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1.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210106, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed food to the nutritional dietary profile of school feeding in public child day-care centers. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out from June-November/2013. Samples from six daily meals were collected in twenty non-consecutive days. A total of 117 school meals (123 food items) were offered to children from 12-36 months of age. The served portions were determined by direct weighting. Physicochemical analyses were performed to establish the nutritional composition. School meals were classified according to the processing degree: (A) unprocessed/minimally processed/culinary preparations, (B) processed food, or (C) ultra-processed food. The contribution of each group to the quantity of energy, macronutrients and sodium was calculated. Student's t test was applied for comparison between groups. Results Ultra-processed meals contributed to 45.8% of energy, 33.9% of lipids, 42.8% of proteins, 48.9% of carbohydrates, and 20.9% of sodium. All lunches and 90% of dinners were classified as unprocessed/minimally processed/culinary preparations. 39.0% of the meals were ultra-processed (mainly breakfast and snacks). Ultra-processed meals had a greater quantity of energy (p=0.026) and carbohydrates (p<0.001) per serving, while unprocessed/minimally processed/culinary preparations offered more sodium per serving (p<0.001). Conclusion Although most meals were classified as unprocessed/minimally processed/culinary preparations, ultra-processed food, which should be avoided at this stage of life, are offered daily, contributing with higher energy and carbohydrates offer per serving. The municipality need to improve the quality of the meals offered to children in these child day-care centers, observing the new Resolution nº 6/2020 that came into effect in 2021.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a contribuição de alimentos ultraprocessados no perfil nutricional da alimentação escolar ofertada em Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil. Métodos Estudo seccional conduzido entre junho e novembro/2013. Amostras das seis refeições diárias foram coletadas durante 20 dias não consecutivos. Cento e dezessete refeições (123 itens alimentares) foram ofertadas a crianças de 12 a 36 meses. O tamanho das porções foi determinado por pesagem direta e a composição nutricional, por análises físico-químicas. As refeições escolares foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de processamento: (A) in natura/minimamente processados/preparações culinárias; (B) processados; (C) ultraprocessados. Foi calculada a contribuição de cada grupo para energia, macronutrientes e sódio. O Teste t foi utilizado para comparação entre os grupos. Resultados As refeições ultraprocessadas contribuíram com 45,8% de energia, 33,9% de lipídios, 42,8% de proteínas, 48,9% dos carboidratos e 20,9% do sódio ofertados. Todos os almoços e 90% dos jantares foram classificados como in natura/minimamente processados/preparações culinárias. 39,0% das refeições foram classificadas como ultraprocessadas (principalmente café da manhã e lanches). Refeições ultraprocessadas ofereceram maior quantidade de energia (p=0,026) e carboidratos (p<0,001) por porção, enquanto refeições in natura/minimamente processados/preparações culinárias forneceram mais sódio por porção (p<0,001). Conclusão Apesar da predominância de refeições in natura/minimamente processados/preparações culinárias, os alimentos ultraprocessados - que deveriam ser evitados nessa fase da vida, são ofertados diariamente, contribuindo com maior quantidade de energia e carboidratos por porção. É necessário que o município reavalie as refeições ofertadas às crianças nesses Centros de Educação Infantil, seguindo as recomendações atuais da Resolução nº 6/2020, que entrou em vigor em 2021.

2.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 39(174): 13-21, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1339810

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el incremento de productos alimenticios procesados y ultra-procesados (APUP) en las dietas a nivel global se relaciona con la epidemia de Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles (ECNT) ya que suelen contener concentraciones altas de sal, azúcar y grasas y bajas de fibra, micronutrientes y compuestos bioactivos. Objetivo: analizar el perfil de nutrientes de alimentos procesados y ultra-procesados consumidos con frecuencia por mujeres que asistieron al hospital público de niños "Sor Maria Ludovica" en La Plata, Argentina. Materiales y método: entre noviembre 2018 y febrero 2019 se realizaron recordatorios de 24 horas a 202 mujeres. Se identificaron los alimentos procesados y ultra-procesados consumidos por 2 mujeres o más y se analizó su perfil de nutrientes de acuerdo al "Modelo de Perfil de Nutrientes" de la OPS. Resultados: el 91% de 102 alimentos analizados poseían algún nutriente crítico en exceso. El exceso de sodio se encontró en el 58,2% de los alimentos, seguido por el exceso de azúcar (52%), otros edulcorantes (32,4%), grasas saturadas (29,4%), grasas totales (26,4%) y grasas trans (8%). Conclusión: la mayoría de los alimentos procesados y ultra-procesados consumidos por las mujeres que asistieron a este hospital público presentaron exceso de nutrientes críticos, principalmente sodio.


Abstract Introduction: the increase in processed and ultra-processed food products (APUP) in diets at a global level is related to the epidemic of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCD) as they usually contain high concentrations of salt, sugar and fat and low fiber , micronutrients and bioactive compounds. Aim: to analyze the nutrient profile of processed and ultra-processed foods frequently consumed by women attending the state children´s hospital "Sor Maria Ludovica" in La Plata, Argentina. Materials and methods: from November 2018 to February 2019, 24-hour reminders were given to 202 women. Processed and ultra-processed foods consumed by at least 2 women were identified and their nutrient profile was analyzed according to PAHO Nutrient Profile Model. Results: out of 102 food items analyzed, 91% had excess of critical nutrients. Excess of sodium was found in 58.2% of the items, followed by excess of sugar (52%), other sweeteners (32.4%), saturated fat (29.4%), total fat (26.4%). %) and trans fats (8%). Conclusion: the majority of processed and ultra-processed foods consumed by women attending this state hospital had excess of critical nutrients, mainly sodium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Industrialized Foods , Food Quality , Hospitals
3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 71-80, jan./jun. 2021. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247939

ABSTRACT

O mel de abelha é um produto de consumo relevante pela população devido aos seus fatores nutricionais e terapêuticos. A adulteração é um exemplo de como as características do mel podem ser afetadas, prejudicando os consumidores que desejam comprar produtos puros e de alta qualidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química do mel de abelha comercializado em Brasília, Distrito Federal. Foram obtidas 13 amostras de mel de abelhas: uma de um apicultor da região com certificação de produção (usada como controle negativo), seis de lojas de produtos naturais e hipermercados no centro de Brasília e seis de feira livre e pequenos estabelecimentos de uma região administrativa do Distrito Federal, das quais cinco não tinham o selo do Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) na embalagem. Também foi usada uma amostra comercial de xarope de glicose como controle positivo. Para verificar a adulteração, foram adotados os testes de Lund, Fiehe e Lugol, bem como as análises de pH, acidez titulável e umidade, para serem comparados com os parâmetros de qualidade do mel estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. As análises verificaram a qualidade dos méis comercializados com o selo SIF, com algumas ressalvas para a possível alteração de temperatura. Já as que não possuíam selo, apenas uma foi aprovada nos testes de qualidade, porém sua venda não é regularizada. A maioria das amostras analisadas apresentaram resultados consistentes com os padrões exigidos pela legislação vigente, com maiores irregularidades na comercialização de méis em feira livre, mostrando a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade e inspeção de produtos não certificados.(AU)


Bee honey is a product of relevant consumption by the population due to its nutritional and therapeutic factors. Tampering is an example of how honey characteristics can be affected and harming consumers who want to buy a high quality and pure product. This work aimed to evaluate the physicochemical quality of bee honey commercialized in Brasília, Federal District. Thirteen samples of bee honey were obtained: one from a certified local beekeeper (used as a negative control), six from natural products and hypermarkets in central Brasília and six from street fair and small establishments in one of the administrative region of the Federal District, of which five did not have the seal of the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the packaging. Also, a sample of commercial glucose syrup was used as positive control. To verify tampering, the Lund, Fiehe and Lugol tests were adopted, as well as the pH, titratable acidity and humidity analysis, to be compared honey quality parameters established by the current legislation. The analyzes verified the quality of the honeys sold with SIF seal, with some restraints for the possible temperature changes. As for those that did not have a seal, only one passed the quality tests, but its sale is not regularized. Most of the samples analyzed showed results consistent with the standards requirements of the current legislation, with greater irregularities in the marketing of honey in street fair, showing the need for greater quality control and inspection of non-certified products.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Total Quality Management , Honey , Quality Control , Product Packaging
4.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 13(1): 205-213, jan/mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102676

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade microbiológica de suco de laranja in natura em Presidente Prudente (SP) e estabelecimentos comerciais. Foi avaliada a qualidade higiêncio-sanitária do ambiente de trabalho mediante um check-list e a qualidade do suco de laranja por contagem em placa. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) para dados não paramétricos (Kruskal-Wallis) com p <0,05. A maioria dos estabelecimentos apresentou boas práticas de higiene adequadas. Não foi confirmada a presença de coliformes termotolerantes. Para os demais parâmetros microbiológicos foram observadas altas contaminações em algumas amostras de suco. As bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL's) apresentaram contagem entre 3,15 (dp=0,21) a 5,68 (dp=0,01) log UFC/mL, e sua avaliação inibitória foram satisfatórias, uma vez que conseguiram inibir Escherichia coli (15 a 27 mm) e Listeria monocytogenes (23 a 27 mm). A adoção de medidas de boas práticas de higiene, além da educação continuada dos manipuladores de alimentos, promove a redução da contaminação.


Current paper analyzes the microbiological quality of in natura orange juice in Presidente Prudente, Brazil, and in commercial establishments. Hygiene and sanitary conditions of work environment was investigated through a check-list and the quality of orange juice was analyzed by plate counts for ANOVA results for non-parameter data (Kruskal-Wallis) at p<0.05. Most commercial establishments had good hygiene practice and thermo-tolerant coliforms were not extant. There were, however, high contaminations in several juice samples. Acid-lactic bacteria had counts between 3.15(dp=0.21) and 5.68(dp=0.01) log CFU/mL. Inhibitory evaluation was satisfactory since their impaired Escherichia coli (15 - 27 mm) and Listeria monocytogenes (23 - 27mm). Good practice in hygiene and continued education by food handlers cause a reduction of contamination.

5.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(1): 19-27, jan.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995668

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o consumo de energia, macronutrientes e micronutrientes calculado a partir de duas tabelas de composição dos alimentos: Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos (TACO) mais informações de rótulos de alimentos e United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databases (USDA). Trata-se de estudo transversal, com dados do consumo alimentar de participantes do estudo principal "Modificação do Estilo de Vida e Risco Cardiovascular". Os dados foram analisados por meio dos Testes de Kruskal Wallis, Post Hoc de Dunn, e Correlação de Pearson. Foram avaliados 59 Recordatórios de 24 horas e as medianas de 21 entre 29 nutrientes (72,4%) apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) na comparação entre os resultados obtidos das tabelas avaliadas. Foram encontradas divergências significativas entre os valores nutricionais apresentados nas tabelas. Este fato alerta para o uso destes instrumentos e a sua influência nos resultados do cálculo do consumo alimentar e impacto na prescrição nutricional


Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes are compared by two food composition lists: Brazilian Food Composition List and nutrition facts and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databases (USDA). Current transversal study comprised data on food intake of participants within the main research theme 'Changes in Life Style and Cardiovascular Risks'. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Post-Hoc Dunn tests and by Pearson´s Co-relation test. Fifty-nine 24-h records were evaluated. Medians of 21 out of 29 nutrients (72.4%) showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to results from evaluated tables. There was significant divergence between the nutrition rates in the lists. The above is a warning on the use of these tools and their influence on results in calculating food intake and impact in nutritional prescriptions


Subject(s)
Table of Food Composition , Eating , Food , Food Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180420, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil has high diversity of native fruits with high nutritional and biochemical value. Bactris setosa Mart. (tucum-do-Pantanal) stands out by its oil-rich almond. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of tucum-do-Pantanal almond and its by-products: press cake and crude oil. The almond of tucum-do-Pantanal had total weight of 0.81g, lager diameter 10.87mm, small diameter 8.21mm, height 12.50, weight of almond 0.38g, weight of endocarp 0.25g. In relation to the chemical analysis, the cake had higher ash, protein and carbohydrate contents than the almond. On the other hand, the content of moisture, lipids and calories were higher in the almond. The press cake showed 636.80 g kg-1 of total fiber. The fatty acids that predominated in tucum-do-Pantanal oil were lauric (58.48), myristic (12.59) and oleic (10.15%) acids. The oil of tucum-do-Pantanal had an acid index of 3.01 KOH / g, peroxide index of 4.84 meq / kg, saponification index of 140.91 mg KOH / oil g, iodine index of 3.72 gI2 / 100 g, refractive index of 1.46, density of 0.92 g / mL, water content of 493.11 ppm and oxidation stability of 32.01 h. The results suggest that tucum-do-Pantanal almond as an important source of oil, calories and fibers, with potential use in the food industry.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Brazil , Food Analysis/instrumentation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805572

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the aluminium content in unprocessed grains from different areas of China.@*Methods@#From June 2013 to December 2014, nine provinces (Jilin, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu) were selected as sampling areas using stratified random sampling method. Three cities, counties or townships were randomly selected from each sampling area. Grain stations, grain depots, planting areas or farmers′ markets located in non-aluminium mining areas or non-aluminium-involved industrial pollution areas were selected from each sampling area using a purposive sampling method. A total of 470 unprocessed grain samples (500 g per sample) including wheat, rice, corn, millet and soybean were collected from local grain stations, grain depots, planting areas and farmers′ markets. The dried grains samples were analysed for aluminium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bootstrap resampling method was applied to calculate the upper bound values of 95%CI of P99 of aluminium contents for each kind of grain, which could be regarded as levels of concern for corresponding categories.@*Results@#A total of 454 grain samples, including 109 wheat samples, 111 rice samples, 78 corn samples, 69 millet samples and 87 soybean samples, were used for analysis after excluding outlier values. There were 420 positive samples with detected aluminium and the overall detection rate was 92.5%. Among them, the aluminium contents were high in wheat and soybean with median values about 9.59 and 7.12 mg/kg, and maximum values about 31.55 and 28.80 mg/kg, respectively. The median and maximum values of aluminium contents in corn were about 4.65 and 26.79 mg/kg. Aluminium contents were low in rice and millet, with median values about 1.49 and 2.21 mg/kg, and maximum values about 7.56 and 8.07 mg/kg, respectively. Based on Bootstrap resampling method, the upper bound values of 95%CI of P99 of aluminium contents in wheat, soybean, corn, rice and millet were 29.86, 28.80, 26.79, 7.56 and 8.07 mg/kg, respectively, which could be regarded as levels of concern for corresponding grains.@*Conclusion@#Aluminium has been detected in most unprocessed grains. The accumulation of aluminium varies in different grains species.

8.
Hig. aliment ; 32(282/283): 55-60, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946528

ABSTRACT

Por possuir um sabor adocicado suavemente ácido, o Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry é muito consumido e apreciado pela população. Por esse motivo, objetivou-se neste estudo a produção da geleia de jambo, com o intuito de avaliar se a geleia manterá as características físico-químicas e nutricionais presentes no jambo vermelho in natura, além de verificar sua conformidade com os padrões microbiológicos vigentes. A geleia foi produzida a partir de 800g de polpa de jambo adicionados a 400 mL de água potável sob aquecimento por 40 minutos. Após a peneiração, ao filtrado foram adicionados 275 g de açúcar e 5 mL de ácido cítrico e aquecido por mais 20 minutos até alcançar a consistência desejada. Foram realizadas as determinações de proteínas, lipídios, cinzas, umidade, carboidratos e valor calórico. O doseamento de antocianinas e flavonoides foi utilizado por meio do método descrito por Francis (1982). A geleia apresentou menor porcentagem de umidade (57,5±0,35), proteínas (2,39±0,2), cinzas (0,33±0,03) e lipídios (0,49±0,00), e maior porcentagem de carboidratos (39,29±0,42) quando comparados ao jambo in natura que teve umidade de 91,07±0,22, proteínas de 2,41±0,19, cinzas 0,42±0,07, lipídios 1,12±0,05 e carboidratos 4,97±0,22. Observou-se também que, após o processo de produção da geleia, houve aumento nos percentuais de flavonóides (26,4±0,7) e antocianinas (29±0,78) quando comparado ao fruto in natura que teve antocianinas de 19,37±4,82 e flavonoides de 11,30±3,73. Quanto aos padrões microbiológicos, a geleia de jambo vermelho estava de acordo com os padrões microbiológicos para geleia de frutas determinados pela ANVISA, estando apta para o consumo.


By having a mildly acidic sweet taste, Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry is much consumed and appreciated by the population. For this reason, the objective of this study was the production of Malay apple jelly, with the purpose of evaluating whether the jelly will maintain the physical-chemical and nutritional characteristics present in the fresh Malay apple in natura, in addition to verifying its conformity with the current microbiological standards. The jelly was produced from 800 g of jamb pulp and 400 ml of drinking water was added under heating for 40 minutes. After sieving, to the filtrate was added 275 g of sugar and 5 ml of citric acid and heated for another 20 minutes until reaching the desired consistency. Protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate and caloric determinations were performed. The dosage of anthocyanins and flavonoids was used by the method described by Francis (1982). The jelly presented a lower percentage of moisture (57.5 ± 0.35), proteins (2.39 ± 0.2), ashes (0.33 ± 0.03) and lipids (0.49 ± 0.00), and a higher percentage of carbohydrates (39.29 ± 0.42) when compared to inbred jambo that had a moisture content of 91.07 ± 0.22, proteins of 2.41 ± 0.19, ashes 0.42 ± 0.07, lipids 1.12 ± 0.05 and carbohydrates 4.97 ± 0.22. It was also observed that even after the jelly production process, the percentage of flavonoids (26.4 ± 0.7) and anthocyanins (29 ± 0.78) increased when compared to the in natura fruit with anthocyanins of 19, 37 ± 4.82 and flavonoids of 11.30 ± 3.73. As for the microbiological standards, the red jamb jelly complied with the microbiological standards for fruit jelly determined by ANVISA, being suitable for consumption.


Subject(s)
Syzygium , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services , Fruit Jam , Food Analysis , Food Production , Chemical Phenomena , Microbiological Techniques , Chemical Phenomena , Antioxidants
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 31(4): 423-432, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the centesimal composition of minerals, fatty acids and vitamin C of leaves and tubers of crem, and to discuss the nutritional potential of the T. pentaphyllum species. Methods The centesimal composition of protein, lipid, fiber, ash and carbohydrate was determined by gravimetric analysis. Mineral composition was determined by optical emission spectrometry. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. The percentage of recommended dietary intake of leaves and tubers of crem was calculated for each nutrient. Results A high content of fibrous fraction (63.07g/100g), potassium (4.55g/100g), magnesium (553.64mg/100g) and sulfur (480.79mg/100g) was observed in the chemical composition of leaves. In tubers, a high carbohydrate content was observed, with 62.60g/100g of starch and 3.43g/100g of fiber, as well as high potassium (0.58g/100g), sulfur (447.14g/100), calcium (205.54g/100g) and phosphorus (530.07g/100g) levels. The vitamin C content of tubers was 78.43mg/100g and the linoleic acid content was 0.455g/100g. The intake of 100g of crem leaves may contribute with 65% of the recommended dietary intake of sulfur. The intake of 100g of crem tuber may contribute with 106% of the recommended dietary intake of sulfur and 21% of the recommended dietary intake of Vitamin C. Conclusion The chemical composition of crem (Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.) tubers and leaves demonstrated an important contribution of nutrients, mainly sulfur, vitamin C and linoleic acid in its tubers, indicating a high nutritional potential of this species.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal, mineral, vitamina C e ácidos graxos de folhas e tubérculos de crem, e discutir o potencial nutricional da espécie T. pentaphyllum. Métodos A composição centesimal em proteínas, lipídeos, fibras, cinzas e carboidratos foi determinada por análise gravimétrica. A composição mineral foi determinada por espectrometria de emissão óptica. A vitamina C foi determinada pelo método dinitrofenilhidrazina. Os ácidos graxos foram determinados por cromatografia a gás. A porcentagem da ingestão dietética recomendada de folhas e tubérculos de crem foi calculada para cada nutriente. Resultados Na composição química das folhas verificou-se alto conteúdo de fração fibrosa (63,07g/100g), potássio (4,55g/100g), magnésio (553,64mg/100g) e enxofre (480,79mg/100g). Nos tubérculos verificou-se alto conteúdo de carboidratos, com 62,60g/100g de amido e 3,43g/100g de fibras, além de alto teor de potássio (0,58g/100g), enxofre (447,14g/100), cálcio (205,54g/100g) e fósforo (530,07g/100g). O conteúdo de vitamina C no tubérculo de crem foi de 78,43mg/100g, e o de ácido graxo linoleico foi de 0,455 g/100g. A ingestão de 100g de folhas de crem poderá contribuir com 65% da ingestão diária recomendada de enxofre. A ingestão de 100g de tubérculo de crem poderá contribuir com 106% da ingestão diária recomendada de enxofre e com 21% da ingestão diária recomendada de Vitamina C. Conclusão A composição química de tubérculos e folhas de crem apresentou um aporte expressivo de nutrientes, principalmente de enxofre, além de vitamina C e ácido linoleico nos tubérculos, indicando um alto potencial nutricional da espécie.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Nutrients , Tropaeolaceae , Plant Tubers , Chemical Phenomena , Nutritive Value
10.
Ciênc. agrotec., (Impr.) ; 42(1): 51-57, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-890672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neonicotinoids are a relatively new generation of insecticides that have been used for control of pests such as aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies. This paper presents for the first time a determination of residues of four neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid and imidacloprid) in Chilean honey using QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The limits of detection and quantification found for all analytes ranging from 0.34 to 1.43 μg kg-1 and from 0.30 to 4.76 μg kg-1, respectively. The extraction using QuEChERS method provided recoveries over 79% and the precision showed coefficient of variation lower than 20%. These data are in agreement with the international criteria that recommend general recovery limits of 70 - 120%. Of the 16 samples analyzed, in three honey samples neonicotinoids pesticides were detected. These three samples were collected from the same geographical area (Rengo). Fruit and grain production characterize the province of Rengo. The analysis of the botanical origin of these honeys showed the absence of pollen grains of crops and the majority presence of pollen grains of weeds such as Medicago sativa, Galega officinalis and Brassica rapa, which could be associated with crops. Although the residue levels found were low, the results also confirm the actual occurrence of a transfer of neonicotinoid insecticides from exposed honeybees into honey.


RESUMO Os neonicotinóides são uma geração relativamente nova de inseticidas que tem sido utilizado para o controle de pragas, como pulgões, cigarrinhas e moscas brancas. Este artigo apresenta pela primeira vez a determinação de resíduos de quatro inseticidas neonicotinóides (acetamiprida, tiametoxam, tiaclopride e imidaclopride) em méis chilenos empregando para extração o método QuEChERS seguido de UHPLC-MS/MS. Foram encontrados limites de detecção e quantificação aceitáveis para todos os analitos variando de 0,34 a 1,43 μg kg-1 e de 0,30 a 4,76 μg kg-1, respectivamente. A extração usando o método QuEChERS proporcionou uma recuperação maior que 79% e a precisão do método não excedeu um coeficiente de variação de 20%. Esses dados estão de acordo com os critérios internacionais que recomendam limites gerais de recuperação de 70 - 120%. Das 16 amostras de mel analisadas foram detectados pesticidas neonicotinoides em três delas. Essas três amostras foram coletadas na mesma área geográfica (Rengo), a qual se caracteriza pela produção de grãos e frutas. A análise da origem botânica desses méis mostrou a ausência de grãos de pólen de espécies cultivadas nesta zona, porém mostrou uma presença majoritária de grãos de pólen de ervas daninhas, como Medicago sativa, Galega officinalis e Brassica rapa, as quais podem estar associadas a estes cultivos. Embora os níveis de resíduos neonicotinoides encontrados neste estudo são baixos, os resultados confirmam a ocorrência atual de uma transferência destes inseticidas ao mel das de abelhas expostas.

11.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(6): 691-700, nov.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903823

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Examinar la publicidad de alimentos dirigida a la audiencia infantil en la televisión chilena. Material y métodos: Estudio de diseño transversal. Se registró la publicidad de alimentos emitida por cuatro canales de televisión de señal abierta, durante 12 horas diarias, en 12 días seleccionados aleatoriamente. Los avisos se clasificaron según grupos de alimentos y nivel de procesamiento. Se comparó la frecuencia de avisos de alimentos dirigidos a la audiencia infantil con los destinados a adultos. Se describió el perfil de nutrientes de los alimentos publicitados. Resultados: En 144 horas de grabación aparecieron 530 avisos de alimentos; 53.2% estaban dirigidos a la audiencia infantil. Los alimentos más publicitados entre los niños fueron lácteos azucarados (28.4%), bebidas azucaradas (25.5%) y cereales azucarados (17.7%). De dichos alimentos, 75% supera el criterio para azúcares libres. Conclusiones: En la televisión chilena se publicitan alimentos ultraprocesados que superan los límites de azúcares libres.


Abstract: Objective: To examine food advertising aimed at childhood's audience broadcast on Chilean television. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study. Food advertising broadcast by 4 open signal TV channels was recorded for 12 hours daily on twelve days randomly selected. Notices were classified according to food groups and level of processing. The frequency of food advertisement aimed to childhood audience was compared with those for adults. Nutrient profile of foods advertised was described. Results: In 144 hours of recording appeared 530 food advertisement; 53.2% were aimed to childhood audience. The most advertised foods were sugary dairy (28.4%), sweetened beverages (25.5%), and sweetened cereals (17.7%). Of the foods advertised to childhood audience, 75% exceeds the criterion for free sugars. Conclusions: Chilean television advertises ultra-processed foods that exceed the limits of free sugars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Television , Advertising , Food , Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Psychology, Child , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Sucrose , Food Analysis , Nutritive Value
12.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 20(3): 387-397, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898758

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: the development and analysis of the macro and micronutrient composition of homemade enteral diets. Method: A standard homemade enteral diet was developed at three caloric concentrations - 1500, 1800 and 2100 Kcal. After preparation and testing of viscosity, stability, odor and color, plus evaluation of cost, the chemical composition of the nutrients of the diets were analytically determined. Folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin B12 values were calculated using chemical composition tables. The results were compared with recommended nutritional standards for the elderly. Result: The diets exhibited normal macronutrient distribution. The 1500 caloric level presented some mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Suitable values ​​were obtained at the other caloric levels for all minerals except magnesium. There were appropriate levels of all the vitamins in the 2100 Kcal diet, while vitamin E, D and B6 levels were below the recommended dietary allowances in the 1800 Kcal diet. Conclusion: The standard homemade enteral diets studied can contribute to the food and nutritional safety of elderly persons undergoing home care, if all are supplemented with magnesium and the 1800 Kcal diet is supplemented with vitamin E, D and B6. The 1500 Kcal diet was not nutritionally safe in terms of micronutrients. AU


Resumo Objetivo: Desenvolver e analisar a composição de macro e micronutrientes de dietas enterais semiartesanais para uso domiciliar. Método: Foi desenvolvida uma receita de dieta enteral semiartesanal padrão, com três concentrações calóricas, de 1500, 1800 e 2100 Kcal. Após o preparo e teste de viscosidade, estabilidade, odor, cor e custo as dietas tiveram a composição química de macro e micronutrientes analisada. O folato e vitamina D e B12 tiveram seus valores estimados por meio de tabelas de composição química. Os resultados encontrados foram comparados com as recomendações nutricionais para idosos. Resultado: As dietas apresentaram distribuição normal de macronutrientes. A dieta de 1500 Kcal apresentou diversas deficiências de minerais e vitaminas. Nos demais níveis calóricos, obteve-se valores adequados para todos os minerais exceto o magnésio. As vitaminas estavam todas adequadas no nível calórico de 2100 Kcal e no de 1800 Kcal, a vitamina E, D e B6 não alcançaram as recomendações dietéticas diárias. Conclusão: A dietas padrões desenvolvidas podem contribuir para segurança alimentar e nutricional de idosos em terapia nutricional domiciliar, desde que todas suplementadas com magnésio, e a de 1800 Kcal com vitamina E, D e B6. A fórmula de 1500 Kcal não se mostrou segura nutricionalmente no que tange aos micronutrientes. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Enteral Nutrition , Food Security , Food Analysis , Home Nursing
13.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 30(2): 233-244, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro) were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95), and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50). As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90), and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43). Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a variação no consumo diário de fibras e de calorias de acordo com diferentes tabelas de composição nutricional e de medidas caseiras. Métodos: Cinco métodos baseados em diferentes tabelas de composição nutricional e de medidas caseiras foram utilizados para calcular o consumo diário de calorias e de fibras, aferidos por questionário de frequência alimentar em 633 gestantes atendidas na atenção primária do Sul do Brasil, arroladas para estudo de coorte. A concordância entre os cinco métodos foi avaliada pelo coeficiente Kappa e Kappa Ponderado. A Tabela de Suporte Nutricional e a de medidas caseiras do Estudo Nacional de Despesas Familiares foram usadas no método 1. A Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos e a Tabela para Avaliação de Consumo Alimentar em Medidas Caseiras (Pinheiro) foram utilizadas pelos métodos 2 e 3, sendo que no método 3 calculou-se a média dos subtipos do alimento encontradas na Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos correspondente ao item do Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. No método 4, foram utilizadas a Tabela Americana da United States Department of Agriculture e a Pinheiro e, no método 5, a Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos e a do Estudo Nacional de Despesas Familiares. Resultados: A maior concordância entre valores de calorias ocorreu entre os métodos 2 e 3 (Kappa=0,94; 0,92-0,95) e a menor concordância foi entre os métodos 4 e 5 (Kappa=0,46; 0,42-0,50). Já para os valores de fibras, a melhor concordância foi entre os métodos 2 e 5 (Kappa=0,87; 0,82-0,90) e a menor entre os métodos 1 e 4 (Kappa=0,36; 0,31-0,43). Conclusão: Diferenças encontradas, conforme escolha da tabela de composição nutricional, são relevantes, podendo influenciar a comparabilidade entre estudos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Eating , Energy Intake , Dietary Fiber , Table of Food Composition , Pregnant Women , Nutritional Epidemiology , Food Analysis
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 121 p. map, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-983546

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas, causada por Trypanosoma cruzi, afeta cerca de 6 a 8 milhões de pessoas no mundo. No Brasil, a transmissão oral tem se destacado, sendo que a polpa de açaí e o caldo de cana são os alimentos mais envolvidos em surtos. A dificuldade de isolamento de parasitas em alimentos não tem permitido a análise epidemiológica desses episódios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi padronizar um método laboratorial para detecção de T. cruzi em alimentos. Para atingir este objetivo estudamos as seguintes estratégias: i. padronização da PCR convencional (cPCR) e em tempo real (qPCR) para a determinação de T. cruzi em polpa de açaí e caldo de cana; ii. avaliação da semeadura de alimentos contaminados em meio de cultura LIT a fim de aumentar a carga parasitária potencializando a sua detecção na PCR;...


Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately 6 to 8 million people worldwide. In Brazil, oral transmission has been prominent. Acai pulp and sugarcane juice are the foods most frequently involved in outbreaks. The difficulty to isolate parasites in food has not allowed the epidemiological analysis of these episodes. The objective of the present study was to standardize a laboratory method for the detection of T. cruzi in food. To achieve this goal, we studied the following strategies: i. standardization of the conventional PCR (cPCR) and real time (qPCR) to determine T. cruzi in acai pulp and sugarcane juice; ii. evaluation of seeding of infected food in LIT culture medium in order to increase the parasite load, thus enhancing its detection in PCR;...


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Food , Parasites , Trypanosoma cruzi
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-658505

ABSTRACT

As the new popular fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, carbon dots have not only excellent optical properties and small size characteristics, but also have good biocompatibility, low toxicity and easy to achieve the surface functional characteristics, and can replace the traditional semi-quantum dots of the better choice.Based on the unique fluorescence characteristics and high sensitivity, carbon fluorescent probe has a good potential in food analysis and testing. In this experiment, the study of fluorescent carbon dots has been reviewed in recent years. The characteristics of carbon dots are briefly introduced and the preparation methods of carbon dots are summarized. The application of carbon dot fluorescent probes in food analysis and detection is introduced and the limitations and development of carbon point application are analyzed and forecasted.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-661424

ABSTRACT

As the new popular fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, carbon dots have not only excellent optical properties and small size characteristics, but also have good biocompatibility, low toxicity and easy to achieve the surface functional characteristics, and can replace the traditional semi-quantum dots of the better choice.Based on the unique fluorescence characteristics and high sensitivity, carbon fluorescent probe has a good potential in food analysis and testing. In this experiment, the study of fluorescent carbon dots has been reviewed in recent years. The characteristics of carbon dots are briefly introduced and the preparation methods of carbon dots are summarized. The application of carbon dot fluorescent probes in food analysis and detection is introduced and the limitations and development of carbon point application are analyzed and forecasted.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Food composition databases are necessary for assessing dietary intakes. Developing and maintaining a high quality database is difficult because of the high cost of analyzing nutrient profiles and the recent fast-changing food marketplace. Thus, priorities have to be set for developing and updating the database. We aimed to identify key foods in the Korean diet to set priorities for future analysis of foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS: modified the US Department of Agriculture's key food approach. First, major foods were analyzed, contributing to 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% of each nutrient intake. Second, the cumulative contributions to nutrient intakes were compared before and after excluding the foods least commonly consumed by individuals. Third, total nutrient score for each food was calculated by summing all percent contributions times 100 for nutrients. To set priorities among the foods in the list, we sorted the score in descending order and then compared total percent contributions of foods, within the 100, 90, 85, 80, and 75 percentiles of the list. Finally, we selected the minimum list of foods contributing to at least 90% of the key nutrient intake as key items for analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1,575 foods consumed by individuals, 456 were selected as key foods. Those foods were chosen as items above the 80 percentile of the total nutrient score, among the foods contributing at least 85% of any nutrient intake. On an average, the selected key foods contributed to more than 90% of key nutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 456 foods, contributing at least 90% of the key nutrient intake, were selected as key foods. This approach to select a minimum list of key foods will be helpful for systematically updating and revising food composition databases.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Analysis , Nutrition Surveys
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782108

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Before 2004, the occurrence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) by oral transmission associated with food was scarcely known or investigated. Originally sporadic and circumstantial, ACD occurrences have now become frequent in the Amazon region, with recently related outbreaks spreading to several Brazilian states. These cases are associated with the consumption of açai juice by waste reservoir animals or insect vectors infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in endemic areas. Although guidelines for processing the fruit to minimize contamination through microorganisms and parasites exist, açai-based products must be assessed for quality, for which the demand for appropriate methodologies must be met. METHODS: Dilutions ranging from 5 to 1,000 T. cruzi CL Brener cells were mixed with 2mL of acai juice. Four Extraction of T. cruzi DNA methods were used on the fruit, and the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was selected according to JRC, 2005. RESULTS: DNA extraction by the CTAB method yielded satisfactory results with regard to purity and concentration for use in PCR. Overall, the methods employed proved that not only extraction efficiency but also high sensitivity in amplification was important. CONCLUSIONS: The method for T. cruzi detection in food is a powerful tool in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks as it turns epidemiological evidence into supporting data that serve to confirm T. cruzi infection in the foods. It also facilitates food quality control and assessment of good manufacturing practices involving acai-based products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Food Contamination , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Food Parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Euterpe/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Outbreaks , Chagas Disease/epidemiology
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 14-21, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736457

ABSTRACT

Objective. To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS) -purees and beverages- added with different iron salts (IS): reduced iron (RI), ferrous sulphate (FS) or ferrous fumarate (FF) during 24 weeks of storage. Materials and methods. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. Results. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. Conclusion. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour.


Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de agrado de los suplementos alimenticios (SA) (papillas y bebidas) del Programa Oportunidades, adicionados con diferentes sales de hierro (SH): hierro reducido (HR), sulfato ferroso (SF) o fumarato ferroso (FF), durante 24 semanas de almacenamiento. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron mediante una escala hedónica los atributos olor, sabor y color; a tiempo cero y cada ocho semanas, cada juez evaluó tres suplementos, mismo sabor, presentación y diferente SH. Participaron 70 mujeres. Resultados. Los SA sabor chocolate y plátano presentaron modificación del agrado por color y sabor durante el almacenamiento. Los SA con SF o HR presentaron el menor agrado para sabor y olor por efecto de las SH. En los SA sabor chocolate y natural adicionados con SF se afectó el color y el sabor. Conclusión. Los SA en general presentaron agrado; sin embargo, en las papillas adicionadas con SF y las bebidas con HR los atributos limitantes fueron color y sabor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Hippocampus/anatomy & histology , Hippocampus/physiology , Nerve Net/anatomy & histology , Nerve Net/physiology , Recognition, Psychology/physiology , Discrimination, Psychological/physiology , Mesocricetus , Maze Learning/physiology , Odorants
20.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 19(5): 1623-1630, 05/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-710558

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o valor nutricional (energia, carboidratos, proteínas, lipídeos, cálcio, ferro, zinco, fósforo, vitamina A e vitamina C) dos treze itens alimentares que compõem a Cesta Básica Brasileira e verificar se estão adequados para a subsistência mensal de um indivíduo adulto. Foi realizada a comparação dos valores encontrados com os estabelecidos pela Estimated Average Requirement. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo que utilizou informações de uma tabela de composição centesimal de alimentos para a análise dos dados relativos da Cesta Básica Brasileira proveniente do Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioeconômicos. Foram encontrados valores adequados para carboidratos, proteínas, ferro, zinco, fósforo. Valor energético total e lipídeos estavam acima do recomendado, enquanto Cálcio e Vitamina A estavam abaixo. A Vitamina C teve valores adequados apenas para o sexo feminino. Foi possível observar que a Cesta Básica reflete em grande parte o consumo alimentar dos indivíduos, porém, diante da prevalência de obesidade da população brasileira, seriam necessárias algumas modificações nesta base alimentar para que esta fique adequada em macronutrientes e micronutrientes.


This study sought to assess the nutritional status (energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, vitamin A and vitamin C) of the 13 items in the Brazilian staple foods basket and to verify whether they are suitable for the monthly subsistence of an adult. The values established by the Estimated Average Requirement were compared to those found in the study. It is a descriptive study that used information from a food composition table in order to analyze data regarding the Brazilian staple foods basket from the Inter-Union Department of Statistics and Socio-Economic Studies. Appropriate values were found for carbohydrates, proteins, iron, zinc, phosphorus. Total energy and lipids were above the recommended values, while calcium and vitamin A were below. Vitamin C had adequate values only for females. The Brazilian staple foods basket largely reflects the individual food intake. However, given the prevalence of obesity in the Brazilian population, some adjustments in this nutritional basis are required, so that it is rendered adequate in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient values.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Food Analysis , Nutritive Value , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Requirements
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