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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(6): 1048-1051, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365100

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los síntomas más frecuentes de los pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 suelen ser fiebre, tos, odinofagia, cefalea, mialgias y diarrea. Un porcentaje mucho menor padece mareos, rinorrea y hemoptisis como síntomas asociados. Sin embargo, la gran magnitud que adquirió esta segunda ola, puede hacer que esta última complicación se presente con más frecuencia. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 49 años con antecedente de infección reciente por COVID-19 con requerimiento de ARM por insuficiencia respiratoria que intercurrió, durante la internación en sala general, con derrame pleural de tipo paraneumónico y episodios de hemoptisis persistente que se resolvió de forma quirúrgica. Durante la cirugía se encontró un importante proceso fibro adherencial y un pulmón congestivo con aumento focal de la consistencia y áreas de necrosis.


Abstract The most common symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are fever, cough, odynophagia, headache, myalgia, and diarrhea. A much smaller percentage have dizziness, rhinorrhea, and hemoptysis as associated symptoms. However, the great magnitude that this second wave acquired, can make this last com plication appear more frequently. This report describes the case of a 49-year-old patient with a history of recent COVID-19 infection with requirement of mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure, who developed during hospitalization in the general ward with parapneumonic pleural effusion and episodes of persistent hemoptysis that required surgical treatment. During surgery, a significant fibro-adhesion process and a congestive lung with focal increased consistency and areas of necrosis were found.

2.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 38-45, jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284260

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: determinar las principales características demográficas, clínicas, radiológicas y de función pulmonar de los pacientes con bronquiectasias en la Clínica del Pulmón. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 23 pacientes con diagnóstico de dilataciones bronquiales. RESULTADOS: de los 23 pacientes, con una edad media de 49,4 ± 3,87 años, 13 corresponden al sexo femenino y 10 al sexo masculino, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad desde el diagnóstico de la patología inicial es de 17,3 ± 2,92 años. La tuberculosis es la etiología principal en 15 pacientes (65,2%). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son la tos y expectoración mucopurulenta por varios años en la mayoría de los pacientes, al que añadimos la disnea y hemoptisis, la auscultación pulmonar revela la presencia de crépitos en 17 pacientes (73,9%). La Tomografía de Tórax de Alta Resolución distingue dos tipos de bronquiectasias: La sacular o quística y la cilíndrica, de localización unilobar, bilobar y multilobar (difuso). La Espirometría Forzada fue indicada en 10 pacientes (43,5%) 7 mujeres y 3 varones, el Síndrome Bronquial Obstructivo fue el hallazgo más frecuente. La asociación de Tetraciclina con Metronidazol indicado en 9 pacientes (39,1%) mejoró el cuadro clínico. La fisiopatología de esta entidad clínica está sujeta a una constante actualización. CONCLUSIONES: en pacientes tosedores crónicos, las bronquiectasias deben tener prioridad diagnóstica, se trata de una patología antigua, pero de actualidad permanente.


The purpose of this document is to determine the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with bronchiectasis at the Lung Clinic. METHOD: observational, retrospective study. The medical records of 23 patients diagnosed with bronchial dilation were reviewed. RESULTS: the results of the 23 patients studied, with a mean age of 49,4 ± 3,87 years, 13 correspond to the female sex and 10 to the male sex, indicate that the time of evolution of the disease from the diagnosis of the initial pathology is: 17,3 ± 2,92 years. Tuberculosis is the main etiology in 15 patients (65,2%). The most frequent clinical manifestations were cough and mucopurulent expectoration of several years in most of the patients, to which we must add dyspnea and hemoptysis, pulmonary auscultation reveals the presence of crepitus in 17 patients (73,9%). High Resolution Chest Tomography distinguishes two types of bronchiectasis: the saccular or cystic and the cylindrical, the localization is unilobar, bilobar and multilobar (diffuse). Forced spirometry was indicated in 10 patients (43,5%), 7 women and 3 men, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the main diagnosis. The association of Tetracycline with Metronidazole indicated in 9 patients (39,1%) had positive results. The pathophysiology of this clinical entity is subject to constant updating. CONCLUSIONS: in chronic coughing patients, bronchiectasis must have diagnostic priority, it is an old pathology, but it is permanently current


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchiectasis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Auscultation , Spirometry , Tuberculosis , Dyspnea , Hemoptysis , Metronidazole
3.
Palliative Care Research ; : 109-113, 2021.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874030

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study investigated prognostic factors of short survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) upon the time of their admission to the Palliative Care Unit (PCU). Method: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 12 patients with MPM, who died at the PCU of our hospital from January 2016 to April 2018. According to the classification of survival period by previous predictor model, these patients were classified into three Groups, Group A: less than 13 days, Group B: between 14 and 55 days, and Group C: more than 56 days. Results: The number of patients was 5 in Group A, 5 in Group B, and 2 in Group C, respectively. Hemoptysis was seen in 40% of patients of Group A only and oxygen inhalation was necessary for all the patients of Group A. Dysphagia and bilateral pleural involvement were seen in 80% of Group A and in 60% of Group B. Pneumonia was seen in 60% of Group A and in 20% of Group B. The above four factors were not seen in Group C. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that hemoptysis, dysphagia, bilateral pleural involvement, pneumonia, and oxygen inhalation are possibly prognostic factors of short survival of patients with MPM upon their admission to PCU.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911966

ABSTRACT

We report two women with massive hemoptysis during late pregnancy, who gave birth to two live neonates by cesarean section under a rigid bronchoscopy-guided high-frequency jet ventilation combined with general anesthesia at 33 and 28 gestational weeks, respectively. Bronchoscopy- guided hemostasis was achieved during the operation. Postoperative bronchial arteriography and bronchial artery embolization confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular malformations. During the 12-month follow-up, no relapse of hemoptysis was observed and the two babies were healthy.

5.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 903-907, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909642

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the angiographic anatomy of the lateral costal artery (LCA) and its effect on hemoptysis.Methods:The CT data of angiography and angiographic-CT in 303 patients with hemoptysis in Guangzhou First People′s Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The origin and travel of the lateral costal artery and the blood supply of the LCA involved in the pulmonary lesion were analyzed.Results:In 303 patients with hemoptysis, 30 LCA were detected in 24 cases, including 12 on the left and 18 on the right, 18 on one side and 6 on both sides. All of them were the first branch of the first segment of the internal thoracic artery (ITA). The level of LCA originating from ITA was located in 1(3.3%) branch above clavicle, 27(90.0%) branches behind clavicle and 2(6.7%) branches below clavicle. LCA entered into the chest behind the first anterior rib, and walked along inner surface of the thorax from the anterior and superior direction to the outer and posterior direction, between the rib-intercostal medial muscle and pleura (i.e., anatomical intrathoracic fascia), and mostly terminated at the axillary midline plane. 28 LCA in 23 patients which can be used for morphological analysis, roughly manifested as follow three shapes: ⑴ 13(46.4%) of them were arc-shaped. The developed LCA was longer and showed shallow or deep arc-shaped curve; ⑵ High flat shape, total 11 LCA (39.3%), the LCA were relatively shorter, position higher and more gentle; ⑶ 4(14.3%) were straight and oblique. The developed LCA was relatively long, and the angle between LCA and ITA was linear. 11 vessels (36.67%) of 10 patients participated in the blood supply of pulmonary lesions, among which 2, 5, 1, 2 and 1 vessels were responsible for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth hemoptysis respectively.Conclusions:The LCA is a relatively common blood vessel and it can be well shown by angiography and angiographic CT. It is of great clinical significance to understand LCA.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907930

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of a child with bronchial Dieulafoy disease treated in Wuhan Children′s Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, was analyzed retrospectively.The patient was a 9-month-old boy, who was admitted to hospital due to " intermittent hematemesis vomiting blood for 6 hours" . Chest CT suggested ground-glass opacity in both lungs.Electronic bronchoscopy showed that the neoplasm bulged into the lumen at the opening of the right inferior lobar bronchus, and fresh blood oozed from the basal segment of the neoplasm during the operation.Bronchial arteriography and transcatheter bronchial artery embolization were performed due to recurrent hemoptysis, during which the patient was diagnosed with bronchial arterial vascular malformation and finally diagnosed with bronchial Dieulafoy disease after consulting the relevant literatures.The disease is infrequent and characterized by rupture hemorrhage of bronchial submucosal malformed artery, the etiology and pathogenesis of which are still unclear, and it may be related to congenital vascular malformation in children.Bronchoscopy for hemoptysis of unknown cause in children should be performed with caution.If small and smooth protruded nodular lesions are seen under the bronchoscope, the bronchial Dieulafoy disease should be considered, and the lesions should not be touched too much or subjected to biopsy blindly.Fatal massive hemorrhage can be avoided by bronchial arteriography and bronchial artery embolization.

7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20200557, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Massive hemoptysis is one of the most serious complications in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to evaluate the hemoptysis-free period following bronchial and non-bronchial artery embolization (BAE/non-BAE) in CF patients and to investigate predictors of recurrent bleeding and mortality by any cause. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of CF patients ≥ 16 years of age undergoing BAE/non-BAE for hemoptysis between 2000 and 2017. Results: We analyzed 39 hemoptysis episodes treated with BAE/non-BAE in 17 CF patients. Hemoptysis recurrence rate was 56.4%. Of the sample as a whole, 3 (17.6%) were hemoptysis-free during the study period, 2 (11.8%) underwent lung transplantation, and 3 (17.6%) died. The median hemoptysis-free period was 17 months. The median hemoptysis-free period was longer in patients with chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31 months; 95% CI: 0.00-68.5) than in those without that type of infection (4 months; 95% CI: 1.8-6.2; p = 0.017). However, this association was considered weak, and its clinical significance was uncertain due to the small number of patients without that infection. Conclusions: BAE appears to be effective in the treatment of hemoptysis in patients with CF.


RESUMO Objetivo: A hemoptise maciça é uma das complicações mais graves em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o período livre de hemoptise após a embolização arterial brônquica/não brônquica (EAB/não EAB) em pacientes com FC e investigar preditores de sangramento recorrente e mortalidade por qualquer causa. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de coorte de pacientes com FC com idade ≥ 16 anos submetidos a EAB/não EAB para o tratamento de hemoptise entre 2000 e 2017. Resultados: Foram analisados 39 episódios de hemoptise tratada por meio de EAB/não EAB em 17 pacientes com FC. A taxa de recidiva da hemoptise foi de 56,4%. Do total de pacientes, 3 (17,6%) permaneceram sem hemoptise durante o estudo, 2 (11,8%) foram submetidos a transplante de pulmão e 3 (17,6%) morreram. A mediana do período sem hemoptise foi de 17 meses. A mediana do período sem hemoptise foi maior em pacientes com infecção crônica por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31 meses; IC95%: 0,00-68,5) do que naqueles sem esse tipo de infecção (4 meses; IC95%: 1,8-6,2; p = 0,017). No entanto, essa associação foi considerada fraca, e sua importância clínica foi considerada incerta em virtude do pequeno número de pacientes sem essa infecção. Conclusões: A EAB parece ser eficaz no tratamento de hemoptise em pacientes com FC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Bronchial Arteries , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hemoptysis/therapy
8.
Medwave ; 21(1): e8112, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283299

ABSTRACT

El pseudoaneurisma se define como un hematoma pulsátil repermeabilizado, encapsulado y en comunicación con la luz de un vaso dañado. Se origina cuando hay una disrupción de la pared arterial. La hemoptisis es un signo/síntoma de presentación muy rara de aneurisma aórtico torácico y de pseudoaneurisma aórtico torácico. Hay poca información sobre la hemoptisis asociada con la ruptura del aneurisma aórtico cuyo mecanismo no se explica por la presencia de una fístula aortopulmonar. Entre las hipótesis para explicar este fenómeno, se encuentra la capacidad de las arterias bronquiales de volverse hiperplásicas y tortuosas en presencia de una lesión que modifica la arquitectura pulmonar, siendo más susceptibles a la ruptura. También hay descripciones de lesiones directas del parénquima pulmonar por aneurisma roto. El presente caso nos ilustra que debemos considerar a la hemoptisis como signo de alarma en el diagnóstico diferencial de los aneurismas y pseudoaneurismas aórticos entre otras causas que puede ser fatal en breve tiempo por una hemorragia masiva.


Pseudoaneurysm is defined as a reperfused pulsatile hematoma, encapsulated and communicated with the damaged vessel's lumen. It originates when there is a disruption of the arterial wall. Hemoptysis is a very rare sign/symptom of a thoracic aortic aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm. There is little information on hemoptysis associated with aortic aneurysm rupture, whose mechanisms are not explained by the presence of an aortopulmonary fistula. Among the hypotheses to explain this phenomenon, is the ability of the bronchial arteries to become hyperplasic and tortuous in the presence of a lesion that modifies the pulmonary architecture, being more susceptible to rupture. There are also descriptions of direct lung parenchymal injury from ruptured aneurysm. The present case illustrates that we must consider the hemoptysis as a warning sign in differential diagnosis of aortic aneurysms and pseudo aneurysms, among other causes, that it can be fatal in a short time due to massive hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Rupture , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, False/diagnostic imaging , Hemoptysis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aneurysm, False/surgery , Aneurysm, False/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hemoptysis/diagnosis
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 48-52, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284224

ABSTRACT

Unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery is a rare malformation, sometimes asymptomatic and underdiagnosed. Right agenesis is usually isolated, while the left agenesis is more frequently associated with cardiovascular malformations. Some patients have recurrent respiratory infections, exercise limitation, hemoptysis, and/or pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis is suspected by chest radiograph showing a hypoplastic lung ipsilateral to the agenesis. It is confirmed with contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography. In asymptomatic patients, management should be conservative, however, the search for collateral vessels should be started from adolescence, because they can bleed. In symptomatic patients or those with serious complications, the treatment must be interventional. The objective of this article is to present two patients with right and left pulmonary artery agenesis respectively and review the literature.


La agenesia unilateral de la arteria pulmonar es una malformación poco frecuente, en ocasiones asintomática y subdiagnosticada. La agenesia derecha suele ser aislada, en cambio la izquierda se asocia más frecuentemente a malformaciones cardiovasculares. Algunos pacientes presentan infecciones respiratorias recurrentes, limitación al ejercicio, hemoptisis y/o hipertensión pulmonar. El diagnóstico se sospecha al solicitar una radiografía de tórax que muestra un pulmón hipoplásico ipsilateral a la agenesia. Se confirma con tomografía computada de tórax con contraste. En pacientes asintomáticos el manejo debe ser conservador, sin embargo, se debe iniciar la búsqueda de vasos colaterales especialmente durante la adolescencia, los que pueden sangrar. En cambio, en los pacientes sintomáticos o que presentan complicaciones graves, el tratamiento debe ser intervencional. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a dos pacientes con agenesia de la arteria pulmonar derecha e izquierda respectivamente y hacer una revisión de la literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hemoptysis/etiology
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 640-648, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250286

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presentan los resultados de 105 pacientes con hemoptisis amenazante tratados mediante embolización arterial por cateterismo percutáneo por vía arterial sistémica y/o arterial pulmonar. Se describe la técnica del procedimiento y los hallazgos angiográficos. Se muestra la utilidad de la fibrobroncoscopía y de la radiografía de tórax para identificar la zona sangrante como diagnóstico previo al procedimiento. Entre mayo 2000 y septiembre 2015 se admitieron en el Servicio de Hemodinamia 105 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemoptisis amenazante, 76 masculinos (72.4%); edad media: 41 (±18.65 DS) años. El 93% (98/105) fue tratado con éxito. En el 90% (88/98) se efectuó embolización por arterias bronquiales y/o no bronquiales sistémicas y en el 10% (10/98) por vía arterial pulmonar. Cuando la afección era bilateral la angiografía sola no posibilitó identificar el sitio de sangrado. Al 60% (63/98) se le hizo fibrobroncoscopía flexible y se pudo ubicar el pulmón sangrante en el 84% (56/63). Cuando la afección era unilateral, la radiografía de tórax previa al procedimiento facilitó la ubicación del área de sangrado en el 47%. No se observaron complicaciones graves ni muertes vinculadas al procedimiento. El tratamiento de la hemoptisis masiva por vía percutánea tiene alto porcentaje de éxito primario con muy baja tasa de complicaciones. El tratamiento por vía arterial pulmonar es un abordaje alternativo. La fibrobroncoscopía flexible es un importante complemento en esta entidad.


Abstract We present the results of 105 patients with life-threatening hemoptysis who were treated with the systemic arterial and/or pulmonary artery routes. We also describe the procedure techniques and the angiographic findings. We show the usefulness of the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy and chest radiography to identify the bleeding zone previous to the procedure. From May 2000 to September 2015, a total of 105 patients were admitted to the Catheterization Laboratory with a diagnosis of life-threatening hemoptysis; 76 were male (72.4%) and mean age was 41 ± 18.65 years. Treatment was successful in 93% (98/105). In 90% (88/98) the approach was via the bronchial arteries and/or non-bronchial systemic arteries, and in 10% (10/98) the approach was via the pulmonary artery. In bilateral affection angiographic images alone could not identify accurately the site of the lung bleeding. Flexible fibrobronchoscopy was performed in 60% (63/98) and located the bleeding area in 84% (56/63). In unilateral affection, chest radiography previous to the procedure located the bleeding area in 47%. No complications or death were related to the procedure. The treatment of life threatening hemoptysis by a percutaneous way has a high percentage of primary success with a very low incidence of complications. Pulmonary arterial route treatment is an alternative approach. Flexible fibrobronchoscopy is an important complement to this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Embolization, Therapeutic , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hemoptysis/therapy , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Bronchial Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Angiography
11.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 81(4): 398-403, oct.-dic 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278287

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar los factores asociados a hemoptisis en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar admitidos al Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Métodos. Estudio analítico de casos y controles. Se seleccionaron pacientes con baciloscopia positiva del programa de tuberculosis del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima - Perú. Los casos fueron pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar con hemoptisis; y los controles, tuberculosis pulmonar sin hemoptisis. Se estudiaron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y laboratoriales. Se empleo el software SPSS 24. Se determinaron medidas de frecuencia, medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión, así como los odds ratio con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95%, se consideró estadísticamente significativo el valor de p<0,05. Resultados. La hemoptisis representó el 5,8% del total de pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar y baciloscopia positiva, el 80% se presentó en varones menores de 60 años. El 70% de casos tuvo antecedente de hábito alcohólico (OR: 2,5 IC: 1,2-5,5); el 24% exposición a quema de biomasa (OR: 4,9 IC: 1,7-14); el 66% presentó dolor torácico (OR: 3,3 IC: 1,6-6,7); las alteraciones tomográficas estuvieron presentes en el 88% de casos (OR: 24,5 IC: 9,2-64,8); no se encontró variaciones en el perfil de coagulación. La mortalidad por hemoptisis en pacientes hospitalizados con tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopía positiva fue del 20,22%. Conclusiones. El alcoholismo crónico y la evidencia tomográfica de bronquiectasia estuvieron asociados a hemoptisis en pacientes hospitalizados por tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To determine the factors associated with hemoptysis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted at Dos de Mayo National Hospital. Methods. Analytical study of cases and controls. Patients from the tuberculosis program at Dos de Mayo National Hospital, Lima- Peru, were selected. The cases were patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with hemoptysis, and controls pulmonary tuberculosis without hemoptysis. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory variables were studied. SPSS 24 software is used. Frequency, central trend and dispersion measurements were determined, as well as odds ratios with their respective confidence intervals at 95%, the value of p<0,05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Tuberculosis hemoptysis account for 5,8% of all patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 80% occurred in males under 60 years old. 70% of cases had a history of alcoholic habits (OR: 2,5 CI: 1,2-5,5); 24% exposure to biomass burning (OR: 4,9 CI: 1,7-14); 66% had chest pain (OR: 3,3 IC: 1,6-6,7); tomographic alterations were present in 88% of cases (OR: 24,5 IC: 9,2-64,8); however, no variations in the coagulation profile were found. Death from hemoptysis in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 20,22%. Conclusions. Chronic alcoholism and tomographic evidence of bronchiectasis were associated with hemoptysis in patients hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis with positive smear microscopy.

12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 406-410, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127613

ABSTRACT

We present the case-report of a one-month-old infant, admitted to the Emergency Department with hypovolemic shock secondary to pulmonary hemorrhage who required life-support measures, including vasoactive drugs and methylprednisolone pulses. She was discharged from the hospital after 13 days of evolution and then readmitted 5 days later for a new episode of hemoptysis with hemodynamic compromise. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed 4 days after the first episode showed a normal anatomy, without active bleeding, with 20% of hemosiderophages in bronchoalveolar lavage. Diffuse infiltrates were found on the chest radiograph. Differents studies were performed for check-out infection, heart disease, immune disease, thrombophilia, celiac disease, swallowing disorder, vascular abnormalities and allergy to cow's milk protein were negative, which led to Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH). It was managed with amino acid formula, daily oral prednisone until 6 months of age and then every other day, and permanent inhaled fluticasone. In subsequent controls, normal growth and development were found, with no recurrences up to the time of this report, at 1 year of age. The favorable evolution in this case is attributed to early diagnosis and timely treatment with systemic corticosteroids. A review of the topic of IPH in pediatrics is presented, and study and treatment algorithms are proposed.


Se presenta el caso de una lactante de un mes de edad, que se presentó en el Servicio de Urgencia con shock hipovolémico secundario a hemorragia pulmonar. Necesitó medidas de soporte vital, incluyendo drogas vasoactivas y pulsos de metilprednisolona. Egresó del hospital a los 13 días de evolución y reingresó 5 días después por nuevo episodio de hemoptisis con compromiso hemodinámico. La fibrobroncoscopía efectuada a los 4 días de evolución del primer episodio mostró una anatomía normal, sin sangrado activo, con 20% de hemosiderófagos en el lavado broncoalveolar. En la radiografía de tórax se encontró infiltrados difusos. Los estudios en busca de infección, cardiopatía, enfermedad inmunológica, trombofilia, enfermedad celíaca, trastorno de deglución, anomalías vasculares y alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca resultaron negativos, por lo que se planteó una Hemosiderosis Pulmonar Idiopática (HPI). Se manejó con fórmula aminoacídica, prednisona oral diaria hasta los 6 meses de edad y después en días alternos y fluticasona inhalada permanente. En controles posteriores se constató crecimiento y desarrollo normal, sin recidivas hasta el momento de este reporte, con 1 año de edad. La evolución favorable en este caso se atribuye al diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno con corticoides sistémicos. Se presenta una revisión del tema de HPI en pediatría y se proponen algoritmos de estudio y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hemosiderosis/drug therapy , Hemosiderosis/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone , Prednisone , Radiography, Thoracic , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Fluticasone , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hemosiderosis/complications
13.
CES med ; 34(2): 144-152, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285740

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los aneurismas de la arteria pulmonar son entidades infrecuentes y su tratamiento es tema de discusión. Desde el punto de vista etiológico pueden ser congénitos o adquiridos. Los primeros, generalmente se asocian a malformaciones cardiacas que producen hipertensión pulmonar, siendo el ductus arterioso la más frecuente. Otras anomalías incluyen defectos auriculares o ventriculares. Las causas adquiridas pueden ser idiopáticas o estar asociadas a infecciones (tuberculosis, sífilis), traumatismos o colagenopatías. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 62 años, quien consultó por un cuadro clínico en el que se destacaba su sintomatología neurológica e infecciosa, con posterior progresión a un choque séptico y en quien los hallazgos de las imágenes mostraron un aneurisma gigante de la arteria pulmonar siendo este un hallazgo incidental y sin relación a la sintomatología de la paciente.


Abstract Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rare entities and their treatment is a matter of discussion. From the etiological point of view, they can be congenital or acquired. Those in the first group are generally associated with cardiac malformations that generate pulmonary hypertension, with the ductus arteriosus being the most frequent. Other abnormalities include atrial or ventricular defects. The acquired causes may be idiopathic or associated with infections (tuberculosis, syphilis), trauma, or collagen disease. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman, which consulted for a clinical condition where neurological and infectious symptoms stood out, with subsequent progression to a state of septic shock, and in whom the imaging finding showed a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. this being an incidental finding and unrelated to the patient's symptoms.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212488

ABSTRACT

Unilateral absence or agenesis of pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare congenital abnormality with an estimated prevelance of 1 in 2,00,000 adults. The entity occurs commonly in association with other congenital heart diseases like septal defects or patent ductus arteriosus. The condition usually runs a benign clinical course with patients usually presenting clinically in adulthood with history of recurrent respiratory tract infections. Two such patients presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections, breathlessness and hemoptysis. The chest radiograph of first patient was reported as normal in the referring hospital, while that of second patient showed volume loss in left lung. CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) was then performed which demonstrated the absence of right and left pulmonary arteries respectively in the first and second patients. Pulmonary artery branches were reformed distally by multiple collaterals arising from systemic arteries. The entire spectrum, including embryology, imaging features and management of UAPA are discussed. UAPA remains a potential cause for life-threatening hemoptysis, due to extensive collateralization associated with the condition. It is important for radiologists to be aware of this uncommon entity in order to suspect it on a routine chest radiograph, diagnose it and map associated collaterals on CTPA and also embolize the bleeding collaterals.

15.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 12-17, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098366

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Correlacionar las generalidades de la etiología, patogenia, presentación clínica y métodos diagnósticos actuales disponibles para el aneurisma de arteria pulmonar con la muerte súbita o repentina de estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron revisión del expediente clínico, análisis de la autopsia y revisión bibliográfica. Presentación de caso: Se presenta el caso de un masculino de 39 años con antecedente de hipertensión pulmonar que consultó por disnea súbita. Se abordó el caso como un tromboembolismo pulmonar. El paciente presentó una evolución clínica tórpida y falleció. La autopsia reveló un aneurisma de la arteria pulmonar. Conclusión: Los aneurismas de la arteria pulmonar son poco frecuentes. La presentación clínica es inespecífica. Los métodos diagnósticos más fiables son la sospecha clínica y los métodos de imagen, sin embargo siguen siendo motivo de muerte súbita y repentina; cuyo hallazgo es postmorten.


Abstract Objective: Correlate the generalities of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and current diagnostic methods available for pulmonary artery aneurysm with sudden death of these patients. Materials and methods: Review of medical record, autopsy analysis and scientific literature. Case presentation: A 39-year-old male with a history of pulmonary hypertension, who consulted for sudden dyspnea. The case was approached as a pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient presented bad clinical evolution and died. Autopsy revealed an aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rare. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. The most reliable diagnostic methods are clinical suspicion and imaging methods, however they remain a cause of sudden death; whose finding is postmortem.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Hemoptysis/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Aneurysm/pathology , Costa Rica
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(1): 2019131, Jan.-Mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052962

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a disorder of varying etiology and should be diagnosed early for appropriate interventions. A 45-year-old man was hospitalized for chest pain, dyspnea, cough, chills, diarrhea, and vomiting, which had started 3 weeks before admission. Physical examination indicated a reduced vesicular murmur in the right hemithorax. A chest x-ray performed indicated a pneumothorax and pulmonary abscess in the right hemithorax. Thoracostomy released abundant purulent and fetid fluid. Direct examination of the pleural fluid using saline revealed structures similar to Trichomonas. Non-contrast chest computed tomography revealed right pneumothorax along with an irregular cavitation located at the pleuropulmonary interface of the posterior margin of the right lower lobe. A pleurostomy was performed. On the second postoperative day, the patient suffered a sudden major hemorrhage through the surgical wound and died on the way to the operating room. The autopsy revealed an abscess and ruptured aneurysm of the lower lobar artery in the lower right lung. Microscopic examination revealed extensive liquefactive necrosis associated with purulent inflammation and the presence of filamentous fungi and spores. This case can be characterized as a severe disorder that requires early diagnosis to achieve a good therapeutic response and to avoid fatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trichomonas Infections/pathology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/pathology , Lung Abscess/pathology , Autopsy , Thoracotomy , Fatal Outcome , Hemoptysis
17.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825985

ABSTRACT

An 84-year-old woman treated for tuberculosis in childhood presented to our emergency department with chronic cough and massive hemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) on admission revealed a bronchial-pulmonary artery fistula (BPAF) for which she underwent bronchial artery embolization (BAE) and developed hemoptysis postoperatively. Contrast-enhanced CT on admission revealed a connection between the right coronary and a bronchial artery, suggesting coronary-to-bronchial artery communication. Hemoptysis persisted despite coiling of a branch of the right coronary artery. Therefore, we were consulted to perform thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), which we performed as a semi-emergency. She did not show hemoptysis or paraplegia postoperatively and was discharged on postoperative day 40. TEVAR is effective for a BPAF in patients in whom BAE cannot control hemoptysis.

18.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7986, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La actinomicosis es una enfermedad infecciosa poco frecuente, ocasionada por una bacteria Gram positiva. La especie más común es Actinomyces israelii. Dentro de sus formas de presentación, la torácica es la menos frecuente. PRESENTACIÓN DE CASOS: Reportamos dos pacientes con actinomicosis torácica de 8 y 13 años de diferentes zonas geográficas de Perú. El primer caso tuvo empiema necessitatis y el segundo, consolidación pulmonar y hemoptisis recurrente. Ambos tuvieron cierto grado de dificultad en su diagnóstico, pero con una buena respuesta al tratamiento antibiótico y quirúrgico. El diagnóstico fue mediante estudio histopatológico. Sin embargo, no se pudo identificar la especie de Actinomyces. CONCLUSIÓN: La actinomicosis torácica es poco frecuente en niños y se presenta como una lesión parenquimal con posible fistulización a la pared torácica. Este es uno de los pocos casos reportados en la literatura peruana, constituyendo una contribución al conocimiento de esta enfermedad y su manejo en pediatría.


INTRODUCTION: Actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Gram-positive bacteria. The most common species is Actinomyces israelii. Among its forms of presentation, the thoracic is the least frequent. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two patients with thoracic actinomycosis, 8 and 13 years old, from different geographical areas of Peru. The first case had empyema necessitans and the second, lung consolidation and recurrent hemoptysis. Both had a certain degree of difficulty in their diagnosis but responded favorably to antibiotics and surgical treatment. The diagnosis was based on the histopathological study. However, we were not able to ascertain the species of actinomyces. CONCLUSION: Thoracic actinomycosis is rare in children and presents as a parenchymal lesion with possible fistulization to the chest wall. This article is one of the few in the Peruvian literature, constituting a contribution to the knowledge of the disease and its management in pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Actinomyces/isolation & purification , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Peru , Actinomycosis/microbiology , Actinomycosis/therapy , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
19.
MedUNAB ; 23(2): 191-194, 22-07-2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117955

ABSTRACT

Figuras A Y B: Radiografía de Tórax Anteroposterior (AP) y Lateral. Presencia de gran lesión al parecer del mediastino medio (Flechas blancas), con diámetros de 11 x 15 x 12 cm, de densidad homogénea, con efecto de masa y desviación de todas las estructuras (Flechas negras) y compresión sobre el lóbulo superior derecho (*), sin calcificaciones en su interior. Figura C. Tomografía computarizada de tórax con contraste corte coronal. En la región central del mediastino anterior, se identifica una masa hipodensa, heterogénea, con densidad de predominio de tejido blando, con algunas imágenes de densidad cálcica en su interior, de 14.3 x 10.2 x 12.6 (Línea amarilla) cm, que se encuentra desplazando la aorta ascendente, con trayecto tortuoso (Flecha azul), la flecha roja señala el tronco braquiocefálico. Figura D. Tomografía computarizada de tórax corte axial en ventana mediastinal. Masa hipodensa, heterogénea, con densidad de predominio de tejido blando, con algunas imágenes de densidad cálcica en su interior, la cual se encuentra desplazando y ocupando gran parte de la porción anterior del hemitórax derecho. Así mismo se encuentra desplazando estructuras mediastinales como el tronco de la pulmonar (Flecha azul), esta masa se encuentra generando atelectasia pasiva del lóbulo medio derecho (Flecha roja). Cómo citar. López-Salazar JP, Delgado-Serrano J. Tumor mediastinal de células germinales en un paciente con melanoptisis. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 191-194. doi:10.29375/01237047.3748


Figures A and B: Anteroposterior (AP) and Lateral Chest X-ray. Presence of a large mass, apparently from the middle mediastinum (white arrows), diameters of 11 x 15 x 12 cm, homogeneous density, with the mass effect on other mediastinal structures (black arrows) and compression on the right upper lobe (*), without inner calcifications. Figure C. Chest Computed Tomography, coronal section. In the anterior mediastinum it shows a hypodense, heterogeneous mass, with predominance of soft tissue density, with some calcifications inside, diameters of 14.3 x 10.2 x 12.6 (yellow line) cm, displacing the ascending aorta (blue arrow), the red arrow indicates the brachiocephalic trunk. Figure D. Computed tomography of the chest, axial section. Hypodense, heterogeneous mass, with predominance of soft tissue density, with some calcifications inside, which occupying a large parto f the anterior right hemithorax. It is also displacing mediastinal structures such as the trunk of the pulmonary artery (blue arrow), this mass is generating passive atelectasis of the right middle lobe (red arrow). Cómo citar. López-Salazar JP, Delgado-Serrano J. Tumor mediastinal de células germinales en un paciente con melanoptisis. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 191-194. doi:10.29375/01237047.3748


Figuras A e B: Radiografia de tórax (anteroposterior (AP) e lateral). Presença de grande massa, aparentemente do mediastino médio (Setas brancas), diâmetros de 11 x 15 x 12 cm, densidade homogênea, com efeito de massa em outras estruturas mediastinais (setas pretas) e compressão no lobo superior direito (*), sem calcificações internas. Figura C. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, corte coronal. No mediastino anterior, mostra uma massa hipodensa e heterogênea, com predominância da densidade de partes moles, com algumas calcificações internas, diâmetros de 14,3 x 10,2 x 12,6 (Linha amarela) cm, deslocando a aorta ascendente (seta azul), a seta vermelha indica o tronco braquiocefálico. Figura D. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, corte axial. Massa hipodensa, heterogênea, com predominância da densidade de partes moles, com algunas calcificações internas, que ocupam grande parte do hemitórax anterior direito. Também está deslocando estruturas mediastinais, como o tronco da artéria pulmonar (Seta azul), essa massa está gerando atelectasia passiva do lobo médio direito (Sseta vermelha). Cómo citar. López-Salazar JP, Delgado-Serrano J. Tumor mediastinal de células germinales en un paciente con melanoptisis. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 191-194. doi:10.29375/01237047.3748


Subject(s)
Mediastinal Neoplasms , Radiology , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Hemoptysis
20.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 47-49, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247430

ABSTRACT

Rasmussen's aneurysm (RA) is a pseudoaneurysm of a pulmonary artery (AP), adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity, appearing in 5% of these lesions. Its rupture might provoke massive hemoptysis (MH) with a near 50% mortality. The aim of this article is to report a case of massive hemoptysis following Rasmussen's aneurysm. 52-year-old man with recent history of hospita-lization due to pneumonia associated to influenza A and decompensated hyperthyroidism, pre-sents outpatient chest radiograph with signs of hyperinflation and scarring apical opacities, the patient returned to the hospital due to sharp pain of left hemi thorax during inspiration accom-panied with bloody sputum, asthenia and non-quantified weight loss. He evolves to frank MH, requiring endotracheal intubation managed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Chest computed tomography (CT) reported ground-glass opacity, nodules with a tendency to cavitation, tree-in-bud pattern in agreement with inflammation and infection, active TB is considered, and truncus of PA with vascular lesion suggestive of aneurysm dependent on pulmonary circulation, possibly RA. Fibrobronchoscopy reported signs of old and recent bleeding of left bronchial tree, probably of the lingula, blood clots in right bronchial tree. Molecular study and TB cultures was negative. Endovascular procedure with arteriography was carried out, revealing amputation of left distal segmental PA carrying the pseudoaneurysm with complete regression, discarding embolization RA It must be considered among the differential diagnoses of MH, especially on patients with pulmonary TB complications, such as the reported case. Due to its associated increased morta-lity, once RA is identified, it must be either endovascularly or surgically eradicated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Hemoptysis/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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