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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 58-67, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364311

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes maternal and infant morbidity. Periodontitis is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal status, prematurity and associated factors in pregnant women with and without GDM. Subjects and methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 80 pregnant women with GDM (G1 = 40) and without GDM (G2 = 40). Demographic and socioeconomic status, systemic and periodontal health condition, prematurity and newborns' birth weight were analyzed. For bivariate analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test, t test and Chi-squared test were used. Binary logistic regression analyzed independent variables for periodontitis and prematurity (p < 0.05). Results: Patients from G1 presented lower socioeconomic status, higher weight and body mass index (BMI). Prematurity (G1 = 27.5%; G2 = 2.5%; p < 0.05) and severe periodontitis percentages (G1 = 22.5%; G2 = 0; p = 0.001) were higher in G1 than in G2. Logistic regression analysis showed that household monthly income (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003) and maternal BMI (adjusted OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.25; p = 0.028) were significant predictors of periodontitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. Presence of GDM remained in the final logistic model related to prematurity (adjusted OR = 14.79; 95% CI 1.80-121.13; p = 0.012). Conclusions: Pregnant women with GDM presented higher severity of periodontitis, lower socioeconomic status, higher overweight/obesity and a 10-fold higher risk of prematurity. Socioeconomic-cultural status and BMI were significant predictors for periodontitis, and GDM was a predictor to prematurity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 747-751, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349984

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the current recommended approach for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Visfatin is a type of novel adipokine of interest that mostly participates in glucose metabolism and inflammatory processes. We aim to identify a screening technique for GDM using salivary visfatin levels and to establish this technique's value as a screening method compared to OGTT. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional case-control study. The cohort was formed from the saliva samples of pregnant patients in their 24th through 28th weeks of gestation. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their GDM status. OGTT and visfatin test results were compared and subjected to further analysis to establish a cutoff value for visfatin testing. Results: ELISA results indicated a significant difference between patients with GDM compared to patients without GDM; the values were 18.89 ± 9.59 and 12.44 ± 8.75, respectively (p: 0.007). A cutoff value of 10.5 ng/mL can be used to detect GDM with 78% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Conclusion: Salivary visfatin levels were significantly higher in patients with GDM. The existence of a differential in the concentration of visfatin in saliva can be utilized to develop a new screening method for GDM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saliva/chemistry , Cytokines/analysis , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/analysis , Blood Glucose , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 520-524, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340162

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate cardiac function and structural changes in children of diabetic mothers in the fetal and neonatal period using Doppler-echocardiographic data. Method: A prospective, descriptive observational study conducted in a private and tertiary care service for high-risk pregnant women. It included 48 children of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) considered clinically compensated during pregnancy, with a single fetus and absence of malformations. Myocardial thickness, shortening fraction, left ventricular (LVMPI) and right ventricular (RVMPI) myocardial performance index, and mitral and tricuspid valve E/A ratio were evaluated in 96 echocardiographic exams with Doppler. Results: The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was 29% vs 6% p = 0.006 in the prenatal and postnatal periods respectively. The shortening fraction was 0% vs 6% p = 0.242 in the fetuses and newborns respectively. The myocardial performance index of the right ventricle was 12% vs 54% p ≤ 0.001, and on the left ventricle 27% vs 60% p = 0.001 in the prenatal and postnatal periods respectively. The ratio of mitral valve E/A waves was 6% vs 50% p ≤ 0.001 and the ratio of tricuspid valve E/A waves was 0% vs 27% p 0.001 in the fetuses and newborns respectively. Conclusion: A decrease in the rate of myocardial hypertrophy and changes in cardiac function parameters were observed in the fetal and neonatal periods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Diabetes, Gestational , Cardiomyopathies , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Age , Fetal Heart/diagnostic imaging , Mothers
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(9): 699-709, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in the postpartum period of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Randomized clinical trials of pregnant women with GDM of any chronological, gestational age and parity, with no history of previous disease who received vitamin D supplementation in the prenatal and/or postpartum period and were evaluated in the postpartum period were included. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and LILACS databases were consulted until July 2019. Serum vitamin D concentration (25- hydroxyvitamin D in nmol/L), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum calcium concentration, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Similar results in at least two trials were plotted using the RevMan 5; Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, Reino Unido. The quality of the evidence was generated according to the classification, development, and evaluation of the classification of the recommendations. Results Four studies were included in the present review (200 women). The findings indicate that there is no difference in the postpartum period in women diagnosed with previous GDM who received vitamin D supplementation in the prenatal and/or in the postpartum period, showing only that there was a significant increase in the concentration of vitamin D (relative risk [RR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.68). Conclusion This increase in the concentration of vitamin D should be interpreted with caution, since the assessment of the quality of the evidence was very low. For the other analyzed outcomes, there was no significance between the intervention and control groups, and the outcomes, when analyzed in their strength of evidence, were considered very low and low in their evaluation.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina D no pós-parto de mulheres com diabetes mellitus gestacional (DGM) anterior. Métodos Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados com gestantes com GDM de qualquer idade cronológica, gestacional e paridade, sem história de doença prévia, que receberam suplementação de vitamina D no pré-natal e/ou no pós-parto e foram avaliadas no pós-parto. As bases de dados consultadas foram PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane e LILACS, até julho de 2019. Foram avaliados concentração sérica da vitamina D (25-hidroxivitamina D em nmol/L), glicemia de jejum, hemoglobina glicada, concentração sérica de cálcio, modelo de avaliação da homeostase de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR, na sigla em inglês), índice qualitativo de verificação da sensibilidade à insulina (QUICKI, na sigla em inglês), hormônio da paratireoide (PTH) e índice de massa corpórea (IMC). Resultados semelhantes em pelo menos dois ensaios foram plotados no software RevMan 5; Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, Reino Unido. A qualidade das evidências foi gerada de acordo com a classificação, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação da classificação das recomendações. Resultados Quatro estudos foram incluídos na presente revisão (200 mulheres). Os achados indicam que não há diferença no período pós-parto em mulheres com diagnóstico prévio de DMG que receberam suplementação de vitamina D no período pré-natal e/ou pós-parto, mostrando apenas que houve um aumento significativo na concentração de vitamina D (risco relativo [RR]: 1,85; IC [intervalo de confiança] 95%: 1,02-2,68). Conclusão Este aumento na concentração de vitamina D deve ser interpretado com cautela, uma vez que a avaliação da qualidade das evidências foi muito baixa. Para os demais desfechos analisados, não houve significância entre os grupos intervenção e controle, e os desfechos, quando analisados em sua força da evidência, foram considerados muito baixa e baixa em sua avaliação. PROSPERO CRD42018110729


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Dietary Supplements
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 328-335, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between HbA1c levels measured in the third trimester and the risk for large for gestational age (LGA) in neonates of mothers affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Secondarily, we aimed to identify an ideal cut-off for increased risk of LGA amongst pregnant women with GDM. Materials and methods: Observational retrospective review of singleton pregnant women with GDM evaluated in a diabetes and pregnancy clinic of a tertiary and academic hospital. From January/2011 to December/2017, 1,085 pregnant women underwent evaluation due to GDM, of which 665 had an HbA1c test in the third trimester. A logistic regression model was performed to evaluate predictors of LGA. A receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive ability of third trimester HbA1c for LGA identification. Results: A total of 1,085 singleton pregnant women were evaluated during the study period, with a mean age of 32.9 ± 5.3 years. In the multivariate analysis, OGTT at 0 minutes (OR: 1.040; CI 95% 1.006-1.076, p = 0.022) and third trimester HbA1c (OR: 4.680; CI 95% 1.210-18.107, p = 0.025) were associated with LGA newborns. Using a ROC curve to evaluate the predictive ability of third trimester HbA1c for LGA identification, the optimal HbA1c cut-off point was 5.4% where the sensitivity was 77.4% and the specificity was 71.7% (AUC 0.782; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Few studies in the Mediterranean population have evaluated the role of HbA1c in predicting neonatal complications in women with GDM. A third trimester HbA1c > 5.4% was found to have good sensitivity and specificity for identifying the risk of LGA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age
6.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(2): e200, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Timely diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes (GD), as well as adequate control of associated risk factors, allows reducing its negative impact on maternal and perinatal health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of GD in a tertiary care hospital in Colombia and identify the risk factors associated with this condition, as well as the maternal-perinatal outcomes in this population, following the implementation of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in which a secondary data analysis was carried out. By means of consecutive sampling, 533 pregnant women with GD who gave birth at the Hospital Universitario San José in Popayán, Colombia, between July 2017 and March 2018, were included. Social, biological, and psychological variables were analyzed. To identify risk factors and associated maternal-perinatal outcomes, the Odds Ratio was used as a measure of association (CI:95%). In addition, a multivariate analysis was performed to control for confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of GD was 16.32% (95%CI:13.28-19.73). The following risk factors associated with GD were identified: age >35 (OR=2.26; 95%CI:1.23-4.14), indigenous race (OR=6.60; 95%CI:1.17-37.15), BMI >25 (OR=2. 26; 95%CI:1.23-4.14), history of fetal macrosomia (OR=10.07; 95%CI: 1.50-67.34), and family history of diabetes mellitus (OR=3.17; 95%CI:1.39-7.22). Regarding maternal-perinatal outcomes, a significant association was found with labor induction (OR=4.41; 95%CI:1.71-11.39), emergency cesarean section (OR=2.22; 95%CI:1.33-3.73), elective cesarean section (OR=2.79; 95%CI:1.51-5.18), fetal weight >90th percentile (OR=2.78; 95%CI:1.29-5.98), and neonatal hospitalization (OR=8.1; 95%CI:4.48-18.62). Conclusions: The prevalence of GD reported here is higher than the prevalence described in other studies conducted in Colombia, but similar to most studies that have followed the IADPSG criteria. Likewise, risk factors and maternal-perinatal outcomes that had a statistically significant association with GD here are similar to those described in most of the studies that were consulted.


Resumen Introducción. El diagnóstico y manejo oportuno de la diabetes gestacional (DG) y el adecuado control de factores de riesgo asociados permiten disminuir su impacto negativo en la salud materna y perinatal. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de DG en un hospital de tercer nivel de Colombia e identificar los factores asociados a esta condición, así como los resultados materno-perinatales en esta población, tras la implementación de los criterios de la Asociación Internacional de Grupos de Estudio de Diabetes y Embarazo (IADPSG). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal en el que se realizó un análisis de datos secundarios. Mediante muestreo consecutivo se incluyeron 533 gestantes con reporte de prueba diagnóstica de DG y que dieron a luz en el Hospital Universitario San José de Popayán, Colombia, entre julio de 2017 y marzo de 2018. Se analizaron variables sociales, biológicas y psicológicas. Para la identificación de los factores y resultados materno-perinatales asociados se utilizó el Odds Ratio como medida de asociación (IC: 95%). Además, se realizó un análisis multivariado para controlar las variables de confusión. Resultados. La prevalencia de DG fue del 16.32% (IC95%:13.28-19.73). Se identificaron los siguientes factores asociados a DG: edad >35 (OR=2.26; IC95%: 1.23-4.14), raza indígena (OR=6.60; IC95%: 1.17-37.15), IMC preconcepcional >25 (OR=2.26; IC95%: 1.23-4.14), antecedente de feto macrosómico (OR=10.07; IC95%: 1.50-67.34) y antecedente familiar de diabetes mellitus (OR=3.17; IC95%: 1.39-7.22). Respecto a los resultados materno-perinatales, se encontró una asociación significativa con inducción del trabajo de parto (OR=4.41; IC95%: 1.71-11.39), cesárea de urgencia (OR=2.22; IC95%: 1.33-3.73) y electiva (OR=2.79; IC95%: 1.51-5.18), macrosomia por percentil >90 (OR=2.78; IC95%: 1.29-5.98) y hospitalización neonatal (OR=8.1; IC95%: 4.48-18.62). Conclusiones. La prevalencia de DG en el presente estudio es mayor a la reportada en investigaciones realizadas en Colombia, pero similar a la descrita en la mayoría de estudios que han seguido los criterios de la IADPSG. Los factores y los resultados maternos-perinatales en los que se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la DG son similares a los reportados en la mayoría de la literatura consultada.

7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(2): 167-176, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287024

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate gestational weight gain and birth weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus of two Brazilian cohorts enrolled three decades apart. Methods: The authors compared data of 2362 women from the Lifestyle INtervention for Diabetes Prevention After Pregnancy study (LINDA-Brasil, 2014-2017) to those of 359 women from the Estudo Brasileiro de Diabetes Gestacional study (EBDG, 1991-1995). Gestational weight gain was classified by the 2009 Institute of Medicine criteria; large and small for gestational age newborns, by the Intergrowth-21st chart. Differences in birth weight means between pregestational BMI and gestational weight gain categories were evaluated by ANOVA; the associations of gestational weight gain and birth weight, through multivariable Poisson regression. Results: In LINDA-Brasil, women presented higher pregestational body mass index (30.3 ± 6.5 vs. 24.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2) and were frequently obese (46.4 vs. 11.1%) compared to those of the EBDG. In the EBDG, gestational weight gain was larger (11.3 ± 6.1 vs. 9.2 ± 7.6 kg) and rates of small for gestational age higher (7.5 vs. 4.5%) compared to LINDA-Brasil. In LINDA-Brasil, excessive gestational weight gain was associated to macrosomia (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35) and large for gestational age (aRR: 1.40; 95% CI 1.05-1.86); less gain increased the risk of low birth weight (aRR: 1.66; 95% CI 1.05-2.62) and small for gestational age (aRR: 1.79; 95% CI 1.03-3.11). These associations were similar in the EBDG, although not statistically significant. Conclusions: Improvements in gestational weight gain and rates of small for gestational age occurred over time in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies, accompanied by a worsening in maternal weight profile. This highlights the nutritional transition during this period and the importance of avoiding excessive gestational weight gain as well as promoting adequate weight before conception.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications , Diabetes, Gestational , Gestational Weight Gain , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Obesity
8.
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 20210430.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 13-20, ene. - abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248270

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la provincia de La Pampa no hay registro del número de pacientes con diabetes gestacional (DG) que vuelve a control metabólico posparto, cuando se conoce el riesgo que evolucione a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Objetivos: analizar en el Hospital Público Interzonal (Dr. Lucio Molas) el porcentaje de mujeres con DG que volvió a control metabólico posparto y desarrolló DM2 durante seis años de seguimiento. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo ambispectivo en 44 pacientes con DG diagnosticada en 2013 con seguimiento hasta el 31/12/2019. Se analizaron antecedentes previos de DG y familiares de diabetes (AFD), edad, semana de gestación del diagnóstico con glucemia/prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa (PTOG), índice de masa corporal (IMC), presión arterial, vía del parto, peso del recién nacido, HbA1c. Resultados: en 2013 se efectuaron 1.238 partos, 44 pacientes (3,7%) tenían DG diagnosticada, 68% mediante PTOG. Presentaban 43% AFD, 38,6% sobrepeso, 20,45% obesidad, 68,2% cesáreas y 11,4% recién nacidos con alto peso. En seis años de seguimiento, 54,5% de estas pacientes realizó control metabólico; este grupo, a diferencia del grupo sin control, presentó mayor IMC al inicio del embarazo (t:2,103; p<0,02), glucemia basal (t:10,59; p<0,001), presión arterial sistólica (t:2,629; p<0,01), diastólica (t:1,965; p<0,05) y macrosomía fetal (4 vs 1). El 33,3 % manifestó DM2 predominantemente a partir de tres años del posparto. Conclusiones: el 54,5% de las pacientes con DG concurrió a control metabólico posparto tardíamente, y el 33,3% evolucionó a DM2; incluso estas pacientes presentaron mayor número de factores de riesgo obstétricos y cardiometabólicos que el grupo sin control al inicio del embarazo.


Introduction: there is no register of the number of women with gestational diabetes (GD) that have undergone metabolic post-partum control in the province of La Pampa, even though it is well-known the increased associated risk of becoming a diabetes type 2 patient (T2DM). Objectives: to analyze at the Interzonal Public Hospital (Dr. Lucio Molas) the percentage of women with GD who returned to postpartum metabolic control and developed T2DM during six years of follow-up. Materials and methods: descriptive ambispective study in 44 patients with GD diagnosed in 2013 with follow-up until 31 December 2019. Different characteristics were analyzed in all participants: previous history of GD and family members of diabetes (FHD), age, gestational week of the diagnosis with fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, delivery route, newborn weight, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Results: a number of 1,238 of deliveries were performed in 2013, 44 women (3.7%) developed GD diagnosed by OGTT (68%), 43% presented FHD, 38.6% overweight, 20.45% obesity. Among the totality of deliveries 68.2% were by caesarea and 11.4% high birth weight newborns. In six years of follow-up, 54.5% of these patients underwent metabolic control, presenting this group, unlike the group without control, higher BMI at the beginning of pregnancy (t:2.103; p<0.02), fasting blood glucose (t:10 .59; p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (t:2.629; p<0.01), diastolic blood pressure (t; 1.965; p<0.05) and fetal macrosomia (4 vs 1). 33.3% developed T2DM predominantly from at three years postpartum. Conclusions: the present study reported that 54.5% of women with GD performed a late metabolic postpartum control evolving 33.3% developed T2DM presenting higher obstetric and cardiometabolic risk factors than the group without control at the beginning of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes, Gestational , Blood Glucose , Gestational Age , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
10.
Femina ; 49(3): 177-182, 20210331.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224087

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é um distúrbio metabólico por déficit na produção e/ou ação insulínica. Tem relação direta com um constante estado catabólico associado com maior resistência à ação da insulina. Doença de difícil controle, implica risco materno-fetal elevado. O objetivo é estudar a eficácia das drogas antidiabéticas orais sobre o controle glicêmico no DMG e sua segurança quanto aos desfechos gestacionais e perinatais. Trata-se de revisão de literatura descritiva baseada em dados de artigos, livros-texto e guidelines emitidos nos últimos cinco anos. O antidiabético oral pode ser uma boa alternativa no controle do DMG em fase inicial da doença, na presença de distúrbio metabólico e como complemento da terapia com insulina. Entretanto, por causa de sua passagem placentária, há preocupações com seus efeitos fetais e perinatais. Estudos comparativos destacam a metformina no manejo do DMG, considerando principalmente a segurança materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by deficit in production and/or insulin action. It is directly related to a constant catabolic state associated with greater resistance to insulin action. Disease difficult to control, implies high maternal-fetal risk. To study the efficacy of oral antidiabetic drugs on glycemic control in GDM and its safety regarding gestational and perinatal outcomes. Descriptive literature review based on data from articles, textbooks and guidelines issued in the last five years. Oral antidiabetic can be a good alternative in the control of GDM in the initial phase of the disease, in the presence of metabolic disorder and as a complement to insulin therapy. However, there are concerns about its placental passage and perinatal effects. Comparative studies highlight metformin in the management of DMG considering mainly maternal-fetal safety.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 107-112, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the obstetric and sociodemographic characteristics of gestational diabetic women who maintained hyperglycemia in the postpartum period (6-12 weeks postpartum). Methods This is a longitudinal cohort study with women who have had gestational diabetes and/or macrosomic children between March 1st, 2016 and March 1st, 2017. Between 6 and 12 weeks after birth, women who had gestational diabetes collected fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance test, and glycated hemoglobin results. The data were collected from medical records and during an interview in the first postpartum consultation. A statistical analysis was performed using frequency, percentage, Chi- Squared test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and multivariate Poisson regression. The significance level adopted for the statistical tests was 5%. Results One hundred and twenty-two women were included. Most of the women were younger than 35 years old (70.5%), white, multiparous, and with no history of gestational diabetes. Thirteen percent of the participants developed persistent hyperglycemia. A univariate analysis showed that maternal age above 35 years, being overweight, having grade 1 obesity and weight gain under 5 kg was related to the persistence of hyperglycemia in the postpartum period. Conclusion Maternal age above 35 years, obesity and overweight, and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with hyperglycemia during the postpartum period.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar características sociodemográficas e obstétricas de mulheres com diabetes gestacional que mantêm hiperglicemia no período pós-parto (6-12 semanas pós-parto). Métodos Este é um estudo longitudinal de coorte com mulheres com diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional e/ou macrossomia fetal entre 1° de março de 2016 a 1° de março de 2017. As mulheres coletaram glicemia de jejum, teste de tolerância a glicose e hemoglobina glicada entre 6 a 12 semanas pós-parto. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários médicos e durante entrevista na primeira consulta de revisão pós-parto. Uma análise estatística foi realizada através do cálculo de frequências, porcentagens, teste do qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher, teste de Mann-Whitney e regressão multivariada de Poisson. A significância estatística adotada foi de 5%. Resultados Cento e vinte e duas mulheres foram incluídas. A maioria delas tinha menos de 35 anos de idade (70,5%), eram brancas, multíparas, e não tinham história de diabetes gestacional. Treze por cento das participantes desenvolveu hiperglicemia persistente. A análise univariada mostrou que os fatores relacionados com a persistência de hiperglicemia no período pós-natal foram: idade materna acima de 35 anos, sobrepeso, obesidade grau 1 e ganho de peso abaixo de 5 quilos. A análisemultivariada incluiu o diagnóstico no primeiro trimestre como fator de risco para hiperglicemia persistente. Conclusão Mulheres acima de 35 anos, obesidade, sobrepeso e diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional no primeiro trimestre estão relacionados com hiperglicemia persistente no período pós-parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Puerperal Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Puerperal Disorders/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hyperglycemia/blood
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 50-54, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) constituye la principal causa de mortalidad en mujeres; la preeclampsia (PE) y la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) están asociadas a incremento en el riesgo de ECV. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos generales (MG) sobre complicaciones obstétricas asociadas a ECV. Métodos: Se envió a los MG un cuestionario electrónico anónimo basado en casos, diseñado para evaluar el entendimiento de la influencia de la historia obstétrica en el riesgo cardiovascular a largo plazo y el conocimiento general sobre riesgo de ECV. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de 35 % (161/465). Los participantes reconocieron que la PE y la DMG son factores de riesgo para ECV (98 y 83 %, respectivamente) y reportaron las siguientes estrategias de tamizaje de ECV en mujeres con historial de PE y DMG: monitoreo de presión arterial (PE 100 %, DMG 46 %), cálculo de índice de masa corporal (PE 68 %, DMG 57 %), evaluación del perfil de lípidos (PE 71 %, DMG 57 %), hemoglobina glucosilada (PE 26 %, DMG 92 %) y glucosa en ayuno (PE 28 %, DMG 91 %). Conclusión: Las estrategias de tamizaje para identificar ECV en mujeres con antecedentes de PE y DMG reportadas por los MG fueron variables.


Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women; preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Objective: To evaluate general practitioners (GP) knowledge about complicated pregnancies and their association with CVD. Methods: An anonymous case-based electronic questionnaire designed to assess the level of understanding on the influence of a history of pregnancy complications on long-term cardiovascular risk and general knowledge about CVD risk was sent to GPs. Results: The response rate was 35 % (161/465). The participants recognized that PE and GDM are risk factors for CVD (98 and 83 %, respectively), and reported the following CVD screening strategies in women with a history of PE and GDM: blood pressure monitoring (PE 100 %, GDM 46 %), body mass index calculation (PE 68 %, GDM 57 %), lipid profile evaluation (PE 71 %, GDM 57 %), glycated hemoglobin (PE 26 %, GDM 92 %), and fasting glucose (PE 28 %, GDM 91 %). Conclusion: GP-reported screening strategies to identify CVD in women with a history of PE and GDM were variable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Clinical Competence , Diabetes, Gestational , General Practitioners , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure Determination , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Fasting/blood , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 79-84, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, management, and fetal outcomes of patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or overt diabetes (OD) during pregnancy who followed up at a public healthcare referral center in Brazil. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study based on the medical records of women diagnosed with dysglycemia during pregnancy between January 2015 and July 2017 was conducted. Results: Out of 224 pregnant women evaluated, 70% were overweight/obese. GDM was observed in 78.6% of pregnant women, while 21.4% presented with OD. Approximately 59% of patients could be diagnosed with GDM or OD by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alterations alone. Exclusive diet therapy was used in 50.9% of patients. The need for insulin therapy was higher in OD patients (60.4%) than in GDM patients (38.1%) (p = 0.006). Women who needed insulin (n = 96) had a mean initial dose of 0.33 IU/kg (±0.27) and a final value of 0.39 IU/kg (±0.34). The cesarean rate was 74.3%. The fetal outcomes evaluated were macrosomia (2.15%), large for gestational age (LGA) fetus (15.83%), intensive care unit (ICU) need (4.32%), Apgar score ≤7 (6.47%), hypoglycemia (14.39%) and jaundice (16.55%). Conclusions: Patients with GDM and OD presented with several similar clinical features. Approximately half of the patients presented with adequate glycemic control only with diet management. Patients with OD presented a higher need for insulin therapy. Although overweight and obesity were frequent within both groups, they could possibly explain many of our findings.

14.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 20-27, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156079

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the agreement, in relation to the 90th percentile, of ultrasound measurements of abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal weight (EFW), between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (intergrowth-21st) tables, as well as regarding birth weight in fetuses/newborns of diabetic mothers. Methods Retrospective study with data from medical records of 171 diabetic pregnant women, single pregnancies, followed between January 2017 and June 2018. Abdominal circumference and EFW data at admission (from 22 weeks) and predelivery (up to 3 weeks) were analyzed. These measures were classified in relation to the 90th percentile. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze the agreement of these ultrasound variables between the WHO and intergrowth-21st tables, as well as, by reference table, these measurements and birth weight. Results The WHO study reported 21.6% large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns while the intergrowth-21st reported 32.2%. Both tables had strong concordances in the assessment of initial AC, final AC, and initial EFW (Kappa = 0.66, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively) and almost perfect concordance in relation to final EFW (Kappa = 0.91). Regarding birth weight, the best concordances were found for initial AC (WHO: Kappa = 0.35; intergrowth-21st: Kappa= 0.42) and with the final EFW (WHO: Kappa = 0.33; intergrowth- 21st: Kappa = 0.35). Conclusion The initial AC and final EFW were the parameters of best agreement regarding birth weight classification. The WHO and intergrowth-21st tables showed high agreement in the classification of ultrasound measurements in relation to the 90th


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a concordância, em relação ao percentil 90, das medidas ultrassonográficas da circunferência abdominal (CA) e peso fetal estimado (PFE), entre as tabelas da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) e do International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century integrowth-21st, bem como em relação ao peso ao nascer em fetos/recém-nascidos de mães diabéticas. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com dados de prontuários de 171 gestantes diabéticas, com gestações únicas, seguidas entre Janeiro de 2017 e Junho de 2018. Foram analisados dados da CA e do PFE na admissão (a partir de 22 semanas) e no pré-parto (até 3 semanas). Essas medidas foram classificadas em relação ao percentil 90. O coeficiente Kappa foi utilizado para analisar a concordância entre as tabelas da OMS e Intergrowth-21st, assim como, por tabela de referência, entre as medidas e o peso ao nascer. Resultados O estudo da OMS relatou 21,6% dos recém nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional (GIG) enquanto que o estudo do intergrowth-21st relatou 32,2%. Ambas as tabelas tiveram fortes concordâncias na avaliação da CA inicial e final e PFE inicial (Kappa= 0,66, 0,72 e 0,63, respectivamente) e concordância quase perfeita em relação ao PFE final (Kappa= 0,91).Emrelação ao peso ao nascer, asmelhores concordâncias foram encontradas para aCAinicial (OMS: Kappa= 0,35; intergrowth-21st: Kappa= 0,42) e como PFE final (OMS: Kappa = 0,33; intergrowth-21st: Kappa= 0,35). Conclusão A CA inicial e o PFE final foram os parâmetros de melhor concordância em relação à classificação do peso ao nascer. As tabelas da OMS e intergrowth-21st mostraram alta concordância na classificação das medidas ultrassonográficas em relação ao percentil 90. Estudos são necessários para confirmar se alguma dessas tabelas é superior na previsão de resultados negativos a curto e longo prazo no grupo GIG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pregnancy in Diabetics/diagnostic imaging , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Pregnancy Trimesters , World Health Organization , Brazil , Medical Records , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
15.
Femina ; 49(1): 44-51, 20210131. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146937

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetiva avaliar a relação dos níveis de vitamina D em gestantes com as principais complicações gestacionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e BIREME, sendo selecionados artigos relevantes publicados de 2013 a 2018, usando os descritores: "vitamin D" AND "maternity" OR "pregnancy". Foram revisados 14 estudos observacionais incluindo casos-controles e coortes que investigaram a relação dos níveis de vitamina D maternos com pré-eclâmpsia, diabetes mellitus gestacional e prematuridade, sendo excluídos os estudos que utilizaram suplementação de vitamina D. Os dados foram extraídos por meio de uma tabulação com as seguintes informações: autor, ano da publicação, país do estudo, score obtido no downs and black, ano da coleta da amostra, tipo do estudo, número de participantes, método de obtenção da amostra de 25(OH)D, tempo da gestação na obtenção da amostra, complicação obstétrica, fatores de confusão ajustados e os principais desfechos. Foi obtido um total de 32.505 pacientes após a soma das amostras de todos os artigos analisados. O principal resultado encontrado, abrangendo as três comorbidades analisadas, relaciona níveis menores que 30 nmol/L de vitamina D como potencial fator de risco para pré-eclâmpsia, diabetes mellitus gestacional e prematuridade.(AU)


The study aims to assess the relationship between vitamin D levels in pregnant women and the main gestational complications. The research was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS and BIREME databases, with the selection of relevant articles published from 2013 to 2018, using the descriptors: "vitamin D" AND "maternity" OR "pregnancy". 14 observational studies were reviewed including control cases and cohorts that investigated the relationship between maternal vitamin D levels and pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and prematurity, and studies that used vitamin D supplementation were excluded. Data were extracted using a tabulation with the following information: author, year of publication, country of study, score obtained in downs and black, year of sample collection, type of study, number of participants, method of obtaining the sample of 25(OH)D, time of pregnancy in obtaining the sample, obstetric complication, adjusted confounding factors and the main outcomes. A total of 32,505 patients were obtained after adding the samples of all analyzed articles. The main result found, covering the three comorbidities analyzed, lists levels below 30 nmol/L of vitamin D as a potential risk factor for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and prematurity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Diabetes, Gestational/physiopathology , Premature Birth/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909325

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically review the effects of probiotics supplementation on the prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods:Computerized literature search (CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, VIP, PubMed, Web of science, Embase, and Cochrane Library) as well as manual search was conducted to collect relevant studies. Data were extracted from qualified literature per pre-defined selection criteria and the risk of bias was evaluated. Systematic review was conducted using Stata 11.0 and Revman 5.3 software.Results:Six studies were included in the systematic review of the prevention effects of probiotics on GDM. The results showed that probiotics supplementation was not associated with the incidence of GDM ( RR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.53~1.34). Moreover, probiotics supplementation may be not associated with the level of glucose, either. Twelve studies were included in the systematic review of the treatment effects of probiotics on GDM. The results showed that in GDM patients, probiotics supplementation could decrease the levels of fasting blood glucose ( WMD=-2.06, 95% CI: -3.95~-0.17), fasting serum insulin ( SMD=-0.61, 95% CI: -0.79~-0.42), insulin resistance index as assessed by homeostatic model assessment ( WMD=-0.64, 95% CI: -0.86~-0.43), triglycerides ( WMD=-21.96, 95% CI: -36.15~-7.78), total cholesterol ( WMD=-10.63, 95% CI: -19.43~-1.83), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ( SMD=-0.77, 95% CI: -1.00, -0.53), and cesarean section rate ( RR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.38~0.83). Conclusions:Probiotics supplementation could not prevent the onset of GDM but seems beneficial in the treatment of GDM. More studies are needed in the future to explore the effects of probiotics supplementation on GDM.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907821

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the significance and regulatory mechanism of miR-142-3p and ER1 in serum and placenta of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicated with preeclampsia (PE) in the occurrence and development of disease.Methods:A total of 198 pregnant women admitted from Jun. 2019 to Jun. 2020 were selected as the study subjects, including 66 pregnant women with GDM (GDM group) , 60 pregnant women with GDM complicated with PE (GDM+PE group) and 72 normal pregnant women (control group) . Clinical indicators were detected and pregnancy outcome data were collected. The relative expression levels of miR-142 -3p and ER1 mRNA in serum and placental tissues of study subjects were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase link assay. The expression of ER1 protein in the placenta was detected by Western blot. Human choriotrophoblast cells HTR-8/SVneo were treated with miR-142-3p.Results:The expression levels of miR-142-3p in serum and placenta tissues in GDM+PE group were significantly lower than those in GDM+PE group and control group ( P<0.05) . The mRNA expression of ER1 in serum and placenta in GDM+PE group was significantly higher than that in GDM+PE group and control group ( P<0.05) . There was a significant negative correlation between the relative expression levels of miR-142-3p and ER1 mRNA in serum and placental tissues of pregnant women in the GDM+PE group ( r=-0.589 and -0.643, P=0.006 and < 0.001) .After transfection of HTR-8/SVneo cells with miR-142-3p, ER1 mRNA expression in the mimic group was 1.09±0.14,significantly lower than that of NC group (2.14±0.52) , inhibitor group (3.69±0.88) and inhibitor NC group (2.26±0.43) ( P<0.001) . The expression of DNMT1 in inhibitor group was significantly higher than that in the other three groups ( P<0.001) . Conclusion:In patients with GDM complicated with PE, miR-142-3p levels are reduced and ER1 levels are increased, which may be involved in the occurrence and progression of the disease.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907783

ABSTRACT

Objective:To detect the methylation level and mRNA expression level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptory-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) gene in placental tissue of pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and to explore the relationship between them and fetal distress.Methods:A total of 174 pregnant women with GDM admitted to in our hospital from Jul. 2018 to Dec. 2019 were selected as the study objects, among which 78 pregnant women with fetal distress were selected as the fetal distress group; and 96 pregnant women with normal delivery and without fetal distress were the control group; during the same period, 82 normal pregnant women without GDM were selected as the healthy group. The methylation level of PGC-1α gene in placenta was detected by direct sequencing after DNA was treated with sodium bisulfite; the expression of PGC-1α mRNA in placenta was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) ; the levels of triglyceride (TG) , total cholesterol (TC) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer; the relationship between methylation frequency of PGC-1α gene and the expression level of PGC-1α mRNA was analyzed; and the influencing factors of fetal distress were analyzed.Results:PGC-1α gene methylation frequency and TG level were higher in the fetal distress group [ (25.42±7.31) %, (4.72±0.68) mmol/L] than in the control group [ (9.26±2.67) %, (4.31±0.64) mmol/L] and the healthy group [ (3.24±1.07) %, (4.33±0.72) mmol/L]. PGC-1α gene methylation frequency was higher in the control group than in the healthy group, and the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05) ; PGC-1α mRNA expression level in fetal distress group (0.67±0.16) is lower than that in the control group (0.74±0.14) and healthy group (1.00±0.27) . PGC-1α mRNA expression level in control group was lower than that in healthy group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05) ; the methylation frequency of PGC-1α gene was negatively correlated with the expression level of PGC-1α mRNA in pregnant women with fetal distress ( r=-0.515, P<0.05) ; the methylation of PGC-1α gene was an independent risk factor for fetal distress ( P<0.05) , and the high expression of PGC-1α mRNA was the protective factor of fetal distress ( P<0.05) . Conclusion:DNA methylation level of PGC-1α gene in pregnant women with GDM is related to fetal distress, which may be the target of gene modification for fetal distress.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906627

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women in Wuhan, and to explore the application value of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results in the screening, diagnosis and treatment of GDM. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on the OGTT results of 26 558 pregnant women from Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2018 to December 2018. Results (1) A total of 1 754 cases were diagnosed with GDM, with a positive rate of 6.60%. Among them of 776 had fasting blood glucose ≥5.1mmol/L, 880 had 1-hour blood glucose ≥10.0mmol/L, and 798 had 2-hour blood glucose ≥8.5mmol/L. (2) The positive rates of fasting blood glucose, 1-hour blood glucose, and 2-hour blood glucose in the ≥35-year-old age group were all over two times higher than those in the <35-year-old age group (all P<0.01). (3) The ratio of people with single-point positive, two-point positive and three-point positive was 7:2:1. (4) FBG, 1-hour blood glucose and 2-hour blood glucose concentrations were all positively correlated with each other (all P<0.01). Among these, the positive correlation between 1-hour blood glucose and 2-hour blood glucose was the most significant (r=0.618, P<0.01). Conclusions The incidence rate of GDM among pregnant women in Wuhan reached 6.60%, and the prevalence in pregnant women over 35 years old was significantly higher. Blood glucose level during pregnancy should be monitored for early detection and intervention to prevent the development of GDM. The relationship between blood glucose concentrations at different time points in the OGTT test had reference value for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906400

ABSTRACT

Objective:This study aims to investigate the effect of addition and subtraction treatment to Renshen Maidongsan on metabolism of glucose, lipid and pregnancy outcome when used to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with deficiency of both Qi and Yin. Method:In this study, 108 patients with GDM were randomly divided into observation group with 54 cases and control group with 54 cases. Patients in control group took Yuquan wan orally, 6 g/time, 4 times/day , and patients in observation group were prescribed addition and subtraction treatment to Renshen Maidongsan, 1 dose/day. The course of treatment for both groups was 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after treatment. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) , 1 h our plasma glucose (1 h PG), 2 h our plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other indicators were detected to record the pregnancy outcome. Also, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), adiponectin, serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>), resistin, interleukin-1<italic>β</italic> (IL-1<italic>β</italic>) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected before and after treatment. Then the safety evalution was carried out. Result:The levels of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), FBG, 1 h PG, 2 h PG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, TG, IL-6, IL-1<italic>β</italic>, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, SAA, leptin and resistin in observation group were lower than the data checked in control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the levels of HOMA-<italic>β</italic>, insulin sensitivity index (InISI) and adiponectin were higher than the standards of from control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Then the incidence of medical cesarean section, pregnancy induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, premature delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes were lower than those in control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Addition and subtraction treatment to Renshen Maidongsan can improve insulin sensitivity and islet <italic>β</italic>-cell function, regulate inflammatory factors and adipokines, improve insulin resistance (IR), effectively regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, improve maternal and infant adverse pregnancy outcomes when used on patients with GDM and deficiency of Qi and Yin, and it was safe to use in clinic.

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