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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940855

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicinal material, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is often used as medicine after steaming to reduce its pungency and give full play to its medicinal effects. By consulting the relevant literature, this paper intends to sort out the related researches on the processing history, modern processing standard records, flavor and meridian tropism, efficacy, processing and taking methods, processing technology, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and quality analysis of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. It is found that the processing methods of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the past dynasties are mainly roasting, distilled into dew, aging, frying, salting and steaming, of which steaming is the most common. In modern times, steaming is mainly used in Guangdong and Sichuan. The descriptions of flavor and meridian tropism and efficacy of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the past dynasties are basically consistent with the modern descriptions. Its taste is pungent, bitter and acidic, and it is warm in nature. It belongs to the liver, spleen, stomach and lung meridians. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus contains volatile oil, flavonoids and their glycosides, coumarins and limonins and other compounds. In recent years, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and other methods are commonly used for the chemical composition analysis. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus has the activities of relieving cough, reducing phlegm, relieving asthma, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria and anti-oxidation, etc. After processing, its volatile and non-volatile components, and pharmacological effects all have a certain change. However, the current research on processing of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is not in-depth enough. It is necessary to further analyze the material basis of steaming to reduce dryness, explore its dryness medicinal substances and dryness-effect quantitative correlation, so as to clarify its processing mechanism, and provide basis for the subsequent processing research, resource development and comprehensive application of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the future.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940613

ABSTRACT

Rehmanniae Radix is a common medicine of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the function of nourishing Yin and tonifying the kidney, and has a long application history of processing. This medicine was first recorded in Synopsis of Golden Chamber (《金匮要略》), which was mainly produced by steaming and boiling. Its processing materials were diverse. In addition to rice wine, honey, Amomi Fructus, milk, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum, and Carthami Flos were also recorded in ancient books, but with the evolution of time, the characteristic excipients gradually disappeared. Based on this, starting with different excipients, the author consulted the classics of materia medica and processing specifications in various regions, sorted out the historical evolution of Rehmanniae Radix processing, and explored new methods and new ideas to exert the maximum efficacy on this basis. At the same time, the effects of different processing excipients on the chemical components and pharmacodynamic effects of Rehmanniae Radix were analyzed. After literature review, it was found that Rehmanniae Radix mainly had the effects of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing Yin and generating fluid. Its traditional processing excipients generally used rice wine, Carthami Flos and others. After processing with different excipients, there was different effects on the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Rehmanniae Radix. In summary, this paper can provide useful reference for standardized research on different processed products of Rehmanniae Radix.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940609

ABSTRACT

This study systematically combed and analyzed the use of such terms as "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in ancient Chinese books on materia medica and prescriptions, Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China(《中华人民共和国药典》), and teaching materials and monographs of Chinese materia medica by means of hermeneutics, commentariology, textology, and data mining, and explored the historical evolution and conceptual connotations of "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in Chinese materia medica, so as to provide reference for standardizing their understandings and clinical reasonable medication. The "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" of Chinese materia medica were first proposed in the period of pre-Qin and Han dynasties. "Prohibition" and "contraindication" were separately developed in the Sui, Tang, and Five dynasties and Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties and have been widely used since the Ming and Qing dynasties. The "use with caution" becomes popular rapidly in modern times and is often present in clinical medication together with "prohibition" and "contraindication". "Prohibition" basically means strictly prohibited and "contraindication" means to avoid as much as possible. The terms "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" have experienced evolution from the pre-Qin period to modern times, and they are used to describe the degree of restriction on drug use("prohibition" > " contraindication" > "use with caution").

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940468

ABSTRACT

Xiao Xumingtang in The Catalogue of Famous Ancient Classics (The First Batch) issued by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine is derived from the Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency (Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang) written by SUN Si-miao in the Tang dynasty. The present study systematically explored the origin, development, historical evolution, and clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang. As revealed by the results, Xiao Xumingtang as well as its analogues are primary prescriptions indicated for apoplexy before the Tang and Song dynasties and serve as the benchmark for the treatment of apoplexy. After the Song dynasty, due to the changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis of apoplexy and the limitations of the understanding of Xiao Xumingtang, its clinical application to apoplexy gradually decreased. In modern times, it has been re-recognized and applied, during which its clinical applications have undergone great changes. Its clinical applications are extensive, involving a variety of diseases related to the brain and nervous systems, such as stroke and its sequelae, peripheral facial paralysis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and other diseases related to the motor nervous system. Its primary indications are stroke and its sequelae, followed by peripheral facial paralysis. Other new indications are gradually found. This study is expected to provide references for the clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang and the transformation of new drugs.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940233

ABSTRACT

In this paper, by consulting the historical herbs and medical classics coupled with related literature in modern research, the historical edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and local chronicles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) along with the ancient historical evolution of the processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin as well as the related processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin from 1959 to 2020 were systematically collated and summarized. It was found that the main processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin were peeling, decoction washing, lime wrapping and sun-drying. However, stacking, peeling, sun-drying or oven-drying are the primary methods in modern local chronicles of TCM. Meanwhile, washing, peeling, removing fibrous roots and sun-drying are the main methods in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In addition, there were some changes in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in different historical periods. Round and white were the best in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in ancient times, while the evaluation indexes were further refined to size, color, texture, powder property, purity and evenness in modern herbal works. In modern studies, the quality of Pinelliae Rhizoma was mostly evaluated by the chemical components such as alkaloids, total organic acids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, fingerprint and pharmacodynamics. At present, the purification and drying stages of Pinelliae Rhizoma are in the transitional stage between the traditional manual peeling and natural drying methods as well as the modern mechanized and large-scale production. Therefore, a reasonable and feasible modern processing methods and guiding standards of Pinelliae Rhizoma are developed urgently to normalize the processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma and ensure the quality of medicinal materials.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940189

ABSTRACT

Shengyang Yiweitang is one of the first 100 classical prescriptions published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It originated from the Clarifying Doubts about Damage from Internal and External Causes by physician LI Dongyuan of Jin dynasty, and is composed of Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Saposhnikoviae Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Bupleuri Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Alismatis Rhizoma, and Coptidis Rhizoma. With the effects of replenishing Qi, promoting Yang, clearing heat and removing dampness, Shengyang Yiweitang is used to treat spleen-stomach weakness and dampness-heat accumulation syndrome. Using bibliometrics, the authors systematically sorted out the source,composition, dosage, preparation, efficacy, indications, principle of composition, origin and processing of drugs,and modern clinical application of the prescription, and explored its history and key information. Additionally, it was found that Shengyang Yiweitang was widely used in modern clinical practice and was suitable for multisystem diseases, of which digestive system (264) was the most common, accounting for 41.71%, followed by urogenital system (57, 9.00%) and nervous system (48, 7.58%). Although the treatment scope was wide, the pathogenesis of the diseases in traditional Chinese medicine belongs to "spleen-stomach weakness", which fully reflected Li's academic thought of "internal injury of spleen and stomach leads to various diseases". The key information of Shengyang Yiweitang was determined by summarizing the relevant ancient books and modern literature, so as to provide accurate reference for its rational clinical application and further research and development.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940157

ABSTRACT

Shengyang Yiweitang is one of the first 100 classical prescriptions published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It originated from the Clarifying Doubts about Damage from Internal and External Causes by physician LI Dongyuan of Jin dynasty, and is composed of Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Saposhnikoviae Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Bupleuri Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Alismatis Rhizoma, and Coptidis Rhizoma. With the effects of replenishing Qi, promoting Yang, clearing heat and removing dampness, Shengyang Yiweitang is used to treat spleen-stomach weakness and dampness-heat accumulation syndrome. Using bibliometrics, the authors systematically sorted out the source,composition, dosage, preparation, efficacy, indications, principle of composition, origin and processing of drugs,and modern clinical application of the prescription, and explored its history and key information. Additionally, it was found that Shengyang Yiweitang was widely used in modern clinical practice and was suitable for multisystem diseases, of which digestive system (264) was the most common, accounting for 41.71%, followed by urogenital system (57, 9.00%) and nervous system (48, 7.58%). Although the treatment scope was wide, the pathogenesis of the diseases in traditional Chinese medicine belongs to "spleen-stomach weakness", which fully reflected Li's academic thought of "internal injury of spleen and stomach leads to various diseases". The key information of Shengyang Yiweitang was determined by summarizing the relevant ancient books and modern literature, so as to provide accurate reference for its rational clinical application and further research and development.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940136

ABSTRACT

In this paper, by consulting the historical herbs and medical classics coupled with related literature in modern research, the historical edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and local chronicles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) along with the ancient historical evolution of the processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin as well as the related processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin from 1959 to 2020 were systematically collated and summarized. It was found that the main processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin were peeling, decoction washing, lime wrapping and sun-drying. However, stacking, peeling, sun-drying or oven-drying are the primary methods in modern local chronicles of TCM. Meanwhile, washing, peeling, removing fibrous roots and sun-drying are the main methods in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In addition, there were some changes in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in different historical periods. Round and white were the best in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in ancient times, while the evaluation indexes were further refined to size, color, texture, powder property, purity and evenness in modern herbal works. In modern studies, the quality of Pinelliae Rhizoma was mostly evaluated by the chemical components such as alkaloids, total organic acids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, fingerprint and pharmacodynamics. At present, the purification and drying stages of Pinelliae Rhizoma are in the transitional stage between the traditional manual peeling and natural drying methods as well as the modern mechanized and large-scale production. Therefore, a reasonable and feasible modern processing methods and guiding standards of Pinelliae Rhizoma are developed urgently to normalize the processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma and ensure the quality of medicinal materials.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928001

ABSTRACT

The development of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has always been highly valued and supported since 1949. However, Chinese medicine industry still faces great challenges in view of the current status of the industry and registration and approval of new products in recent years. Related policies also directly influence the development of the industry. The latest version of the Provisions for Drug Registration and Requirement on Registration Classification and Application Information of Traditional Chinese Medicines have been put into practice since 2020. Registration classification is the core content of the Chinese medicine registration management system, as it is closely related to the research, development, and registration of Chinese medicine and the innovative development of the industry. This article aims to systematically review the historical evolution of the category of Chinese medicine registration and analyze the current status and problems, which is expected to provide a reference for the formulation of supporting documents according to related laws and regulations.


Subject(s)
Drug Industry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Policy
10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2044-2048, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936987

ABSTRACT

Qingzao jiu fei tang ,which is derived fr om Yuchang ’s Medical Laws in the Qing dynasty ,composes of Folium Mori,Gypsum Fibrosum ,Glycyrrhiza uralensis ,Panax ginseng ,Sesamum indicum ,Equus asinus ,Ophiopogon japonicus , Prunus armeniaca and the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica . It is a representative formula for the treatment of severe syndrome of warm-dryness and deficiency of both Qi and Yin. In 2018,it was included in the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (the First Batch ). In order to clarify its development context and clarify its functions and indications ,this paper collects the ancient and modern literature of Qingzao jiufei tang to systematically study the source and composition of it ,its origin and processing , dosage,functions and indications and modern clinical application with a method of bibliometrics. Results show that some medical books differ in origin ,processing and dosage of the formula. This formula takes moistening dryness ,encouraging production of body fluids ,nourishing Yin ,tonifying Qi as the main efficacy. “Qi depression ,flaccidity,dyspnea and vomiting ”is the main indication. It is widely applied in the clinic ,involving respiratory diseases ,skin diseases ,digestive diseases ,etc.

11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1911-1915, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936502

ABSTRACT

Euryale f erox is the dry and mature seed kernel of Euryale ferox Salisb.,the effect of raw E. ferox is mainly to astringe spontaneous emission or leukorrhea ,while the effect of fried E. ferox is mainly to tonify the spleen and stomach. Therefore , processing has an important impact on the effect of E. ferox . The author summarizes the processing evolution ,chemical composition , pharmacological action and quality control of E. ferox by consulting past materia medica monographs and related research papers. The results show that the processing methods of E. ferox in the past include cleansing ,medicinal juice ,frying and steaming ;modern processing methods mainly continue to use cleansing and frying ,among which frying can be divided into stir-frying and bran-frying. E. ferox mainly contains polyphenols ,flavonoids,sterols and other components ,with antioxidant ,antibacterial,hypoglycemic and other pharmacological effects. At present ,scholars have established a variety of fingerprints to control the quality of E. ferox . Naringin,total amino acids and other components may be the differential components that affect the quality of E. ferox ,while the contents of heavy metals and sulfur dioxide are important indicators that affect the safety of E. ferox ,and α-tocopherol and gallic acid may be the quality markers of E. ferox . Later ,according to the basic properties of raw and processed products of E. ferox , pharmaceutical analysis methods can be used to comprehensively investigate the differences and change rules of chemical components in E. ferox before and after processing. The pharmacodynamic effects of E. ferox before and after processing can be evaluated by in vivo and in vitro models,so as to provide references for the inheritance of processing technology ,the formulation of processing standards and clinical application of E. ferox .

12.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1456-1468, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352125

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación sobre la universidad médica en Cuba, incluyendo la enseñanza de la Medicina y la Estomatología, con el objetivo de explicar su evolución histórica durante la etapa colonial. Se enfatizó en las principales figuras que ejercieron en este período, las primeras publicaciones médicas, y las instituciones y centros asistenciales que regían la práctica de la medicina. Se concluye que la universidad médica en Cuba se fundó sobre una base escolástica y tradicionalista. A partir de 1842, la enseñanza de la Medicina se desarrolló con la creación de nuevos planes de estudios, el incremento de profesionales capacitados, la publicación de revistas científicas de alto prestigio, y la aparición de centros docentes de gran calidad (AU).


ABSTRACT A research was carried out on the medical university in Cuba, including the teaching of Medicine and Dentistry, with the aim of explaining its historical evolution during the colonial period. The authors emphasized the main figures who worked during this period, the first medical publications, and the institutions and healthcare centers that implemented the practice of medicine. It is concluded that the medical university in Cuba was founded on a scholastic and traditionalist basis. From 1842, the teaching of Medicine developed with the creation of new curricula, the increase of trained professionals, the publication of high-quality scientific journals, and the emergence of high-quality teaching centers (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Schools, Medical/history , Colonialism/history , Universities/history , Cuba , General Practice/history
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906536

ABSTRACT

Citri Reticulatae Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine in our country. By referring to the relevant literature and materials such as the works of ancient and modern materia medica, this paper summarizes the historical evolution of processing, quality analysis, pharmacological effects and other aspects of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties mainly included stir-frying, processing with wine, baking with wine, etc. The modern stir-baking with salt solution was developed on the basis of the ancient stir-frying with green salt, most of the national and provincial processing standards contained crude and salt-processed products of Citri Reticulatae Semen. The properties and flavors of Citri Reticulatae Semen in the past dynasties were basically consistent with those in modern times. It is bitter in taste and neutral in nature. It belongs to the liver and kidney meridians and has the effects of regulating Qi, dispersing knots and relieving pain. Citri Reticulatae Semen contains limonins, fatty acids, proteins and mineral elements, etc. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were commonly used to detect and analyze Citri Reticulatae Semen. Citri Reticulatae Semen has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities, and processing can change the content of its chemical components to a certain extent. In a word, the current research about Citri Reticulatae Semen is not enough in-depth, it is necessary to further analyze the material basis of efficacy of Citri Reticulatae Semen and its processed products, explore the change law of chemical components before and after processing and the relationship between chemical composition and activity, and clarify the processing mechanism for providing scientific basis for its standardized processing, quality control and clinical rational use.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906532

ABSTRACT

Quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials is the wisdom crystallization of the long-term medication experience of the pharmacists in the past dynasties, and is a quality evaluation system with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because of its simple language, easy to understand and easy to operate, it plays an important guiding role in the quality evaluation of TCM. Modern electronic sensory apparatus technology can realize the objective expression of TCM characters. Some scholars correlated their expression results with the contents of the main chemical components in TCM, proving that quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials has a certain scientific basis. However, the scientific connotation of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials has not yet been clearly clarified. There is a lack of systematic research on which characters of TCM can truly reflect its quality. Therefore, the author summarizes quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials from three aspects. It makes clear that the idea of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials is derived from analogical thinking, and combs the four stages of germination, development, prosperity and maturity experienced in its formation process, summarizes the modern research progress of this theory, clarifies that the role of the theory in evaluating the quality of medicinal materials, guiding the classification of commodity specifications, and harvesting and processing of medicinal materials. It is recommended that the follow-up should be strengthened on the research of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, make full use of electronic sensory instruments, liquid-mass spectrometry, biological efficacy evaluation and other technologies, strengthen the objective description of the characteristics of TCM, and attach importance to the analysis of the correlation between the overall characteristics of TCM and its efficacy, and establish a new research model related to the characteristics-active ingredients-pharmaceutical effects of TCM, in order to elucidate the scientific connotation of quality evaluation based on character identification of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, so as to better serve the quality evaluation of TCM.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906501

ABSTRACT

Steaming is a traditional processing method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this paper, taking the Collection of Processing Methods of TCM (Ancient Times) as a clue and checking the original herb books, the historical evolution of TCM steaming was sorted out and analyzed from four aspects, including steaming method, steaming variety, quality control method of steaming process, and steaming purpose. The results showed that the steaming method was originated from the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. Afterwards, a total of 56 steaming methods were recorded. The most steamed varieties recorded in Song dynasty were 104, and the most newly added varieties in Song dynasty were 90. The steamed varieties recorded in the processing specifications of southern provinces and cities were higher than those of northern provinces and cities, including 43 in Guangdong province. The quality control of steaming process in Tang dynasty included steaming time, steaming times, softening by steaming, etc. In the Song dynasty, the steamed until aroma and sweet and steaming rotten were increased. In the Ming dynasty, the poisonous drugs steamed until no numbness of tongue and nontoxic was increased, and in the Qing dynasty, steaming and moistening was added. The main purposes of steaming in the past dynasties were recorded as enhancing the tonic effect, moderating the medicinal properties, reducing side effects, etc. In modern times, the purposes of preserving medicinal effects and facilitating storage were increased. From the perspective of the historical process of steam development, the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period to the Han dynasty were the embryonic period of steam development, the Southern and Northern dynasties, Tang and Song dynasties were the rapid periods of steam development, and the Ming and Qing dynasties were the prosperous periods of steam development. This paper can provide reference for the research and development of steaming technology.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906475

ABSTRACT

Qingxin Lianzi Yin (QXLZY), as an ancient classical formula for clearing the heart and nourishing the Yin, was composed of nine herbs (Scutellariae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Lycii Cortex, Plantaginis Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, Nelumbinis Semen, Poria, Astragali Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), coming from Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It could clear away the heart-fire, promote the interaction of the heart and kidney, replenish Qi and Yin, and stop strangury-turbidity. It was used to treat gonorrhea of urination, seminal emission, restlessness, wasting-thirst and so on. At present, the usage and dosage of QXLZY and its addition and subtraction are different in clinical practice. Most of the studies just focus on its clinical efficacy, and there is few review literature reflecting its historical evolution. Based on this, this paper systematically clarified the historical evolution, composition, preparation, interpretation, function, and modern clinical application of QXLZY. This work has been explained the historical evolution of QXLZY, and found that it was wildly used in modern clinical, especially suitable for the treatment of chronic urinary system diseases. At the same time, QXLZY also had significant therapeutic effects on neurasthenia, stomatitis, diabetic nephropathy and other aspects. Through the comprehensive analysis of ancient and modern literature, this work explores the true connotation of QXLZY from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which can point out the direction of the clinical application and positioning of this famous classical formula after it comes into the market, and also can provide reference basis for its subsequent in-depth research and development.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906452

ABSTRACT

Xiehuangsan, derived from QIAN Yi's Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases, consists of 5 medicines, namely Gypsum Fibrosum,Gardeniae Fructus,Saposhnikoviae Radix,Pogostemonis Herba and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. It is used to treat children with spleen heat and tongue scratching. With the clinical use of later generations of physicians,the scope of diseases and syndromes of this prescription was gradually expanded,including aphthous bad breath,dry lips,yellow eyes,and sweet mouth. Modern doctors used this prescription to treat children with anorexia,constipation,allergic purpura,tic disorder, and other diseases. At present,more and more attention has been paid to the research of classical famous prescriptions. At the same time,the application of classical famous prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) must be researched and verified in ancient literature. Therefore,it has become important contents in the study of classic prescriptions that researching the source of prescriptions from the ancient books,combing and analyzing literature,and studying the evolution rules of indications,preparations,methods of administration and taboos.The author searched a variety of ancient Chinese medicine databases and collected the relevant documents related to Xiehuangsan in ancient medical books. A total of 242 pieces of relevant ancient document data were obtained,involving 131 types of ancient Chinese medicine books. Through combing the relevant records of historical documents,this paper analyzes and researches the historical evolution of Xiehuangsan,the source and composition of the prescriptions,the indications,the dosage,the textual research of Chinese herbal medicine and the determination of the basis,and the method of prescription preparation and administration,etc. The historical changes of Xiehuangsan and its internal relations are expected to provide literature references and theoretical basis for the modern development and research of Xiehuangsan.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906388

ABSTRACT

Huaihuasan, first recorded in Puji Benshifang by XU Shu-wei from the Southern Song dynasty, consists of four herbs, namely Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran). At present, Huaihuasan and its modified formulas vary in clinical usages and dosages, and the resulting outcomes have been investigated. However, there are few reviews uncovering its historical evolution. On this basis, this review systematically combed and verified the historical evolution, dose conversion between ancient and modern times, efficacy, and indications of Huaihuasan, as well as the origin and processing of the contained herbs. The findings have demonstrated that Huaihuasan is composed of four herbs, with the original plants and medicinal parts basically the same as those recorded in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Sophorae Flos refers to the dried flower and bud of Sophora japonica in family Leguminosae, Platycladi Cacumen the dried branch and leaf of Platycladus orientalis in family Cupressaceae, Schizonepetae Spica the dried flower spike of Schizonepeta tenuifolia in family Labiatae, and Aurantii Fructus the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium in family Rutaceae or its cultivated varieties. On account of the efficacy in clearing intestine, stopping bleeding, dispersing wind, and moving Qi, Huaihuasan has been mainly used to treat intestinal diseases such as bloody defecation and perianal abscess. In modern clinical practice, it is mainly applicable to patients with hematochezia and bleeding due to internal hemorrhoid, ulcerative colitis, or anal fissure. It was suggested that the raw medicinal materials should be decocted and processed according to the methods described in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the conversion formula of one Qian=4 g, this paper determined the dosages of Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran) all to be 2 g, with the total dosage being 8 g. Such comprehensive analysis based on ancient books and modern literature has provided a more scientific reference for the clinical application, research, and development of this classical formula.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906371

ABSTRACT

Xiao chengqitang is recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases written by ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Eastern Han dynasty. It is composed of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, which is mainly used to treat mild exogenous Yangming Fu-viscera excess syndrome. This formula has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescription (The First Batch). However, the processing specifications and doses recorded in the original formula are different from the modern usage, which results in some difficulties in the research and development of Xiao Chengqitang granules. For clarifying the key information, such as historical evolution of prescription, dose conversion, the origin and processing specifications of each medicine in the prescription, the paper systematically analyzes the ancient medical books and related literature in the past dynasties and refers to the life experience of ZHANG Zhong-jing. Then the modern prescription and decocting methods of Xiao Chengqitang were determined as follows:composing 55.2 g of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (Rheum officinale) washed with wine, 27.6 g of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (Magnolia officinalis) processed with ginger and 39.0 g of stir-fried Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (Citrus aurantium), adding 800 mL of water, decocting to 240 mL and filtrating.

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