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1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 70-75, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006429

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo quantitatively investigate the changes in the total volume and contour density of hepatic oval cells (HOC) in hepatic lobules of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. MethodsA total of 11 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group with 5 rats and hepatic fibrosis group with 6 rats, and CCl4 and olive oil suspension were injected subcutaneously twice a week, 3 mL/kg each time. After five weeks of hepatic fibrosis modeling, five liver tissue blocks with a size of about 1 mm3 were randomly selected from the liver of each rat to prepare one Epon812 epoxy resin-embedded ultrathin section, and the stereological method and transmission electron microscopy were used for the quantitative analysis of the total volume and contour density of HOC in the hepatic lobules of rats. In addition, four liver tissue blocks with a thickness of 2 mm were randomly selected from the remaining liver of each rat to prepare two paraffin-embedded Masson staining sections, and the degree of liver fibrosis in each rat was qualitatively evaluated according to the Metavir staging criteria for liver fibrosis. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. ResultsThe quantitative stereological analysis showed that the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules was 15.40±7.63 mm3 in the control group and 146.80±114.00 mm3 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 8.53 times (t=-2.551, P=0.031); the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules was 56.20±40.40 in the control group and 566.50±317.00 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 9.08 times (t=-3.539, P=0.006). Qualitative observation showed that liver fibrosis stage of rats reached stage Ⅱ-Ⅲ according to the Metavir scoring criteria, and massive proliferation of HOC was observed around the proliferation site of hepatic stellate cells in the perisinusoidal space of rats. ConclusionCCl4 induces significant proliferation of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats with liver fibrosis.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2340-2347, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998300

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate whether cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-derived exosomes can downregulate HBx expression and inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. MethodsThe supernatants of HepG2, HepGA14, and CTL cells were collected to extract exosomes, which were referred to as NC-exo, HBV-exo, and CTL-exo, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe their morphology, and Western Blot was used to measure the expression of the markers of exosomes CD63 and TSG101. NC-exo, HBV-exo, and CTL-exo labeled by BODIPY dye were mixed with HBV-exo at different ratios and were then co-cultured with HSC LX-2 (HSC-LX2). A fluorescence microscope was used to observe whether exosomes could enter LX-2 cells, and an fluorescence microscope was used to observe cell morphological changes; quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to measure the expression of the activated biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), ɑ-smooth muscle actin (ɑ-SMA), and collagen type I (Collagen I) in LX-2 cells. CTL-exo was added to the HepGA14 culture system; then qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression level of HBV DNA, cccDNA, and HBx in exosomes in HepGA14 cells, and Western Blot was used to measure the protein expression level of HBx in exosomes. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsThe exosomes were all microcysts with a double-layer membrane structure and were circular or elliptical in shape, with the expression of the signature proteins CD63 and TSG101, and the vesicles had a diameter of 50-100 nm. The fluorescence microscope showed that exosomes could enter LX-2 cells, and HSC were enlarged with extended cell processes. The results of qPCR showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of TGF-β1, ɑ-SMA, and Collagen I genes between the NC-exo, HBV-exo, NC-exo+HBV-exo, and Con groups (F=444.678, 417.144, and 571.508, all P<0.05). After the intervention of HepGA14 cells with CTL-exo, qPCR results showed that compared with the control group, there were significant reductions in the expression levels of HBV DNA and cccDNA in HepGA14 cells (all P<0.05), the relative mRNA expression level of HBx in exosomes (P<0.05), and the protein expression level of HBx (P<0.05). CTL-exo and HBV-exo were mixed at different ratios (2∶1, 5∶1, 10∶1) and were then used for the intervention of LX-2 cells, and qPCR results showed that the expression levels of TGF-β1, ɑ-SMA, and Collagen I genes in LX-2 cells gradually decreased with the increase in the ratio of CTL-exo between groups (P<0.05). ConclusionCTL-exo can downregulate the protein expression of HBx in HBV-exo to inhibit HSC activation, suggesting that CTL-exo has an anti-hepatitis B liver fibrosis effect.

3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 994-1001, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of exosomes secreted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophages on hepatic stellate cell activation and migration and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Human monocyte THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages using propylene glycol methyl ether acetic acid (PMA, 100 ng/mL, 24 h) followed by stimulation with LPS, and the culture supernatant of macrophages was collected for extraction of the exosomes by ultracentrifugation. The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes was detected using qRT-PCR. A Transwell co-culture system was used to observe the effects of the macrophage-derived exosomes on LX2 cell (a hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation, migration, oxidative stress and the expression of fibrosis biomarkers, which were also observed in LX2 cells transfected with miR-155-5p-mimics or miR-155-5p-inhibitors. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of SOCS1 and its downstream signal pathway proteins.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with the exosomes from LPS-stimulated macrophages significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of LX2 cells and increased the levels of oxidative stress and expressions of the fibrosis markers such as type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05). The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes secreted by macrophages was significantly increased after LPS treatment (P < 0.01). LX2 cells overexpressing miR-155-5p also exhibited significantly enhanced proliferation and migration with increased oxidative stress levels and expression of type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05), and interference of miR-155-5p expression produced the opposite effects. Western blotting showed that miR-155-5p overexpression obviously inhibited SOCS1 expression and promoted p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and RhoA protein expressions in LX2 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#LPS stimulation of the macrophages increases miR-155-5p expression in the exosomes to promote activation and migration and increase oxidative stress and collagen production in hepatic stellate cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Collagen Type I , Exosomes , Macrophages , MicroRNAs
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 278-284, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993323

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-73 (CDKI-73), the Rab11 inhibitor, on liver fibrosis.Methods:Human LX2 cells were divided into four groups: negative control group, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) group, CDKI-73 group and TGF-β+ CDKI-73 group. Fifteen 5-week-old female C57 mice with body weight of (18.04±0.62) g were divided into 3 groups with 5 mice in each group: control group (intraperitoneal injection of olive oil + vehicle gavage), carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) group (intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4 + vehicle gavage) and CCl 4+ CDKI-73 group (intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4+ CDKI-73 gavage). Another 15 5-week-old female C57 mice with body weight of (18.06±0.34) g were divided into 3 groups with 5 mice in each group: sham operation group (Sham), bile duct ligation (BDL) group + vehicle group (BDL+ vehicle gavage) and bile duct ligation+ CDKI-73 group (BDL+ CDKI-73 gavage). The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin(FN)in LX2 cells were analyzed by Western blot. Masson and Sirius red were used to examine the liver fibrosis after CDKI-73 treatment in vivo. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to examine the expression of α-SMA in mice liver. Results:Collagen content assessed by Sirius red and Masson staining and α-SMA expression evaluated by IHC were all increased in CCl 4 group compared with control group ( q=38.47, 24.99, 36.79). Moreover, the collagen content and α-SMA expression in CCl 4 + CDKI-73 treatment group were obviously decreased compared with CCl 4 group ( q=24.72, 14.87, 27.50), and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.001). Compared with Sham group, collagen content and α-SMA expression in bile duct ligation group were increased ( q=28.23, 41.01, 44.16). Furthermore, in BDL group, after treatment with CDKI-73, the collagen content and α-SMA expression were notably decreased ( q=22.88, 34.31 and 33.97, all P<0.001). Consistent with in vivo results, the relative expression levels of α-SMA and FN protein in TGF-β group were higher than those in TGF-β+ CDKI-73 group (α-SMA: 3.71±0.34 vs. 1.28±0.31; FN: 3.21±0.39 vs. 0.83±0.06, all P<0.001). The mRNA relative expression levels of α-SMA and FN in TGF-β group were higher than those in TGF-β+ CDKI-73 group, and the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.001). However, the relative expression of TGF-β receptor Ⅱ protein in CDKI-73 group was higher than those in negative control group (4.68±0.63 vs. 1.00±0.22, P=0.004). The relative expression level of phosphorylated SMAD2 in TGF-β+ CDKI-73 group was lower than those in TGF-β group (1.67±0.24 vs. 3.99±0.44, P<0.001). Transwell assay showed that 0.5 μmol/L CDKI-73 could effectively inhibit the migration of LX2 cells, and the inhibitory ability became stronger with the increase of CDKI-73 concentration. Conclusion:CDKI-73 can inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by inhibiting Rab11-dependent TGF-β signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro.

5.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 11-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991570

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze DNA methylation sites related to fibrosis and autophagy in human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2 cells) induced by sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2), and to screen specific methylation genes related to fibrosis and autophagy. Methods:Genome-wide DNA detection was performed using Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChips (850K methylation chip) to derive differential methylation sites in LX-2 cells (control group) and the fibrosis and autophagy models of LX-2 cells induced by NaAsO 2(low, medium and high dose groups: the final concentrations were 5, 10, 15 μmol/L NaAsO 2, respectively, after 48 h intervention). Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway enrichment analysis were used to explore gene function. Results:The model of cell fibrosis and autophagy was established successfully in high dose group. The results of 850K methylation chip detection showed that there were 25 817 significant different methylation sites between the high dose group and the control group, including 12 083 hypermethylation sites and 13 734 hypomethylation sites. GO function enrichment analysis showed that the molecular functions of differentially methylated genes mainly included protein binding, ion binding, catalytic activity, enzyme binding. KEGG signaling pathway enrichment analysis showed that the pathways involved in differentially methylated genes mainly included metabolic pathway, cancer pathway, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway, endocytosis, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In the promoter region, 11 and 29 differentially methylated genes related to fibrosis and autophagy were screened, respectively.Conclusions:A large number of differential methylation sites exist in the process of NaAsO 2 induced fibrosis and autophagy of LX-2 cells. Specific methylation genes related to fibrosis and autophagy are screened out.

6.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 784-791, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988724

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the effects of eugenol on inhibiting the inflammatory activation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) and the pro-inflammatory phenotype of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver fibrosis, and to explore their underlying mechanisms. MethodsHUC-MSCs were cultured and identified in vitro, and the toxicity of eugenol to HUC-MSCs was evaluated by MTT method. The effect of eugenol on the migration ability of HUC-MSCs was investigated by in vitro scratch test. The expression of α-SMA, COL1A1, Smad2/3 and p-Smad2/3 of LX-2 cells activated by TGF-β1 treated with EU-MSCs-CM and MSCs-CM were detected by WB assay. EU-MSCs-CM and MSCs-CM treated THP-1 macrophages stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed for the expression of surface markers CD11b, CD86, and CD206 by flow cytometry. Additionally, the expression of pro-inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in THP-1 macrophages was detected by qPCR. ResultsThe results of MTT method showed that the viability of the cells remained above 90% after 24 h and 48 h treatment at 0, 7.5, 15 μg/mL. In vitro scratches showed that eugenol treatment enhanced HUC-MSCs migration. WB results showed that compared with MSCs-CM treatment, EU-MSCs-CM treatment significantly inhibited the expression of α-SMA, COL1A1, Smad2/3, and p-Smad2/3 of activated HSCs. Flow cytometry showed that compared with MSCs-CM treatment, EU-MSCs-CM treatment had a more significant inhibitory effect on CD86, a M1-type polarization marker in THP-1 macrophages. The results of qPCR experiment showed that compared with MSCs-CM treatment, EU-MSCs-CM treatment more significantly inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 of THP-1 macrophage proinflammatory genes. ConclusionsEugenol enhances the inhibitory effect of HUC-MSCs on inflammatory activation of HSCs, possibly by regulating TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. It also enhances the inhibitory effect of HUC-MSCs on the pro-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Proinflammatory macrophages can promote inflammatory activation of HSCs.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 419-423, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964808

ABSTRACT

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are crucial to the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis under physiologic conditions, while under the conditions of pathological liver damage, LSEC can respond to the damage by changing their structure through the process called capillarization, thereby aggravating liver damage. In addition, the interaction between LSEC and other cells in the liver plays a certain role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, especially the interaction between LSEC and hepatic stellate cells, which are the primary effector cells of liver fibrosis. This article mainly elaborates on the role of LSEC in the development and progression of liver fibrosis during chronic liver injury.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 193-198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960691

ABSTRACT

Chronic liver injury caused by any etiology will lead to liver fibrosis, and it was believed in the past that liver fibrosis is a static and irreversible pathophysiological process. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and the in-depth research on the microscopic aspect of the liver, more and more evidence has shown that liver fibrosis is a dynamic and reversible process. This article reviews the reports of different methods for evaluating the reversal of liver fibrosis caused by various etiologies, summarizes the pathogenesis and reversal mechanism of liver fibrosis, reviews the therapeutic drugs for reversal, and summarizes the current evaluation methods for liver fibrosis, and finally, it is believed that timely clearance or control of potential etiology may help to achieve the reversal of liver fibrosis to a certain degree.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2845-2850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003275

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and its mechanism. MethodsHuman HSC LX2 cells were selected for the study, and LX2 cells were stimulated by TGF-β to establish a model of HSC activation; quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the change in the expression level of miR-223-3p during HSC activation. After LX2 cells were transfected with miR-223-3p mimic, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay were used to clarify the regulatory effect of miR-223-3p on HSC activation, and dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the association between miR-223-3p and the target gene MAP1B. After LX2 cells were transfected with MAP1B siRNA, Western blot was used to clarify the influence of inhibiting MAP1B expression on HSC activation; after LX2 cells were transfected with miR-223-3p, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to verify the regulatory effect of miR-223-3p on MAP1B. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsHSC in the activated state had a significant reduction in the expression level of miR-223-3p compared with those in the resting state (t=9.12, P<0.001). Overexpression of miR-223-3p inhibited the mRNA and protein expression levels of the markers for HSC activation alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen type Ⅰ (mRNA expression: t=8.35 and 12.23, both P<0.01; protein expression: t=16.24 and 20.90, both P<0.001). The dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MAP1B was a potential target gene of miR-223-3p. Compared with the control group, LX2 cells with miR-223-3p overexpression had significant reductions in the mRNA and protein expression levels of MAP1B (mRNA expression: t=5.95, P<0.01; protein expression: t=11.12, P<0.001). ConclusionThis study shows that miR-223-3p can inhibit HSC activation by targeting MAP1B.

10.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 470-476, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013838

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effects of CPD1, a novel phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, on liver pathological phenotype and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation in hepatic fibrosis model mice caused by carbon tetrachloride ( CCl

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 4621-4637, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011183

ABSTRACT

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) represent a significant component of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microenvironments which play a critical role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Tumor-on-a-chip technology has provided a powerful in vitro platform to investigate the crosstalk between activated HSCs and HCC cells by mimicking physiological architecture with precise spatiotemporal control. Here we developed a tri-cell culture microfluidic chip to evaluate the impact of HSCs on HCC progression. On-chip analysis revealed activated HSCs contributed to endothelial invasion, HCC drug resistance and natural killer (NK) cell exhaustion. Cytokine array and RNA sequencing analysis were combined to indicate the iron-binding protein LIPOCALIN-2 (LCN-2) as a key factor in remodeling tumor microenvironments in the HCC-on-a-chip. LCN-2 targeted therapy demonstrated robust anti-tumor effects both in vitro 3D biomimetic chip and in vivo mouse model, including angiogenesis inhibition, sorafenib sensitivity promotion and NK-cell cytotoxicity enhancement. Taken together, the microfluidic platform exhibited obvious advantages in mimicking functional characteristics of tumor microenvironments and developing targeted therapies.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3913-3921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981524

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Isodon terricolous-medicated serum on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation. LPS-induced HSCs were divided into a blank control group, an LPS model group, a colchicine-medicated serum group, an LPS + blank serum group, an I. terricolous-medicated serum group, a Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) blocker group, and a TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group. HSC proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure type Ⅰ collagen(COL Ⅰ), COL Ⅲ, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1). Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of TLR4, IκBα, and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) p65, gasdermin D(GSDMD), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC) in HSCs. Western blot(WB) was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, and GSDMD in HSCs. The results showed that I. terricolous-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation activity of HSCs and inhibit the secretion of COL Ⅰ, COL Ⅲ, α-SMA, TGF-β1, caspase-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HSCs. Compared with the LPS model group, the I. terricolous-medicated serum group, the colchicine-medicated serum group, and the TLR4 blocker group showed down-regulated expression of p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and up-regulated expression of IκBα. Compared with the TLR4 blocker group, the TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group showed decreased expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and increased expression of IκBα. In conclusion, I. terricolous-medicated serum down-regulates HSC activation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Isodon , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Colchicine/pharmacology , Caspases
13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1351-1357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978790

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of action of Scabiosa atropurea in inhibiting the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells using cell experiment. Methods A total of 20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and administration group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were given normal saline by gavage, and those in the administration group were given Scabiosa atropurea by gavage to prepare drug-containing serum. HSC-T6 cells were incubated with the serum from the control group (10%) or the low-, middle-, and high-dose serum containing Scabiosa atropurea (10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively). MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different drug concentrations on cells in different periods of time; flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis; qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen Ⅰ) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related factors in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t - test was used for further comparison between two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the low-, middle-, and high-dose serum containing Scabiosa atropurea groups had a significant reduction in the OD value of cells (all P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the overall apoptosis rate of cells (all P < 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR showed that compared with the control group, the low-, middle-, and high-dose serum containing Scabiosa atropurea groups had significant reductions in the mRNA expression levels of α-SMA, collagen Ⅰ, PI3K, and Akt and a significant increase in the mRNA expression level of PTEN (all P < 0.05); Western blot showed that compared with the control group, the low-, middle-, and high-dose serum containing Scabiosa atropurea groups had significant reductions in the protein expression levels of α-SMA, collagen Ⅰ, PI3K, Akt, and p-Akt and a significant increase in the protein expression level of PTEN (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The Mongolian medicine Scabiosa atropurea can inhibit the proliferation of HSC-T6 cells and promote their apoptosis, possibly by regulating fibrosis markers and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to exert an anti-liver fibrosis effect.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 230-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973766

ABSTRACT

Hepatic fibrosis is a pathological reparative response of the liver to chronic injury and a crucial step in the progression of chronic liver disease, characterized mainly by the activation of hepatic stellate cells and diffuse deposition of extracellular matrix. Currently, there is no ideal specific drug for the treatment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice. In recent years, with the development and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of liver fibrosis, TCM has been widely recognized for its significant therapeutic effect and fewer adverse reactions. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway is an important pathway that affects the formation and development of liver fibrosis. It mainly plays a role in liver fibrosis by inhibiting the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells, promoting their apoptosis, reducing oxidative stress in liver cells, decreasing the deposition of extracellular matrix, and enhancing liver cell autophagy. This article summarized the mechanisms by which Chinese medicinal monomers regulated the PI3K/Akt pathway to exert their effects on liver fibrosis and their synergistic effects with other signaling pathways, providing a theoretical basis and references for the development of new drugs for the treatment of liver fibrosis with TCM.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1187-1192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effects and possible mechanism of naringenin on the activation of hepatic stellate cells. METHODS Using human hepatocytes LO2 as reference, based on drug intervention concentration screened by MTT assay, the effects of naringenin (Western blot assay and trypan blue staining test in 10, 20, 40 μmol/L, immunofluorescence assay in 40 μmol/L) on the expressions of liver fibrosis markers protein (collagen Ⅰ, α-SMA) and mRNA (α1-pro collagen Ⅰ, α-SMA) in human hepatic stellate cells LX2, and the expressions of cell apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3) were investigated. The apoptosis agents (Z-VAD-FMK, FMK), ferroptosis pathway inhibitor ferrostatin-1, and programmed death pathway inhibitor necrostatin-1 were used to verify the mechanism of the above effects. RESULTS The naringenin could significantly down-regulate protein expressions of collagen Ⅰ (except for naringenin 10 μmol/L) and α-SMA, mRNA expressions of α1-pro collagen Ⅰ (except for naringenin 10 μmol/L) and α-SMA (P<0.05); it also induced LX2 cell apoptosis and increased its apoptotic ratio, down-regulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 while up-regulated the protein expressions of Bax (except for naringenin 10 μmol/L) and cleaved caspase-3 (except for naringenin 10 μmol/L). FMK could reverse above effects of naringenin on LX2 cells (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Naringenin can inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells LX2 through activating the cell apoptosis signal, which plays ameliorative role in liver fibrosis.

16.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 227-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972317

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of specific knockdown of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) on liver fibrosis in rats. Methods The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter-driven RPS5 shRNA adenovirus was established, and AdGFa2-shRPS5 and its control AdGFa2 shNC were used to transfect primary rat HSCs and hepatocytes, respectively. RPS5 was determined by Western-blot and Real Time PCR, α-SMA and type I collagen expression; the rat liver fibrosis model was established by dimethyl nitrosamine (DMN) and bile duct ligation (BDL), and intrahepatic HSC was specifically knocked down by tail vein injection of adenovirus of RPS5 levels. The pathological changes of liver tissue sections were analyzed by HE staining; the content of hydroxyproline, sections of Sirius red and Masson staining were used to evaluate collagen deposition; immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of α-SMA and RPS5. Results AdGFa2-shRPS5 specifically knocked down the expression level of RPS5 in HSC and increased the expression of α-SMA and type I collagen in vitro. The in vivo results showed that in two animal models of chronic liver injury, specific knockdown of RPS5 expression in HSCs promoted HSC activation, increased the deposition of extracellular matrix, and promoted liver fibrosis. Conclusion RPS5 is essential for HSC activation and liver fibrosis, which could be a potential target for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Huangqi Decoction (HQD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used as a valid treatment for alleviating liver fibrosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Although our previous studies showed that microRNA-663a (miR-663a) suppresses the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the transforming growth factor-β/small mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) pathway, whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in HSC activation via the miR-663a/TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway has not yet reported. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of lncRNA lnc-C18orf26-1 in the activation of HSCs and the mechanism by which HQD inhibits hepatic fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of lnc-C18orf26-1, miR-663a and related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HSCs were transfected with the miR-663a mimic or inhibitor and lnc-C18orf26-1 small interfering RNAs. The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of HSCs. Changes in lncRNA expression were evaluated in miR-663a-overexpressing HSCs by using microarray to identify miR-663a-regulated lncRNAs. RNA hybrid was used to predict the potential miR-663a binding sites on lncRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-663a and the lncRNA. The expression levels of collagen α-2(I) chain (COL1A2), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins were determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lnc-C18orf26-1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs and competitively bound to miR-663a. Knockdown of lnc-C18orf26-1 inhibited HSC proliferation and activation, downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and COL1A2 expression, and inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. HQD suppressed the proliferation and activation of HSCs. HQD increased miR-663a expression and decreased lnc-C18orf26-1 expression in HSCs. Further studies showed that HQD inhibited the expression of COL1A2, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in HSCs, and these effects were reversed by miR-663a inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study identified lnc-C18orf26-1 and miR-663a as promising therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. HQD inhibits HSC proliferation and activation at least partially by regulating the lnc-C18orf26-1/miR-663a/TGF-β1/TGF-βRI/p-Smad2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factors/pharmacology
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 46-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether circular RNA circRSF1 regulates radiation-induced inflammatory phenotype of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by binding to HuR protein and repressing its function.@*METHODS@#Human HSC cell line LX2 with HuR overexpression or knockdown was exposed to 8 Gy X-ray irradiation, and the changes in the expression of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of IκBα and phosphorylation of NF-κB were detected with Western blotting. The binding of circRSF1 to HuR was verified by RNA pull-down assay and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP). The expressions of inflammatory factors, IκBα and the phosphorylation of NF-κB were detected after modifying the interaction between circRSF1 and HuR.@*RESULTS@#Knockdown of HuR significantly up- regulated the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased IκBα expression and promoted NF-κB phosphorylation in irradiated LX2 cells, whereas overexpression of HuR produced the opposite changes (P < 0.05). Overexpression or knockdown of circRSF1 did not significantly affect the expression of HuR. RNA pull-down and RIP experiments confirmed the binding between circRSF1 and HuR. Overexpression of circRSF1 significantly reduced the binding of HuR to IκBα and down-regulated the expression of IκBα (P < 0.05). Overexpression of circRSF1 combined with HuR overexpression partially reversed the up-regulation of the inflammatory factors, down-regulated IκBα expression and increased phosphorylation of NFκB in LX2 cells, while the opposite effects were observed in cells with knockdown of both circRSF1 and HuR (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#circRSF1 reduces IκBα expression by binding to HuR to promote the activation of NF-κB pathway, thereby enhancing radiation- induced inflammatory phenotype of HSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells/radiation effects , Interleukin-6 , NF-kappa B , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Phenotype , RNA , RNA, Circular/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , ELAV-Like Protein 1/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 668-672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986190

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis incidence and adverse outcomes are high; however, there are no known chemical drugs or biological agents that are specific and effective for treatment. The paucity of a robust and realistic in vitro model for liver fibrosis is one of the major causes hindering anti-liver fibrosis drug development. This article summarizes the latest progress in the development of in vitro cell models for liver fibrosis, with a focus based on the analysis of induction and activation of hepatic stellate cells, cell co-culture, and 3D model co-construction, as well as concurrent potential methods based on hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell establishment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Cell Culture Techniques , Endothelial Cells
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 532-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986164

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore a simple and feasible method for the isolation and purification of hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and lymphocytes from mice. Methods: The cell suspension was obtained from male C57bl/6 mice by hepatic perfusion through the portal vein digestion method and then isolated and purified by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. Trypan blue exclusion was used to determine cell viability. Glycogen staining, cytokeratin 18, and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify hepatic cells. Immunofluorescence was used to detect α-smooth muscle actin combined with desmin in HSCs. Flow cytometry was used to analyze lymphocyte subsets in the liver. Results: After isolation and purification, about 2.7×10(7) hepatocytes, 5.7×10(5) HSCS, and 4.6×106 hepatic mononuclear cells were obtained from the liver of mice with a body weight of about 22g. The cell survival rate in each group was > 95%. Hepatocytes were apparent in glycogen deposited purple-red granules and cytokeratin 18. Electron microscopy showed that there were abundant organelles in hepatocytes and tight junctions between cells. HSC had expressed α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. Flow cytometry showed hepatic mononuclear cells, including lymphocyte subsets such as CD4, CD8, NKs, and NKTs. Conclusion: The hepatic perfusion through the portal vein digestion method can isolate multiple primary cells from the liver of mice at once and has the features of simplicity and efficiency.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Keratin-18 , Actins , Desmin , Liver , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells
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