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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 160-168, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006567

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the interaction among root fungi of Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, soil factors, and main components of medicinal materials in lithosol habitats. MethodHigh-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine the fungal community of the root system of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata at different levels (bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane soil, and root interior) and the soil properties of the root system (bulk and rhizosphere), and the relationship among the fungal community, soil properties, and the main components of medicinal materials was analyzed. ResultThe total phosphorus, available phosphorus, alkaline nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and soil water content in the rhizosphere soil of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata were slightly higher than those in the rhizosphere, but the difference was not significant. Ascomycota is the dominant phylum of root fungi in S. dichotoma var. lanceolata. In the progressive level of bulk-rhizosphere-rhizoplane-root interior system, although the fungal diversity gradually decreased, the abundance of Hypocreales, a new phylum (unclassified_ k_ Fungi), Helotiales, and Natipusilales gradually increased, among which Hypocreales is the most important fungal group in the root system of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata. The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the physicochemical factors of the root-soil play an important regulatory role in the fungal community and the main components of medicinal herbs, with soil total nitrogen, alkaline nitrogen, soil water content, and pH being the main regulatory factors. Soil nitrogen content is the key to promoting the main components of the medicinal herbs, and Penicillium fungi are the key fungal group to regulate the main components of the medicinal herbs. ConclusionIt highlights that the physicochemical properties of the soil of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata play a crucial role in the fungal community and the components of medicinal materials. Hypocreales fungi in the root of S. dichotoma var. lanceolata were an important group, and Penicillium fungi had a certain role in mediating the components of medicinal materials.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 133-139, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016472

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe relevant laws among the biological characteristics, medicinal parts, growth environment, and medicinal properties and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) from fungi were excavated, so as to strengthen the theory of distinguishing symptoms for quality and provide a reference for the development and utilization of TCM from fungi. MethodThe medicinal parts, meridians for properties and tastes, heterotrophic mode, and efficacy of commonly used TCM from fungi were summarized. By consulting the Compendium of Materia Medica, Shennong Materia Medica, Flora of China, and literature, the TCM from fungi indexed in the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and some local pharmacopeias were checked. ResultA total of 28 common TCM from fungi were selected. Different TCMs from fungi have different meridians for properties and tastes, medicinal parts, habits, and growth environments. The relevant information was counted. Among the four properties, plain>cold>warm. Among the five tastes, sweet>bitter>light>pungent=salty. In terms of medicinal parts, fruiting body>sclerotia>complex>spermia=outer skin=other. In terms of meridians, lung>liver=heart>spleen=kidney>stomach. In terms of habits, parasitism>saprophysis>symbiosis=facultative parasitism=facultative saprophysis. ConclusionTCM from fungi are mainly parasitic and saprophytic, and the plain property and sweet taste the most. The meridians are mostly lung, heart, and liver. Nourishment and diuresis are the main efficacy. There is a certain correlation between the color, habit, medicinal parts, and growth environment of TCM from fungi and their properties, tastes, and efficacy, providing comprehensive literature reference and theoretical basis for their in-depth research, clinical use, and resource development.

3.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; (12): 335-342, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013398

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To develop and verify a multiplex fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detection of common bacterial and fungal contaminants in cell culture medium.Methods According to NUC gene of Staphylococcus aureus,COLA gene of Clostridium spore,ITS-2 segment sequence of Candida albicans,a set of primers and probes were designed for each respectively,and using UBI3 gene of capsicum introduced as external standard gene,a triple reaction system of Staphylococcus aureus,Clostridium spore and external standard gene and a double reaction system of Candida albicans and external standard gene were established.The primer specificity,linear range,limit of detection,specificity,anti-interference performance and precision of the method were verified.Finally,100 samples of 293T cell culture medium were detected by using the developed method,which was compared with the common PCR method.Results Three pairs of primers all amplified about 100 bp specific gene bands corresponding to the three strains at different annealing temperatures(56,57,58 and59 ℃),and the size was consistent with the expected.In the range of 5.80 × 10~6 — 5.80 × 10~2 copies/μL,the standard plasmids of the three strains showed a good linear relationship with the Ct values.The standard curve equations were:Y=-3.373 X+37.48,Y=-3.557X+36.59 and Y=-3.536 X+39.78,each R~2> 0.99,respectively,and the amplification efficiency was in the range of 90%—110%.All the limits of detection of the three strains were 10~1 CFU/mL.The primers and probes of the three strains showed no specific amplification on the genomic DNA of six kinds of cells that were prone to cross-reaction.The genomic DNA of 293T cells,Yeast,Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma sp.had no effect on the detection.The CVs of repeatability and intermediate precision verification were both less than 15%.Among 100 cell culture medium samples,14 positive and 86 negative samples were detected,and the results of common PCR method for three positive and two negative samples randomly selected were consistent with the developed method.Conclusion The multiplex fluorescent quantitative PCR method developed in this study for the detection of bacteria and fungi in cell culture medium has good specificity,anti-interference performance and precision,and is simple to operate with low cost and high sensitivity,which can quickly detect the contaminants during cell culture.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253436, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355870

ABSTRACT

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus' survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores' size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Spores, Fungal , Temperature , Mycelium
5.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 143-150, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR, Danggui in Chinese), Cistanches Herba (CH, Roucongrong in Chinese), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (PG, Renshen in Chinese), and Panacis Quinquefolii Radix (PQ, Xiyangshen in Chinese), widely used as medicine and dietary supplement around the world, are susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination. In this study, we aim to analyze their fungal community by DNA metabarcoding.@*METHODS@#A total of 12 root samples were collected from three main production areas in China. The samples were divided into four groups based on herb species, including ASR, CH, PG, and PQ groups. The fungal community on the surface of four root groups was investigated through DNA metabarcoding via targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2).@*RESULTS@#All the 12 samples were detected with fungal contamination. Rhizopus (13.04%-74.03%), Aspergillus (1.76%-23.92%), and Fusarium (0.26%-15.27%) were the predominant genera. Ten important fungi were identified at the species level, including two potential toxigenic fungi (Penicillium citrinum and P. oxalicum) and eight human pathogenic fungi (Alternaria infectoria, Candida sake, Hyphopichia burtonii, Malassezia globosa, M. restricta, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Ochroconis tshawytschae). Fungal community in ASR and CH groups was significantly different from other groups, while fungal community in PG and PQ groups was relatively similar.@*CONCLUSION@#DNA metabarcoding revealed the fungal community in four important root herbs. This study provided an important reference for preventing root herbs against fungal and mycotoxin contamination.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469297

ABSTRACT

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade

7.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 25(2)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535732

ABSTRACT

Los barrenadores del tallo del género de Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) han sido reconocidos por ser la plaga de mayor impacto en el cultivo de caña de azúcar, en el que causan importantes pérdidas económicas. Para su control, una cepa colombiana de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill (aislamiento Bv062) que demostró alta virulencia frente a larvas de D. saccharalis (Fabricius), fue utilizada para el desarrollo de un bioinsecticida formulado como un concentrado emulsionable (CE). Con el fin de integrar este bioinsecticida en un esquema de manejo integrado de plagas, es necesario evaluar su compatibilidad con los agroquímicos utilizados comúnmente en el cultivo de caña de azúcar. Para tal fin se evaluó el efecto in vitro de 11 agroquímicos (fungicidas, insecticidas y herbicidas) sobre la germinación y actividad insecticida de conidios formulados. Inicialmente el CE y los agroquímicos fueron ajustados al doble de la concentración recomendada y mezclados en proporción 1:1, se incubaron durante dos horas, y se determinó el porcentaje de germinación. Los conidios expuestos a los agroquímicos fueron también purificados y utilizados para un bioen-sayo frente a larvas de segundo instar de D. saccharalis. El CE resultó ser compatible con los herbicidas e insecticidas evaluados, manteniendo una germinación y eficacia superior al 80%. Por el contrario, el CE fue incompatible con todos los fungicidas evaua-dos. Estos resultados permiten sugerir recomendaciones de aplicación del bioplaguicida a base de B. bassiana Bv062, junto con insecticidas y herbicidas empleados en el cultivo de caña, pero se recomienda no aplicarlo de manera simultánea con fungicidas como el benomil y del grupo de triazoles. Se recomienda validar estos resultados en condiciones de campo.


Sugarcane stem borers of the genus Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) have been recognized as the pest of the greatest impact on sugarcane crops causing significant economic losses. For its control, a colombian strain of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill (code Bv062) that showed a high virulence against D. saccharalis (Fabricius) larvae was used for a biopesticide development, formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC). In order to include the EC into an integrated pest management (IPM) scheme, it is necessary to evaluate its compatibility with the agrochemicals commonly used in sugarcane crops. For this purpose, the in vitro effect of 11 agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides and herbicides) on the germination and insecticidal activity of Bv062 formulated conidia was evaluated. Initially, the EC and agrochemicals were adjusted to double the recommended concentration and mixed in a 1:1 ratio. The mixes were incubated for two hours, and the germination percentage was calculated. The conidia exposed to the agrochemicals were also purified and used for a bioassay against second instar larvae of D. saccharalis. The EC was compatible with the herbicides and insecticides, maintaining germination and efficacy higher than 80%. In contrast, EC was incompatible with all the fungicides evaluated. These results allow us to suggest recommendations for the application of the biopesticide based on B. bassiana Bv062 with insecticides and herbicides used in sugarcane crops, but it is not recommended to apply it simultaneously with fungicides such as benomyl and the triazole group. It is recommended to validate these results under field conditions.

8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 38(2): 3-7, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552043

ABSTRACT

Psilocybe cubensiso también llamado hongo San Isidro, es un basidiomicete de distribución amplia que se encuentra por lo general en zonas de clima tropical y subtropical. Aquí se describe el primer registro de esta especie psicotrópica en condiciones naturales para Chile, desde una zona rural de clima de transición entre mediterráneo y templado. Se discuten los posibles causantes de esta extensión geográfica de la especie.(AU)


Psilocybe cubensis, also known as San Isidro, is a widely distributed basidiomycete, generally found in tropical and subtropical climate zones. Here, we describe the first record of this psychotropic speciesin natural conditions for Chile, from a rural environment in the transition zone between mediterranean and temperate climate. Possible causes for thisgeographic expansion of the species arediscussed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Psilocybe/classification , Psilocybe/ultrastructure , Chile , Ecosystem
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(11): 3289-3300, nov. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520648

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fungos anemófilos se dispersam na natureza através do ar atmosférico. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a prevalência da microbiota fúngica anemófila no Brasil e correlacionar o crescimento fúngico com doenças respiratórias e quadros infecciosos. Este trabalho é uma revisão integrativa de literatura construída a partir da busca nas bases de dados PubMed, BIREME, SciELO e LILACS, com inclusão de trabalhos brasileiros publicados entre 2000 e 2022, em língua portuguesa ou inglesa com texto online integral. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 147 publicações, das quais 25 compuseram a amostra por atenderem aos critérios de inclusão. Os gêneros de fungos aerotransportados mais prevalentes no Brasil são: Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp. e Fusarium sp. Os locais de origem dos estudos incluem Maranhão, Ceará, Piauí, Sergipe, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais. Além disso, foi possível determinar a relação dos fungos com parâmetros meteorológicos e sazonalidade, a sensibilização de indivíduos atópicos aos fungos e as principais micoses nosocomiais relatadas na literatura. Assim, o trabalho destaca a importância da manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do ar com vistas a se prevenir possíveis doenças transmitidas pelo ar.


Abstract Airborne fungi are dispersed through the air. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne fungi in Brazil and understand the relationship between fungal growth and respiratory diseases and infections. We conducted an integrative literature review of studies conducted in Brazil based on searches of the PubMed, MEDLINE-BIREME, SciELO, and LILACS databases for full-text articles published between 2000 and 2022. The searches returned 147 studies, of which only 25 met the inclusion criteria. The most prevalent genera of airborne fungi in Brazil are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, and Fusarium. The studies were conducted in the states of Maranhão, Ceará, Piauí, Sergipe, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais. The findings also show the relationship between fungi and meteorological factors and seasonality, the sensitivity of atopic individuals to fungi, and the main nosocomial mycoses reported in the literature. This work demonstrates the importance of maintaining good microbiological air quality to prevent potential airborne diseases.

10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(3): 4-4, Oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529619

ABSTRACT

Resumen Muchos de los hongos degradadores de madera están implicados en la síntesis de metabolitos bioactivos de naturaleza antimicrobiana y terapéutica, así como de compuestos de importancia biotecnológica, incluyendo derivados indólicos, entre otros. Estos hongos brindan ciertos beneficios ecológicos a las plantas, entre los que se destacan la protección contra fitopatógenos y la promoción del crecimiento radicular. Xylaria sp. es un hongo degradador de celulosa (lignocelulolítico) con potencial biotecnológico. El ácido indol-3-acético (AIA) desempeña un papel sumamente importante en las interacciones planta-microorganismo, ya que es esencial para la fisiología y el correcto desarrollo morfológico vegetal. Se sabe que las enzimas nitrilo-hidrolíticas (nitrilasas) están involucradas en la síntesis de compuestos indólicos en las plantas, no obstante, se dispone de poca información acerca de la naturaleza de estas enzimas en el reino de los hongos. A través de una aproximación bioquímica y de genética molecular, se demuestra por primera vez que Xylaria sp. posee actividad enzimática nitrilasa utilizando compuestos ricos en nitrógeno y carbono como sustrato. La cepa estudiada aumentó sus niveles de expresión génica relativa y mostró crecimiento micelial, ambos en presencia de compuestos químicos como cianobenceno y KCN. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que el microorganismo es capaz de degradar moléculas nitrogenadas complejas. Por otra parte, mediante biofertilización con extractos fúngicos, se observó que Xylaria sp. promueve el desarrollo del sistema radicular de plántulas de Arabidopsis thaliana, además de sintetizar AIA.


Abstract Endophytic fungi inhabit plant tissues internally and asymptomatically, and many of them are involved in the synthesis of bioactive metabolites of antifungal and therapeutic nature, as well as other compounds of biotechnological importance including indole derivatives, among many others. Ecologically, they provide some benefits to plants including protection against phy-topathogens and promotion of root growth. In this sense, Xylaria sp. is a cellulose-decomposing fungus with biotechnological potential. It is worth mentioning that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) also plays an extremely important role in plant-micro-organism interactions, as it is essential for physiology and proper plant morphological development. It is known that nitrile-hydrolytic enzymes (nitrilases) are involved in the synthesis of plant indole compounds; however, relatively little information is available concerning the nature of these enzymes in the fungal kingdom. In view of the above, through a biochemical and molecular-genetic approach, it has been demon-strated for the first time that Xylaria sp. carries out nitrile-hydrolytic enzyme activity using nitrogen and carbonrich compounds as substrate. The studied strain increased its relative gene expression levels and showed mycelial growth, both in the presence of chemical compounds such as cyanobenzene and KCN. Thus, the results of this work suggest that the micro-organism is capable of degrading complex nitrogenous molecules. On the other hand, through fungal biofertilization, it was observed that Xylaria sp. promotes the development of the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, in addition to synthesizing IAA.

11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 159(4): 309-321, jul.-ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514131

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: En países donde el consumo de hongos es frecuente ocurren cientos de casos de micetismos al año, por lo que representan un problema de salud pública. En México, los micetismos son clasificados como una intoxicación gastrointestinal de tipo no bacteriano, lo que impide su atención oportuna. Objetivo: Crear una plataforma de libre acceso que sintetice y estandarice la información de los casos de micetismos y ofrezca herramientas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Material y métodos: En localidades donde han ocurrido casos de micetismos se obtuvo información sobre los hongos involucrados, las intoxicaciones ocurridas, protocolos de atención y procesamiento de muestras. Resultados: Se generaron cédulas que sintetizan y describen las intoxicaciones por hongos con mayor probabilidad de ocurrencia en México. En ellas se describen las características biológicas de los hongos, síntomas que provocan y su tratamiento. Se presenta una propuesta de protocolo para la atención del paciente y para el procesamiento de muestras biológicas. Por último, se incluye un formulario para recopilar información sobre los casos de intoxicaciones. Conclusiones: La información sistematizada y analizada sobre los micetismos permite simplificar su diagnóstico, atención y tratamiento. Los protocolos para la atención clínica y el procesamiento de muestras son la base para generar estrategias que eviten decesos por micetismo.


Abstract Background: In countries where the consumption of mushrooms is common, hundreds of mushroom poisonings occur every year, which represents a public health problem. In Mexico, mushroom poisoning is classified as a non-bacterial gastrointestinal poisoning, which prevents timely care. Objective: To create a free-access platform that synthesizes and standardizes the information on mycetism cases and offers tools for diagnosis and timely treatment. Material and methods: In locations where cases of mycetism have occurred, information was obtained on the fungi involved, the poisonings that occurred, care protocols, and sample processing. Results: Infographics were generated that synthesize and describe the types of mycetism with the highest probability of occurrence in Mexico. Therein, the biological characteristics of fungi, the symptoms they cause and their treatment are described. A protocol proposal for patient care and for the processing of biological samples is presented. Finally, a form is included to collect information on cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Systematized and analyzed information on mycetism allows to simplify its diagnosis, attention and treatment. The protocols for clinical care and sample processing are the basis for generating strategies that prevent deaths due to mycetism.

12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 267-277, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533898

ABSTRACT

Natural and human-made disasters have long played a role in shaping the environment and microbial communities, also affecting non-microbial life on Earth. Disaster microbiology is a new concept based on the notion that a disaster changes the environment causing adaptation or alteration of microbial populations-growth, death, transportation to a new area, development traits, or resistance-that can have downstream effects on the affected ecosystem. Such downstream effects include blooms of microbial populations and the ability to colonize a new niche or host, cause disease, or survive in former extreme conditions. Throughout history, fungal populations have been affected by disasters. There are prehistoric archeological records of fungal blooms after asteroid impacts and fungi implicated in the fall of the dinosaurs. In recent times, drought and dust storms have caused disturbance of soil fungi, and hurricanes have induced the growth of molds on wet surfaces, resulting in an increased incidence of fungal disease. Probably, the anticipated increase in extreme heat would force fungi adaptation to survive at high temperatures, like those in the human body, and thus be able to infect mammals. This may lead to a drastic rise of new fungal diseases in humans.


Los desastres naturales o los causados por el hombre impactan la formación de ecosistemas y comunidades microbianas, y también afectan las formas de vida no microbianas. Este concepto es conocido como "microbiología de desastres", una subespecialización de la microbiología, basada en los cambios ambientales generados por un desastre y las posibles adaptaciones o alteraciones de las poblaciones microbianas -crecimiento, muerte, trasporte a una nueva región, o adquisición de resistencia o de nuevas características- que influirán en el moldeamiento del ecosistema transformado. Algunos de los efectos de estas adaptaciones pueden ser: el surgimiento de poblaciones microbianas, la habilidad de colonizar nuevos nichos u huéspedes, la generación de nuevas enfermedades, o el crecimiento de microorganismos en condiciones que antes eran "extremas" para ellos. A lo largo de la historia, varias poblaciones de hongos han sido afectadas por desastres. Existen registros arqueológicos prehistóricos que evidencian la presencia y el crecimiento de hongos luego del impacto de asteroides, y otros de hongos relacionados con la extinción de los dinosaurios. Actualmente, las sequías y las tormentas de polvo causan perturbaciones en las comunidades de hongos del suelo, y los huracanes inducen el crecimiento de hongos filamentosos en superficies húmedas, lo que aumenta la cantidad de enfermedades por hongos. Además, con el aumento de las temperaturas extremas es posible que los hongos puedan adaptarse para sobrevivir a temperaturas más altas, equivalentes a las temperaturas corporales, y nuevas especies puedan infectar mamíferos. Esto puede llevar a un aumento drástico de las infecciones fúngicas en humanos.


Subject(s)
Mycology , Natural Disasters , Climate Change , Fungi , Candida auris
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 278-287, ago. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533902

ABSTRACT

Candida auris has been recognized as an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen with a significant public health burden, causing cases of invasive infection and colonization due to its persistence on inanimate surfaces, ability to colonize skin of some patients, and high transmissibility in healthcare settings. The first sporadic report of the isolation of this species from the ear canal of a patient in Asia was in 2009 and reports from other regions of the world soon followed. However, it was not until 2015 that global epidemiological alerts were communicated as a result of an increasing number of reports of invasive infections caused by C. auris in several countries. Colombia was soon added to this list in 2016 after an unusual increase in the number of C. haemulonii isolates was reported, later confirmed as C. auris. Since the issuing of a national alert by the Colombian National Institute of Health together with the Ministry of Health in 2016, the number of cases reported reached over 2,000 by 2022. Colombian isolates have not shown pan resistance to available antifungals, unlike C. auris strains reported in other regions of the world, which leaves patients in Colombia with therapeutic options for these infections. However, increasing fluconazole resistance is being observed. Whole-genome sequencing of Colombian C. auris isolates has enhanced molecular epidemiological data, grouping Colombian isolates in clade IV together with other South American isolates. Data from Colombia showed that public health authorities, scientific community, and the general public need to be aware of fungal diseases as they present an often-deadly threat to patients.


Candida auris ha sido reconocido como un agente patógeno multirresistente emergente con una carga significativa en la salud pública. Genera casos de infección invasiva y colonización debido a su persistencia en superficies inanimadas, su capacidad para colonizar fácilmente la piel de algunos pacientes y su alta transmisibilidad en el ambiente hospitalario. El primer reporte esporádico de esta especie fue en Asia en el 2009 cuando se realizó su aislamiento a partir del conducto auditivo de un paciente, y pronto le siguieron reportes en otras regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, no fue hasta 2015 que se conocieron las alertas epidemiológicas a nivel mundial debido a un aumento en el número de casos de infecciones causadas por C. auris en varios países. Colombia se sumó a la lista en 2016 luego de un aumento inusual en el número de aislamientos de C. haemulonii informados, que luego se confirmaron como C. auris. Desde que el Instituto Nacional de Salud junto con el Ministerio de Salud emitieron la Alerta Nacional en el 2016, el número de casos reportados superó los 2.000 en el 2022. Los aislamientos colombianos no han mostrado resistencia generalizada a los antifúngicos disponibles, contrario a lo reportado para cepas de C. auris en algunas regiones del mundo, por lo que los pacientes en Colombia aún cuentan con opciones terapéuticas para estas infecciones. No obstante, se ha observado un aumento en la resistencia al fluconazol. La secuenciación del genoma completo agrupó los aislamientos colombianos en el Ciado IV, junto con otros sudamericanos de C. auris, y aportó al conocimiento de los datos epidemiológicos moleculares de esta especie. Los datos de Colombia evidencian que las autoridades de salud pública, la comunidad científica y el público en general deben ser conscientes de las enfermedades fúngicas, ya que a menudo representan una amenaza mortal para los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Candida auris , Drug Resistance , Colombia , Whole Genome Sequencing , Fungi , Infections
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 288-311, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533904

ABSTRACT

Los hongos son organismos polifacéticos presentes en casi todos los ecosistemas de la tierra, donde establecen diversos tipos de simbiosis con otros seres vivos. A pesar de ser reconocidos por los humanos desde la antigüedad -y de la cantidad de trabajos que han profundizado sobre su biología y ecología-, aún falta mucho por conocer sobre estos organismos. Algunos de los criterios que clásicamente se han utilizado para su estudio, hoy resultan limitados y hasta cierto punto permiten un agrupamiento de los aislamientos según algunas características, pero generan confusión en su clasificación y, más aún, cuando se pretende comprender sus relaciones genealógicas. Los caracteres fenotípicos no son suficientes para identificar una especie de hongos y, menos aún, para construir una filogenia amplia o de un grupo particular. Hay grandes vacíos que hacen que los árboles generados sean inestables y fácilmente debatidos. Para los profesionales de la salud, parece que la identificación de los hongos hasta niveles inferiores como género y especie es suficiente para elegir el tratamiento más adecuado para su control, comprender la epidemiología de los cuadros clínicos asociados y reconocer los brotes y los factores determinantes de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. No obstante, la ubicación taxonómica dentro del reino permitiría establecer relaciones filogenéticas entre los taxones fúngicos, facilitando la comprensión de su biología, su distribución en la naturaleza y la evolución de su potencial patogénico. Los avances de las técnicas de biología molecular y las ciencias de la computación en los últimos 30 años han permitido cambios importantes dirigidos a establecer los criterios para definir una especie fúngica y alcanzar una construcción filogenética más o menos estable. Sin embargo, el camino por recorrer aún es largo, y supone un trabajo mancomunado de la comunidad científica a nivel global y el apoyo a la investigación básica.


Fungi are multifaceted organisms found in almost all ecosystems on Earth, where they establish various types of symbiosis with other living beings. Despite being recognized by humans since ancient times, and the high number of works delving into their biology and ecology, much is still unknown about these organisms. Some criteria classically used for their study are nowadays limited, generating confusion in categorizing them, and even more, when trying to understand their genealogical relationships. To identify species within Fungi, phenotypic characters to date are not sufficient, and to construct a broad phylogeny or a phylogeny of a particular group, there are still gaps affecting the generated trees, making them unstable and easily debated. For health professionals, fungal identification at lower levels such as genus and species, is enough to select the most appropriate therapy for their control, understand the epidemiology of clinical pictures associated, and recognize outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance. However, the taxonomic location within the kingdom, information with apparently little relevance, can allow phylogenetic relationships to be established between fungal taxa, facilitating the understanding of their biology, distribution in nature, and pathogenic potential evolution. Advances in molecular biology and computer science techniques from the last 30 years have led to crucial changes aiming to establish the criteria to define a fungal species, allowing us to reach a kind of stable phylogenetic construction. However, there is still a long way to go, and it requires the joint work of the scientific community at a global level and support for basic research.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Fungi , Classification , Biological Evolution , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
15.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Jun; 66(2): 314-320
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223438

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Phaeohyphomycosis refers to infections caused by phaeoid/dematiaceous or darkly pigmented fungi. This study was undertaken to further increase our knowledge about the incidence of phaeohyphomycosis and its causative agents. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted over a period of one and a half years (January 2018–June 2019) on specimens received from patients with varied clinical manifestations ranging from superficial infections, subcutaneous cysts, pneumonia, brain abscess to a disseminated infection. These specimens were processed in the Department of Microbiology for potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and culture and in Pathology for cytology/histopathological examination (HPE). All specimens positive on direct examination for dark grey, brown or black fungi were included in the study. Results: A total of 20 specimens were confirmed as phaeohyphomycosis. Most of the patients belonged to the age group of 41 to 50 years. Male: Female ratio was 2.3:1. Trauma was the most common risk factor. Spectra of the isolated fungal pathogens comprised of Bipolaris species, Exophiala species, Curvularia geniculata, Phialemonium species, Daldinia eschscholtzii, Hypoxylon anthochroum, Phaeoacremonium species, Leptosphaerulina australis, Medicopsis romeroi, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Eutypella species, Chaetomium globosum, Alternaria species, Cladophialophora bantiana and 2 unidentified dematiaceous fungi. Recovery from phaeohyphomycosis was seen in 12 patients, 7 were lost to follow up and one patient succumbed to the illness. Conclusion: Infections caused by phaeoid fungi can no longer be viewed as rare. In fact, phaeohyphomycosis can have myriad of presentations spanning from mild cutaneous infections to fatal brain disease. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose such infections. The primary treatment modality remains surgical removal of the lesion in cutaneous or subcutaneous infections however disseminated disease with a guarded prognosis requires aggressive management.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217208

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to assess the impact of seasonal variation on mycorrhizal association in selected industrial wastelands in the Kota district of Rajasthan. In the study mycorrhizal association was quantified in terms of percentage root colonization and spore density in three different seasons. The study was conducted during 2019-2021 and the data was collected for 3 seasons; summer (March-June), Rainy (July–October), and winter (November-February) to study the response to variable climatic factors to the root colonization and spore density of mycorrhiza. To determine the significance of variations in AMF spore density and percentage root colonization during different seasons, one-way ANOVA was performed. Results showed that in all the sites maximum mean spore density was observed in the summer (March-June) season but in the case of percentage root colonization, the value was found maximum in the humid season (July-October) in the control site whereas, in the three experimental sites, the maximum root colonization was observed in summer season (march-June). Hence, it may be concluded that hot climatic condition is favourable for mycorrhizal spore formation and root colonization was also favoured by hot climate.

17.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 152-166, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437898

ABSTRACT

As leveduras são fungos de importância à medicina veterinária por causarem doenças infecciosas em diferentes hospedeiros animais. A presente revisão de literatura teve como objetivo relatar os principais testes bioquímicos capazes de auxiliar na identificação de fungos leveduriformes de interesse veterinário e zoonótico. Para o levantamento bibliográfico, foram consideradas 48 publicações científicas selecionadas na área e indexadas nas principais bases de dados, entre os anos de 1988 e 2020. Como resultados, observou-se que oito provas são as mais empregadas na rotina micológica. Devido à baixa variabilidade morfológica das espécies leveduriformes, testes bioquímicos complementares são fundamentais na rotina laboratorial. A análise do perfil bioquímico de leveduras contribui na determinação taxonômica dos fungos a partir de reações químicas, visto que o metabolismo varia de acordo com a espécie, resultando em metabólitos distintos, os quais podem ser avaliados por diferentes provas. Conclui-se que a identificação fenotípica das leveduras é imprescindível no diagnóstico, prognóstico, tratamento e controle de doenças fúngicas e contribui para a manutenção da saúde animal.(AU)


Yeasts are fungi of importance to veterinary medicine because they cause infectious diseases in different animal hosts. This literature review aimed to report the main biochemical tests capable of assisting in the identification of yeast-like fungi of veterinary and zoonotic interest. For the bibliographical survey, 48 selected scientific publications in the area and indexed in the main databases, between the years 1988 and 2020, were considered. As a result, it was observed that eight tests are the most used in the mycological routine. Due to the low morphological variability of yeast species, complementary biochemical tests are fundamental in the laboratory routine. The analysis of the biochemical profile of yeast contributes to the taxonomic determination of fungi based on chemical reactions, since the metabolism varies according to the species, resulting in different metabolites, which can be evaluated by different tests. It is concluded that the phenotypic identification of yeasts is essential in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and control of fungal diseases and contributes to the maintenance of animal health.(AU)


Las levaduras son hongos de importancia para la medicina veterinaria porque causan enfermedades infecciosas en diferentes animales huéspedes. Esta revisión de la literatura tuvo como objetivo informar las principales pruebas bioquímicas capaces de ayudar en la identificación de hongos tipo levadura de interés veterinario y zoonótico. Para el levantamiento bibliográfico se consideraron 48 publicaciones científicas seleccionadas en el área e indexadas en las principales bases de datos, entre los años 1988 y 2020. Como resultado se observó que ocho pruebas son las más utilizadas en la rutina micológica. Debido a la baja variabilidad morfológica de las especies de levaduras, las pruebas bioquímicas complementarias son fundamentales en la rutina del laboratorio. El análisis del perfil bioquímico de la levadura contribuye a la determinación taxonómica de los hongos en base a reacciones químicas, ya que el metabolismo varía según la especie, dando como resultado diferentes metabolitos, los cuales pueden ser evaluados mediante diferentes pruebas. Se concluye que la identificación fenotípica de levaduras es fundamental en el diagnóstico, pronóstico, tratamiento y control de enfermedades fúngicas y contribuye al mantenimiento de la salud animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Yeasts/classification , Biochemical Phenomena , Biomarkers/analysis
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 90: e00112023, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552083

ABSTRACT

Among the management and control tactics of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), there is the use of entomopathogenic fungi. Due to the importance of prospecting isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of the coffee berry borer, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of 26 isolates of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of this insect pest in the laboratory. The coffee berry borers were immersed in a solution adjusted to the concentration of 1 to 3 × 108 conidia/mL of each isolate and the control treatment (sterilized water). After seven days total mortality and confirmed mortality were evaluated. The isolates that caused the highest mortality and two commercial isolates were selected for evaluation of lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) and lethal time (LT50 and LT90). Coffee berry borers were treated at different conidia concentrations for lethal concentration to assess total and confirmed mortality. For a lethal time, the coffee berry borers were treated at the concentration of 108 conidia/mL of the selected isolates, and, after two days and every 24 hours until the eighth day, the number of dead individuals was verified. Among the 26 isolates evaluated, 24 presented mortality higher than the control treatment, and three presented mortality higher than 85%. In the LC50 and LC90 assays, the IBCB 353 and IBCB 364 isolates were more lethal to H. hampei. In the LT50 and LT90 assays, the IBCB 66 and IBCB 353 isolates caused lethality in a shorter time.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Pest Control, Biological , Weevils , Fungi , Fabaceae/parasitology
19.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 67(3): e20230012, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507860

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Perennial ryegrass is one of the most important food sources in animal production. However, several pests affect this crop, and one of the primary control strategies is the symbiotic relationships between ryegrass endophyte fungi. This fungus produces alkaloids that exhibit toxic activity against arthropods. Furthermore, the effect of fungi may extend to higher trophic levels, including predators (spiders and/or insects), decreasing their abundance and diversity. Given the importance of spiders and insects as predators, whether the symbiotic interaction between perennial ryegrass and endophyte fungus reduces the abundance and diversity of predators pose an important question. To address this question, natural enemies in perennial ryegrass were collected and analyzed over a year, and the percentage of endophyte fungus was evaluated by the presence of hyphae from two ryegrass cultivars, Jumbo (E-) and Alto AR1 (E+). We observed an 80% endophyte infection rate for (E+) and 0% for (E-). Moreover, 222 individual spiders corresponding to 10 families were identified in both perennial ryegrasses, including 209 individuals for (E-) and 13 for (E+). The most abundant spider family was Lycosidae, representing 71.17% of the total spiders. In addition, 65 insects were collected, corresponding to 6 families, with Carabidae being the most abundant. Furthermore, the Simpson index indicated the dominance of the family Lycosidae. Overall, spider and insect abundance and diversity were reduced in (E+), suggesting a negative effect of the endophyte on predator populations.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4927-4938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008069

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the enzyme production mechanism of yak rumen-derived anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. YF3 under the induction of different carbon sources, anaerobic culture tubes were used for in vitro fermentation. 8 g/L of glucose (Glu), filter paper (Flp) and avicel (Avi) were respectively added to 10 mL of basic culture medium as the sole carbon source. The activity of fiber-degrading enzyme and the concentration of volatile fatty acid in the fermentation liquid were detected, and the enzyme producing mechanism of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 was explored by transcriptomics. It was found that, in glucose-induced fermentation solution, the activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, microcrystalline cellulase, filter paper enzyme, xylanase and the proportion of acetate were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the proportion of propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The results of transcriptome analysis showed that there were 5 949 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the Glu group and the Flp group, 10 970 DEGs between the Glu group and the Avi group, and 6 057 DEGs between the Flp group and the Avi group. It was found that the DEGs associated with fiber degrading enzymes were significantly up-regulated in the Glu group. Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis identified that DEGs were mainly associated with the xylan catabolic process, hemicellulose metabolic process, β-glucan metabolic process, cellulase activity, endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity, cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process, carbohydrate catabolic process, glucan catabolic process and carbohydrate metabolic process. Moreover, the differentially expressed pathways associated with fiber degrading enzymes enriched by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were mainly starch and sucrose metabolic pathways and other glycan degradation pathways. In conclusion, Orpinomyces sp. YF3 with glucose as carbon source substrate significantly increased the activity of cellulose degrading enzyme and the proportion of acetate, decreased the proportion of propionate, butyrate and isobutyrate. Furthermore, the degradation ability and energy utilization efficiency of fungus in the presence of glucose were improved by means of regulating the expression of cellulose degrading enzyme gene and participating in starch and sucrose metabolism pathway, and other glycan degradation pathways, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 in practical production and facilitates the application of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Neocallimastigales/metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Rumen/microbiology , Propionates/metabolism , Isobutyrates/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi , Starch/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Acetates , Sucrose/metabolism , Cellulases , Cellulase
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