posible uso como alternativa terapéutica. Para ello, se evaluaron 6 cepas de M. tuberculosis: 2 resistentes a rifampicina, 2 resistentes a isoniazida y 2 sensibles a ambos antimicrobianos, Se utilizó el método de Concentración Inhibitoria Mínima, utilizando la técnica en microplaca con Azul de Alamar y la técnica de dilución en tubo. Ambas metodologías mostraron sensibilidad ante bajas concentraciones de fluconazol (0,0625 µg/ml). Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a la combinación fluconazol/isoniazida; mientras que, a la combinación fluconazol/rifampicina mostraron resistencia, indicando el efecto antagónico de la rifampicina sobre el fluconazol. Los resultados permiten concluir y sugerir el posible uso terapéutico del fluconazol ante las infecciones asociadas por M. tuberculosis.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is a microorganism whose importance as an infectious agent has remained over the years but which has become a recent emergency and a serious public health problem in response to the evolution in its behavior against first-line antimicrobials, for its treatment and the emergence of multi-resistant strains, which require the use of therapeutic alternatives that allow its control. The objective of the work was to evaluate the in vitro behavior of M. tuberculosis before the antifungal agent fluconazole, for its possible use as a therapeutic alternative. To this, six strains were evaluated M. tuberculosis: 2 resistants to rifampicin, 2 resistants to isoniazid and 2 sensitive to both antimicrobials. We used the method of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, using the microplate technique with Alamar Blue and the tube technique. Both methodologies showed sensitivity to low concentrations of fluconazole (0.0625 µg/ml). All strains were sensitive to the fluconazole / isoniazid combination; whereas, when exposed to the fluconazole / rifampicin combination, the strains showed resistance, indicating the antagonistic effect of rifampicin on fluconazole. The results allow us to conclude and suggest the possible therapeutic use of fluconazole against infections associated with M. tuberculosis.

10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(1): 126-131, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-961862

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Actualmente asistimos a un cambio constante y continuo del panorama epidemiológico de la resistencia de levaduras a antifúngicos, relacionado con el tipo de huésped, la etiología de la enfermedad, el microorganismo involucrado y sus mecanismos de resistencia. Esta situación epidemiológica hace más complicado el manejo de los pacientes con infecciones del torrente sanguíneo por especies del género Candida. Observándose una alta mortalidad, incremento en el uso de antifúngicos, así como el desarrollo de métodos fiables para realizar estudios de sensibilidad. Por tanto, es importante la vigilancia local y regional para conocer el perfil de sensibilidad y la distribución de especies de Candida, con la finalidad de instaurar una terapia antifúngica adecuada.


ABSTRACT We are currently witnessing a constant and ongoing change of the epidemiological pictures of yeast resistance to antifungal agents, related to the type of host, etiology of the disease, the microorganism involved, and its mechanisms of resistance. This epidemiological situation complicates management of patients with infections of the bloodstream due to species of the genus Candida, exhibiting a high mortality and an increase in the use of anti-fungal agents, as well as the need to develop reliable methods to conduct sensitivity studies. Therefore, local and regional monitoring is important in order to know the sensitivity profile and the distribution of Candida species so as to start an adequate anti-fungal therapy.

11.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 86(7): 456-463, feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-984460

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Reportar el desempeño clínico de dos medicamentos indicados para tratamiento del síndrome de flujo vaginal (fluconazol, secnidazol y terconazol, clindamicina) y comparar el efecto clínico. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, comparativo y analítico de cohortes al que se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome de flujo vaginal susceptibles de ser tratadas con fluconazol-secnidazol o terconazol-clindamicina en 12 ciudades de Colombia, con seguimiento de 8 días (± 3 días). Este proyecto fue aprobado por un comité de ética en investigación con seres humanos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 176 pacientes, pero solo 153 (87%) completaron el seguimiento. Los límites de edad fueron 18 y 67 años; 134 (76%) iniciaron con fluconazol-secnidazol y 42 (24%) con terconazol-clindamicina. Por lo que se refiere a la comparación en disminución de los síntomas, fluconazol-secnidazol y terconazol-clindamicina: flujo (p = 0.0000), prurito (p = 0.002), irritación (p = 0.0000), mal olor (p = 0.001) y dispareunia (p = 0.4). Conclusión: La prescripción de la combinación fluconazol-secnidazol fue más frecuente. El apego al tratamiento fue de 86%. La proporción de disminución de los síntomas tuvo límites de 15 y 40%; para el flujo vaginal fue superior a 70% (fluconazol-secnidazol: 115 de 121 y terconazol-clindamicina: 29 de 41).


Abstract Objective: To know the real life clinical performance of the prescription of two drugs for the treatment of vaginal discharge syndrome (Fluconazole-Secnidazole and Terconazole-Clindamycin) and to compare the clinical outcomes. Materials and methods: An analytical cohort study was conducted. We included women older than 18 years with a diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome who were candidates to be treated with Fluconazole-Secnidazole or Terconazole-Clindamycin with 8 days (±3) of follow-up, in 12 cities of Colombia. This project was approved by a research with human being's ethics committee. Results: 176 patients were included, 153 (86.9%) completed the follow-up, their age ranged between 18 and 67 years. 134 (76.1%) started treatment with Fluconazole-Secnidazole and 42 (23.8%) Terconazole-Clindamycin. Symptoms improvement was compared (Enrollment vs. Control), finding for Fluconazole-Secnidazole and Terconazole-Clindamycin: discharge (p=0.0000), pruritus (p=0.002), irritation (p=0.0000), bad smell (p=0.001) and dyspareunia (p=0.4). Conclusions: The prescription of the combination Fluconazole-Secnidazole was more frequent. The adherence to treatment was 86%. The proportion of improvement in symptoms ranged between 15% and 40%, however, for the case of vaginal discharge it was greater than 70% (Fluconazole-Secnidazole: 115/121 and Terconazole-Clindamycin: 29/41).

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 124-126, 20170000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875612

ABSTRACT

A criptococose é uma doença fúngica sistêmica causada por Cryptococcus neoformans, que acomete principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos, podendo eventualmente acometer imunocompetentes. Existem duas variedades da espécie (neoformans e gattii), com características diferentes, mas clinicamente semelhantes, sendo possível sua distinção apenas por do teste de identificação da espécie. O tratamento preconizado é constituído por anfotericina B e fluconazol endovenosos, com duração de meses, existindo pouco relato na literatura sobre resistência à terapêutica habitual ou tratamento alternativo. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de neurocriptococose por C. gattii resistente a fluconazol em imunocompetente, no qual foi realizada anfotericina B endovenosa associada a intratecal sem sucesso, evoluindo o paciente a óbito por provável complicações da hidrocefalia obstrutiva.(AU)


Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, but may occasionally affect immunocompetent individuals. There are two varieties of the species, with different, but clinically similar characteristics, with their distinction being possible only through the species identification test. The recommended treatment consists of intravenous amphotericin B and fluconazole, for some months. There are few reports in the literature on resistance to standard therapy, or an alternative treatment. In this study, we describe a case of fluconazole-resistant neurocryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent individuals, who unsuccessfully received intravenous and intrathecal amphotericin B , with the patient progressing to death from probable complications of obstructive hydrocephalus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Immunity
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 431-440, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899739

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La epidemiologia de las candidemias varía en cada región. Objetivos: Conocer la epidemiología de las candidemias en un hospital durante 16 años. Material y Métodos: Se revisaron los episodios de candidemia ocurridos en el Hospital de Clínicas de Buenos Aires desde 01/01/98 al 31/12/13. Resultados: Se identificaron 374 episodios de candidemia. La incidencia fue de 2,21/1.000 egresos y aumentó de 1,96 (1998-2005) a 2,25 (2006-2013) (p = 0,023). Se diagnosticaron: 5,4% en neonatos, 1,7% en lactantes, 6,5% en niños mayores, 31,8% en adultos y 52,7% en adultos mayores de 64 años. Los episodios fueron causados por C. albicans (40,9%), C. parapsilosis (21,7%), C. tropicalis (15,5%), C. glabrata (13,9%), otras especies de Candida (5,1%) y candidemias multiespecies (2,9%). El 5,3% de los aislados fue resistente a fluconazol. Setenta y cuatro por ciento de los pacientes recibió tratamiento; 70,3% lo inició con fluconazol, 25% con anfotericina B desoxicolato y 4,7% con equinocandinas o anfotericinas lipídicas. Se retiró 81% de los catéteres venosos centrales. La mortalidad fue de 47,9%, pero fue de 60,8% para los adultos mayores. Conclusión: La incidencia de candidemias se incrementó a través de los años, fue mayor en los adultos mayores y esta población tuvo peor evolución.


Background: The epidemiology of candidemia vary by region. Aim: To determine the epidemiology of candidemia in a hospital for 16 years. Material and Methods: Episodes of candidemia occurred in the Hospital de Clinicas of Buenos Aires were reviewed, from 01/01/98 to 31/12/13. Results: 374 episodes of candidemia were identified. The incidence was 2.21/1,000 discharges and increased from 1.96 (1998-2005) to 2.25 (2006-2013) (p = 0.023). Candidemia was diagnosed: 5.4% in neonates, 1.7% in infants, 6.5% in children, 31.8% in adults and 52.7% in elderly adults over 64 years old. The episodes were caused by C. albicans (40.9%), C. parapsilosis (21.7%), C. tropicalis (15.5%), C. glabrata (13.9%), other species of Candida (5.1%) and more than one species of Candida (2.9%). The 5.3% of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole. 74% of patients were treated. Initial treatments were with fluconazole (70.3%), amphotericin B deoxycholate (25%), echinocandins or lipidic amphotericin (4,7%). The 81% of central venous catheters were taken off. Mortality rate was of 47.9%, but in the elderly adults was of 60.8%. Conclusion: The incidence of candidemia showed an increase over the years. It was higher in the elderly adults, being the group with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Candida/isolation & purification , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Candidemia/microbiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Hospitals, University
14.
Med. crít. (Col. Mex. Med. Crít.) ; 31(2): 55-59, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040413

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La candidemia es una entidad clínica que se ha incrementado en pacientes en terapia intensiva, el inmuncompromiso y la invasión múltiple en estos pacientes los hace sujetos lábiles a la diseminación por hongos y por ende al incremento de mortalidad. El uso de puntajes para estimar el riesgo de desarrollar candidemia ha permitido iniciar de forma profiláctica antifúngicos, en su mayoría de tipo azoles; sin embargo, el crecimiento de Candida no albicans se ha incrementado, lo que genera incertidumbre acerca del beneficio que pueden tener estas medidas iniciadas en forma temprana en la mortalidad. Objetivos: Determinar si los pacientes que ingresan a la unidad de terapia intensiva que han recibido de forma profiláctica algún antifúngico del tipo azol tienen mayor incidencia en el desarrollo de especias de Candida no albicans. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal y analítico. Pacientes mayores de 18 años que ingresan a la unidad de terapia intensiva con diagnóstico de sepsis. Se determinó qué pacientes han recibido de forma profiláctica azoles y de éstos quienes han desarrollado especies de Candida albicans y no albicans. Análisis estadístico: Se realizó análisis estadístico mediante T de Student para comparación de grupo y χ2 para variables categóricas. Los resultados se expresan en promedio, ±, desviación estándar y porcentajes. Se considera estadísticamente significativo si p ≤ 0.05, análisis con uso de sistema de estadística SPSS Statistics 21. Resultados: Veinticinco pacientes en periodo de dos años, edad 72 ± 13 años (45-92), 15 hombres (60%), sepsis abdominal 56% (n = 14), APACHE II 14 ± 5 (5-29) y SOFA 6 ± 3. Cultivos sin crecimiento en 16 pacientes (64%), Candida albicans 4 (16%) y no albicans en 5 (20%). Conclusiones: La incidencia de Candida no albicans en pacientes que reciben profilaxis con fluconazol es baja, sin incremento en mortalidad, por lo que consideramos que el uso de fluconazol como manejo profiláctico sigue siendo una medida adecuada en este grupo.


Abstract: Introduction: Candidemia is a clinical entity increasing in patients in intensive care unit, the inmuncompromised and multiple invasion makes them subject of fungal dissemination and increase in mortality. Use of scores to estimate the risk of developing candidemia has allowed start prophylactic antifungal azoles; however, the development of Candida albicans has not increased, generating uncertainty about the benefit that can have these measures initiated in early mortality. Objectives: To determine whether patients who received prophylactic any antifungal azole has impact on the development of Candida non-albicans in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal, analytical study. Patients over 18 years enter the intensive care unit with sepsis. Determined that patients received prophylactic azoles and those who have developed Candida albicans and non-albicans. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using Student T for comparison group and χ 2 for categorical variables. The results are expressed in average, ±, standard deviation and percentage. It is considered statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05, analysis using statistical system SPSS Statistics 21. Results: 25 patients, 2-year period, age 72 ± 13 years (45-92), 15 men (60%), abdominal sepsis 56% (n = 14), APACHE II 14 ± 5 (5-29) and SOFA 6 ± 3. Culture without growth in 16 patients (64%), Candida albicans 4 (16%) and non albicans in 5 (20%). Conclusions: The incidence of Candida albicans in patients not receiving prophylaxis with fluconazole is low, with no increase in mortality, and we believe that the use of fluconazole as prophylactic management remains an appropriate measure in this group.


Resumo: Introdução: candidemia é uma entidade clínica que tem aumentado em pacientes em cuidados intensivos, o inmuncompromiso e invasão múltipla nestes pacientes torna assunto disseminação do fungo lábil e portanto, a um aumento da mortalidade. Usando pontuação para estimar o risco de desenvolver candidemia permitiu iniciar antifúngicos profiláticos, em tipo principalmente azóis; no entanto, o crescimento de Candida albicans nenhuma aumentou, criando incerteza sobre o benefício pode ter essas medidas iniciadas na mortalidade precoce. Objetivos: Para determinar se os doentes que entra na unidade terapia que eles receberam intenso profilaticamente qualquer azole tipo antifúngico eles têm uma maior incidência no desenvolvimento de não-albicans especiarias Candida. Um estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal e analítica. pacientes idosos 18 entrar na unidade de cuidados intensivos com diagnóstico de sepse. Determinou-se que os pacientes receberam azóis e profiláticos daqueles que desenvolveram espécies de Candida albicans e não-albicans. Análise estatística: A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando t de Student para comparação de grupo e χ2 para variáveis ​​categóricas. Os resultados são. Eles expressos em média ± desvio padrão e a percentagem média. Considera-se estatisticamente se p ≤ 0,05 significativa, a análise estatística utilizando o sistema SPSS Statistics 21. Resultados: Vinte e cinco pacientes em dois anos, idade 72 ± 13 anos (45-92), 15 homens (60%), sepse abdominal 56% (n = 14), APACHE II 14 ± 5 (5-29) e SOFA 6 ± 3. Cultivos sem crescimento em 16 pacientes (64%), Cândida albicans 4 (16%) e não albicans em 5 (20%). Conclusões: A incidência de Candida albicans em pacientes que não receberam profilaxia com fluconazol é baixa, sem aumento da mortalidade, por isso consideramos que o uso de fluconazol como a gestão profilática continua a ser um medida adequada neste grupo.

15.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 98(1): 13-20, mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-843108

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Stevens-Johnson y la necrólisis epidérmica tóxica, son reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo III de la clasificación de Gell y Coombs; se consideran de origen inmunológico en la que ocurre una apoptosis masiva de queratinocitos en la epidermis, provocando descamación y apariencia de piel escaldada, del 50-80% de los casos es secundaria a un fármaco. El síndrome de Stevens-Johnson tiene una incidencia de 1,2 a 6 casos por millón de personas por año, la necrólisis epidérmica tóxica es menos frecuente, difieren por la extensión de las lesiones en piel. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 84 años de edad, con antecedente de onicomicosis y pie de atleta, a quien se le inició tratamiento antimicótico con fluconazol. Siete días después desarrolló manifestaciones cutáneas de ampollas en piel y mucosas, lesiones vesiculares en brazo derecho e izquierdo, tórax anterior y hemiabdomen izquierdo; posteriormente evolucionó con arcos violáceos en piel, descamación y afectación de las vías respiratorias. El diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno es fundamental, para revertir la evolución natural de esta enfermedad y el tratamiento multidisciplinario, garantiza una mejor evolución de los signos y síntomas.


The Stevens-Johnson syndrome and the toxic epidermal necrolysis are a type III hypersensitivity reaction of the Gell and Coombs classification, considered to be of immunological origin in which massive apoptosis of keratinocytes occurs in the epidermis, causing scaling and appearance of scalded skin. It is caused by agents of infectious and pharmacological (the most common) etiology; it may be associated with malignancy or idiopathic; the SSJ has an incidence of 1.2 to 6 cases per million people per year, being NET the least common. They differ by the extent of skin lesions, but both are characterized by mucosal affectation, airway, digestive system, and urogenital tract involvement. It is presented the case of a 84-years-old patient with history of onychomycosis and athlete's foot, who started antimycotic treatment with fluconazole, developing cutaneous manifestations of blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, vesicular lesions in his right and left arms, chest and left hemiabdomen seven days later; after his hospital admittance, the patient evolved with violaceous arches in skin, desquamation, positive sign of Nikolsky, and affectation of the airways. The diagnosis and timely treatment is fundamental to reverse the natural evolution of this disease and multidiciplinary treatment ensures a better evolution of signs and symptoms.

16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 19-26, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844440

ABSTRACT

Background: Invasive Candida spp. infections have been described more frequently. Aim: To characterize the epidemiological data of candidemia in recent years. Methods: A retrospective study of adult patients in a University Hospital in Santiago, Chile, with 1 or more documented episodes of candidemia, from January 2000 to December 2013. Results: One hundred and twenty episodes of candidemia were identified in 120 patients, annual incidence of 0.4 cases per 1000 discharges, 53.3% were male patients, 58.3% > 60 years, 77,5% had at least one co-morbidity. Candida albicans was the species most frequently identified 55%, followed by C. glabrata 18.3%, C. tropicalis 11.7% and C. parapsilosis 9.2%. Comparing 2000-2006 vs 2007-2013, increased the frequency of C. parapsilosis among non-albicans and echinocandins prescription. Patients with C. albicans showed higher APACHE-II, more requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, greater association with CVC, and shorter incubation time compared with non-albicans species. The 30-day mortality was 31.7%. Conclusions: During this 14-years period we observed that C. albicans was the predominant specie and more recently a change among C. non-albicans increasing C. parapsilosis and decreasing C. glabrata 30-days and attributable mortality decreased together with more echinocandins prescription.


Introducción: Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp. se describen cada vez con mayor frecuencia. Objetivo: Precisar datos epidemiológicos de candidemia en nuestro hospital en los últimos años. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes adultos de un hospital universitario en Santiago, Chile, con un o más episodios de candidemia, acaecidas desde enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2013. Resultados: Se identificaron 120 episodios de candidemia, incidencia anual 0,4 casos x 1.000 egresos, 53,3% pacientes masculinos, 58,3% > 60 años y 77,5% presentaban al menos una co-morbilidad. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (55%), seguida por C. glabrata (18,3%), C. tropicalis (11,7%) y C. parapsilosis (9,2%). Los tiempos de incubación e identificación fueron más prolongados para C. glabrata. Al comparar el período 2000-2006 vs 2007-2013, aumentó la frecuencia de C. parapsilosis entre las C. no-albicans y el uso de equinocandinas. Los pacientes con C. albicans presentaban puntaje APACHE-II más elevado, mayor requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasora, mayor asociación a CVC y menor tiempo de incubación respecto C. no-albicans. La mortalidad a 30 días fue de 31,7%. Conclusiones: Durante este período de 14 años observamos predominio de C. albicans y en el período reciente incremento de C. parapsilosis con disminución de C. glabrata, una disminución de mortalidad global y atribuible junto a mayor uso de equinocandinas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Candidemia/microbiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638222

ABSTRACT

Background Fungal keratitis can cause serious damage to visual function of corneal infective disease,which is more difficult to treat.In recent years,injecting antifungal drugs to the corneal stroma not only enrich the treatment of the disease,but also achieve good clinical effects.Correctly selecting drug kinds and drug concentration can improve the cure rate,and reduce adverse reactions after treatment,but the related research is rare.Objective This study was to observe the clinical effects of corneal stroma fluconazole injection with different concentration for the treatment of fungal keratitis.Methods Prospective study was performed.One hundred and two patients (102 eyes) diagnosed as fungal keratitis were included from May 2012 to January 2015 in Jizhong Energy Xingtai Mining General Hospital.The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups,The eyedrop treatment group (29 eyes) received 0.5% fluconazole eyedrops and 5% natamycin eyedrops treatment.The 0.1% fluconazole group (35 eyes) and 0.2% fluconazole group (38 eyes) received 0.1% and 0.2% fluconazole corneal stroma injection after eyedrop treatment,respectively.Each group underwent potassium hydroxide wet examination and fungal cultures.The curative effect and adverse reactions were observed.Results Fusarium 41.2% (42/102),Aspergillus 21.6% (22/102)and Alternaria mold 17.6% (18/102) ranked the top three pathogenic species.The distribution of pathogenic fungus among the 3 groups were significantly different (x2 =3.763,P>0.05).The cure rate of eyedrop treatment group was 44.8% (13/49),which was significantly lower than 0.1% fluconazole group (74.3%,26/35) and 0.2% fluconazole group (81.6%,31/38) (x2 =5.782,9.854;both at P<0.05).The cure rate was significantly different between 0.1% fluconazole group and 0.2% fluconazole group (x2=0.566,P>0.05).The average cure time of eyedrop treatment group,0.1% fluconazole group and 0.2% fluconazole group were (36.28 ± 10.39),(29.14± 7.86) and (21.34 ± 8.57) days,respectively,with a significant difference among the three groups (F =5.336,P=0.006).The acuity of vision was significantly increased after treatment in the 0.1% fluconazole group and 0.2% fluconazole group (t =3.009,4.695;both at P < 0.01).The average number of injection in the 0.1% fluconazole group was (5.71 ± 2.97) times,which was higher than (5.13 ± 1.80) times in the 0.2% fluconazole group (t=4.471,P<0.05).Four cases in 0.2% fluconazole group with eye irritation were observed.After diclofenac sodium eyedrops treatment,the symptoms of 3 cases were disappeared.One case was cured by conjunctival flap covering method.All the cases were followed up for 1-3 months,no adverse reactions and recurrence was found.Conclusions Corneal stroma fluconazole injection is an effective method for treatment of fungal keratitis.In order to reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions,0.1% fluconazole injection in corneal stroma is recommend for light fungal keratitis patients;for moderate and heavy fungal keratitis patients,0.2% fluconazole injection in corneal stroma can be performed after failure of 0.1% fluconazole treatment.

18.
Iatreia ; 28(4): 368-377, oct.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-765517

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Candida albicans es la levadura aislada con mayor frecuencia de la cavidad oral de individuos VIH positivos. El uso del fluconazol ha incrementado el aislamiento de especies de Candida diferentes de C. albicans resistentes o con sensibilidad disminuida a este antimicótico. Objetivo: establecer, en individuos VIH positivos de un hospital de la ciudad de Cali, las especies de Candida de la cavidad oral, su densidad poblacional y la sensibilidad al fluconazol de aquellas diferentes de C. albicans. Materiales y métodos: las muestras se sembraron en CHROMagar Candida y se hizo el recuento de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC); se identificaron las levaduras con el API 20C Aux y se hicieron las pruebas de sensibilidad al fluconazol con el Etest. Resultados: se estudiaron 230 pacientes y hubo 202 aislamientos: 106 fueron únicos y 96, mixtos. C. albicans fue la especie más frecuente, seguida por C. dubliniensis y C. glabrataLas especies diferentes de C. albicans predominaron en los recuentos menores de 400 UFC/mL. El estudio de sensibilidad al fluconazol de las especies diferentes de C. albicans mostró que 14 (40 %) fueron sensibles dosis-dependientes y 7 (20 %), resistentes. Conclusión: en la población estudiada, la cavidad oral está colonizada por aislamientos no salvajes, lo que representa un riesgo para el desarrollo de candidiasis orofaríngea resistente al tratamiento con fluconazol.


Introduction: Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different from C. albicans, to this antifungal agent. Objective: To establish the Candida species present in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals at a hospital in Cali (Colombia), their population densities, and the susceptibility to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans. Materials and methods: Samples were cultured in CHROMagar Candida and the number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted. Yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and the susceptibility tests to fluconazole, by Etest. Results: 230 patients were studied, and 202 isolates were obtained: 106 single and 96 mixed. C. albicans predominated, followed by C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Candida species other than C. albicans predominated in counts lower than 400 CFU/mL. Susceptibility study to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans showed that 14 (40 %) of the isolates were susceptible dose-dependent and 7 (20 %), resistant. Conclusion: In the studied population, the oral cavity was colonized by non-wild type isolates that represent a risk for the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole treatment.


Introdução: Candida albicans é o fermento isolado com maior frequência da cavidade oral de indivíduos HIV positivos. O uso do fluconazol incrementou o isolamento de espécies de Candida diferentes de C. albicans resistentes ou com sensibilidade diminuída a este antimicótico. Objetivo: estabelecer, em indivíduos HIV positivos de um hospital da cidade de Cali, as espécies de Candida da cavidade oral, sua densidade populacional e a sensibilidade ao fluconazol daquelas diferentes de C. albicans. Materiais e métodos: as mostras se semearam em CHROMagar Candida e se fez a recontagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC); identificaram-se os fermentos com o API 20C Aux e se fizeram as provas de sensibilidade ao fluconazol com o Etest. Resultados: estudaram-se 230 pacientes e teve 202 isolamentos: 106 foram únicos e 96, mistos. C. albicans foi a espécie mais frequente, seguida por C. dubliniensis e C. glabrata. As espécies diferentes de C. albicans predominaram nas recontagens menores de 400 UFC/ML. O estudo de sensibilidade ao fluconazol das espécies diferentes de C. albicans mostrou que 14 (40 %) foram sensíveis doses-dependentes e 7 (20 %), resistentes. Conclusão: na população estudada, a cavidade oral está colonizada por isolamentos não selvagens, o que representa um risco para o desenvolvimento de candidíase orofaríngea resistente ao tratamento com fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , HIV , Mouth , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
19.
Invest. clín ; 56(3): 276-283, sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-841085

ABSTRACT

Las especies de Candida distintas a C. albicans se describen con frecuencia como agentes causales de micosis superficial y presentan una mayor resistencia al tratamiento con los azoles. Con la finalidad de determinar la distribución de especies y la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro de Candida spp., se realizó un estudio ambispectivo donde se analizaron 18 aislados de levaduras obtenidas de muestras de pacientes con diagnóstico de micosis superficial. La identificación taxonómica se realizó mediante la visualización de las características macroscópicas de crecimiento en agar cromogénico y por métodos convencionales. La susceptibilidad a fluconazol y voriconazol se evaluó por el método de difusión en disco. El 88,8% de los aislados provenía de muestras de uñas. C. parapsilosis fue la especie más frecuente, seguida de C. tropicalis, C. albicans y C. krusei, lo cual confirmó el predominio de especies no albicans como causa de micosis superficial. El patrón de susceptibilidad a fluconazol y voriconazol fue similar: todos los aislados de C. parapsilosis y C. albicans resultaron sensibles, mientras que el 83,3% de C. tropicalis mostró sensibilidad a ambos antifúngicos. C. krusei, especie resistente a fluconazol, presentó sensibilidad intermedia al voriconazol. El uso de agar cromogénico permitió detectar infecciones mixtas en muestras de uñas, involucrando en uno de los casos a Candid spp. y C.tropicalis, esta última con resistencia tanto a fluconazol como a voriconazol. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la importancia de la identificación de especies y la realización de pruebas de susceptibilidad con el fin de evitar fracasos terapéuticos en micosis superficiales. Autor de correspondencia: Leyla Humbría-García. Laboratorio de Micología


Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Most of the isolates (88.8%), came from nail samples. C. parapsilosis was the most common species, followed by C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. krusei, which confirmed the prevalence of non-albicans species as a cause of superficial mycoses. The pattern of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was similar: all isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans were susceptible, while 83.3% of C. tropicalis showed sensitivity to both antifungals. C. krusei, fluconazole-resistant species showed intermediate susceptibility to voriconazole. The use of chromogenic agar allowed to detect mixed infections in nail samples, involving Candida spp. and C. tropicalis in one case, the latter with resistance to both fluconazole and voriconazole. The results demonstrate the importance of species identification and susceptibility testing to avoid therapeutic failures in superficial mycoses.

20.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 51(3): 158-161, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-753107

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment. .


RESUMO Introdução: Candidemia é a infecção da corrente sanguínea produzida por leveduras do gênero Candida. Objetivos: Este estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar a epidemiologia e o perfil de suscetibilidade ao fluconazol em espécies de Candida, isoladas em pacientes internados em um hospital regional de Passo Fundo, RS. Métodos: Registros laboratoriais foram utilizados para identificar pacientes com hemocultura positiva para espécies do gênero Candida, entre 2010 e 2011. A atividade in vitro do fluconazol foi determinada por meio do método de difusão em disco. Resultados: Foram analisadas 24 hemoculturas positivas para Candida; a taxa de mortalidade encontrada foi 54,16%. C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente, seguida por C. parapsilosis e C. krusei. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis e C. tropicalis apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade ao fluconazol, entretanto C. krusei mostrou-se 100% resistente; e C. glabrata, 50% resistente. Conclusão: A elevada taxa de mortalidade e resistência ao fluconazol enfatiza a importância do diagnóstico de candidemia em ambiente hospitalar. .

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