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Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 546-555, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394148


Abstract Introduction: Electrocochleography has recently emerged as a diagnostic tool in cochlear implant surgery, purposing hearing preservation and optimal electrode positioning. Objective: In this experimental study, extra-cochlear potentials were obtained during cochlear implant surgery in guinea pigs. The aim was to determine electrophysiological changes indicating cochlear trauma after cochleostomy and after electrode implantation in different insertion depths. Methods: Normal-hearing guinea pigs (n = 14) were implanted uni- or bilaterally with a multichannel electrode. The extra-cochlear cochlear nerve action potentials were obtained in response to acoustic stimuli at specific frequencies before and after cochleostomy, and after introduction of the electrode bundle. After the electrophysiological experiments, the guinea pigs were euthanized and microtomography was performed, in order to determine the position of the electrode and to calculate of the depth of insertion. Based on the changes of amplitude and thresholds in relation to the stimulus frequency, the electrophysiological data and the position obtained by the microtomography reconstruction were compared. Results: Cochleostomy promoted a small electrophysiological impact, while electrode insertion caused changes in the amplitude of extra-cochlear electrophysiological potentials over a wide range of frequencies, especially in the deepest insertions. There was, however, preservation of the electrical response to low frequency stimuli in most cases, indicating a limited auditory impact in the intraoperative evaluation. The mean insertion depth of the apical electrodes was 5339.56 μm (±306.45 - 6 inserted contacts) and 4447.75 μm (±290.23 - 5 inserted contacts). Conclusions: The main electrophysiological changes observed during surgical procedures occurred during implantation of the electrode, especially the deepest insertions, whereas the cochleostomy disturbed the potentials to a lesser extent. While hearing loss was often observed apical to the cochlear implant, it was possible to preserve low frequencies after insertion. © 2020 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://

Resumo Introdução: A eletrococleografia surgiu recentemente como uma ferramenta diagnóstica na cirurgia de implante coclear, objetiva a preservação da audição e o posicionamento ideal dos eletrodos. Objetivo: Determinar as alterações eletrofisiológicas indicativas de trauma coclear após a cocleostomia e após o implante do eletrodo em diferentes profundidades de inserção. Método: Neste estudo experimental, potenciais extracocleares foram obtidos durante a cirurgia de implante coclear em cobaias. Cobaias com audição normal (n = 14) foram implantadas uni- ou bilateralmente com eletrodo multicanal. Os potenciais de ação do nervo coclear extracoclear foram obtidos em resposta a estímulos acústicos em frequências específicas antes e após a cocleostomia e após a introdução do feixe de eletrodos. Após os experimentos eletrofisiológicos, as cobaias foram submetidas à eutanásia e a microtomografia foi feita para determinar a posição do eletrodo e calcular a profundidade de inserção. Com base nas mudanças de amplitude e limiares em relação à frequência do estímulo, os dados eletrofisiológicos e a posição obtida na reconstrução microtomográfica foram comparados. Resultados: A cocleostomia promoveu um pequeno impacto eletrofisiológico, enquanto a inserção do eletrodo causou alterações na amplitude dos potenciais eletrofisiológicos extra-cocleares em uma ampla faixa de frequências, especialmente nas inserções mais profundas. Houve, entretanto, preservação da resposta elétrica aos estímulos de baixa frequência na maioria dos casos, indicou um impacto auditivo limitado na avaliação intraoperatória. A profundidade média de inserção dos eletrodos apicais foi 5339,56 μm (± 306,45 - 6 contatos inseridos) e 4447,75 μm (± 290,23 - 5 contatos inseridos). Conclusão: As principais alterações eletrofisiológicas observadas durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos ocorreram durante o implante do eletrodo, especialmente nas inserções mais profundas, enquanto a cocleostomia alterou os potenciais em menor grau. Embora a perda auditiva seja frequentemente observada em posição apical ao implante coclear, foi possível preservar as baixas frequências após a inserção.

J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 13(2): 1-7, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1392413


Epidemic-prone diseases have high adverse impacts and pose important threats to global health security. This study aimed to assess levels of health facility preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Guinea. This was a cross-sectional study in public and private health facilities/services across 13 Guinean health districts. Managers and healthcare workers (HCWs) from departments in each facility/service were interviewed. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were presented using Pearson's Chi-Squared Test or Fischer exact test. Totally, 197 managers and 1020 HCWs participated in the study. Guidance documents and dedicated spaces for management/isolation of suspected COVID-19 cases were available only in 29% and 26% of facilities, respectively. Capacities to collect (9%) and safely transport (14%) samples were low. Intensive care units (5%), dedicated patient beds (3%), oxygenators (2%), and respirators (0.6%) were almost lacking. While 36% of facilities/services had received infection prevention and control supplies, only 20% had supplies sufficient for 30 days. Moreover, only 9% of HCWs had received formal training on COVID-19. The main sources of information for HCWs were the media (90%) and the internet (58%). Only 30% of HCWs had received personal protective equipment, more in the public sector (p<0.001) and in Conakry (p=0.022). This study showed low levels of preparedness of health facilities/services in Guinea and highlighted a lack of confidence among HCWs who felt unsafe at their workplace. Better governance to improve and maintain the capacity of the Guinean health system to respond to current and future epidemics is needed.

Disaster Preparedness , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , International System of Units
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e505, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280325


Introducción: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia oportunista asociada a la inmunodepresión causada por VIH, que se relaciona con la infección por VHH tipo 8. Objetivo: Describir la presentación del sarcoma de Kaposi en personas que viven con VIH en Guinea Ecuatorial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de carácter retrospectivo para identificar la prevalencia y las características epidemiológicas y clínicas del sarcoma de Kaposi en las personas que viven con VIH que acuden a las unidades de referencia para el manejo de casos en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de una muestra aleatoria y representativa de 338 pacientes del grupo que ha recibido tratamiento en las unidades de referencia para enfermedades infecciosas de Bata, desde enero de 2007 a febrero de 2012. Resultados: Se identificaron 40 pacientes diagnosticados de sarcoma de Kaposi (prevalencia del 11, 83 por ciento). La mediana de la edad al diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi fue de 43 años, siendo la ratio del sexo de 1/1. La media de linfocitos CD4 al diagnóstico fue de 166 (rango 21-375) y la frecuencia de afectación oral fue de 45 por ciento. En la mayoría de los pacientes (94,6 por ciento) la observación del sarcoma de Kaposi fue anterior al inicio del tratamiento antirretroviral. Las cifras de linfocitos T CD4/mm3 inferiores a 100 aparecían sobre todo en pacientes menores de 30 años, y esto era especialmente frecuente en el grupo de mujeres (OR 11, p <0,04, Ic 95 por ciento 0,8-148). Conclusiones: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia prevalente en personas que viven con VIH seguidas en las unidades de referencia en Guinea Ecuatorial. En mujeres menores de 30 años podría existir un diagnóstico tardío(AU)

Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is an opportunistic neoplasm associated to the immunosuppression caused by HIV and related to infection by HHV-8. Objective: Describe the presentation of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV in Equatorial Guinea. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to identify the prevalence and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV attending reference units for the management of cases in Equatorial Guinea. A review was carried out of the medical records of a random sample representative of 338 patients from the group receiving treatment at Bata reference unit for infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2012. Results: A total 40 patients diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma were identified (prevalence of 11,83 percent). Mean age at Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis was 43 years, with a 1/1 sex ratio. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 166 (range 21-375), whereas the frequency of oral damage was 45 percent. In most patients (94.6 percent) detection of Kaposi sarcoma was prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy. CD4 T lymphocyte levels / mm3 below 100 were mainly found in patients aged under 30 years, a fact particularly frequent among women (OR 11, p< 0.04, CI 95% 0.8-148). Conclusions: Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm prevailing in people living with HIV who attend reference units in Equatorial Guinea. Late diagnosis could exist among women aged under 30 years(AU)

Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Herpesvirus 8, Human/growth & development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Equatorial Guinea , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886874


Objective To study the effect of optimized atropine administration regimen on myopia in guinea pigs. Methods Forty six 21-day old guinea pigs were used for this study. Six were randomly selected as blank control, and the remaining 40 were randomly divided into 5 intervention groups: 1% atropine group, 0.01% atropine group, optimized group 1, optimized group 2, and saline group. One eye of the guinea pig in the intervention groups was randomly selected as the model eye and given form deprivation, and the contralateral eye was the self-control. The duration of intervention was 4 weeks. The diopter and axial length of guinea pig eyes were measured before the experiment and at each weekend. Choroid and sclera were measured after the experiment. Results The diopter of the model eyes in the 0.01% atropine group decreased rapidly. There was a significant difference before and after the experiment [(2.82±1.35)D vs (−0.64±0.20)D, P<0.01]. The diopter of model eyes decreased in 1% atropine group and optimized group 1, and the difference was statistically significant [(3. 50±1.14)D vs (1.38±1.15)D, P<0.05; (3.55±1.85)D vs (0.95±1.90)D, P<0.01]. In optimized group 2, the diopter of model eyes decreased, and there was no significant difference before and after the experiment [(1.36±1.61)D vs (2.93±1.42)D, P>0.05). After form deprivation, the axial length in 1% atropine group did not change significantly (P>0.05). The axial length in other intervention groups was extended to varying degrees. The thickness of choroid and sclera in 1% atropine group, optimized group 1 and optimized group 2 were greater than that in 0.01% atropine group. Conclusion The two optimized dosing regimens worked better than 0.01% atropine in inhibiting myopia in guinea pigs with form deprivation, and were similar to 1% atropine.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886764


Objective To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1), chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) and Kelch 13 (PfK13) genes in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, so as to provide insights into the development of the malaria control strategy in local areas. Methods A total of 85 peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea in 2018 and 2019, and genomic DNA was extracted. The PfMDR1, PfCRT and PfK13 genes were amplified using a nested PCR assay. The amplification products were sequenced, and the gene sequences were aligned. Results There were no mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in PfK13 gene in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, while drug-resistant mutations were detected in PfMDR1 and PfCRT genes, and the proportions of PfMDR1_N86Y, PfMDR1_Y184F and PfCRT_K76T mutations were 35.29% (30/85), 72.94% (62/85) and 24.71% (21/85), respectively. Conclusion There are mutations in PfMDR1, PfCRT and PfK13 genes in P. falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 880-883, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909117


Objective:To observe the efficacy of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in the treatment of experimental plague in guinea pigs.Methods:A total of 70 SPF guinea pigs, female, weighing 250 to 300 g, were selected and randomly divided into 7 groups according to body weight by random number table. There were 10 guinea pigs in each group: levofloxacin 24, 48, 72 h groups, moxifloxacin 24, 48, 72 h groups (drug treatment was carried out after being infected with Yersinia pestis for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) and control group (without treatment). Experimentally infected plague model was established through guinea pigs subcutaneous injection of 141 strains of Yersinia pestis [1 × 10 7 colony forming unit (CFU)]; referring to the adult dose in the "National Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China", the daily dose of guinea pigs was converted by Shi Xinyou's animal conversion coefficient method for treatment, the doses of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in each guinea pig were 12.0 and 9.6 mg/d, respectively for 9 days. The guinea pigs were killed 9 days after drug withdrawal for bacteriological examination and pathological observation, and the cure rate was calculated. Results:The cure rates of levofloxacin 24, 48 and 72 h groups were 100.0% (10/10), 70.0% (7/10) and 6/6, respectively. The cure rates of moxifloxacin 24, 48 and 72 h groups were 100.0% (10/10), 100.0% (10/10) and 5/7, respectively, and the cure rate of animals in the control group was 0 (0/10). Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the efficacy of moxifloxacin 24, 48 and 72 h groups and levofloxacin 24, 48 and 72 h groups ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two drugs at the same starting time ( P > 0.05). Conclusion:The effects of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on animal plague infection are ideal and the two drugs can be used as a substitute for streptomycin in plague treatment under special circumstances.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908555


Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of retinal Sigma-1 receptor antagonist N, N-diethyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethanaminehydrochloride (NE-100) in the formation of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pigs.Methods:Eighty-five 21-day-old guinea pigs were selected, and 36 of them were randomly divided into normal control group, occluded 14-day group and occluded 11-day group, with 12 in each group.The right eyes of guinea pigs in the occluded 14-day group were covered with translucent eye shield for consecutive 14 days, and guinea pigs in the occluded 11-day group were treated in the same way for consecutive 11 days plus 3 days without cover, and guinea pigs in the normal control group were not covered.The other 49 guinea pigs were randomly divided into FDM group ( n=10), FDM+ NE-100 6 μg group ( n=12), FDM+ NE-100 60 μg group ( n=10), FDM+ NE-100 600 μg group ( n=9), and FDM+ saline group ( n=8). The right eyes in each group received 100 μl peribulbar injection of NE-100 6 μg, 60 μg and 600 μg or saline once a day according to grouping.Ocular refraction and axial dimensions were measured using eccentric infrared photorefractor and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively.Corneal curvature was measured with keratometer.Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of Sigma-1 receptor protein, and retinal dopamine content was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.This study was approved by an Ethics Committee of the Department of Laboratory Animal Science of Central South University (No.2020sydw0084). The use and care of experimental animals followed the Regulations for the Administration of Affairs Concerning Experimental Animals in China. Results:There were statistical significant differences in diopter and axial length among the normal control group, occluded 14-day group and occluded 11-day group ( F=147.81, 160.10; both at P<0.01). Compared with the normal control group, the relative myopia was the deepest and the axial length was the longest in the occluded 14-day group, then the occluded 11-day group, showing significant differences between them (all at P<0.05). In the normal control group, Sigma-1 protein was mainly expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), photoreceptor inner segment and the inner nuclear layer.In the occluded 14-day group, Sigma-1 protein staining was enhanced in RGCs and photoreceptor inner segment.Sigma-1 staining positive cells in the inner nuclear layer were increased significantly and were also seen in the inner and outer plexiform layers, especially in Müller cells, in which the expression levels of Sigma-1 receptor protein were significantly increased.Compared with the occluded 14-day group, the Sigma-1 receptor protein expression levels in the retina of the occluded 11-day group was significantly decreased ( P<0.01). The diopters of guinea pigs in the FDM+ NE-100 6 μg, 60 μg and 600 μg groups were lower than those in the FDM group, and the diopters of FDM+ NE-100 60 μg and 600 μg guinea pigs were lower than those in the FDM+ NE-100 6 μg group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). The dopamine content in the retina of the FDM+ NE-100 60 μg group was (0.74±0.09) ng/mg, which was significantly higher than (0.57±0.10) ng/mg in the FDM group, with a significant difference between them ( t=15.18, P<0.01). Conclusions:Sigma-1 receptor antagonist inhibits FDM formation, which may be associated with the elevation of dopamine content in retina.

Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(11): e20200961, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278890


ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of the three inulin levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%) supplemented as a substitute for an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, zinc bacitracin) and control in guinea pigs raised for human consumption. Fifty 14-day-old male guinea pigs were used. Productive parameters (weight gain, total dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR)) and intestinal morphology of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at slaughter (70 days of age) were evaluated. An inverse relationship was observed between inulin levels and FCR (linear effect; P = 0.006). There was no statistically significant effect of the treatments on total dry matter intake and weight gain (P > 0.05). A linear effect of the inulin level on the villi's length (VL), villi's width (VW), and length/depth ratio (VL/DC) in the duodenum; VW in the jejunum; and VL in the ileum (P <0 .05) was reported. In conclusion, a linear effect of the increasing doses of inulin was found on the FCR and the morphological parameters of the duodenum's integrity, and no differences in the effects of the inulin added to the diet and the treatment with AGP were found.

RESUMO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação na dieta de cobaias com inulina, em níveis crescentes (0,1%, 0,2%, 0,4%) como substituto para um antibiótico promotor de crescimento (AGP, bacitracina de zinco) além do grupo controle (dieta padrão). Foram utilizados 50 porquinhos-da-índia machos com 14 dias de idade. Os parâmetros produtivos foram avaliados do desmame aos 70 dias de idade e os parâmetros morfológicos intestinais foram avaliados no duodeno, jejuno e íleo no momento do abate. Foi encontrado um efeito linear do nível de inulina sobre na taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR; P = 0,006), indicando que em níveis mais elevados de inulina o FCR diminui. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quando avaliado o efeito dos diferentes tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração e ganho de peso corporal (P > 0,05). Um efeito linear do nível de inulina foi encontrado no comprimento das vilosidades (VL), na largura das vilosidades (VW) e na relação comprimento / profundidade (VL/DC) no duodeno, sobre a VW no jejuno; e no VL no íleo (P < 0,05). Em conclusão, um efeito linear do aumento do nível de inulina foi encontrado na taxa de conversão alimentar e nos parâmetros morfológicos da integridade do duodeno, além disso, não houve diferença entre a adição de inulina na dieta e o tratamento com um antibiótico promotor de crescimento.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-208038


Background: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, skills level of health care service providers; to identify complications and difficulties related to the implementation of AMTPC/GATPA.Methods: It was about prospective study, descriptive of 6 months (1st March to 31st August 2014) carried out in the maternity hospitals of Faranah, Kindia, Mamou and Nzérékoré. It concerned the parturient women who had recently given birth and the personnel that carried out AMTPC/GATPA in these hospitals.Results: During the study period of 1,254 out of 1,305 births had benefited of AMTPC/GATPA, a frequency of 96.1%. The midwives were the most represented personnel in the implementation of GATPA (44.1%). In 46.4% of the cases, the health care service providers acquired this competence from the initial training. The release was obtained in the first trial in 64.9% cases. The duration of implementation of GATPA was less than 5 minutes in 72.6% cases. The different stages were respected in 91.5% cases. Complications were dominated by retention of placental fragments (10.2%). Lack of oxytocin was the main difficulty (36.6%).Conclusions: The sustainability of this achievement would depend on the systematic and correct implementation of AMTPC/GATPA at all childbirth attendants and the effective management of oxytocin.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 190-195, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131595


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate periostin and collagen I expression during a scleral remodeling in myopic eyes and to determine their role in collagen remodeling of the myopic sclera. Methods: Fifty one-week-old guinea pigs were divided into the control and form-deprivation myopia (FDM) groups. The eyes of animals in the form-deprivation myopia group were covered for 2, 4, and 8 weeks, or were covered for 4 weeks and then uncovered for 2 weeks. The diopters and axial lengths in the eyes in each group of guinea pigs were measured. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the relative protein and mRNA expressions of periostin and collagen I in the scleral tissues of guinea pig. Results: Before masking, guinea pigs in the control and form-deprivation myopia groups were hypermetropic and did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Hypermetropic refraction in the control group gradually decreased. In guinea pigs from the form-deprivation myopia group, the refractive power gradually changed from +2.14 ± 0.33 D to -7.22 ± 0.51 D, and the axial length gradually changed from 5.92 ± 0.37 mm to 8.05 ± 0.34 mm from before until the end of masking. Before covering, no significant difference was observed in the relative collagen I and periostin mRNA and protein expression levels in the sclera of the guinea pig control and form-deprivation myopia groups (p>0.05). The relative collagen I and periostin protein and mRNA expression levels in the sclera of guinea pigs in the form-deprivation myopia group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, and after covering the eyes for 4 weeks followed by uncovering for 2 weeks, were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). The collagen I and periostin mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with protein expression levels in the sclera of guinea pigs (protein: r=0.936, p<0.05; mRNA: r=0.909, p<0.05). Conclusions: Periostin was expressed in the myopic sclera of guinea pigs, and changes in periostin and collagen I expression were highly consistent. Periostin and collagen I may be involved in the regulation of scleral remodeling in myopia.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a expressão da periostina e do colágeno I durante o remodelamento escleral em olhos míopes e determinar seu papel na remodelação do colágeno da esclera miópica. Métodos: Cinquenta cobaias com uma semana de idade foram divididas em grupo controle e miopia de privação de forma. Os olhos dos animais no grupo de miopia de privação de forma foram cobertos por 2, 4 e 8 semanas, ou foram cobertos por 4 semanas e depois descobertas por 2 semanas. As dioptrias e comprimentos axiais dos olhos em cada grupo de cobaias foram medidos. A imunohistoquímica e a reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa foram utilizadas para detectar as expressões relativas de proteína e mRNA de periostina e colágeno I em tecidos esclerais das cobaias. Resultados: Antes do mascaramento, as cobaias nos grupos controle e miopia de privação de forma eram hipermetrópicas e não diferiam significativamente (p>0,05). A refração hipermetrópica no grupo controle diminuiu gradualmente. Nas cobaias do grupo de miopia de privação de forma, a potência de refração mudou gradualmente de +2,14 ± 0,33 D para -7,22 ± 0,51 D e o comprimento axial mudou gradualmente de 5,92 ± 0,37 mm para 8,05 ± 0,34 mm desde antes até o final do mascaramento. Antes do mascaramento, nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada nos níveis de expressão de mRNA e proteína de colágeno I e periostina na esclera dos grupos controle e miopia de privação de forma (p>0,05). Os níveis relativos de expressão de colágeno I e proteína periostina e mRNA na esclera de cobaias no grupo de miopia de privação de forma em 2, 4 e 8 semanas, e após cobertura dos olhos por 4 semanas seguido de descoberta por 2 semanas, foram significativamente menores que aqueles no grupo controle (p<0,05). Os níveis de expressão de mRNA, colágeno I e proteína periostina foram positivamente correlacionados com os níveis de expressão de proteína na esclera das cobaias (proteína: r=0,936, p<0,05; mRNA: r=0,909, p<0,05). Conclusões: A periostina foi expressa na esclerótica míope de cobaias e as alterações na expressão de periostina e colágeno I foram altamente consistentes. A periostina e o colágeno I podem estar envolvidos na regulação do remodelamento escleral na miopia.

Humans , Sclera , Myopia, Degenerative , RNA, Messenger , Collagen , Disease Models, Animal , Guinea Pigs
China Pharmacy ; (12): 330-334, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817339


OBJECTIVE:To study the skin irritation and se nsitization of domestic generic drug Clobetasone butyrate cream , and to compare it with commercial drug (original drugs ). METHODS :The skin irritation test was conducted on rabbits. Totally 24 rabbits were randomly divided into test preparation intact skin group ,test preparation abraded skin group ,commercial drug intact skin group and commercial drug abraded skin group ,with 6 rabbits in each group. 0.5 mL test preparation or commercial drug was administered to the left side of intact or abraded skin and the same amount of excipient on the right side of each rabbit twice a day for consecutive 7 days. The irritation of the drug to the rabbit skin was observed ,and the erythema and edema of the skin were scored;the skin of administration site was taken at 72 h after last administration and the end of 7 d after drug withdrawal for histopathological examination. The skin sensitization test (Buehler test )was carried out on guinea pigs. Totally 60 guinea pigs were randomly divided into test preparation group (n=20),commercial drug group (n=20),positive control group (n=10)and excipient control group (n=10). 0.2 mL test preparation or commercial drug was administrated to the left side of the rib abdomen skin of each guinea pig at the 0,7th,14th day to induce model ,and an equal amount of corresponding preparation was administered to the right side in the same way at the 28th day for stimulation. Hypersensitive response such as erythema and edema were observed and scored at 24 h and 48 h after the stimulation. The incidence of hypersensitive response was then calculated. RESULTS:In skin irritation test of rabbits ,no erythema and edema was caused by the test preparation or commercial drug on intact skin of rabbits ;scores of skin irritation was 0;there was no dermal irritation. Both test preparation and commercial drug caused transient slight erythema on abraded skin of a few rabbits ;scores of intact and abraded skin irritation were 0-0.33;there was no dermal irritation. There was no statistical significance among groups. No dermal pathological changes were observed. In skin sensitization test of guinea pig ,no hypersensitive response such as erythema and edema was found on the skin of guinea pigs in both test preparation and commercial drug groups ;both score and the incidence of hypersensitive response were 0. Compared with excipient control group ,there was no statistical significance of average score and the incidence of hypersensitive response in test preparation group and commercial drug group. CONCLU- SIONS:In skin irritation test of rabbits and skin sensitization test of guinea pigs , the evaluation results of generic Clobetasone butyrate cream are the same as those of the original drug. It has no irritation to the skin of rabbit ,and no sensitization to the skin of guinea pigs.

International Eye Science ; (12): 599-602, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815732


@#AIM: To investigate the temperary changes in the refraction, axial length, and choroidal thickness after a Chinese herb(Zhujing formula)feeding or injection of ranibizumab in a guinea pig myopia model.<p>METHODS: A Guinea pigs model of form-deprived(FD)myopia were randomly divided into 3 groups: Zhujing formula group, ranibizumab group and saline group(<i>n</i>=20 for each group). Zhujing formula group were fed daily with Zhujing formula solution 3.285g/(kg·d)(1.5mL/d)for 1wk. Ranibizumab group were treated with(intravitreal injections of 0.02mg)ranibizumab at the first day. Saline group were fed with 1.5mL 0.9% saline at the first day. The refraction(Diopter), axial length and choroidal thickness were measured before and at day 1, 3 and 7d postoperative. <p>RESULTS: The spherical equivalent(SE), axial length and choroidal thickness in ranibizumab group showed no significant trend after intravitreal injection(<i>P</i>>0.05). However, SE and axial length showed trendency to greater myopic shift in the Zhujing formula group and the saline group(<i>P</i><0.05). The effect began to appear on the first day after administration, achieved the maximum effect after 3d, and faded completely until 7d. On the first day after administration, the diopter and the axial length in ranibizumab group showed the lowest among three groups(<i>P</i><0.05), and choroid thickness showed the thickest among three groups(<i>P</i><0.05). At 3d after administration, the diopter and the axial length in the saline group showed the lowest among three groups, and choroid thickness showed the thickest among three groups(<i>P</i><0.05). There was no significant difference in the parameters among the three groups at 1wk after administration(<i>P</i>>0.05).<p>CONCLUSION: There is a temperary choroidal thickening of the form deprivation myopia recovery period. The ranibizumab inhibited the thickening of the choroid in the whole recovery period of form deprivation myopia, Zhujing formula slight inhibited the thickening at 3d, and the all change persisted only for 1wk.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872407


Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Lower He-Sea points on the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the serum and gallbladder tissues, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in gallbladder tissues of the guinea pigs with acute cholecystitis (AC), and to explore whether Yanglingquan (GB 34), the Lower He-Sea point pertaining to Dan Fu (gallbladder), is relatively specific for the Dan Fu (gallbladder) disorders. Methods: Eighty-two healthy guinea pigs were randomly divided into 6 groups according to the random number table method, a blank group, a model group, a Yanglingquan (GB 34) group, a Zusanli (ST 36) group, a Shangjuxu (ST 37) group, and a Xiajuxu (ST 39) group, with 12 guinea pigs in the blank group while 14 in the other groups, respectively, half males and half females in each group. Except for the blank group, guinea pigs in the other groups were injected with E. coli into the gallbladder to establish AC models. Guinea pigs in the blank group were fed routinely without special treatment; those in the model group were daily tied up for 30 min without EA treatment; those in the 4 groups receiving EA treatment were acupunctured at the corresponding Lower He-Sea points after daily binding and stimulated with the SDZ-V EA instrument. After successful modeling and treatment for 5 d, blood was collected from the abdominal aorta of the guinea pigs, and the gallbladder tissues in each group were isolated for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the morphological changes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum IL-1β level, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression levels of NF-κB and IL-1β in gallbladder. Results: On the 3rd day after modeling, the guinea pigs in the five groups with modeling were mentally depressed with decreased appetite, significantly reduced activities, slouch, lassitude, slack and matted fur, and loose stools; two guinea pigs were selected from each group (one male and one female, not included in the final statistics) to isolate the gallbladder after sacrifice; macroscopic observation showed that the gallbladder wall was differently thickened; the bile color was dark green and opaque with particles suspended or accumulated; light microscope observation showed that the submucosal blood vessels of the gallbladder were congested, along with mucosal edema, ulceration, necrosis, shedding, and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrating in the lamina propria, indicating that the AC model was successfully prepared. Compared with the model group, the gallbladder tissue injuries of the four groups receiving EA treatment were all differently repaired, the serum IL-1β levels were reduced (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and the IL-1β levels in the gallbladder tissues were reduced (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the NF-κB expression level in the Yanglingquan (GB 34) group was significantly reduced (P<0.01), but was not statistical different in the Zusanli (ST 36) group, Shangjuxu (ST 37) group and Xiajuxu (ST 39) group (all P>0.05). Compared with the Yanglingquan (GB 34) group, the gallbladder tissues of the Zusanli (ST 36) group, Shangjuxu (ST 37) group and Xiajuxu (ST 39) group were more severely damaged, and the expression levels of serum IL-1β, the NF-κB and IL-1β in the gallbladder tissues were increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Intervention effect of Yanglingquan (GB 34) on AC guinea pigs was superior to that of Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Xiajuxu (ST 39). Conclusion: EA at the Lower He-Sea points of the stomach, large intestine, small intestine and gallbladder can produce curative effects on AC guinea pigs and reduced the inflammatory symptoms. Intervention effect of Yanglingquan (GB 34) on AC guinea pigs is superior to that of Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Xiajuxu (ST 39). The mechanism of EA at Yanglingquan (GB 34) in treating AC may be regulating IL-1β and NF-κB to control the inflammatory response and improve the gallbladder tissue damage.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837618


ObjectiveTo investigate the drug-resistant gene polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum imported from Equatorial Guinea to Shandong Province. MethodsFrom 2015 to 2016, blood samples were collected from imported P. falciparum malaria patients returning from Equatorial Guinea to Shandong Province, and genome DNA of the malaria parasite was extracted. The drug-resistant Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, and K13 genes of P. falciparum were amplified using a PCR assay, followed by DNA sequencing, and the sequences were aligned. Results The target fragments of all 5 drug-resistant genes of P. falciparum were successfully amplified and sequenced. There were 72.8%, 18.6%, and 8.6% of P. falciparum parasites carrying the wild-, mutant-, and mixed-type Pfcrt gene, respectively, and all mutant haplotypes were CVIET (the underline indicates the mutation site). There were 20.0%, 61.4% and 18.6% of P. falciparum parasites carrying the wild-, mutant-, and mixed-type Pfmdr1 gene, respectively, and the mutant haplotypes mainly included YF and NF (the underlines indicate the mutation sites). There were 1.4%, 98.6%, and 0 of P. falciparum parasites carrying the wild-, mutant-, and mixed-type Pfdhfr gene, respectively, and AIRNI was the predominant mutant haplotype (the underline indicates the mutation site). There were 1.4%, 94.3%, and 4.3% of P. falciparum parasites carrying the wild-, mutant-, and mixed-type Pfdhps gene, respectively, and SGKAA was the predominant mutant haplotype (the underline indicates the mutation site). The complete drug-resistant IRNGE genotype consisted of 8.6% of the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, and the K13 gene A578S mutation occurred in 1.4% of the parasite samples. Conclusions There are mutations in the Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, and K13 genes of P. falciparum imported from Equatorial Guinea to Shandong Province, with a low frequency in the Pfcrt gene mutation and a high frequency in the Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, and Pfdhps gene mutations, and the K13 gene A578S mutation is detected in the parasite samples.

Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 501-507, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-856993


Aim To explore the therapeutic effect of DZ2002, a reversible S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase inhibitor, on psoriasis-like skin lesions of guinea pig and its mechanism. Methods The guinea pig model of psoriasis was established with 50 g • L-1 propranolol hydrochloride liniment. The pathological changes of the skin were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Then the Baker score and epidermal thickness were measured based on HE. The infiltration of neutrophils was marked by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of chemokines in TNF-a/IFN-7-treated HaCa T cells in the present of DZ2002 or not were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the production of chemokines from HaCa T cells were quantified by ELISA and Luminex x-MAP technology. In the same condition, supernatants were used to test the Chemotaxis effect on Jurkat and THP1 cells via Chemotaxis assays. Results Pathological features such as acanthosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, Munro microabscess, hyperkeratosis and parakeratasis appeared in the psoriasis-like skin lesions of guinea pigs. The Baker score and epidermal thickness of psoriasis-like guinea pig ear both increased significantly. Compared with vehicle group, DZ2002 cream not only significantly improved the pathological manifestations of guinea pig ear skin, but also reduced the skin Baker score and epidermal thickness. DZ2002 significantly down-regulated the expression of chemokines including IL-8 and CXCL9 in TNF-0/IFN-7treated HaCaT cells, and inhibited the Chemotaxis of THP1 and Jurkat cells. Conclusions DZ2002 cream can significantly improve the psoriasis symptoms in guinea pig model of psoriasis via inhibiting the secretion of chemokines by keratinocytes and reducing the infiltration of inflammatory cells.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847837


BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is unknown, and there is no effective treatment. Selecting appropriate animal models will create a good condition for animal experiments on osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE: To review different experimental animals of osteoarthritis and different modeling methods. METHODS: CNKI, WanFang, VIP and PubMed databases were searched for the articles published from January 2013 to July 2018. The keywords were “osteoarthritis, models, animals, mice, rats, goats, guinea pigs, sheep” in Chinese and English, respectively. The repetitive articles were excluded, and the articles related to osteoarthritis and animal models were selected for summary and result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, sheep and other animals can be used as animal models for osteoarthritis research. When studying animal models of osteoarthritis, it is important to choose the right animal models and construction methods. Non-surgical models will not make damage to the parts except for joints, which is in accordance with the pathological process of osteoarthritis. But it is difficult to control, thus causing errors, and it cannot simulate traumatic changes. Surgical models induce joint injury by tissue damage, which exhibits advantages in rapid disease progress and obvious outcomes. Therefore, surgical models are optimal choice for short-term experiments. Different experimental animals and modeling schemes have their own advantages and disadvantages, which need to be reasonably selected according to the requirements of experiments.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825110


Objectives@#To estimate prevalence levels of and time trends for active syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women aged 15–49 years in four countries in the Pacific (Fiji, the Federated States of Micronesia [FSM], Papua New Guinea [PNG] and Samoa) to inform surveillance and control strategies for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).@*Methods@#The Spectrum-STI model was fitted to data from prevalence surveys and screenings of adult female populations collected during 1995−2017 and adjusted for diagnostic test performance and to account for undersampled high-risk populations. For chlamydia and gonorrhoea, data were further adjusted for age and differences between urban and rural areas.@*Results@#Prevalence levels were estimated as a percentage (95% confidence interval). In 2017, active syphilis prevalence was estimated in Fiji at 3.89% (2.82 to 5.06), in FSM at 1.48% (0.93 to 2.16), in PNG at 3.91% (1.67 to 7.24) and in Samoa at 0.16% (0.07 to 0.37). For gonorrhoea, the prevalence in Fiji was 1.63% (0.50 to 3.87); in FSM it was 1.59% (0.49 to 3.58); in PNG it was 11.0% (7.25 to 16.1); and in Samoa it was 1.61% (1.17 to 2.19). The prevalence of chlamydia in Fiji was 24.1% (16.5 to 32.7); in FSM it was 23.9% (18.5 to 30.6); in PNG it was 14.8% (7.39 to 24.7); and in Samoa it was 30.6% (26.8 to 35.0). For each specific disease within each country, the 95% confidence intervals overlapped for 2000 and 2017, although in PNG the 2017 estimates for all three STIs were below the 2000 estimates. These patterns were robust in the sen sitivity analyses.@*Discussion@#This study demonstrated a persistently high prevalence of three major bacterial STIs across four countries in WHO’s Western Pacific Region during nearly two decades. Further strengthening of strategies to control and prevent STIs is warranted.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825107


Abstract@#Diarrhoeal diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western Pacific Region. However, data on the major causes of infectious diarrhoea are limited in many countries within the Region, including Papua New Guinea. In 2013–2014, we conducted surveillance for acute diarrhoeal illness in four provinces in Papua New Guinea. One rural health clinic from each province participated in the surveillance activity. Samples were sent to central laboratories and batch analysed for bacterial and viral gastrointestinal pathogens that are commonly associated with diarrhoea. Across the four sites, the most commonly detected pathogens were Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and rotavirus. In this paper, we report the results of the surveillance activity and the challenges that we faced. The lessons learnt may be applicable to other parts of the Region with a similar socioeconomic status.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923127


@#This study carried out at the University of Papua New Guinea investigates undergraduate medical imaging science (MIS) students’ perceptions of the usefulness of individualised feedback using a rubric. In the first semester of 2017, 15 fourth year students in the research proposal design course were assigned to an assessment rubric, which comprised a detailed description of how their work was to be graded. Students were instructed to submit an initial draft of their writing. Electronic feedback was then provided to support the revision process. The benefits of the rubric and feedback were evaluated at the end of the semester using a paper-based survey, which provided participating students with the opportunity to critically reflect on the learning experience. The majority (93.3%) of the students were satisfied that the feedback on their draft proposal assisted their understanding on research methodology concepts which informed their progress with respect to achieving the assessment learning outcomes. This study has demonstrated that the use of a rubric as a formative assessment tool has had a positive impact on students’ learning experience. Reflection on the results of this study will lead to further refinement of the existing rubric and the development of others.

Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.5): e20190137, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126013


ABSTRACT Objectives: to reflect on the implementation of an integrated strategy to eradicate the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Guinea-Bissau by 2030. Methods: a reflective study. Reflection: Guinea-Bissau is a Portuguese-speaking country located in Sub-Saharan Africa, in constant political and economic instability. Among its characteristics are sociocultural diversity and high rates of morbidity and mortality from causes related to infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In the quest to eradicate the AIDS epidemic by 2030, instituted especially by the United Nations, it is noted that political and socio-cultural factors transformed eradication of the AIDS epidemic by 2030 into a utopia. Final Considerations: international strategies, although ambitious, are considered opportunities for countries to propose and build public policies capable of changing the existing reality.

RESUMEN Objetivos: reflexionar sobre la implementación de una estrategia integrada para erradicar la epidemia del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) en Guinea-Bissau para el año 2030. Métodos: estudio reflexivo. Reflexión: el Guinea-Bissau es un país de habla portuguesa, ubicado en África subsahariana, en constante inestabilidad política y económica. Entre sus características se encuentran la diversidad sociocultural y las altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad por causas relacionadas con la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana. En la búsqueda de erradicar la epidemia de SIDA para 2030, instituida especialmente por las Naciones Unidas, se observa que los factores políticos y socioculturales transformaron la erradicación de la epidemia de SIDA en 2030 en una utopía. Consideraciones Finales: se considera que las estrategias internacionales, aunque ambiciosas, representan oportunidades para que los países propongan y desarrollen políticas públicas capaces de cambiar la realidad existente.

RESUMO Objetivos: refletir sobre a implementação de uma estratégia integrada de erradicação da epidemia de Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS) na Guiné-Bissau até o ano de 2030. Métodos: estudo reflexivo. Reflexão: Guiné-Bissau é um país de língua oficial portuguesa, localizado na África Subsaariana, em constante instabilidade política e econômica. Dentre suas características, estão a diversidade sociocultural e altas taxas de morbimortalidade por causas relacionadas à infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana. Na busca pela erradicação da epidemia de AIDS até 2030, instituída especialmente pela Organização das Nações Unidas, nota-se que fatores políticos e socioculturais transformaram a erradicação da epidemia de AIDS até 2030 em utopia. Considerações Finais: considera-se que as estratégias internacionais, apesar de ambiciosas, representam oportunidades para que os países possam propor e construir políticas públicas capazes de mudar a realidade existente.