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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 192-207, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms underlying these disorders include a constellation of structural, infectious, immunological, metabolic, and genetic etiologies. Advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiome is dynamic and plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and several diseases. The enteric microbiome acts as a key mediator in neuronal signaling via metabolic, neuroimmune, and neuroendocrine pathways. Objective: In this review, we aim to present and discuss the most current knowledge regarding the putative influence of the gut microbiome in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: We examined some of the preclinical and clinical evidence and therapeutic strategies associated with the manipulation of the gut microbiome. Results: targeted taxa were described and grouped from major studies to each disease. Conclusions: Understanding the complexity of these ecological interactions and their association with susceptibility and progression of acute and chronic disorders could lead to novel diagnostic biomarkers based on molecular targets. Moreover, research on the microbiome can also improve some emerging treatment choices, such as fecal transplantation, personalized probiotics, and dietary interventions, which could be used to reduce the impact of specific neuropsychiatric disorders. We expect that this knowledge will help physicians caring for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos são uma importante causa de morte e invalidez no mundo. Os mecanismos subjacentes a esses transtornos incluem uma constelação de etiologias estruturais, infecciosas, imunológicas, metabólicas e genéticas. Avanços nas técnicas de sequenciamento do DNA têm demonstrado que a composição do microbioma entérico é dinâmica e desempenha um papel fundamental não apenas na homeostase do hospedeiro, mas também em várias doenças. O microbioma entérico atua como mediador na sinalização das vias metabólica, neuroimune e neuroendócrina. Objetivo: Apresentar os estudos mais recentes sobre a possível influência do microbioma intestinal nas diversas doenças neuropsiquiátricas e discutir tanto os resultados quanto a eficácia dos tratamentos que envolvem a manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Métodos: foram examinadas algumas das evidências pré-clínicas e clínicas e estratégias terapêuticas associadas à manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Resultados: os táxons-alvo foram descritos e agrupados a partir dos principais estudos para cada doença. Conclusões: Entender a fundo a complexidade das interações ecológicas no intestino e sua associação com a suscetibilidade a certas doenças agudas e crônicas pode levar ao desenvolvimento de novos biomarcadores diagnósticos com base em alvos moleculares. Além disso, o estudo do microbioma intestinal pode auxiliar na otimização de tratamentos não farmacológicos emergentes, tais como o transplante de microbiota fecal, o uso de probióticos e intervenções nutricionais personalizadas. Dessa forma, terapias alternativas poderiam ser usadas para reduzir o impacto dos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na saúde pública. Esperamos que esse conhecimento seja útil para médicos que cuidam de pacientes com diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology
2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 699-702, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922984

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora imbalance plays a certain role in the development and progression of liver cancer, while probiotics have a certain impact on liver cancer, both of which are the focus of clinical research. This article introduces the mechanism of action of intestinal flora imbalance in the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the preventive effect of probiotics against liver cancer. Intestinal flora imbalance can participate in the pathological process of liver cancer by activating Toll-like receptor 4, regulating the level of metabolites, producing endotoxin, and inducing bacterial translocation and intestinal bacterial overgrowth, while probiotics can effectively prevent liver cancer by maintaining enterohepatic circulation, enhancing immune function, promoting the reproduction of intestinal probiotics, and reducing the toxicity of carcinogens, which can be further studied as the focus of subsequent liver cancer prevention in clinical practice.

3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 504-530, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los edulcorantes son aditivos que se consumen en los alimentos. Pueden ser naturales (sacarosa y estevia) o artificiales (sucralosa). Actualmente, se consumen rutinariamente en múltiples productos, y sus efectos en la mucosa y la microbiota del intestino delgado aún son controversiales. Objetivo. Relacionar el consumo de edulcorantes y su efecto en el sistema inmunitario y la microbiota del intestino delgado en ratones CD1. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 ratones CD1 de tres semanas de edad divididos en tres grupos: un grupo de tres semanas sin tratamiento, un grupo tratado durante seis semanas y un grupo tratado durante 12 semanas. Se les administró sacarosa, sucralosa y estevia. A partir del intestino delgado, se obtuvieron linfocitos B CD19+ y células IgA+, TGF-ß (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) o el factor de crecimiento transformador beta (TGF-beta), IL-12 e IL-17 de las placas de Peyer y de la lámina propia. De los sólidos intestinales se obtuvo el ADN para identificar las especies bacterianas. Resultados. Después del consumo de sacarosa y sucralosa durante 12 semanas, se redujeron las comunidades bacterianas, la IgA+ y el TGF-beta, se aumentó el CD19+, y además, se incrementaron la IL-12 y la IL-17 en las placas de Peyer; en la lámina propia, aumentaron todos estos valores. En cambio, con la estevia mejoraron la diversidad bacteriana y el porcentaje de linfocitos CD19+, y hubo poco incremento de IgA+, TGF-ß e IL-17, pero con disminución de la IL-17. Conclusión. La sacarosa y la sucralosa alteraron negativamente la diversidad bacteriana y los parámetros inmunitarios después de 12 semanas, en contraste con la estevia que resultó benéfica para la mucosa intestinal.


Abstract Introduction: Sweeteners are additives used in different foods. They can be natural (sucrose and stevia) or artificial (sucralose). Currently, they are routinely consumed in multiple products and their effects on the mucosa of the small intestine and its microbiota are still controversial. Objective: To relate the consumption of sweeteners and their effect on the immune system and the microbiota of the small intestine in CD1 mice. Materials and methods: We used 54 three-week-old CD1 mice divided into three groups in the experiments: 1) A group of three weeks without treatment, 2) a group treated for six weeks, and 3) a group treated for 12 weeks using sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. We obtained CD19+ B lymphocytes, IgA+ antibodies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), and interleukins 12 and 17 (IL-12 and -17) from Peyer's patches and lamina propria cells while DNA was obtained from intestinal solids to identify bacterial species. Results: After 12 weeks, sucrose and sucralose consumption caused a reduction in bacterial communities with an increase in CD19+, a decrease in IgA+ and TGF-b, and an increase in IL-12 and -17 in the Peyer's patches while in the lamina propria there was an increase in all parameters. In contrast, stevia led to an improvement in bacterial diversity and percentage of CD19+ lymphocytes with minimal increase in IgA+, TGF-b, and IL-12, and a decrease in IL-17. Conclusion: Sucrose and sucralose caused negative alterations in bacterial diversity and immune parameters after 12 weeks; in contrast, stevia was beneficial for the intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Sweetening Agents , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sucrose , Stevia , Intestine, Small
4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2883-2889, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906880

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes in intestinal flora in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) and related influencing factors. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 16 patients with ECC who were hospitalized and treated in Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, from January to December 2020, and absolute quantitative bacterial 16S rRNA was used for sequencing. A comparison was made with 20 patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS group) and 10 healthy controls (normal group), and the three groups were compared in terms of the differences in intestinal flora and the association with clinical indices. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed data with homogeneity of variance between the three groups, the t -test was used for comparison between two groups; the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed data between the three groups, and the Nemenyi test was used for comparison between groups. The chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test were used for comparison of categorical data between the three groups, and a Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate correlation. Results The ECC group had significantly higher levels of total bilirubin (TBil) and direct bilirubin (DBil) than the CBDS group and the normal group. The α diversity analysis showed that there were no significant differences in observed species, Chao1 Index, and Shannon Index between the three groups (all P > 0.05), while there were significant differences in Shannon Index and Simpson Index between the three groups. The ECC group had a similar species diversity to the normal group and a significantly greater species diversity than the CBDS group ( P < 0.05), and the CBDS group had a significantly greater species diversity than the normal group ( P < 0.05). The β diversity analysis showed that the structure of intestinal flora in the ECC group was significantly different from that in the normal group and the CBDS group ( P < 0.05). The analysis of the difference in bacterial composition showed that Prevotella , Lactobacillus , Megasphaera , and Sutterella were significantly enriched in the ECC group. The correlation analysis showed that Prevotella was negatively correlated with the use of antibiotics, acid inhibitors, and liver-protecting drugs, and Lactobacillus , Megasphaera , and Sutterella were positively correlated with TBil and DBil. Conclusion There is a significant change in intestinal flora in patients with ECC, which is closely associated with liver function and the use of drugs.

5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2710-2714, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905027

ABSTRACT

Liver failure and intestinal barrier injury, especially intestinal microflora imbalance, interacts as both the cause and effect of each other. Intestinal barrier injury is observed during liver failure, including the injuries of chemical, mechanical, immune, and microbial barriers, and meanwhile, gut dysbiosis, increased bacterial endotoxins, and abnormal bile acid metabolism may affect hepatocyte regeneration, increase complications, and aggravate the conditions of liver failure. The maintenance of intestinal barrier function should be taken seriously in the treatment of liver failure, and the treatment targeting intestinal barrier injury, especially microecological disturbance, is a promising method.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2676-2679, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905019

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. Diet is considered one of the main driving forces regulating the composition of intestinal microbiota, and the intestine and the liver are closely linked through the portal vein, so changes in gut microbiota may affect liver function and promote inflammation, insulin resistance, and steatosis, thereby causing NAFLD. This article elaborates on the relationship between diet, gut microbiota, and the liver and the research advances in how this axis promotes the progression of NAFLD, as well as the change in potential mechanism due to intestinal dysbacteriosis and related treatment methods.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2469-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904973

ABSTRACT

The influence of circadian rhythm disorder on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has attracted more and more attention in recent years, and studies in China and globally have shown that individuals who work in shifts at night or often stay up late have a higher incidence rate of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma (NAFLD-HCC) than those with regular work and rest. This article summarizes the research advances in the effect of circadian rhythm system on the pathogenesis of NAFLD-HCC by regulating lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and intestinal flora, and it is pointed out that restoration of normal circadian rhythm has potential clinical significance in delaying the development and progression of disease.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2469-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904923

ABSTRACT

The influence of circadian rhythm disorder on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has attracted more and more attention in recent years, and studies in China and globally have shown that individuals who work in shifts at night or often stay up late have a higher incidence rate of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma (NAFLD-HCC) than those with regular work and rest. This article summarizes the research advances in the effect of circadian rhythm system on the pathogenesis of NAFLD-HCC by regulating lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and intestinal flora, and it is pointed out that restoration of normal circadian rhythm has potential clinical significance in delaying the development and progression of disease.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2231-2235, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904875

ABSTRACT

In recent years, more and more studies have shown that intestinal flora is critical to the development and progression of metabolic-related fatty liver disease (MAFLD). This article summarizes MAFLD-related intestinal flora and metabolites and their possible mechanisms of action in disease process. Although related intestinal flora and metabolites are expected to become new noninvasive diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for MAFLD, their clinical application still requires more in-depth research. The development of modern high-throughput sequencing technology provides new ideas for research. The integrated analysis of multi-omics, such as genes, proteins, transcription, and metabolism, allows us to establish a comprehensive understanding of the microbial factors affecting MAFLD under the precision medicine system, so as to lay a foundation for targeted transplantation of intestinal flora and drug development for liver metabolic homeostasis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911929

ABSTRACT

Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for newborns, and it can bring them important nutritional and neurodevelopmental benefits. Studies have shown bidirectional interactions between the brain and gut flora, which started during the embryonic period. Breastfeeding may play a positive role in neonatal neurodevelopment through gut flora. We outline the effects of breast milk on the neurodevelopment of newborns from the perspective of brain-gut axis to better understanding the benefits of breastfeeding.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 233-236, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862578

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and a leading cause of early death in SAP patients, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. In recent years, the role of gut microbiota and its metabolites in regulating SAP-related ARDS has attracted more and more attention, and in-depth studies on the pathogenesis of “intestine-lung axis” may provide new ideas for the research and development of drugs for SAP-related ARDS. This article summarizes the recent research advances in gut microbiota and its metabolites in SAP-related ARDS.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1379-1385, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877329

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on mice with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and its effect on intestinal flora. MethodsA total of 40 mice were randomly divided into control group (CON group), model group (MOD group), FMT group (feces of the mice in the CON group were used as fecal microbiota donor), and FMT model group (ANFMT group, with feces of the mice in the MOD group as fecal microbiota donor), with 10 mice in each group. All mice were observed in terms of body weight, death, liver histopathology, and changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and intestinal flora. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the SNK-q test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the CON group, the MOD group had a significant reduction in body weight and significant increases in AST and ALT (all P<0.05), as well as large patchy necrosis of hepatocytes, significant increases in Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, and Erysipelatoclostridium, and significant reductions in Dubosiella and Duncaniella (all P<0.05). Compared with the CON group, the ANFMT group had a significant increase in AST (P<0.05), hepatocyte swelling and mild ballooning degeneration, significant increases in Unclassified and Faecalibaculum, and significant reductions in Patescibacteria, Deferribacteres, Muribaculum, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, Rikenella, Odoribacter, Mucispirillum, and Lachnospiraceae_unclassified (all P<0.05). Compared with the MOD group, the FMT group had significant reductions in AST and ALT (both P<0.05), mild hepatocellular necrosis and marked ballooning degeneration, significant increases in Paramuribaculum and Bilophila, and significant reductions in Firmicutes, Rikenella, and Absiella (all P<0.05). ConclusionIntestinal flora disturbance is observed in ACLF mice, and dysbacteriosis may lead to liver injury. FMT can alleviate liver inflammation in ACLF mice and thus exert a protective effect.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 690-694, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873818

ABSTRACT

Bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota, and bile acid receptors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are substantial increases in the levels of some bile acids, such as glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, in the liver tissue of HCC mice and the serum and feces of HCC patients. Bile acid metabolism due to the imbalance of the abundance of bacteria producing bile salt hydrolases and Clostridium in the intestine and the change in immune microenvironment may also promote the development of HCC. Moreover, some bile acid receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2, have been shown to participate in the development and progression of HCC through various pathways. Each link of bile acid metabolism plays a different role in the progression of HCC, and a systematic elaboration of the interaction between these links may help to deepen the understanding of the pathogenesis of HCC and develop the biological targets for early diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and precise treatment.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 480-484, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873426

ABSTRACT

Liver failure is a common critical medical disease, and extensive liver cell necrosis within a short period of time exceeds the regeneration capacity of liver cells and thus results in an extremely high fatality rate. Promotion of effective liver regeneration is the key to antagonizing liver failure. Recent studies have shown that bile acid, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and intestinal microecology play an important role in liver failure and liver regeneration. This article reviews the association between bile acid, FXR, and intestinal microecology and their role in liver failure and liver regeneration, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of liver failure in clinical practice.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 425-428, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873415

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common serious complication of end-stage liver disease. Intestinal microecology is closely associated with the development, progression, and prognosis of SBP, and bacterial translocation is the key pathogenesis of SBP. This article summarizes the intestinal microecology in patients with liver cirrhosis and briefly describes the mechanism of action of intestinal flora in the development and progression of SBP, thus providing a theoretical basis for the clinical regulation of intestinal microecology and treatment of SBP.

16.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 326-330, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873400

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in gut microbiota after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhotic patients with mild hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in different prognosis groups. MethodsA total of 28 MHE cirrhotic patients who were hospitalized and underwent TIPS in Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases from July 2016 to July 2017 were enrolled. Fecal samples and related clinical data were collected on days 1-3 before surgery and at 1 month after surgery. According to the prognosis after surgery, the patients were divided into none-hepatic encephalopathy (HE) group with 8 patients, MHE group with 12 patients, and overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) group with 8 patients. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing to obtain the relative abundance of gut microbiota, and SPSS and R packages were used to analyze the biodiversity, postoperative changes, and differences in such changes of gut microbiota at the genus level between groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups; the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of continuous data between three groups; the Bonferroni method was used for multiple comparisons of multiple samples; the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparison before and after surgery within each group. For microbiome beta-diversity analyses, a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was performed based on Bray-Curtis distance matrix, and the Adonis method (PerMANOVA) was used for comparison between groups. ResultsPCoA based on Bray-Curtis distance matrix showed that only the MHE group had a significant change in beta diversity after surgery (F=2.71, P=0.049). After surgery, the non-HE group had significant increases in the abundance of the native flora Dialister, Coprococcus, Ruminococcaceae_uncultured, Flavonifractor, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 (Z=2.521, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, and 1.96, all P<0.05); the MHE group had significant reductions in the abundance of the harmful flora Granulicatella(Z=2.521,P=0.012), Enterococcus(Z=2.51,P=0.012), Streptococcus(Z=2.432,P=0.015), and Rothia(Z=2.001,P=0.045) and significant increases in the abundance of Veillonella(Z=2.353,P=0.019) and Megasphaera(Z=1.955,P=0.05); the OHE group only had a significant increase in the abundance of Veillonella after surgery (Z=2.38, P=0.017). There was a significant difference in the change in gut microbiota (postoperative abundance/preoperative abundance) between the non-HE group, the MHE group, and the OHE group [2.00 (1.11-91.61) vs 1.21 (0.26-679) vs 0.09 (0.01-0.92), χ2=6.249, P=0.043]. ConclusionThere is a significant difference in the change in gut microbiota after TIPS between patients with different prognoses, and the increase in the abundance of native flora may have a certain influence on the remission of MHE.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910594

ABSTRACT

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by progressive pancreatic fibrosis, which can lead to irreversible pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Previous reported studies suggested that in patients with CP, there are varying degrees of intestinal bacteria imbalance. In addition, intestinal bacteria have been found to associate with a variety of fibrosis-related diseases. The purpose of this study is to analyze the possible mechanisms of intestinal bacteria in progression of pancreatic fibrosis in CP, by investigating regulation of intestinal barrier, regulation of immunity, and synthesis and release of metabolites, to provide further references in exploring the clinical value of intestinal bacteria in diagnosis and treatment of CP.

18.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31105, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291252

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cesárea é realizada em condições maternas e/ou fetais que impeçam o nascimento via vaginal. Devido ao risco de complicações infecciosas, o procedimento é precedido de antibioticoprofilaxia, o que pode provocar a seleção de cepas multirresistentes e alterar a flora nativa do indivíduo. O colostro é um fator determinante para a colonização do trato digestivo por ser fonte probiótica, além de apresentar papel importante na modulação do sistema imunológico e desenvolvimento do neonato. Objetivo: Este estudo visa avaliar possíveis interferências da antibioticoprofilaxia realizada previamente à cesárea na flora materna. Métodos: Selecionou-se 140 lactantes após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, divididas em grupos estudo (realizaram parto cesáreo com antibioticoprofilaxia) e controle (realizaram parto vaginal sem antibioticoprofilaxia) para coleta das amostras ­ colostro e esfregaço areolar ­ com intuito de realizar a análise microbiológica das mesmas no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Resultados: 94 lactantes pertencem ao grupo estudo e 46 ao controle. O microrganismo mais prevalente em todas as amostras foi a Candida sp. Ao se discriminar os grupos, a mesma também apresentou maior prevalência, seguida de Enterococcus sp. Em relação à detecção de Staphylococcus aureus pelo esfregaço mamilar, ele foi encontrado em 24 amostras do grupo controle e em 34 do grupo estudo. Na análise comparativa da prevalência de microrganismos entre os grupos, não se observou diferença estatisticamente relevante. Conclusão: A antibioticoprofilaxia peri-operatória mostrou-se segura em não alterar a composição da flora materna. Entretanto, mais estudos sobre o tema devem ser realizados.


Introduction: The C-section is performed under maternal and / or fetal conditions that prevent vaginal birth. Because of the infectious complications, the procedure is preceded by antibiotic prophylaxis, which can cause the selection of multidrug-resistant strains and shift the individual's native flora. Colostrum is a determining factor for colonization of the digestive tract being a probiotic source, along with playing an important role in the modulation of the immune system and development of the newborn. Objective: This study aims to assess possible interferences of antibiotic prophylaxis performed prior to cesarean section on maternal flora. Methods: 140 lactating women were selected after applying the exclusion criteria, divided into study groups (94 lactating women who underwent cesarean delivery with antibiotic prophylaxis) and control groups (46 lactating women who underwent vaginal delivery without antibiotic prophylaxis) for sample collection - colostrum and areolar swab - therefore perform the microbiological analysis at the Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Results: The most prevalent microorganism in all samples was Candida sp. Discriminating the groups, it also had the highest prevalence, followed by Enterococcus sp. Regarding the detection of Staphylococcus aureus by the areolar swab, it was found in 24 samples from the control group and 34 from the study group. In the comparative analysis of prevalence of microorganisms, between the groups, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis proved to be safe not changing the composition of the maternal flora. However, further studies on the subject should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Microbiological Techniques , Colostrum , Infant , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida , Cesarean Section , Flora , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Enterobacteriaceae , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 471-476, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease worldwide. Approximately 20% of individuals with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with increased risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Intestinal microflora, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as demonstrated in several clinical and experimental studies, by altering intestinal permeability and allowing bacterial endotoxins to enter the circulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels with clinical, laboratory, and histopathological aspects of NAFLD and the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels before and after antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Adult patients with a histological diagnosis of NAFLD, without cirrhosis were included. A comprehensive biochemistry panel, lactulose breath test (for diagnosis of SIBO), and serum endotoxin measurement (chromogenic LAL assay) were performed. SIBO was treated with metronidazole 250 mg q8h for 10 days and refractory cases were given ciprofloxacin 500 mg q12h for 10 days. RESULTS: Overall, 42 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NAFLD were examined. The prevalence of SIBO was 26.2%. Comparison of demographic and biochemical parameters between patients with SIBO and those without SIBO revealed no statistically significant differences, except for use of proton pump inhibitors, which was significantly more frequent in patients with positive breath testing. The presence of SIBO was also associated with greater severity of hepatocellular ballooning on liver biopsy. Although the sample, as a whole, have elevated circulating endotoxin levels, we found no significant differences in this parameter between the groups with and without SIBO. Endotoxin values before and after antibiotic treatment did not differ, even on paired analysis, suggesting absence of any relationship between these factors. Serum endotoxin levels were inversely correlated with HDL levels, and directly correlated with triglyceride levels. CONCLUSION: Serum endotoxin levels did not differ between patients with and without SIBO, nor did these levels change after antibacterial therapy, virtually ruling out the possibility that elevated endotoxinemia in non-cirrhotic patients with NAFLD is associated with SIBO. Presence of SIBO was associated with greater severity of ballooning degeneration on liver biopsy, but not with a significantly higher prevalence of NASH. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility and importance of this finding in patients with NAFLD and SIBO.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é uma das doenças hepáticas crônicas mais comuns em todo o mundo. Aproximadamente 20% dos indivíduos com DHGNA desenvolvem esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) que está associada a maior risco de cirrose, hipertensão portal e/ou carcinoma hepatocelular. Alterações da microflora intestinal, incluindo o supercrescimento bacteriano intestinal (SBI), parecem ter um papel importante na patogênese da doença, como demonstrado em estudos clínicos e experimentais, pela alteração da permeabilidade intestinal e permitindo que endotoxinas bacterianas alcancem a circulação sanguínea. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre o SBI e níveis de endotoxina sérica em pacientes não cirróticos com DHGNA, com os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos da doença e a relação entre SBI e níveis séricos de endotoxina antes e após tratamento com antibiótico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos e com diagnóstico histológico de DHGNA, sem cirrose. Foram realizados: avaliação bioquímica geral, teste do H2 expirado com lactulose para diagnóstico de SBI e dosagem de endotoxina sérica - ensaio cromogênico para LAL. Para o tratamento do SBI utilizamos o metronidazol 250 mg de 8/8 horas por 10 dias e para os casos de retratamento foi utilizado ciprofloxacino 500 mg de 12/12 horas por 10 dias. RESULTADOS: Incluímos 42 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de DHGNA. A prevalência de SBI foi de 26,2%. Quando comparamos o grupo dos pacientes com SBI com aquele sem SBI e analisamos suas variáveis demográficas e bioquímicas, não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significante entre elas, exceto pela utilização de inibidores de bomba de próton, que foi significantemente mais frequente nos pacientes com teste respiratório positivo. A presença de SBI também esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, quando comparados àqueles sem SBI. Embora o grupo como um todo apresentasse elevação dos níveis circulantes de endotoxinas, não pudemos encontrar diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos com e sem SBI. Os valores de endotoxinas pré e pós tratamento antibiótico não diferiram entre si, mesmo em análise pareada, sugerindo ausência de relação entre esses fatores. Os níveis de endotoxina sérica apresentaram correlação inversa com os níveis de HDL e correlação direta com os níveis de triglicerídeos. CONCLUSÃO: Níveis de endotoxinas séricas não diferiram entre os pacientes com e sem SBI, e que esses níveis não se modificaram após tratamento medicamentoso da proliferação bacteriana, praticamente excluindo a possibilidade de que os níveis elevados de endotoxemia estejam relacionados à SBI. A presença dessa proliferação bacteriana esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, mas não à maior prevalência de EHNA entre os portadores de SBI. Estudos complementares são necessários para avaliar a reprodutibilidade e a importância desse achado em portadores de DHGNA com SBI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Endotoxins , Intestine, Small , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 381-398, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142348

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Over the last years, there is growing evidence that microorganisms are involved in the maintenance of our health and are related to various diseases, both intestinal and extraintestinal. Changes in the gut microbiota appears to be a key element in the pathogenesis of hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea. In 2019, the Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) in cooperation with the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter Pylori and Microbiota (NBEHPM), and Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) sponsored a joint meeting on gut microbiota and the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in gastrointestinal and liver diseases. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the aforementioned meeting. It is intended to provide practical information about this topic, addressing the latest discoveries and indicating areas for future studies.


RESUMO Nos últimos anos, um volume crescente de evidências indica que os microrganismos estão envolvidos na manutenção da saúde humana e também estão relacionados a várias doenças, tanto intestinais quanto extraintestinais. Alterações na microbiota intestinal parecem ser um elemento chave na patogênese de doenças hepáticas e gastrointestinais, incluindo doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica, doença hepática alcoólica, cirrose hepática, doenças inflamatórias intestinais, síndrome do intestino irritável e diarreia associada ao Clostridium difficile. Em 2019, a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia (SBH) em colaboração com o Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori e Microbiota (NBEHPM) e a Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia (FBG) realizaram um encontro exclusivamente voltado para a discussão sobre microbiota e uso de prebióticos, probióticos e simbióticos em doenças hepáticas e gastrointestinais. Este texto resume os principais pontos discutidos durante o evento, e tem a intenção de fornecer informações práticas sobre o assunto, abordando as descobertas mais recentes e indicando áreas para estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter pylori , Probiotics , Digestive System Diseases , Synbiotics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastroenterology , Brazil , Congresses as Topic , Prebiotics
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