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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920572

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the clinical problems and outcome indicators that need to be included in the expert consensus of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral potential malignant diseases. @*Methods@# Based on the relevant literature, the clinical problems and outcome indicators were drafted during the meeting. The Delphi method was used for expert consultation and expert opinion collection. The average and standard deviation of the voting results were calculated to determine the importance of the indicators, and the positive coefficient, variation coefficient and coordination coefficient were calculated for quality control. @* Results@#In the first round of the Delphi method, 12 outcome indicators (the main reference elements include photon integral flux, power density, illumination time, and spot diameter were identified; the specific parameters are photon integral flux of 100 J/cm2 and power density of 100-600 mW/cm2. A diode laser of (630 ± 5) nm wavelength should be chosen. The analgesic regimen is local anesthesia supplemented by hypothermia and intermittent laser irradiation before treatment. Lesions with hyperkeratotic require pretreatment. The concentration of ALA administered was set at 20%. Eight clinical problems (main reference elements of photodynamic irradiation dose, specific parameters, choice of light source, evaluation criteria of efficacy, prevention of adverse effects, dosing concentration, whether oral potentially malignant diseases with hyperkeratosis should be pretreated, administration of photosensitizers) were included according to the literature and expert discussion. In the second round, 89 experts completed the questionnaire and gave very important evaluations of 9 outcome indicators (the main reference elements included photon integral flux, power density and illumination time; the specific parameters were a photon integral flux of 100 J/cm 2 and a power density of 100-600 mW/cm2). A diode laser of (630 ± 5)nm wavelength should be chosen. The concentration of ALA administered was set at 20%. Six clinical problems (main reference elements of photodynamic irradiation dose, specific parameters, choice of light source, evaluation criteria of efficacy, dosing concentration, administration of photosensitizers), and the remaining 3 were given important evaluations, with good consistency.@*Conclusion@# In this study, the irradiation dose, mode of administration and concentration, evaluation criteria of efficacy, prevention of adverse effects and pretreatment regimen of ALA photodynamic therapy for oral potentially malignant diseases determined by the Delphi method had good agreement among experts.

3.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248717

ABSTRACT

El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.


The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.


A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
4.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 31(1): 6-16, ene-mar 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251762

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antioxidante del extracto hidroalcohólico de Origanum vulgare a través de 03 métodos de ensayo DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. Material y métodos: La muestra recolectada de Origanum vulgare se secó, redujo el tamaño y se colocó a macerar 500 gramos de muestra seca en 1000 mL de etanol 97% durante una semana. Pasado el tiempo se procedió a filtrar el macerado y se concentró en estufa. Se procedió a realizar las formulaciones. Estas diluciones, se sometieron a los análisis antioxidantes. Resultados: Método DPPH, el gel al 25% mostró un IC50 de 98,485 mg/mL equivalente a la dilución del 78,789% y para el caso del estándar Trolox® presentó un IC50 de 2,48 µg/mL. Método ABTS, la formulación de gel al 25% presentó un IC50 de 3,687 mg/mL equivalente a una dilución de 77,75% y para el estándar Trolox® presentó un IC50 de 2,99 µg/mL, a diferencia de las otras formulaciones. Se evidenció relación entre el porcentaje de inhibición y concentración de las muestras con una correlación aceptada (R2) para geles al 25%, 50%, 75% de extracto de Origanum vulgare y Trolox® de 0,9972; 0,9987 y 0,9986 respectivamente. Método FRAP, observó acción rápida durante los 4 minutos, siendo 125 mg de extracto contenido en el gel de 25% equivalente a 4mg de Trolox®. Conclusiones: Se determinó la actividad antioxidante equivalente al Trolox®, mediante análisis antioxidante, con mejor poder de captación de radical libre promedio (Trolox/mg) de extracto y estuvo presente en el gel a base de Extracto de Origanum vulgare al 25%.


SUMMARY Objective: To determine the antioxidant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare through DPPH, ABTS and FRAP essays. Material and Methods: The sample collected from Origanum vulgare was dried, reduced in size and placed to macerate 500 grams of dry sample in 1000 mL of 97% ethanol for one week. After time, the macerate was processed through a filter and concentrated in an oven. The formulations were carried out and the dilutions were analyzed with the antioxidant essays. Results : DPPH Method, the 25% gel showed an IC50 of 98.485 mg / mL equivalent to the dilution of 78.789% and for the Trolox® standard, it presented IC50 of 2.48 µg / mL. ABTS Method, the 25% gel formulation presented IC50 of 3.687 mg / mL equivalent to a dilution of 77.75% and for the Trolox® standard it presented IC50 of 2.99 µg / mL, a difference from the other formulations. The results evidenced a relation between the percentage of inhibition and concentration of the samples with an accepted correlation (R2) for the gels at 25%, 50%, 75% of extract of Origanum vulgare and Trolox® of 0.9972; 0.9987 and 0.9986 respectively. FRAP Method, with fast action during the 4 minutes, being 125 mg of extract contained in the gel 25% equivalent to 4mg of Trolox®. Conclusions: It was determined that the antioxidant activity equivalent to Trolox®, with antioxidant assays, with the best average free radical uptake power (Trolox / mg) of extract was present in the gel of Extract of Origanum vulgare 25%.

5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 141-147, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337663

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) é uma desordem metabólica ocasionada pela disfunção das células beta pancreáticas que interferem na produção de insulina e/ou pela resistência dos órgãos alvos a esse hormônio. Níveis elevados de radicais livres em conjunto com o declínio das defesas antioxidantes presente na DM2 podem ocasionar danos a organelas celulares, promovendo complicações da doença. As glutationas S- transferases (GST) são as principais enzimas antioxidantes que participam da defesa celular contra o estresse oxidativo. Os polimorfismos nos genes que codificam essas enzimas podem acarretar o surgimento de complicações oftalmológicas em diabéticos. Este trabalho avaliou a influência dos polimorfismos nos genes GST no desenvolvimento de doenças como a catarata e o glaucoma em pacientes com DM2 na Grande Vitória (ES). Metodologia: Os polimorfismos dos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 foram investigados através da técnica de PCR multiplex. Para o gene GSTP1 utilizou-se a técnica PCR- RFLP. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste exato de Fisher ou do teste do qui-quadrado com P-valor < 0.05. Resultados: Não foi encontrada relação entre os polimorfismos nos genes GSTM1, GSTT1 e GSTP1 e o surgimento de doenças como glaucoma e catarata em pacientes com DM2. Conclusão: Nossos dados sugerem que os polimorfismos nulos nos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 e o polimorfismo Ile105Val no gene GSTP1 não estão associados com a suscetibilidade individual para o desenvolvimento de complicações oftalmológicas em pacientes com DM2. (AU)


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by beta cell dysfunction that interferes with insulin production and/or by the resistance of target organs to this hormone. An increase in free radicals together with a decline in antioxidant defenses, present in T2DM, can damage cellular organelles and promote the occurrence of disease complications. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the main antioxidant enzymes involved in cellular defense against oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in genes encoding GSTs can lead to ophthalmic complications in persons with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the influence of GST polymorphisms on the development of diseases such as cataract and glaucoma in patients with T2DM in Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were investigated using a multiplex PCR technique. PCR-RFLP was used for the GSTP1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test or the chi-square test, with P-value <0.05. Results: There was no relationship between GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1 polymorphisms and the occurrence of diseases such as glaucoma and cataract in patients with T2DM. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and the ile105Val polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene are not associated with individual susceptibility to the development of ophthalmic complications in persons with T2DM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cataract/etiology , Glaucoma/etiology , Oxidative Stress
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06742, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287511

ABSTRACT

The result of the reaction of free radicals with biomolecules is the formation of substances with the potential of inducing oxidative damage, a condition known as oxidative stress. There are voluminous literature data reporting the association, both as a cause and as a consequence, between different diseases and oxidative stress. In this study, 144 female dogs with mammary neoplasia were analyzed. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation for disease staging, hematological evaluation, serum biochemistry (renal and hepatic function tests), and dosage of the oxidative damage biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), at the time of its approach and 30 days after treatment. A control group of 100 healthy animals was also submitted to determination of serum MDA levels. The mean age of the animals affected by mammary neoplasms was 9.88±2.95 (4 to 14) years, while in healthy animals it was 2.31±1.90 years (1 to 6). Of the 144 animals, 113 (78.9%) had malignant neoplasms, and 15, 21, 46, 17 and 14 animals were in clinical stage I, II, III, IV and V respectively and the carcinoma in a mixed tumor was the most frequent histological pattern in this group (26%). Thirty-one animals were diagnosed with benign neoplasms and mammary adenoma was the most frequent histological pattern in 15 animals (51.61%). Hematological changes in the preoperative period were observed in 44 (38.9%) and 12 (38.7%) animals with malignant and benign neoplasias, respectively, and there was a positive correlation between anemia and higher levels of MDA (P=0.0008) for animals with malignant tumors. Regarding serum biochemical parameters, the most frequent alterations in animals with malignant neoplasms were elevated ALT levels in 12 animals (10.6%), creatinine in 10 animals (8.84%) and urea in eight animals (7.07%). Females with benign neoplasms presented less occurrence of changes in these parameters. In the group of healthy animals (control), the mean serum MDA values were 12.08±4.18, whereas in the pre-treatment group, mean MDA was 24.80±5.74 for bitches with benign neoplasms and 32.27±10.24 for bitches with malignant tumors. A significant increase (P<0.001) in MDA levels was observed in animals with malignant mammary neoplasms when compared to healthy animals and with benign tumors. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.001) was observed 30 days after treatment in MDA levels (27.37±7.86) in animals with malignant tumors. In conclusion, our results indicate an association between MDA seric levels and mammary neoplasms in dogs. The results suggest that this factor can be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress with a potential impact in the prognostic of mammary tumors, since significantly higher levels of MDA were detected especially in dogs carrying malignant tumors and presenting anemia.(AU)


O resultado da reação de radicais livres com biomoléculas é a formação de substâncias que podem ser utilizadas como marcadores de dano oxidativo, condição mais conhecida como estresse oxidativo. Evidências científicas comprovam a relação, quer como causa, quer como consequência, entre muitas doenças e o estresse oxidativo. Neste estudo, 144 cadelas portadoras de neoplasia de mama, foram submetidas à avaliação clínica para estadiamento da doença, avaliação hematológica, testes de função renal e hepática e dosagem do biomarcador de dano oxidativo, malondialdeído (MDA), no momento de sua abordagem e 30 dias após realização de tratamento. Um grupo controle de 100 cadelas saudáveis foi submetido também à determinação dos níveis séricos de MDA. A idade média dos animais acometidos por neoplasias mamárias foi de 9,88±2,95 (4 a 14) anos, enquanto que nos animais saudáveis foi de 2,31±1,90 anos (1 a 6). Dos 144 animais, 113 (78, 9%) apresentavam neoplasias malignas, sendo que 15, 21, 46, 17 e 14 animais encontravam-se em estadiamento clínico I, II, III, IV e V respectivamente, e o carcinoma em tumor misto foi o padrão histológico mais frequente neste grupo (26%). Trinta e um animais tiveram diagnóstico de neoplasias benignas, sendo que 7 estavam no estádio I, 16 no estádio II e 8 no estádio III e o adenoma mamário foi o padrão histológico mais frequente em 15 animais (51,61%). Alterações hematológicas no período pré-operatório foram observadas em 44 (38,9%) e 12 (38,7%) animais portadores de neoplasias malignas e benignas, respectivamente, sendo que houve correlação positiva entre anemia e níveis mais elevados de MDA (P=0,0008), para os animais com tumores malignos. Em relação aos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, as alterações mais frequentes nos animais com neoplasias malignas foram a elevação dos níveis de ALT em 12 animais (10,6%), de creatinina em 10 animais (8,84%) e de ureia em oito animais (7,07%) Cadelas portadoras de neoplasias benignas apresentaram menor ocorrência de alterações nesses parâmetros. No grupo controle, a média dos valores séricos de MDA foi 12,08±4,18, enquanto que no grupo pré-tratamento, a média de MDA foi de 24,80±5,74 para as cadelas com neoplasia benigna e 32,27±10,24 para as neoplasias malignas. Verificou-se aumento significativo do valor sérico de MDA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasias malignas em comparação com os animais hígidos ou com neoplasias benignas (P<0,001). Ainda, 30 dias após o tratamento observou-se uma diminuição significativa (P<0,001) no valor médio de MDA (27,37±7,86) nos animais com neoplasias malignas. Em conclusão, os resultados deste estudo evidenciam uma associação entre níveis séricos aumentados de MDA e presença de neoplasias mamárias em cadelas. Os resultados sugerem que este fator pode ser utilizado como biomarcador de estresse oxidativo em cães, com provável impacto no prognóstico dos tumores mamários, uma vez que níveis significativamente mais altos de MDA foram detectados especialmente nas cadelas portadoras de tumores malignos e apresentando anemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Biochemistry , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Dogs , Free Radicals , Malondialdehyde
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906183

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of 75% ethanol extract of <italic>Rosa cymosa</italic> roots and its different polar parts. Method:The 75% ethanol extract of <italic>R. cymosa</italic> roots was divided into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, <italic>n</italic>-butanol and water parts by organic solvent extraction. <italic>In vitro</italic> antioxidant activity of each fraction was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. The contents of total triterpenes, total phenols, total tannins and condensed tannins in each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. SPSS 24.0 software was used to conduct Pearson correlation analysis between the antioxidant activity of each fraction and the content of the main components, and then the main active fraction and the main active components were determined. The chemical constituents of the active fraction was analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS), and the structures of the main chromatographic peaks were predicted. Result:Each fraction of <italic>R. cymosa</italic> roots had certain antioxidant activity, and there was a significant dose-effect relationship within a certain concentration range, but the antioxidant activity of different polar parts was different. In DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging tests, the antioxidant activity of each fraction and vitamin C (VC, the positive drug) was ranked as ethyl acetate fraction>VC><italic>n</italic>-butanol fraction>ethanol extract>water fraction>dichloromethane fraction. In FRAP test, the activity of ethyl acetate fraction was weaker than that of VC, and the other order was unchanged. The contents of total triterpenes, total phenols, total tannins and condensed tannins in ethyl acetate fraction were 3.81%, 50.33%, 3.32%, and 39.79%, in <italic>n</italic>-butanol fraction were 0.88%, 41.42%, 2.25% and 23.55%, in ethanol extract were 2.90%, 41.95%, 3.43% and 20.14%, in water fraction were 0, 26.80%, 16.90% and 7.57%, and in dichloromethane fraction were 21.23%, 12.90%, 1.59%, and 6.17%, respectively. Correlation analysis results showed that the contents of total phenols and condensed tannins were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity, the contents of total triterpenes were negatively correlated with the antioxidant activity, and the correlation between total tannins and antioxidant activity was not obvious. A total of 26 compounds were identified from the ethyl acetate fraction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, including 11 condensed tannins, 4 hydrolysable tannins, 6 triterpenes, 3 flavonoids, 1 benzoic acid derivative and 1 chlorogenic acid analogue. Conclusion:Ethyl acetate fraction is the main antioxidant active site of <italic>R. cymosa</italic> roots, and phenols mainly composed of condensed tannins are the main active components. The results can provide experimental basis for the development of natural antioxidants.

8.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(6): e2960, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149965

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la espirulina es un alga que se emplea como un suplemento alimenticio de gran importancia, consumido desde la antigüedad, actualmente son conocidas sus propiedades como hepatoprotector, antioxidante, anticancerígeno, entre otros, que brindan una mejor salud y por ende calidad de vida. Actualmente las enfermedades hepáticas y el cáncer tienen prevalencia convirtiéndose en un gran problema sanitario que aqueja a la humanidad. En este sentido el presente trabajo halla su importancia. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sobre la actividad farmacológica de las diferentes especies de espirulina relacionadas con el efecto hepatoprotector, antioxidante y anticancerígeno. Material y Métodos: se implementó una búsqueda exhaustiva en base de datos en línea como Pubmed, Scopus, Medline y Ebsco, se incluyeron solo trabajos originales completos de corte experimental y clínico publicados en el periodo 2000 a 2019. Desarrollo: se encontraron 2064 artículos relacionados de los cuales 58 cumplían los requisitos exigidos en el presente trabajo, fueron trabajados por análisis documental y agrupación en clusters atendiendo a sus propiedades farmacognósicas. Conclusiones: los artículos revisados refieren el gran potencial que tiene la espirulina como agente hepatoprotector, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, citotóxico, antimutagénico, apoptótico y anticancerígeno soportado en su gran variedad de contenido nutracéutico.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Spirulina is an alga used as a food supplement of great importance that has been consumed since ancient times. At present, its hepatoprotective potential, antioxidant activity and anticancer effect among other properties are known. These properties provide better health and thus better quality of life. Currently, liver diseases and cancer have a significant prevalence, becoming a major health problem afflicting humankind. In this regard, the present work is particularly important. Objective: To review the pharmacological activity of different Spirulina species related to the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anticancer effect. Material and methods: A rigorous search was carried out in online databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and EBSCO. Only complete original experimental and clinical works published from 2000 to 2019 were included. Development: A total of 2064 related articles were found. Of them, 58 fulfilled the requirements of the present work. Document analysis and cluster grouping were carried out taking into account its pharmacological properties. Conclusions: The reviewed articles provide information about the great potential of Spirulina as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimutagenic, apoptotic and anticancer agent supported in its great variety of nutraceutical content.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215245

ABSTRACT

Severe oxidative stress has been reported in TB patients because of infection associated with malnutrition and poor immunity. Mycobacteria can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating phagocytes, and enhanced ROS production may promote tissue injury and inflammation. We wanted to compare the effect of antioxidant administration in the outcome of ATT treatment between the test and the control group. METHODSThis perspective study was conducted in the Departments of Biochemistry and Chest Medicine, CMC & Hospital. Hundred patients (fifty controls and fifty tests) who were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and started on DOT therapy under RNTCP during this period were included in the study. Each participant in the study was subjected to the following test at the first visit, 2nd month and 6th month follow up (biochemical markers Nitric oxide, SOD, Glutathione Peroxidase and Vitamin E levels). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version. RESULTSThe results were based on four categories (male / female, alcoholic / non-alcoholic, smoker / non-smoker, and younger / older age group). Females had responded better with greater fall in percentage of nitric oxide values (69 %) than males (64.1 %). The mean of SOD activity (277.5 + / - 31.5) was more in smokers than non-smokers (261.3 + / - 36.0) & percentage fall of nitric oxide in smokers (65 %) & non-smokers (67 %). In alcoholics the percentage fall of nitric oxide (68.3 %) was higher with more SOD activity (Mean 278.7 + / - 27.6) than non-alcoholics (Mean 256 + / - 38.0) indicating a positive correlation of smoking & alcoholism with tuberculosis. Younger age group responded better with more fall in the percentage of nitric oxide (67 %) & mean SOD activity (265.8 + / - 30.1) than older age group. CONCLUSIONSAntioxidant supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves the effectiveness of ATT therapy, and thus helps in improving the outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204890

ABSTRACT

Rice is the staple food to half of world’s population providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide. Cereal grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds present in cell walls that help in combating many life style diseases occurring due to oxidative stress. Rice has been domesticated more than 10000 years ago but even today the farmers prefer selling freshly harvested paddy at a lower price. Few entrepreneurial farmers have come up with the idea of primary processing the paddy as semi polished and brown rice that can fetch them more profits along with providing health benefits. Each Kg of paddy, white, semi polished and brown rice cost Rs. 17 – 18.50, 46 – 48, 58 – 60 and 65 respectively. Similarly, one Kg of brokens get Rs. 15, bran Rs. 12 during season and Rs. 20 during off season. The rice without any processing fetched the farmer profit of about Rs. 24400 to 36000 on an average per acre. But if the farmer subjected the rice to primary processing and sold as white, semi polished or brown rice, the profits generated per acre were Rs. 57156 – 66480 Rs. Rs. 82996 – 102400and Rs. 105910 – 120400 can be generated. As can be seen the decrease in processing produced lower quantity of brokens and bran and income from them was comparatively lower than on processed rice indicating that there can be rise in income with minimal processing with added health benefits. There can an increase in profits by 4 to 5 times due to primary processing benefiting the paddy growers. The white, semi polished and brown rice can increase the income of farmer by 76.92, 127.79 and 161.58% per one bag of paddy weighing 75 Kg. There was a significant decrease in brokens and bran produced in semi polished and brown rice that actually fetch less prize than the actual produce. The growing awareness of consumers towards health foods, improved eating habits and health consciousness is expanding brown rice market at higher compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) compared to overall rice market.

11.
Rev. Finlay ; 10(2): 170-178, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125666

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Muchos de los componentes patológicos de las enfermedades cardiovasculares están estrechamente relacionados con una desregulación del metabolismo de las especies reactivas de oxígeno que propician la aparición del llamado estrés oxidativo. La oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad, la disfunción endotelial y los procesos inflamatorios están mediados en parte por el aumento en la producción celular de las especies reactivas de oxígeno. Con el objetivo de realizar una actualización sobre los últimos hallazgos que explican la influencia de los radicales libres en la génesis de la aterosclerosis, se realiza la presente revisión bibliográfica en la que se concluyó que el oxígeno constituye la principal fuente de formación de radicales libres, cuya acción es fundamental en el surgimiento de aterosclerosis. El incremento del estrés oxidativo favorece todas las fases del proceso aterotrombótico: adhesión y agregación plaquetaria, proliferación celular, peroxidación lipídica y proteica, daños irreversibles al ADN y a la membrana mitocondrial e inestabilización de la placa.


ABSTRACT Most of the pathologic components of oxidative stress of cardiovascular diseases are closely related with diregulation of metabolism of reactive species of oxygen, which favor the appearance of the so called oxidative stress. The oxidation of low density lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory processes are mediated in some way by cellular production of the reactive oxygen species. This review is conducted aimed at revising the latest findings that explain the influence of free radicals in the origin of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that oxygen is the main source of free radical formation whose action is determinant for the genesis of atherosclerosis. The increase of oxidative stress favors atherothrombatic phases: platelet adhesion and aggregation, cell proliferation, lipid and protein perioxidation, irreversible damage in DNA and mitochondrial membrane and inestabilzation/desestabilization of the plaque.

12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 26(1): 11-15, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057896

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Intense physical exercise affects the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense in the muscle. Carnosine is a cytoplasmic dipeptide composed of the amino acids β-alanine and histidine. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carnosine and its precursor β-alanine on oxidative damage caused by intense physical exercise in the soleus muscle of rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided into four groups: control, exercise, exercise + β-alanine and exercise + carnosine. The animals from the groups that underwent the exercise ran on a treadmill for 60 minutes at 25 m/minute. Factors related to muscle damage and oxidative stress were assessed in soleus muscle homogenate and blood serum. Results: The exercise promoted muscle damage, as observed through increased serum activity of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. It also induced oxidative stress in soleus muscle, as seen by the increased activity of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, decreased concentration of reduced glutathione, and increased concentration of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Carnosine kept the creatine kinase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activity values, and the concentration of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, close to those of the control group. Conclusion: The results indicate that pretreatment with carnosine protected the rat soleus muscle against oxidative damage and consequent injury caused by intense physical exercise. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies-Investigating the treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O exercício físico intenso afeta o equilíbrio entre a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio e a defesa antioxidante no músculo. A carnosina é um dipeptídeo citoplasmático composto pelos aminoácidos β-alanina e histidina. Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da carnosina e do seu precursor β-alanina nos danos oxidativos causados pelo exercício físico intenso no músculo sóleo de ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos pesando entre 200 e 240 g foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, exercício, exercício + β-alanina e exercício + carnosina. Os animais dos grupos submetidos ao exercício correram em esteira por 60 minutos a 25 m/minuto. Fatores relacionados ao dano muscular e estresse oxidativo foram avaliados no soro sanguíneo e no homogenato do músculo sóleo. Resultados: O exercício promoveu lesão muscular conforme observado através do aumento da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase e creatina quinase. Além disso, induziu o estresse oxidativo no músculo sóleo, observado pelo aumento da atividade das enzimas glutationa peroxidase e glutationa redutase, diminuição da concentração de glutationa reduzida e aumento na concentração de malondialdeído, um indicador de lipoperoxidação. A carnosina manteve os valores da atividade das enzimas creatina quinase, glutationa peroxidase e glutationa redutase, além da concentração de glutationa reduzida e malondialdeído próximos aos do grupo controle. Conclusão: Os resultados indicam que o tratamento prévio com carnosina protegeu o músculo sóleo de ratos contra os danos oxidativos e a consequente lesão provocada pelo exercício físico intenso. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos-investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El ejercicio físico intenso afecta al equilibrio entre la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno y la defensa antioxidante en el músculo. La carnosina es un dipéptido citoplasmático compuesto por los aminoácidos β-alanina e histidina. Objetivo: El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la carnosina y de su precursor β-alanina en los daños oxidativos causados por el ejercicio físico intenso en el músculo sóleo de ratones. Métodos: Ratones Wistar machos pesando entre 200 y 240 g fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: control, ejercicio, ejercicio + β-alanina y ejercicio + carnosina. Los animales de los grupos sometidos al ejercicio corrieron en cinta durante 60 minutos a 25 m/minuto. Se evaluaron los factores relacionados al daño muscular y al estrés oxidativo en el suero sanguíneo y el homogenato del músculo sóleo. Resultados: El ejercicio promovió lesión muscular, conforme fuera observado a través del aumento de la actividad sérica de las enzimas aspartato aminotransferasa y creatina quinasa. Además, indujo al estrés oxidativo en el músculo sóleo, observado por el aumento de la actividad de las enzimas glutatión peroxidasa y glutatión reductasa, disminución de la concentración de glutatión reducido y aumento de la concentración de malondialdehído, un indicador de lipoperoxidación. La carnosina mantuvo los valores de actividad de las enzimas creatina quinasa, glutatión peroxidasa y glutatión reductasa, además de la concentración de glutatión reducido y malondialdehído cercanos a los del grupo de control. Conclusión: Los resultados indican que el tratamiento previo con carnosina protegió al músculo sóleo de ratones contra los daños oxidativos y la consiguiente lesión causada por el ejercicio físico intenso. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos-Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8389, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055479

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) promotes cell death, and it has been successfully employed as a treatment resource for neuropathic complications of diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the major organ involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and in pathological conditions such as T1DM, changes in liver metabolic pathways result in hyperglycemia, which is associated with multiple organic dysfunctions. In this context, it has been suggested that chlorophyll-a and its derivatives have anti-diabetic actions, such as reducing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, but these effects have not yet been proven. Thus, the biological action of PDT with chlorophyll-a on hepatic parameters related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress in T1DM Wistar rats was investigated. Evaluation of the acute effects of this pigment was performed by incubation of isolated hepatocytes with chlorophyll-a and the chronic effects were evaluated by oral treatment with chlorophyll-based extract, with post-analysis of the intact liver by in situ perfusion. In both experimental protocols, chlorophyll-a decreased hepatic glucose release and glycogenolysis rate and stimulated the glycolytic pathway in DM/PDT. In addition, there was a reduction in hepatic oxidative stress, noticeable by decreased lipoperoxidation, reactive oxygen species, and carbonylated proteins in livers of chlorophyll-treated T1DM rats. These are indicators of the potential capacity of chlorophyll-a in improving the status of the diabetic liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chlorophyll/analogs & derivatives , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glycolysis/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology , Photochemotherapy , Chlorophyll/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Glycolysis/physiology , Liver/pathology
15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212717

ABSTRACT

Background: Various factors have been identified as influencing factors of breast cancer. The free radicals can cause increased oxidative stress by negatively affecting the body’s nucleic acids, lipids and proteins leading to various illnesses including cancer. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering the progress of treatment of breast carcinoma by exploring the connections of the disease with free radical injury.Methods: The present study was conducted among 30 breast carcinoma patients received in the surgery department of BRD Medical College Gorakhpur. Determination of the levels superoxide dismutase (SOD) (the procedure of photoluminescence), catalase (method of Cavarochi) and the lipid peroxidise was done. The results were presented as mean and standard error (SE). P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: Among the total participants, 73% patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma and 27% patients had intraductal carcinoma. The dismutase levels showed an increase in the post-operative patients for both the groups. The catalase levels and the lipid peroxide levels showed a reduction in the postoperative patients (p<0.05).Conclusions: The present study result showed that the low amounts of SOD and catalase may not be sufficient to detoxify high amounts of free radicals. The administration of catalase could help in reducing the symptoms. Though, low amounts of SOD and catalase may not be sufficient to detoxify high amounts of free radicals. The administration of enzymes could help in the treatment of breast cancer patients.

16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190408, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.


Subject(s)
Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Mycobacterium avium/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
17.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190097, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101407

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects of powdered coffee sample of a commercial coffee brand originated from Sivas, Turkey. Methods Total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant contents, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative activities based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating potential, reducing power, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity tests and lipid peroxidation inhibition potentials of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the coffee sample were assayed using the commonly preferred spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore the extracts' cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition potentials were evaluated. Phenolic profiles of the coffee sample were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Catechin was the most frequently detected phenolic acid. In addition, it was demonstrated that the water extract has a significant impact when compared with standard antioxidants. While the SC50 (sufficient concentration to obtain 50% of a maximum scavenging capacity) value for the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical was calculated as being 0.08mg/mL for water extract, the amount of chelating agents with half Fe2+ ions in the medium was found to be 0.271mg/mL. Additionally, it was shown that 0.1mg/mL concentration of both extracts prevents lipid peroxidation by 8%. Compared with standard drugs, inhibition potentials of cholinesterase and tyrosinase enzymes were considered as moderately acceptable in these samples. Conclusion Besides the extracts' enzymatic antioxidant activity, their inhibition potential on cholinesterase and tyrosinase enzymes - which are important clinical enzymes - reveal that this natural source can be used as a valuable resource in different fields, especially in medicine.


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é determinar o conteúdo fenólico e flavonoide, bem como as atividades antioxidantes e os efeitos neuroprotetores de uma amostra de café em pó de uma promissora marca comercial proveniente de Sivas, Turquia. Métodos A partir dos métodos espectrofotométricos comumente utilizados, foram analisados os seguintes aspectos da amostra de café: teores de fenólicos totais, flavonoides e antioxidantes; atividades antioxidantes enzimáticas e não enzimáticas, baseadas na atividade de eliminação de radicais livres de 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila potencial quelante de metais; poder redutor; testes de atividade de superóxido dismutase e catalase; e potenciais de inibição da peroxidação lipídica dos extratos etanólicos e aquosos. Além disso, foram avaliados os potenciais de inibição da colinesterase e da tirosinase dos extratos. Os perfis fenólicos da amostra de café foram investigados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Resultados Entre os ácidos fenólicos estudados, o mais detectado foi a catequina. Especialmente, foi demonstrado que o extrato de água tem um impacto significativo quando comparado com os antioxidantes padrão. Determinou--se que o valor de SC50 (a concentração suficiente para obter 50% da capacidade máxima de eliminação) da atividade de eliminação do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilab/para extrato de água era de 0,08mg/mL, enquanto a quantidade de agentes quelantes com metade de Fe2+ íons na média foi encontrada como 0,271mg/mL. Também foi demonstrado que a concentração de 0,1mg/mL de ambos os extratos inibe a peroxidação lipídica em cerca de 8%. Comparado com drogas padrão, os potenciais de inibição das amostras nas enzimas e tirosinase foram aceitáveis como moderados. Conclusão Os resultados mostram que, além de terem atividade antioxidante enzimática, os extratos apresentam potencial de inibição das enzimas colinesterase e tirosinase, que são importantes enzimas clínicas, o que revela que essa fonte natural pode ser usada como um recurso valioso em vários campos, principalmente na medicina.


Subject(s)
Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Lipid Peroxidation , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Coffee , Phenolic Compounds , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846330

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in inducing ferroptosis of tumor cells. Methods: 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine was used to detect the oxygen free radicals (•OH) formed by DHA and FeSO4 in vitro. The cytotoxicity of DHA on HepG2 cells was detected by MTT method (including FeSO4 or deferoxamine pretreated groups). MTT assay was used to investigate the influence of glutathione (GSH) and inhibitor (Fer-1) on cytotoxicity of DHA; DCFH-DA dye was used to investigate intracellular reactive oxygen species induced by DHA (including FeSO4 pretreated groups). C11-BODIPY581/591 and DiO dye were used to examine the influence of DHA (including FeSO4 pretreated groups) on intracellular lipid peroxide formation and cell membrane structure; Glutathione peroxidase assay kit was used to explore the influence of DHA (including FeSO4 pretreated groups) on intracellular activity GPX-4 in HepG2 cells. Results: Fenton-like reaction occurred between DHA and Fe2+, and •OH was produced during the reaction. The half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DHA was (39.96 ± 8.78) μmol/L. FeSO4 and deferoxamine could increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of DHA, respectively. After treated with DHA, the intracellular content of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide was increased, the cell morphology became larger, and the cell membrane was broken. Compared with the DHA treated group, the FeSO4 pretreated group further increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide content, and the cell membrane morphology was completely destroyed. FeSO4 could also enhance the inhibitory effect of DHA on GPX-4 activity. Conclusion: DHA increases intracellular reactive oxygen species through Fenton-like reaction and ultimately induces ferroptosis of tumor cells. In addition, exogenous iron can accelerate the Fenton-like reaction of DHA and accelerate the occurrence and development of ferroptosis of tumor cells.

19.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(6): e20180474, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133259

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds have limitations regarding conservation because of their sensitivity to desiccation and response to storage. Establishing a method for seed storage is difficult because these seeds deteriorate rapidly, which can intensify production of reactive oxygen species that cause lethal oxidative damage to plant tissues. Orthodox seeds, which have greater tolerance to desiccation and storage, are also subject to deterioration processes, in degrees that vary according to the species. Damage caused by harmful levels of free radicals can be mitigated by the action of endogenous or exogenous antioxidants. Recent studies have led to new technologies for protection coming from antioxidants, one of which is cathodic protection. This is a technique with promising results in recalcitrant species, as well as in other living organisms. This paper reviews results regarding the antioxidant activity of cathodic water produced from electrolysis of a calcium chloride and magnesium chloride solution.


RESUMO: As sementes recalcitrantes e intermediárias apresentam limitações com relação à conservação, devido a sua sensibilidade à dessecação e ao comportamento durante o armazenamento. Uma dificuldade no estabelecimento de metodologias para o armazenamento dessas sementes é devido à rápida deterioração, em que atuam processos que podem potencializar a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio, causando danos oxidativos letais aos tecidos vegetais. Sementes ortodoxas, as quais apresentam maior tolerância à dessecação e ao armazenamento, também sofrem a ação dos processos deteriorativos, em graus variáveis com as espécies. Os danos causados por níveis nocivos de radicais livres podem ser amenizados pela ação de antioxidantes endógenos ou exógenos. Resultados de pesquisas recentes têm possibilitado novas tecnologias de proteção antioxidativa, sendo a proteção catódica uma técnica promissora e com resultados relevantes em espécies sensíveis à dessecação e em outros organismos vivos. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão sobre a ação antioxidante da água catódica, produzida a partir da eletrólise de uma solução contendo cloreto de cálcio e cloreto de magnésio.

20.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área


Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area


Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
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