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1.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 53-56, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005905

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and genotype distribution of enterovirus (EV) in influenza-negative influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in Chongqing, and to provide a scientific basis for EV prevention and control. Methods Throat swab samples of influenza-negative ILI cases were collected from surveillance sites. The samples were detected for EV using real-time RT-PCR. The VP4 regions of positive samples were amplified and sequenced for genotyping. Results A total of 3 960 influenza-negative ILI samples were collected from January to December 2021, and 316 (7.98%) of them were EV-positive. EV could be detected in influenza-negative ILI cases in Chongqing all year round. The months with high EV-positive rates were January (11.60%), April (10.56%), May (11.79%), June (12.62%), and July (10.33%). There was a statistically significant difference in the detection rate of EV in ILI cases in different regions, gender, and age groups (χ2=29.647,χ2=4.192,χ2=69.176,P<0.05). A total of 213 EV-positive cases were successfully genotyped, including 17 genotypes of EV-A, EV-B, and EV-C and 5 genotypes of HRV-B. The dominant genotypes were CV-A4 (32.86%), CV-A2 (23.00%), CA-6 (12.21%), and CA-10 (11.74%). EV-D and novel EV were not identified in this study. Conclusion EV is an important pathogen in ILI cases in Chongqing. The prevalence of EV in ILI cases in Chongqing has typical regional, seasonal and population characteristics. Prevention and control should be carried out in Chongqing according to the epidemic characteristics of EV.

2.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 189-194, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013617

ABSTRACT

Aim To establish a stable hepatic stellate cell ( HSC ) -specific G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ( GRK2 ) knockout mice and provide the important animal model for further studying the biological function of GRK2 in HSC. Methods The loxP-labeled Grk2 gene mouse (Grk2

3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535456

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de cuello uterino es causado por la infección persistente del epitelio cervical con los genotipos de alto riesgo del Virus del Papiloma Humano. Para su detección se realizan pruebas moleculares que detectan el gen L1 del VPH. Este gen puede perderse hasta en el 11 % de los casos durante la integración del ADN viral en el genoma del hospedero originando falsos negativos. Por otra parte, el oncogén E7 se expresa durante todas las etapas de progresión de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estandarizar una PCR en tiempo real del oncogén E7 (E7-qPCR) para genotipificación y cuantificación de 6 VPH-AR. Los resultados muestran que la E7- qPCR amplificó VPH-16, -18, -31, -33, -35 y -45 con una alta sensibilidad con límites de detección desde 102 copias, eficiencias entre 90 y 110 %, valores R2 > 0,97 y análisis de curva de fusión que revelan productos específicos.


Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection of the cervical epithelium with the high-risk genotypes of the Human Papilloma Virus (HR-HPV). For its detection, molecular tests are carried out that detect the L1 gene of HPV. This gene can be lost in up to 11 % of cases during the integration of viral DNA into the host genome, causing false negatives. On the other hand, the E7 oncogene is expressed during all stages of disease progression. The aim of this work was to standardize a real-time PCR of the E7 oncogene (E7-qPCR) for genotyping and quantification of 6 HR-HPV. The results show that the E7-qPCR amplified HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35 and -45 with high sensitivity with detection limits from 102 copies, efficiencies between 90 and 110 %, R2 values >0,97 and melting curve analysis revealing specific products.

4.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2023 Jan; 60(1): 74-78
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216919

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Dengue (DEN) is a result of infection by one or multiple types of four dengue viruses known as Dengue virus (DENV) 1-4. Identifying circulating serotype and genotype is epidemiologically important, however, it is challenging in resource limited areas. Moreover, transporting samples from the collation site to the laboratory in appropriate condition is an exigent task. To overcome this, we evaluated the usefulness of dry blots of serum for DENV diagnosis, serotyping and genotyping. Methods: Serum samples received for diagnosis were divided into parts; one was used for providing the diagnosis. Remaining sample was distributed in three parts (100 µl each), one part was used for molecular testing and two parts were mixed with RNAlater reagent® in equal volumes and was blotted on Whatman filter paper no 3. The blots were dried and stored at 4°C and 28°C and tested for presence of dengue RNA, serotypes and genotypes after 7 days of incubation. Results: The diagnosis and serotyping results of serum sample and dry serum blots were in concordance. Out of 20 positive samples, 13 (65%) gave satisfactory sequencing results. Genotype III of DENV-1, Genotype IV of DENV 2 and Genotype I of DENV-4 were detected. Interpretation & conclusion: The results demonstrate that serum mixed with RNA protective solution and blotted on Whatman filter paper no 3 can be effectively used for diagnosis, serotyping and genotyping of DENVs. This will help in easy transportation, diagnosis and effective data generation in resource limited settings.

5.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 359-370, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998620

ABSTRACT

@#Hepatitis C is a global public health concern that infects millions of people worldwide. The continual discovery of new genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an indication of a persistent molecular evolution of the virus. This remains a concern in the efforts towards hepatitis C elimination, as effective management of the disease is, in part, dependent on the HCV genotype responsible for the infection. Accurate HCV screening and quantification using rapid but highly sensitive and reliable methods are crucial for the diagnosis and subsequent management of HCV-related diseases. Thus, this article discusses HCV and the common methods employed for HCV detection and genotyping. While nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of core/E1 and NS5B region are regarded as the gold standard and the most recommended method used for HCV genotyping, electrochemical sensors are being explored for their rapidity.

6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 343-352, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#A core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme to genotype and identify potential risk clonal groups (CGs) in Proteus mirabilis.@*METHODS@#In this work, we propose a publicly available cgMLST scheme for P. mirabilis using chewBBACA. In total 72 complete P. mirabilis genomes, representing the diversity of this species, were used to set up a cgMLST scheme targeting 1,842 genes, 635 unfinished (contig, chromosome, and scaffold) genomes were used for its validation.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 205 CGs from 695 P. mirabilis strains with regional distribution characteristics. Of these, 159 unique CGs were distributed in 16 countries. CG20 and CG3 carried large numbers of shared and unique antibiotic resistance genes. Nine virulence genes ( papC, papD, papE, papF, papG, papH, papI, papJ, and papK) related to the P fimbrial operon that cause severe urinary tract infections were only found in CG20. These CGs require attention due to potential risks.@*CONCLUSION@#This research innovatively performs high-resolution molecular typing of P. mirabilis using whole-genome sequencing technology combined with a bioinformatics pipeline (chewBBACA). We found that the CGs of P. mirabilis showed regional distribution differences. We expect that our research will contribute to the establishment of cgMLST for P. mirabilis.


Subject(s)
Genome, Bacterial , Proteus mirabilis/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Molecular Epidemiology , Genotype
7.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 575-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979768

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To understand the epidemic characteristics of plague and the phenotypic characteristics of Yersinia pestis strains strains in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, so as to provide theoretical reference for timely adjustment of the local plague surveillance program and prevention of plague recurrence, as well as effective experimental basis for clinical treatment and prevention. Methods The biochemical characteristics, virulence factor identification and plasmid analysis of 23 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Dulan County, Qinghai Province from 1964 to 1994 were studied by conventional methods and molecular biology techniques. At the same time, the different region (DFR) method was applied to study the genetic typing of 23 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Dulan County, Qinghai Province according to 23 different regions of plague genome and the designed primers based on PMT1. Results Among the 23 Y. pestis strains isolated from Dulan County, 22 strains of Y. pestis were palaeotypic biotypes, and biochemical types were Qinghai-Tibet Plateau type, and 1 strain was incompatible with both biotypes and biochemical types in this area. And 86.96% (20/23) of Y. pestis strains had four virulence factors (F1+, Pst I+, VW+, Pgm+). All of the tested strains produced F1 and Pst I, while 95.65% (22/23) of tested strains were positive for VW, and 86.96% were Pgm positive. All the 23 strains carried three plasmids, with a relative molecular weight (Mr) of 6×106, 45×106, 52×106, and these plasmids formed a stable plasmid spectrum: 6×106, 45×106, 52 ×106. The DFR typing results showed that Yersinia pestis could be divided into two genotypes, namely G05 and G08. Nineteen Yersinia pestis strains were G08 and four strains were G05. Conclusions The 23 strains of Yersinia pestis isolated from Dulan County were mostly of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau type, and had stable biochemical characteristics. The virulence of Yersinia pestis was strong. The results of plasmid analysis and genotyping showed that the Yersinia pestis had the etiological characteristics of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which was consistent with the characteristics of Marmota himalayana plague foci in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

8.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 300-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979634

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To investigate the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genotypes and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis strains in the natural plague foci of Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province (referred to as "Hainan prefecture") and provide a scientific basis for plague prevention and control in this area. Methods A total of 36 representative Yersinia pestis strains, which were isolated from different host animals and insect vectors from 1954 to 2009 in Hainan Prefecture, were selected as experimental subjects. The DNAs were extracted using the traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate decomposition and phenol-chloroform method. Three pairs of CRISPR primers (YPa, Ypb, YPc) were used for PCR amplification, sequencing and analysis of the DNA of the tested strains, respectively, as a means to identify the CRISPR genotypes of Yersinia pestis in Hainan Prefecture. Results A total of 17 spacers were observed among 36 strains of Yersinia pestis, including 9 of YPa, 5 of YPb and 3 of YPc. All strains were divided into 5 CRISPR gene clusters (Cb2, Cb4 ', Ca7, Ca7 ', Ca35 ') and 6 genotypes (G1, G9, G22, G22-A1 ', G26-A1 ', G26-A1 'A4 -). The G26-a1 ' was the main genotype, which was distributed in Gonghe, Guide and Xinghai County, and the G22 is the second type, which was distributed in Gonghe and Guide County. Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of CRISPR loci of Yersinia pestis strains in Hainan was high, and the regional distribution characteristics of Yersinia pestis strains with different genotypes were significant.

9.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; (12): 589-593, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996375

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To analyze the etiology of clinical cases of live attenuated varicella vaccine.Methods 64 samples of varicella vesicle fluid from 49 patients clinically diagnosed as varicella cases in phase Ⅲ clinical trial of live attenuated varicella vaccine in enterprises(the test site was Henan Province) were collected,extracted for DNA,and distinguished for wild-type strains and vaccine strains by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP).Genotype was analyzed using the genotyping method recommended at the international(varicella-zoster virus,VZV) nomenclature meeting2008.Results 64 vesicle fluids were all wild-type strains(Pst Ⅰ~+Sma Ⅰ~-BssH Ⅱ~-Nae Ⅰ~-),and no vaccine-related cases occurred.All 49 isolates belonged to Clade 2.Additionally,compared with Clade 2,a synonymous mutation(T→C) in SNP18 082 was detected in all 49 isolates,and a mutation(C→A) in SNP790 was detected in one isolate.Conclusion In the clinical trial of live attenuated varicella vaccine in Henan Province,all the clinical cases were caused by infection of wild-type strain which belonged to Clade 2 genetic branch.

10.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 155-162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995712

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the accuracy, effectiveness and feasibility of MassARRAY genotyping assay in the diagnoses of neonatal genetic metabolic diseases.Methods:This is a retrospective study. From December 2016 to January 2020, newborns were screened by tandem mass spectrometry at the Zhejiang Newborn Screening Center, among which the data of 7 922 suspected positive cases of genetic metabolic diseases were collected. These patients were then tested for the common variants of 27 genetic metabolic diseases by MassARRAY genotyping assay, along with further testing using Sanger or next-generation sequencing used to verify and/or further search for potential variants.Results:A total of 1 408 cases were tested with MassARRAY. Among these, 307 cases were confirmed with certain genetic metabolic diseases. The detection rate of hyperphenylalaninemia was the highest, followed by primary carnitine deficiency, short acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency and methylmalonic acidemia. With these cases, the consistency of Sanger sequencing and MassARRAY was 100% (307/307). Another 287 cases were identified as carriers by MassARRAY with a 49.1% (141/287) consistency in reference to Sanger sequencing, mainly involving SLC22A5 and MCCC1 genes. Meanwhile, 50.8% (146/287) of these cases were found to have another variant mainly involving PAH, PTS and ACADS genes. The remaining 814 cases have no variants; 158 cases out of these patients have continuously abnormal amino acids, acyl carnitines, urine organic acid and/or other biochemical indices, and were tested by next-generation sequencing, among which 38% (60/158) were detected with two variants. In this study, a total of 513 patients with genetic metabolic disease were diagnosed, and the detection rate of MassARRAY was 59.8% (307/513). Conclusions:MassARRAY genotyping assay can be used as an early molecular screening method for neonatal genetic metabolic diseases. The detection rate is particularly high in diseases with a high concentration of hotspot variants, such as hyperphenylalaninemia and primary carnitine deficiency. The future application value of MassARRAY should be further improved by continuously optimizing its ability to identify new disease genes and potential variable sites.

11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 111-115, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991588

ABSTRACT

Objective:To learn about the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genotyping of Yersinia pestis in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Yushu for short), Qinghai Province, and to explore its genetic characteristics. Methods:In this study, 44 representative strains isolated from local natural plague focus in Yushu from 1963 to 2007 were selected as experimental objects to extract DNA. Primers targeting the three CRISPR loci (YPa, YPb, and YPc) were designed for PCR amplification. The amplified products were sequenced and analyzed to identify the CRISPR spacer, and to determine the CRISPR genotypes and clusters.Results:Twenty-three spacers including 14 of YPa, 6 of YPb and 3 of YPc were observed among 44 strains, of which 2 spacers (a106 and a107) were firstly identified. According to the spacer arrays, the strains were divided into 15 CRISPR genotypes and classified into 6 CRISPR clusters which were Cb4, Cc3', Ca7, Ca7', CaΔ5' and Ca35', respectively. Among them, Ca7 was the most epidemic dominant cluster (34 strains) in Yushu.Conclusion:The CRISPR loci of Yersinia pestis in Yushu have multiple genotypes, high genetic polymorphism, and complex population structure.

12.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 594-597, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004791

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To solve the difficulty of RhD blood group typing in a patient with double population(DP) of red blood cells for RhD antigen by serological and genotyping analysis. 【Methods】 Separation of the two populations of red blood cells of the patient was performed using capillary centrifugation method. ABO, RhD and RhCE typing, direct anti-human globulin test (DAT), irregular antibody screening, antibody identification and blood crossmatching of the patient were conducted using the standard serological methods. The hybrid Rhesus zygosity analysis of the RHD gene was performed by PCR-RFLP method. RHD and RHCE genotype of the patients were identified by PCR-SSP method. 【Results】 The patient was B type but with DP of red blood cells for RhD, Rhc and RhE antigens. DAT of the patient was positive and the alloanti-D was detected in serum. The RHD zygosity was D-/D- homozygote. PCR-SSP testing showed the RHD gene deletion (RHD * 01N. 01/01N.01 genotype) and Ccee of RHCE genotype in the patient, which was consistent with RHD zygosity analysis. 【Conclusion】 This is a special case with D-negative phenotype which was wrongly detected as D-positive type after D-positive red blood cells transfusion in emergency. When the DP of red cells for D antigen encountered like this case, the RhD typing can be accurately determined by using RHD genotyping analysis to provide strong evidence to the clinical blood transfusion.

13.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 687-688,689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004765

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate the serology and genotype identification method of B (A) subtype patients. 【Methods】 Test tube method (serology) was used to confirm the clinically difficult ABO blood group samples of 3 patients with ABO blood group; ABO blood group was genotyped by real-time PCR, and the ABO gene exon 1-7 was sequenced to determine the genotype. 【Results】 The forward and reverse blood typing result of three patients was B (A) subtype all with ABO genotype B/O2 and c.640A> G mutation on B allele of exon 7, which meets the characteristics of ABO * BA.04 genotype. 【Conclusion】 The combination of serological and genetic testing could identify difficult blood types such as ABO subtypes accurately and ensure the safety of clinical blood use.

14.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422778

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Amniotic fluid DNA samples were genotyped by multilocus-nested-PCR-RFLP, but only three of 11 markers amplified 113 of 122 (92.6%) samples, resulting in 12 untyped and 101 partial non-archetypal genotypes. The 101 typed samples were subdivided into four groups: G1 with 73 samples (5'and 3' SAG2 allele I + SAG3 allele III + GRA6 allele III), 53 had parasite load ≤ 102 parasites/mL (43 asymptomatic, 10 mild infections), 17 had load > 102 and ≤ 103 (one mild, 13 moderate and three severe), and three had load > 103 parasites/mL (three severe); G2 with 22 samples (5'and 3' SAG2 allele I + SAG3 allele III), all parasite load levels ≤ 102 parasites/mL (18 asymptomatic and four mild); G3 with five samples (5' and 3' SAG2 allele I + SAG3 allele II), parasite load ≤ 102 parasites/mL (three asymptomatic and two mild); G4 with one sample (5' and 3' SAG2 allele II + SAG3 allele II + GRA6 allele I), a parasite load < 102 parasites/mL in an asymptomatic infant. After DNA sequencing, restriction sites confirmed SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 alleles in 98.7%, 100% and 100% of the cases, respectively, while single nucleotide polymorphisms confirmed 90% of 5'-SAG2 allele I; 98.7% of 3'-SAG2 allele I; 98% of SAG-3 allele III, but only 40% of GRA6 allele III results. For the moment, partial non-archetypal genotypes of parasites did not show any relationship with either parasite load in amniotic fluid samples or clinical outcome of infants at the age of 12 months.

15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 118: e230043, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intestinal parasite Giardia can affect children's physical development mainly stunting even in asymptomatic cases. The protozoa G. lamblia is divided into assemblages A-H. However, it is still unclear whether clinical manifestations and pathogenesis may vary according to the infecting assemblage. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether G. lamblia assemblages influence differently the physical development of preschoolers from a community of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Anthropometric parameters were analysed from children attending a daycare centre and stool samples were obtained for the G. lamblia diagnosis. G. lamblia isolates from positive samples were genotyped. Data were analysed in order to verify whether there is a relationship between G. lamblia infection and the physical development of children according to the assemblage. FINDINGS Herein we demonstrated that although eutrophic, G. lamblia-infected daycare preschoolers from a low-income community presented growth delay compared to non-infected ones. This effect was observed for the three assemblages (A, B or E) found infecting humans. MAIN CONCLUSION G. lamblia causes growth delays on children independent of infecting assemblage (A, B or E).

16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 118: e230088, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The parasite Giardia duodenalis infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Giardia is genotyped into eight assemblages (A-H). Zoonotic assemblages A and B have already been identified in humans and wild and domestic animals (non-human primates and cats) from Brazilian Amazon and in the world. Due to its zoonotic/zooanthroponotic nature, surveillance initiatives and the definition of Giardia assemblages are important in order to characterise the epidemiological scenario and to implement further control measures. OBJECTIVES Determine assemblages of G. duodenalis in sloths from the Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS Faecal parasitological examination of sloths from Amazonas State. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the beta giardin (BG), and genes from multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. FINDINGS Here, we identified, by microscopy, Giardia in two northern sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). These two samples were submitted to molecular assays and it was revealed that both were infected by G. duodenalis assemblage A. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to assemblage A within sequences from humans and wild and domestic animals. CONCLUSION Therefore, besides showing, by the first time, the current presence of this parasite in sloths, our findings reveals that this wild animal species would be part of the zoonotic/zooanthroponotic scenario of this parasite in the Brazilian Amazon.

17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 54(3): 51-60, set. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Achromobacter spp. are increasingly recognized as emerging pathogens in immunocompromised patients or suffering cystic fibrosis, but unusual in immunocompetent hosts or individuals that underwent surgery. In this study we describe two simultaneous events attributable to two different Achromobacter spp. contaminated sources. One event was related to an episode of pseudo-bacteremia due to sodium citrate blood collection tubes contaminated with Achromobacter insuavis and the other to Achromobacter genogroup 20 infection and colonization caused by an intrinsically contaminated chlorhexidine soap solution. Both threatened the appropriate use of antimicrobials. Molecular approaches were critical to achieving the accurate species identification and to assess the clonal relationship, strengthening the need for dedicated, multidisciplinary and collaborative work of microbiologists, specialists in infectious diseases, epidemiologists and nurses in the control of infections to clarify these epidemiological situations.


Resumen Achromobacter spp. son reconocidas con mayor frecuencia como patógenos emergentes en pacientes con fibrosis quística e inmunodeprimidos, pero son inusuales en hospedadores inmunocompetentes o quirúrgicos. En este estudio describimos 2 eventos simultáneos atribuibles a 2 fuentes contaminadas con Achromobacter spp. Uno correspondió a un episodio de seudobacteriemia por tubos de citrato de sodio contaminados con Achromobacter insuavis y el otro a infecciones y colonizaciones debidas al uso de solución jabonosa de clorhexidina intrínsecamente contaminada con Achromobacter genogrupo 20. Ambos episodios pusieron en peligro el uso apropiado de antimicrobianos. Los enfoques moleculares fueron fundamentales para lograr la identificación precisa de las especies y evaluar la relación clonal de los aislamientos, lo que refuerza la necesidad del trabajo perseverante y multidisciplinario de microbiólogos, especialistas en enfermedades infecciosas, epidemiólogos y enfermeras en el control de infecciones para el esclarecimiento de estas situaciones epidemiológicas.

18.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(3): 386-391, July-Sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Prevalence of RhD negative phenotype in Nigeria is low; this leads to scarcity of RhD negative red cells for transfusion. Serological and molecular genotyping of RhD negative individuals for weak D types could reduce this scarcity. The aim of this study was to determine the serological prevalence and molecular types of weak D phenotypes among blood donors and pregnant women in Kano, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 4482 blood donors and pregnant women from three hospitals in Kano were recruited. An indirect antiglobulin test was used to determine weak D phenotypes. Molecular genotyping was performed on genomic DNA from whole blood amplified by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The mean age of the participants was 26.50 ±5.79 years. The prevalence of the RhD negative phenotype was 4.2% (189/4482). Of the 189 RhD negative phenotypes, 20 (10.6%) were weak D positive. Molecular genotyping of the 20 Weak D positive phenotypes revealed 15 (75%) weak D type 4, of which 11 were due to the RHD*09.03 and RHD*DAR3 (T201R, F223V) polymorphisms and 4, due to RHD* 08.01 and RHD* DFV polymorphisms; 2 (10%) were due to the 602 C>G polymorphism, while the remaining 3 (15%) constituted partial D or other rare weak D types. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D positive phenotypes is high in this study; weak D type 4 is the most common RhD genetic variant. Routine serologic weak D testing of RhD negative blood and molecular genotyping should be encouraged in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Transfusion , Genotyping Techniques , Phenotype , Serology , Nigeria
19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216828

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental caries being the leading health issue worldwide has no specific cure due to its multifactorial etiology and genetic susceptibility. Hence, this paper attempted to correlate the clinical and hereditary factors between mother and child, to predict the caries occurrence in child in future, and thereby implement early preventive measures. Aim: The aim of the study was to look for an association between maternal and child's human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 levels and relate it with other physiochemical factors to assess caries susceptibility in children. Methodology: Saliva samples were collected from children who were in the age group of 0–6 years and their mothers by spitting method and swab method. The clinical indicators such as Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth, decayed, extraction needed, and filled teeth, salivary flow rate, and pH were recorded by clinical evaluation. The Streptococcus mutans count was measured by culture plate followed by colony count method, and the HLA-DR4 factor was assessed using ELISA. Results: The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the physiochemical factors of the mother and the child. The genetic factor in which the HLA-DR4 caries indicator was checked also has a strong association between the mother and the offspring. Thus, a strong caries prediction formula was derived through which probability of caries occurrence in the child could be determined prematurely. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that using the clinical and genetic factors, the caries prediction can be done for the child and preventive protocol can be started before disease occurrence.

20.
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 5-16, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360044

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar las diferencias morfo-agronómicas y de calidad, y la diversidad genética entre 14 variedades de arroz de América Latina con sus respectivas líneas de origen, se estableció un estudio (Bloques completos al azar, con 28 genotipos, tres repeticiones y dos siembras en el tiempo), en el cual se midieron 25 variables morfo-agronómicas y de calidad de grano. El análisis molecular se hizo mediante un arreglo de 96 marcadores tipo SNP de alta capacidad de discriminación para arroces Indica. El análisis estadístico se hizo combinando los datos de las dos siembras porque no hubo diferencias estadísticas entre ellas. Además, se analizaron en conjunto los datos moleculares con los morfo-agronómicos y de calidad, usando el índice de Gower para generar una matriz de similitud. Mediante el programa SAS se analizaron los datos agronómicos y moleculares tanto en forma independiente como en conjunto. Los resultados mostraron que, de las 14 variedades, ocho se agruparon con su línea de origen y hubo una variedad que se agrupó con una línea hermana de su ancestro. Los resultados fueron consistentes cuando el análisis de datos se hizo independientemente o combinado. Dada la amplia diversidad encontrada dentro de las variedades y que ninguna fue homocigota al 100 % no se pudieron establecer los perfiles genéticos distintivos de ellas, por lo que se debe hacer la purificación de las variedades para establecer su huella genética.


ABSTRACT This research aimed to determine the morpho-agronomic, grain quality, and molecular differences between 14 rice varieties and their ancestors. These rice varieties from Latin America were tested for 25 variables in a randomized complete block design with 28 genotypes, two planting dates, and three replications. The molecular analysis was done using an array of 96 SNP markers with a high discrimination capacity for Indica rice. A combined statistical analysis was done because there were no statistical differences between the planting dates. Also, molecular, morpho-agronomic, and grain quality data were analyzed together, using the Gower index to generate a similarity matrix. Agronomic and molecular data were analyzed both, together and independently, through the SAS program. Results showed that eight varieties were grouped with their respective ancestor, and one variety was grouped with a sibling of their ancestor and was consistent in all the analyses. However, given the wide heterozygosity found within the varieties, distinctive genetic profiles could not be established; the varieties must be purified to establish their genetic footprint.

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