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Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 793-799, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828190


Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments.

Humans , Triazoles/poisoning , Ecosystem , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Agriculture , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Fungi/physiology , Fungicides, Industrial , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Ciênc. rural ; 45(6): 951-957, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-747072


Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation.

A Sigatoka-negra causada por Mycosphaerella fijiensis é a doença mais destrutiva da bananeira em termos mundiais. O patógeno está em uma fase invasiva no Brasil e já se encontra distribuído na maior parte dos Estados do país. O potencial de 29 isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle da Sigatoka-negra foi estudado sob condições de campo. Quatro isolados foram capazes de reduzir significativamente a severidade da doença e foram selecionados para um segundo experimento de campo. O isolado 2.047 apresentou os melhores resultados e foi utilizado em testes de sensibilidade a fungicidas e produção massal. Esse isolado foi identificado como Trichoderma atroviride por meio do sequenciamento de fragmentos da regiões ITS do rDNA e tef-1α da RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride foi tão efetivo no controle da Sigatoka-negra quanto o fungicida Azoxystrobin, que é recomendado para o controle da doença. O agente de controle biológico tem potencial para o controle da Sigatoka-negra e pode ser produzido em massa em arroz autoclavado para aplicações no campo.