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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242922, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350302


Abstract Seven hundred and twenty four fish specimens were captured from March to September 2016. The materials used in the current study were cast nets, hand nets. Eight cyprinid fish species were studied for their length-weight relationships. Parameter b in the LWR was 3.03, 3.06, 3.02, 2.29, 2.82, 3.43, 2.73 and 2.47 for Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto and Arassius auratus respectively. Current study is the first attempt on the LWRs of cyprinid species, provide a baseline approach for conservation and /management of local fish fauna of economic importance.

Resumo Um total de 724 espécimes de peixes foi capturado de março a setembro de 2016. Os materiais usados ​​no presente estudo foram redes de lançamento, redes de mão. Oito espécies de peixes ciprinídeos foram estudadas quanto às suas relações peso/comprimento. O parâmetro b no LWR foi 3,03, 3,06, 3,02, 2,29, 2,82, 3,43, 2,73 e 2,47 para Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto e Arassius auratus respectivamente. O estudo atual é a primeira tentativa sobre os LWRs de espécies de ciprinídeos, fornecendo uma abordagem de base para a conservação e o manejo da ictiofauna local de importância econômica.

Animals , Cyprinidae , Rivers , Pakistan
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-187832


Microflora (Cyanobacteria, Algae and Fungi) associated with the freshwater leech namely, Limnatis niloticawere observed for this particular study. The number of catch leeches was higher at Saiysad fresh water bodies (5-28 taxa) than that of Gahdeer Albannat water (1 taxon) throughout the wet season. The Saiysad water contains low oxygen and is highly polluted in comparison to other water bodies. The green algae and diatoms constitute the main bulk of the phytoplankton population of the following two water bodies. Though cyanobacteria in this particular water body of Saiyasad fresh water are much higher in respect to the others, so as the number of leeches are also higherin it respectively. Twenty-one fungal species those are representing 10 genera were collected from the Leech samples (jaws, pharynx and intestine) on the culture media of Potato Dextrose Agar. After th isolation of fungus were done from its carried devices Then also the phytoplanktons show a rapid growth in the respective medium.

Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 111-113,119, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692391


Objective To detect the changes of (interleukin, IL) -1α, IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue and serum of drown rats, and to explore the potential value for the diagnosis of drowning in forensic practice. Methods Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into drowning group, blank control group and myocardial infarction group (as control group). The serum of right ventricular, the inferior lobe of right lung and the myocardium were taken from the rats in different groups. The expressions of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in the lung tissue and the serum of right ventricular were detected by TaqMan probe method. Results The expression differences of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue between drowning group and blank control group, myocardial infarction group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The expression of IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in serum of right ventricular increased (P<0.05). The expression differences of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in serum between blank con-trol group and myocardial infarction group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion The changes of cytokines IL-1β and IL-13 mRNA in the serum of right ventricular of drown rats are statis-tical significance, which are highly correlated with drowning.

An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1047-1049, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886695


ABSTRACT Occurrence of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 (Crustacea, Anostraca) in the Caras river, southern Ceara, Brazil. The specimens were collected in March and April 2014. The new occurrence extends the distribution and update area of occupancy of the species, which is characterized by a specific habitat: temporary lakes.

Animals , Male , Female , Anostraca , Rivers , Brazil , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 287-292, Sept.-Dec. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094270


Pomacea flagellata es un caracol conspicuo de zonas tropicales y subtropicales de América, que se ha consumido desde tiempos prehispánicos y actualmente es considerado sobreexplotado. Se realizó un experimento de cultivo de cuatro meses para determinar: la selección del substrato por la hembra, el tamaño de las huevas, el nivel del agua elegido para colocar la masa de huevos, el número de crías, y el tiempo de eclosión. Se utilizaron tres tinas de plástico que se llenaron con 100 L de agua, por duplicado y se colocaron tres sustratos: raíces de mangle, carrizo y tubo de PVC. Se registraron 57 huevas, 26 de ellas eclosionaron produciendo 5037 crías. Hubo más huevas en la "pared" de las tinas, donde se registraron 35 huevas, en raíces de mangle (18), en PVC 3 y en carrizo una hueva. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección del sustrato, mientras que no se observaron diferencias significativas entre el número de huevas y las proporciones de sexos. La longitud promedio de la masa fue 32.99 ± 10.92, el ancho 16.44 ± 5.1 y grosor 8.08 ± 3.87 mm. La altura promedio de la puesta fue 15.66 ± 3.42 cm, con un tiempo medio de eclosión, de 13.30 ± 2.6 días, obteniéndose entre 94 a 301 crías por desove. Los caracoles utilizaron preferentemente las paredes de las tinas y es difícil determinar si no seleccionan sustrato para la puesta. El nivel del agua empleado es óptimo y permite que los organismos puedan colocar las masas de huevo, la producción de crías es adecuada y suficiente para iniciar programas de cultivo de producción de carne o de repoblación del medio natural.

Pomacea flagellata is a conspicuous snail in tropical and subtropical areas of America; it has been consumed since pre-Hispanic times and now is considered overexploited. A four months cultivation experiment was realized to determine the substrate selection by females, size of clutches, water level for placing egg masses, number of offspring, and hatching time. We used three duplicate plastic vats that were filled with 100 L water, and three substrates were set inside: mangrove roots, reed and PVC pipes. A total of 57 eggs masses were recorder, 26 of them produced 5037 offspring. More eggs masses were set in the wall of vats (35), mangrove roots (18) PVC pipe 3 and reed only one. There were significant differences in the selection of the substrate, but not between the number of eggs masses and sex proportion. Average length of egg masses was 32.99 ± 10.92, width was 16.44 ± 5.1 and thickness 8.08 ± 3.87 mm. Average heights of the egg masses was 15.66 ± 3.42 cm, while hatching time was 13.30 ± 2.6 days, yielding between 94 to 301 offspring per spawning. Snails preferably used walls of vats and it is difficult to determine if they did not select a substrate. Water level in the vats was optimal and allowed to organisms place egg masses, offspring production is adequate and enough to start culturing programs to meat production, or to re stocking of natural environment.

Mycobiology ; : 231-238, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729640


A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.

Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Eleocharis , Fresh Water , Fungi , Fusarium , Korea , Penicillium , Plants , Talaromyces , Wetlands
Mycobiology ; : 87-91, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729855


Eighteen endophytic fungi with different colony morphologies were isolated from the roots of Nymphoides peltata growing in the Dalsung wetland. The fungal culture filtrates of the endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-c rice seedling to evaluate their plant growth-promoting activities. Culture filtrate of Y2H0002 fungal strain promoted the growth of the Waito-c rice seedlings. This strain was identified on the basis of sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer region and the partial beta-tubulin gene. Upon chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Y2H0002 strain, the gibberellins (GAs: GA1, GA3, and GA4) were detected and quantified. Molecular and morphological studies identified the Y2H0002 strain as belonging to Aspergillus clavatus. These results indicated that A. clavatus improves the growth of plants and produces various GAs, and may participate in the growth of plants under diverse environmental conditions.

Aspergillus , Fresh Water , Fungi , Gibberellins , Plants , Seedlings , Tubulin , Wetlands
Rev. Soc. Venez. Microbiol ; 34(2): 64-69, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-746312


El agua puede ser un vehículo para agentes patógenos y oportunistas portadores de multiresistencia y con capacidad de formar biopelículas (CFB). Se evaluó la presencia de indicadores microbiológicos y bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores (BGNNF) en agua potable envasada y se estudió la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y la CFB de los mismos. Se seleccionaron al azar 50 muestras de 250 mL obtenidos de envases de agua potable (20 L), provenientes de igual número de hogares. A cada muestra le fue realizado recuento de heterótrofos aerobios (vertido en placa), coliformes totales y termotolerantes (filtración por membrana), CFB (microplaca) y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (Kirby-Bauer). El 92% y el 84% de las muestras presentaron coliformes totales y termotolerantes respectivamente, valores por encima de lo establecido en la Gaceta Oficial Venezolana N.° 36.395, mientras que el 86% presentó heterótrofos aerobios con cuentas >100 UFC/mL. El mayor porcentaje de BGNNF aislados pertenecía al complejo Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus (29,3%), seguido de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17,4%), con moderada capacidad de formar biopelículas. No hubo asociación significativa entre la resistencia antimicrobiana y la CFB (p>0,05). Un porcentaje elevado de las muestras, no se ajustó a los parámetros microbiológicos establecidos en Gaceta, por lo que no se garantiza la inocuidad de las mismas.

Water can be a vehicle for multiresistant carrier pathogenic and opportunist agents with biofilm forming capacity (BFC). The presence of microbiological indicators and non fermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) was evaluated in bottled drinking water, as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility and BFC. Fifty 250 mL drinking water samples were randomly selected from 20 L drinking water bottles from the same number of homes. Each sample was tested for aerobic heterothrophics (discharged in a plate) counts, total and thermo tolerant coliforms (membrane filtration), BFC (microplate) and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer). The results showed that 92% and 84% of the samples carried total and thermo tolerant coliforms respectively, values above those established in the Venezuelan Official Gazette N.o 36,395, while 86% presented aerobic heterothrophics with counts >100 CFU/mL. The highest percentage of isolated NFGNBs belonged to the Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus complex (29.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.4%) which has a moderate biofilm formation capacity. There was no significant association between antimicrobial resistance and the BFC (p>0.05). A high percentage of the samples were not adjusted to the biological parameters established in the Official Government Gazette; therefore, it is not possible to guarantee their safety.

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63510


Death by drowning is a major cause of unnatural death worldwide. It is therefore important to conduct forensic examination of immersed bodies following drowning, in order to determine the diagnosis of drowning, because no specific methods have been established thus far. Therefore, we performed a series of rat experiments to compare autopsy findings between seawater and fresh water drowning cases, which included the presence of pleural effusion and histologic findings of the lung. The results showed that the volume of pleural effusion increased in the seawater drowning group compared to the fresh water drowning group, and the total weight of lung was affected by the type of drowning medium and postmortem interval. However, histologic findings of the lung showed no significant difference between the 2 types of drowning mediums.

Animals , Autopsy , Drowning , Fresh Water , Lung , Pleural Effusion , Rats , Seawater
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(3): 547-554, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653596


A new species of Ituglanis is described from the rio Tocantins basin, State of Pará, Brazil. Ituglanis ina, new species, is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a dark vertical bar over the base of the caudal-fin rays (vs. no bars over caudal-fin base); and by the presence of a middle trunk line of tiny neuromasts extending along the flank until the vertical through the dorsal fin, or near the caudal-fin base (vs. no middle trunk line of tiny neuromasts). Ituglanis ina can be further distinguished by a combination of characters related to color pattern and morphology. Comments on the relationship between Ituglanis species are presented.

Uma espécie nova de Ituglanis é descrita da bacia do rio Tocantins, Pará, Brasil. Ituglanis ina, espécie nova, é facilmente diferenciada das congêneres por apresentar uma barra vertical escura sobre a base dos raios da nadadeira caudal (vs. sem barras na base da nadadeira caudal); e por apresentar linha lateral seguida por uma linha de diminutos neuromastos até a região do flanco, abaixo da nadadeira dorsal, ou até o pedúnculo caudal (vs. sem neuromastos após a linha lateral). Ituglanis ina distingue-se, também, por uma combinação de caracteres relacionados ao padrão de coloração e morfologia. Comentários sobre o relacionamento das espécies e grupos de espécies de Ituglanis são apresentados.

Animals , Phylogeny , Catfishes/classification , Species Specificity
Ciênc. rural ; 42(4): 737-743, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-623083


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy) e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2), aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados. Nos experimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1) embalagem em ar (controle), (T2) embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3) embalagem em ar e irradiação, (T4) embalagem em atmosfera modificada e irradiação. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (BVT, TMA, pH, amônia e TBARS), bacteriológicas (contagem de bactérias heterotróficas, aeróbias, mesófilas e psicrotróficas) e avaliação sensorial. Os resultados consistentemente indicaram uma redução progressiva da qualidade do produto com o tempo de armazenamento, a qual foi significativamente mais rápida nas amostras controle do que naquelas submetidas aos demais tratamentos, tendo sido observada uma extensão na validade comercial dos filés embalados em atmosfera modificada e/ou irradiados de 4 dias para aproximadamente duas semanas.

This paper investigated the effects of modified atmosphere packing (60% N2 and 40% CO2) and irradiation (with a 1.5kGy dose) either used alone or combined on the shelf life of fillets of refrigerated Nile Tilapia. A total of 120 fillets were used in the experiments in order to test four different treatments and included samples: packed in air (control), packed in modified atmosphere, packed in air and irradiated, and finally, packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated. Regular monitoring of physicochemical parameters (TVB, pH, ammonia and TBARS), bacteriological conditions (heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria) and sensory acceptance were performed. The results consistently indicated an increasing deterioration of the fillets with time, however those treated with irradiation, modified atmosphere or both combined had longer shelf lives (around two weeks) in comparison with the control (4 days only).

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 19-32, Oct.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651609


As espécies de peixes de água doce encontradas no estado de São Paulo distribuem-se entre quatro bacias hidrográficas principais: Alto Paraná, Paraíba do Sul, Ribeira de Iguape e um conjunto de pequenas drenagens costeiras que desembocam diretamente no oceano Atlântico. Como estas bacias drenam áreas com diferentes tipos de vegetação, solos, etc., cada uma tem uma composição de espécies diferente. No Alto Paraná, o grande Rio Paraná e alguns de seus maiores afluentes (Tietê, Paranapanema e Grande) possuem espécies de grande porte que sustentam a pesca comercial e de subsistência, mas 70 a 80% da ictiofauna é composta por espécies de pequeno porte de pequenos riachos, incluindo os de cabeceira, onde muitas são endêmicas. O inventário da ictiofauna foi incrementado através de três projetos de pesquisa apoiados pelo programa BIOTA/FAPESP, mas ainda resta muito trabalho de coleta e descrição de novas espécies de áreas pouco exploradas, como calhas de rios, regiões de cabeceiras, alagadiços em áreas marginais de reservatórios e lagos. A ictiofauna do Estado de São Paulo tem sofrido da ação deletéria de poluição, desmatamento, esgotos urbanos e construção de reservatórios para produção de energia elétrica, etc., de tal forma que atualmente 66 espécies são consideradas ameaçadas em vários níveis, de acordo com os critérios da "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources" (IUCN).

The fish species living in the freshwaters of the São Paulo state (393) are distributed among four major river basins: upper Paraná, Paraíba do Sul, Ribeira de Iguape and a set of small coastal drainages flowing directly into the Atlantic Ocean. Since these river basins drain areas with distinct vegetation types, soils, etc., each one has a different species composition. In the Upper Paraná the large Rio Paraná and some of its large tributaries (Tietê, Paranapanema, and Grande) contain large species that support commercial fisheries, however, 70 to 80% of the ichthyofauna is composed by small species found in small streams, including those in headwaters where many are endemic. The inventory of the ichthyofauna greatly benefited from three research projects supported by the BIOTA/FAPESP program, but much work remains to be done to collect and describe new species from areas such as deep channels, headwaters and marginal and swampy áreas around ponds and man-made lakes and reservoirs. The ichthyofauna of the São Paulo State has suffered from deforestation, sewage, damming of rivers for construction of power plants, urbanization, etc., so that 66 species are currently considered threatened at various levels according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 389-426, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651621


Listagens de espécies são importantes para o conhecimento da biota de um local, sua ecologia e para podermos dimensionar sua exploração econômica, biotecnológica e conservação. Neste trabalho foram levantados os dados de protozoários (ciliados, amebas nuas, amebas com carapaça, heliozoários e flagelados heterotróficos) de água doce do Estado de São Paulo. De 75 ambientes que foram analisados até o momento, foram registrados um total de 471 diferentes taxa de protozoários distribuídos em 218 generos e 304 espécies. Dos grupos de protozoários avaliados, os mais bem representados foram os ciliados com 160 gêneros e 219 espécies. Dentre os ciliados ocorrerem dois novos registros: Neobursaridium gigas Balech, 1941 para o Brasil e Loxodes rex Dragesco, 1970 para a América do Sul.

Species checklists are important to know the local biodiversity, its ecology and scale its biotechnological and economic exploration and conservation. In this work the protozoan data (ciliates, naked amoebas, tecamoebas, heliozoans and heterotrophic flagellates) from São Paulo State have been listed. From 75 environments analized to this moment, 471 different protozoan taxa were recorded, distributed in 218 genera and 304 species. From the protozoan groups analyzed, the most representative was the ciliate with 160 genera and 219 species. Among the ciliates, two were new records: Neobursaridium gigas Balech, 1941 to Brazil and Loxodes rex Dragesco, 1970 to South America.

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 515-539, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651627


O presente estudo foi realizado para obter conhecimento do número de espécies de Rotifera que ocorre nos corpos de água do Estado de São Paulo. Das 22 Unidades de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos do Estado de São Paulo onde foram amostrados 250 corpos de água totalizando 390 amostras no Projeto BIOTA/FAPESP, foram exploradas 5 UGRHI (Mantiqueira, Pardo,Tietê/Jacaré, Mogi Guaçu, Alto Tietê),onde foram registradas 277 espécies, das quais 89 são espécies que nunca haviam sido registradas no Estado de São Paulo. Esse número de espécies está longe de ser o número real de espécies que poderão ocorrer no Estado de São Paulo, uma vez que a análise cumulativa do número de espécies versus número de amostras que foram analisadas, não atingiu o patamar de estabilidade do número de espécies. As espécies de Rotifera que apresentam maior representatividade nos corpos de água do Estado de São Paulo pertencem às seguintes familias: Lecanidae (60 espécies), Trichocercidae (42 espécies), Brachionidae (34 espécies), Synchaetidae (12 espécies), Floscularidae (11 espécies), Filinidae (6 espécies), Asplanchnidae (4 espécies), Conochilidae (4 espécies).

The present work was carried out to describe the number of Rotifera species occurring in the water bodies of São Paulo State. The species checklist were made using the data obtained from the Project BIOTA/FAPESP (1999-2003) and from the other authors that worked in São Paulo State. From twenty two (22) UGRHI (Unit of Management of Water Resources) of São Paulo State 250 water bodies were sampled in the Project BIOTA/FAPESP but only five (5) UGRHI (Mantiqueira, Pardo,Tietê/Jacaré, Mogi Guaçu, Alto Tietê) were studied for Rotifera group sampling 90 water bodies. 277 species were recorded of which 89 were registered for the first time in São Paulo State. This number of species is probably not the real number of species that occur in São Paulo State once the relationship species number/number of samples analyzed did not attain the expected plateau. The species which are representative of the water bodies of São Paulo State are from the following families: Lecanidae (60 species), Trichocercidae (42 species), Brachionidae (34 species), Synchaetidae (12 species), Floscularidae (11 species), Filinidae (6 species), Asplanchnidae (4 species), Conochilidae (4 species).

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 551-557, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651629


Copepoda Calanoida do Estado de São Paulo foi intensivamente estudado através da análise de 389 amostras obtidas dos corpos hidricos de 22 Unidades de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hidricos (UGRHI) do Estado de São Paulo durante o Programa BIOTA/FAPESP realizado entre 1999-2003. Foram identificadas 12 espécies sendo uma delas especie nova Notodiaptomus oliveirai foi encontrada em quase todas as bacias hidrográficas, exceto na UGRHI Alto Tietê. Uma outra espécie, provavelmente nova, necessita de um melhor estudo para a sua identificação. Algumas espécies de rara ocorrência já registradas no Estado de São Paulo tais como Idiodiaptomus gracilipes, Trichodiaptomus coronatus, Notodiaptomus conifer, N. spinuliferus, N. transitans, N. isabelae, N. jatobensis e Pseudodiaptomus acutus não foram encontradas nas amostragens do BIOTA/FAPESP.

Calanoida copepods from São Paulo State were studied extensively during the Project BIOTA/FAPESP (1999-2003). A number of 389 samples were collected from several hydric systems belonging at 22 UGRHI (Unit Management of Hydric Resources) of São Paulo State. Twelve (12) species of Calanoida were found, one of them a new species described as Notodiaptomus oliveirai (Matsumura-Tundisi et al. 2010) and registered in several water bodies of the UGRHI analysed except the Alto Tietê UGRHI. Other less frequent species however recorded already in São Paulo State such as Idiodiaptomus gracilipes, Trichodiaptomus coronatus, Notodiaptomus conifer, N. spinuliferus, N. transitans, N. isabelae, N. jatobensis and Pseudodiaptomus acutus were not found in the samplings of BIOTA/FAPESP.

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 559-569, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651630


Estudo da biodiversidade de Copepoda Cyclopoida do Estado de São Paulo foi feito no Programa BIOTA/FAPESP, amostrando 207 corpos de água das 22 Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos (UGRHI). Foram registradas 39 espécies englobando tanto espécies de hábito planctônico como de hábito não planctônico. Destas, 6 espécies constituem registro novo no Estado de São Paulo sendo uma espécie nova, o Thermocyclops iguapensis, espécie restrita na costa Atlântica (Silva & Matsumura-Tundisi 2005a). Foram realizadas também correções de erros de identificação para algumas espécies: as espécies anteriormente identificadas como Mesocyclops kieferi, Mesocyclops brasilianus, e Paracyclops fimbriatus correspondem respectivamente Mesocyclops ogunnus, Mesocyclops meridianus e Paracyclops chiltoni. Estas correções são importantes, pois a correta identificação de uma espécie que pode vir formar a população mais significativa de um ambiente pode servir de indicativo das condições tróficas como verificado por Silva & Matsumura-Tundisi (2002) para relações entre espécies de Cyclopoida e o grau de trofia de reservatórios do médio e baixo Tietê.

The biodiversity of Cyclopoida copepods of São Paulo State was studied during the Program BIOTA/FAPESP. Samples were collected from 207 water bodies of the 22 Units of Management of Water Resources (UGRHI). From the 39 registered species, 6 were new records from São Paulo State. The new species Thermocyclops iguapensis is a species restricted to the Atlantic coast (Silva & Matsumura-Tundisi 2005a). For some species corrections of identification were made: species identified as Mesocyclops kieferi, Mesocyclops brasilianus, and Paracyclops fimbriatus are in reality respectively Mesocyclops ogunnus, Mesocyclops meridianus and Paracyclops chiltoni. These corrections are important since their populations can be indicators of the trophic conditions as verified by Silva & Matsumura-Tundisi (2002) for the reservoirs of the lower and middle Tietê River, São Paulo State.

Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(supl.1): 571-592, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651631


Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista atualizada das espécies de Cladocera do Estado de São Paulo com base em levantamentos anteriores e em revisão da literatura recente, a qual inclui em grande parte os estudos oriundos do Programa Biota FAPESP. Levantamentos realizados há uma década apontaram a ocorrência de 112 espécies de Cladocera no Brasil e 84 para o Estado de São Paulo. A presente revisão evidencia a ocorrência de 96 espécies deste grupo no Estado de São Paulo, o que representa um acréscimo de 15% na riqueza de espécies. Dentre os 300 corpos de água amostrados em 23 unidades de gerenciamento dos recursos hídricos do Estado de São Paulo, no âmbito do Programa BIOTA/FAPESP, as unidades Mogi-Guaçu e Aguapeí são aquelas com maior riqueza de espécies, tendo sido registradas 27 espécies de Cladocera em cada. Dentre os avanços obtidos pelo Programa BIOTA/FAPESPdestacaram-se a ampla cobertura geográfica e o registro das novas ocorrências de espécies, das quais 12 são espécies nativas e 2 são espécies exóticas. Este estudo evidenciou que ainda existem importantes lacunas no conhecimento, especialmente em relação à taxonomia, pois muitas espécies que foram consideradas cosmopolitas são provavelmente um complexo de espécies, sendo necessárias revisões taxonômicas detalhadas acopladas a estudos ecológicos das espécies. Acredita-se que com a continuidade destes estudos a riqueza de espécies de Cladocera poderá aumentar consideravelmente.

In the present work an updated checklist of the species of Cladocera in the state of São Paulo is presented, based on previous check-list and a review of the recent studies which include in majority the studies developed within the BIOTA/FAPESP Program. Species inventory performed ten years ago revealed the occurrence of 112 species in Brazil and 84 species in the State of São Paulo. The present review shows the occurrence of 96 species of this group in the state of São Paulo, representing a 15% increase in the species richness. Among the 300 water bodies sampled in 23 units water resource management units (UGHRI) of São Paulo State within the scope of the BIOTA/FAPESP Program, the highest richness of Cladocera species was found in Mogi-Guaçu and Aguapeí units with 27 species recorded in each. Among the advances reached by the BIOTA/FAPESP Program it could be emphasized the wide geographic covering and the number of species recorded, with 12 new occurrences of native species and 2 exotic species as well. This study evidenced that still there are important gaps in the knowledge, particularly regarding the taxonomy, since many species regarded as cosmopolitan may be a complex of many species requiring taxonomical reviews and ecological studies of the species. It is believed that with the continuity of the studies, the richness of species of Cladocera can increase considerably.

J Environ Biol ; 2011 Mar; 32(2): 153-159
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146558


Seasonal changes in abundance of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) in surface and bottom water of freshwater ponds were examined with respect to temperature, DO, pH as well as concentration of ammonia and nitrite. The most probable number (MPN) of ammonia-oxidizers in different ponds varied from 1297±3.6 to 1673.23±0.36 ml-l in bottom and 720.5±8.1 to 955.3±10.8 ml-l in surface water during the rainy season while the MPN ranged from 1074±1.07 to 1372.17±4.6 ml-l in bottom and 515±10.1 to 678±11.8 ml-l in surface water in winter. However, the MPN were greatly reduced in summer and ranged from 435.05±15.7 to 547.54±2.12 ml-l in bottom and 218.7±7.3 to 368.4±9.32 ml-l in surface water. Similar seasonal trends were also observed in MPN of nitrite-oxidizers. Among all the physico-chemical parameters, abundance of nitrifiers was more positively correlated with ammonia and nitrite concentration in all the seasons. The abundance of nitrifiers in surface and bottom water was highest in rainy season followed by winter and modest in summer. The potential nitrification activities and oxidation rates were shown to be linear and activity of ammonia-oxidizing and nitriteoxidizing bacteria was highest during rainy season.

J Environ Biol ; 2010 Nov; 31(6): 1023-1030
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146532


In recent years, there has been an apparent increase in the occurrence of harmful algal blooms in fresh waters. The value of applying the novel wattle extract (Acacia mimosa) to inhibit algal growth was assessed. Our results showed that the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa was successfully repressed by the plant extract and resulted in decreased extracellular microcystin-LR production. In the experiments, it showed a very effective inhibition in the stage of exponential growth (the largest decrease in level is 47.3% of the control) especially in nonsterile conditions, and the extract can reduce 14.5-24.7% cell density of the control in the stationary stage. In outdoor experiments, the extract reduced dissolved oxygen and pH, and selectively cut down cyanobacterial cell density to one-third of the control after 36 d of treatment. Accordingly, due to competitive inhibition in interspecies, other nanoalgae and small-sized aquatic animals declined, while macrozooplankton increased. Finally, more large algae were eliminated and thereby the water treated was clarified and the recovery of the freshwater ecosystem was promoted. Hence, the present study suggested a new and more effective and very low ecological risk approach to reduce nuisance blooms cyanobacteria in eutrophic water.

Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 47(6): 429-438, 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-589855


Ainda há poucas descrições anatômicas a cerca do trato digestório de representantes da ordem Testudines, especialmente sobre o cágado-de-Vanderhaegei, Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei. A ocorrência desta espécie abrange as bacias dos rios Paraguai, Paraná e Amazônica. Estudos sobre a sua ecologia e morfologia ainda são pouco explorados, dessa forma, o aparelho digestório foi caracterizado macroscopicamente pela dissecção desse sistema em dez espécimes. A boca possui comprimento orocaudal ligeiramente maior que o laterolateral. Os lábios são formados por placas córneas. A língua é macia e está totalmente fixada ao assoalho da cavidade oral. O esôfago possui luz ampla e paredes delgadas na região cervical, tornando-se gradativamente mais estreito e de paredes espessas caudalmente. O estômago apresenta forma semelhante à letra "U" e podem ser distinguidas as regiões do cárdia, do corpo e do piloro, com mucosa totalmente pregueada. Na transição deste para o intestino delgado o esfíncter pilórico é conspícuo. O intestino apresenta-se disposto entre o delgado e grosso, sendo o primeiro constituído pelo duodeno e jejuno, não sendo possível identificar macroscopicamente o íleo. Da mesma forma, não se observa o ceco como primeiro segmento do intestino grosso, sendo este formado pelo cólon, que se abre em um pequeno compartimento pigmentado da cloaca. O fígado apresenta variação no padrão de lobação, no entanto, a presença dos lobos hepáticos direito e esquerdo é constante nos espécimes analisados. O pâncreas é facilmente observado em sintopia com o duodeno. Nesta análise, o trato digestório de Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei apresenta padrão semelhante ao de outras espécies de quelônios pesquisados da família Chelidae.

There are few anatomical descriptions about the testudines's gastrointestinal tract, especially when concerned to the Vanderhaege's turtle, Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei. The geographical range of this species extends throughout the Paraguai, Paraná and Amazon river basins. Studies about its ecology and morphology are still little exploited, thus, the gastrointestinal apparatus was macroscopic characterized through the dissection of ten specimens. The mouth's oral-aboral length is wider than its oral-tail length. The lips are formed by keratinized structures. The tongue is soft and fixed to the floor of the oral cavity. The cervical esophagus is broad and has thin walls, becoming narrower and thicker in its caudal portion. The stomach's shape resembles the "U" letter. It has a creased mucosa and is divided in a cardiac, a main body, and a pyloric region. The gut is presented as the small and large intestine. The duodenum and jejunum are easily identified. The ileum, on the opposite, is unidentifiable macroscopically, as well as the caecum, the first segment of the large intestine. The colon, the posterior segment, opens itself into a cloaca. The liver presents individual variation regarding lobation pattern. However, the presence of both liver lobes, left and right, is a constant finding during the observation. The pancreas is easily seen running distally along the duodenum. In this analysis, it was verified that the digestive tract in Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei is similar to the tract of other chelids previously studied.

Animals , Dissection/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Tract