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Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238772, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249276


Abstract Necrophagous flies are of great importance for human and animal health. In places where their development occurs, parasitoids can be used as a tool to control these dipterans. In Brazil, the fauna of these parasitoids has been investigated in some regions. However, in Rio Grande do Sul, it is known the occurrence of only one species. Thus, this study aimed to create the first list of parasitoids in flies of medical and veterinary importance in Southern Brazil. Collections took place in the municipality of Pelotas (31º 42' S; 52º 18' W). Three replicates consisting of a 500 g bovine liver chunk placed in a tray were exposed to open air for 20 days. Then pupae were individualized and observed until their emergence. We identified 4,882 adult flies of Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae. 4,040 parasitoids emerged, belonging to eight species, of which Nasonia vitripennis, Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia chontalensis, and Tachinephagus zealandicus are new records in Rio Grande do Sul state. Also, three undescribed species of the genus Aphaereta were collected. In spite of being the first attempt to inventory the fauna of hymenopteran parasitoids, this study may help in the development of management programs of these dipterans in the region.

Resumo Moscas necrófagas possuem grande importância para a sanidade humana e animal. Onde estas se desenvolvem ocorrem parasitoides que podem ser utilizados como ferramentas para o controle desses dípteros. No Brasil, a fauna desses parasitoides vem sendo investigada em algumas regiões e no Rio Grande do Sul é conhecida a ocorrência de apenas uma espécie. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi criar a primeira lista de espécies de parasitoides de moscas de importância médica e veterinária ocorrentes no extremo sul do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas no município de Pelotas (31º 42' S; 52º 18' O). Foram montadas três réplicas de bandejas contendo, cada uma, 500 g de fígado bovino, expostas ao ar livre durante 20 dias. Na sequência, as pupas foram individualizadas e observadas até a emergência. Foram identificados 4.882 adultos pertencentes às famílias Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae e Sarcophagidae. Emergiram 4.040 parasitoides, pertencentes a oito espécies, das quais Nasonia vitripennis, Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia chontalensis e Tachinephagus zealandicus são novas ocorrências para o Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas três espécies ainda não descritas do gênero Aphaereta. Apesar de ainda ser um primeiro esforço de inventariar a fauna de himenópteros parasitoides, este estudo pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas de manejos desses dípteros na região.

Humans , Animals , Diptera , Hymenoptera , Pupa , Brazil , Cattle , Cities
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205359


Arthropod bites are a common problem worldwide that are capable of inflicting injury, inciting allergic reactions, and transmitting systemic disease. Members of the Hymenoptera order in particular are of importance as they are nearly ubiquitous in nature and few such as bees, are also used for commercial purposes. These insects have stinging apparatus that deliver venom to the affected tissues during a bite. Hymenopteran venoms contain a mixture of proteins, peptides, and small organic molecules that produce varied effects. Stings from bees, wasps, and ants produce a wide array of clinical manifestations that can be local or systemic. Additionally, these stings may cause life-threatening allergic reactions. Anaphylaxis following a Hymenoptera sting is the most common serious systemic complication. Local reactions can be immediate or delayed. In a few instances, local or disseminated infections have also been reported following bee stings; although very rarely have proved fatal in severe cases. Infection rates are found to be higher in immunodeficiency states. Infections at site of a bee sting can result in the localized pustular lesion with peripheral induration or in severe cases deep necrotizing fascia infection with sepsis and multisystem organ failure. Here we report a case of a bee sting in the upper lip leading to the painful swelling with abscess formation successfully treated with antibiotics, incision, and drainage. Numerous mechanisms for infection in arthropod stings have been described; in our case report, we would like to highlight the importance of timely identification and appropriate management of the infections that may have a significant impact on the overall outcome.

Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 6-11, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098365


Resumen Los himenópteros es una de las clasificaciones de los insectos, constituida por principalmente tres tipos, la abeja, la avispa y la hormiga de fuego, que provocan picaduras con veneno, generando desde efectos locales hasta sistémicos, con repercusiones leves o mortales sino reciben una atención médica oportuna. Las reacciones sistémicas son dependientes de la respuesta inmunológica, así como de la cantidad de las picaduras. Se presentaran dos casos de fallecimiento a causa de accidente por himenópteros tipo abejas, diagnosticados por la historia médicolegal, hallazgos de autopsia relacionado al efecto sistémico del veneno de las abejas y circunstancias relacionadas a la muerte.

Abstract Hymenoptera is one of the classifications of insects, consisting mainly of three types, the bee, the wasp and the fire ant, which cause pitting with venom generating from local to systemic effects, with slight or fatal repercussions but receive timely medical attention. Systemic reactions are dependent on the immune response, as well as the number of bites. There will be two cases of death due to an accident by hymenopterans type bees, diagnosed by medical-legal history, autopsy findings related to the systemic effect of bee venom and circumstances related to death will be presented.

Humans , Aged , Wasp Venoms , Wasps , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Costa Rica , Hymenoptera
Acta biol. colomb ; 24(2): 331-342, May-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010861


RESUMEN Los himenópteros son los principales polinizadores de los sistemas agrícolas y juegan un papel clave en la producción de alimentos. Sin embargo, poco se ha estudiado sobre las redes de polinización y la dependencia de las plantas a polinizadores en agroecosistemas tropicales. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la red de polinizadores asociada a un agroecosistema y evaluar la influencia de los rasgos morfológicos de las especies en la polinización. El estudio se realizó en un agroecosistema en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Entre enero y febrero del 2017 se emplearon 96 h de observación y se cuantificaron las interacciones entre polinizadores y flores; se estimó la duración promedio de visita por polinizador, se registró la abundancia floral y se midieron los principales rasgos morfológicos de plantas y polinizadores. En las plantas se midió el largo de la corola, y en los polinizadores, masa corporal y longitud de lengua. En total se identificaron 17 especies de polinizadores que visitaron ocho especies de plantas (cinco agrícolas y tres arvenses). Se encontró que la red es especializada (H2' = 0,8) con un grado de anidamiento bajo (NODF = 10,4), y que las plantas fueron especialistas y dependientes a los polinizadores (75 % spp. d' > 0,7). Además, se encontró que la abundancia floral y la masa corporal de los himenópteros influencian la duración de visita, lo cual podría afectar la calidad de la polinización. Este estudio revela que la especialización ecológica y la complementariedad funcional de los himenópteros influyen en la polinización de agroecosistemas.

ABSTRACT Hymenoptera is the main group of pollinators in agricultural systems and play a key role in food production. However, little is known about pollination networks and the dependence of plants on pollinators in tropical agroecosystems. The objectives of this study were i) to describe the plant-pollinator network associated with an agroecosystem, and ii) to evaluate the influence of morphological traits of the species on pollination. To do so, we conducted the fieldwork in an agroecosystem in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, between January and February 2017. We invested 96 h of observation and quantified interactions between pollinators and flowers; we estimated the average of visit duration per pollinator, the floral abundance, and measured the main morphological traits of plants and pollinators. For plants, we measured the length of corolla, and for pollinators, body mass and tongue length. We found that 17 species of pollinator visited eight plant species (five agricultural plants and three weeds). Our results suggest that the network is specialized (H2' = 0.8), had a low degree of nestedness (NODF = 10.4), and that plants were specialized and highly dependent on pollinators (75 % spp. d' > 0.7). Also, we found that floral abundance and body mass of Hymenoptera influence the length of visit, which might affect the quality of pollination. This study reveals that ecological specialization and functional complementarity of Hymenoptera influence pollination in agroecosystems.

Indian J Public Health ; 2019 Jun; 63(2): 154-156
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198115


Most deaths related to Hymenoptera are a result of immediate hypersensitivity reactions causing anaphylaxis to one or few stings. However, if the patient is exposed to a large quantity of the venom due to mass/multiple stings, massive envenomation can cause death in nonallergic individuals. Thirty-nine cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) who followed mass attacks by Hymenoptera were seen over 15 years, with a reference period between 2003 and 2017. AKI was severe; most (85%) of them required dialysis and one-third died. Mass attacks by Hymenoptera have become a serious public health problem in tropics. There is no antivenom, and treatment in such cases is supportive. Early hospitalization is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 3(2): 100-110, abr.jun.2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381173


O médico e professor Júlio Croce foi um dos principais alergistas brasileiros. Formado em 1947 pela Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), foi um dos pioneiros da especialidade de Alergia e Imunopatologia no Brasil. Foi professor da Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia da FMUSP e Diretor do Serviço de Alergia e Imunologia do Hospital das Clínicas da USP (HC-FMUSP). Posteriormente, permaneceu como Professor de Mestrado no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Alergia e Imunopatologia na mesma Universidade. Como Diretor do Serviço de Alergia e Imunologia do HC-FMUSP teve grande influência na formação de alergistas que mais tarde se tornaram expoentes da especialidade, não só no Brasil, como em toda América Latina. Tendo formação como clínico e um grande entrosamento com as áreas básicas, dedicou parte de sua vida à pesquisa de alérgenos encontrados no Brasil, marcando a originalidade do seu trabalho. Pesquisou e publicou artigos sobre alérgenos regionais tão variados como ácaros, fungos, insetos, plantas e alimentos. Também se interessou pela relação das alergias com a poluição. Homem de mente aberta e simplicidade no trato, era um verdadeiro diplomata da Alergia. Agregou especialistas do Brasil e do mundo, tendo sido membro fundador de diversas sociedades médicas. Ao acolher residentes e estagiários vindos de todas as partes do Brasil e da América Latina, contribuiu enormemente para a divulgação e o ensino da especialidade de Alergia. Foi homenageado pelas principais sociedades de Alergologia na América Latina, Estados Unidos e Europa. Como testemunhas de uma parte de sua vida, nosso objetivo, ao relembrar sua trajetória, é a de utilizar a pedagogia do exemplo. Prof. Júlio Croce, um exemplo de alergista a ser lembrado e seguido.

Physician and professor Júlio Croce was one of the greatest Brazilian allergists. Graduated in 1947 at the University of São Paulo (USP) Medical School, he was a pioneer in the Allergy and Immunopathology specialty in Brazil. He taught the course of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and was head of the Allergy and Immunology Service at USP Hospital das Clínicas. Later he remained working as a professor at the USP Graduate Program in Allergy and Immunopathology. As head of the Allergy and Immunology Service, he had great influence on the training of allergists who later became specialists in this field not only in Brazil but all over Latin America. Having clinical training and a close relationship with primary care areas, he dedicated part of his life to research on allergens found in Brazil, which marked the originality of his work. He investigated and published articles on several regional allergens including mites, fungi, insects, plants and foods. He was also interested in the relationship between allergies and pollution. He was an open-minded, simple man and a true Allergy diplomat. He brought together experts from Brazil and the world as a founding member of several medical societies. By welcoming residents and trainees from all parts of Brazil and Latin America, he contributed greatly to the dissemination and teaching of the Allergy specialty. He was honored by the leading allergology societies in Latin America, the United States and Europe. As witnesses of part of his life, our aim, in recalling his trajectory, is to use the pedagogy of example. Professor Júlio Croce is an example of allergist to be remembered and emulated.

Humans , Male , Schools, Medical , Allergy and Immunology , Physicians , Societies, Medical , Environmental Pollution , Faculty , Allergists , Fungi , Mites
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 61(3): 31-37, may.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-976989


Resumen Antecedentes: Las picaduras de abejas producen el mayor número de accidentes en muchos países. Se han descrito manifestaciones sistémicas inusuales tras la exposición al veneno de himenópteros. Con menor frecuencia se han documentado complicaciones neurológicas, infarto del miocardio, rabdomiólisis e insuficiencia renal. Este tipo de reacciones alérgicas sistémicas se producen en 0.3-7.5% de la población. Caso clínico: Varón de 39 años, talador, procedente de zona rural de Comayagua, Honduras, con historia de sufrir múltiples picaduras por abeja (Apis mellifera) acompañado de síncope, con trauma en región frontoparietal bilateral, de 3 h de evolución, fue atendido en servicio de salud en Comayagua y trasladado al Hospital Escuela Universitario, donde se continuó manejo por anafilaxia severa y extracción de múltiples aguijones. Posteriormente inició con estridor laríngeo, cianosis y disnea, por lo que se realizó intubación endotraqueal. Al examen físico se identificó edema facial importante, múltiples lesiones y excoriaciones, patrón respiratorio irregular, picaduras generalizadas, y presencia de hipoventilación en ambos campos pulmonares. Glasgow 13/15, hiperalgesia generalizada. Exámenes de laboratorio mostraron reacción leucemoide, neutrofilia severa, hiperhemoglobinemia, aumento de azoados, enzimas hepáticas elevadas, hipoalbuminemia, trastornos hidroelectrolíticos y acidosis mixta. Posteriormente progresó a rabdomiólisis y falla multiorgánica (hemodinámica, ventilatoria, renal), y falleció 48 h después de su ingreso. Conclusión: El número de picaduras y la cantidad de veneno inoculado son factores predictores de alta mortalidad y baja sobrevida. El traslado de forma oportuna y el manejo multidisciplinario son fundamentales para determinar un buen pronóstico en estos pacientes.

Abstract Background: Bee stings produce the greatest number of accidents in many countries. Unusual systemic manifestations have been described after exposure to Hymenoptera venom. Less frequently, neurological complications, myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure have been documented. This type of systemic allergic reactions occur in 0.3-7.5% of the population. Case report: A 39-year- old male, logger, from the rural área of Comayagua, Honduras, had a history of suffering multiple bee stings (Apis mellifera) with a syncopal episode, trauma in parietal-forehead bilateral region and 3 hours of evolution. He was treated at a health service in Comayagua and transferred to the University School Hospital, where treatment was continued due to severe anaphylaxis and extraction of multiple stings. Later he began with stridor, cianosis and dyspnea, so endotracheal intubation was performed. Physical examination revealed significant facial edema, multiple lesions and excoriations, irregular respiratory pattern, generalized stings, and the presence of hypoventilation in both lung fields. Glasgow 13/15, generalized hyperalgesia. Laboratory tests showed leukemoid reaction, severe neutrophilia, hyperhemoglobinemia, increased nitrogen levels, elevated liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia, hydroelectrolytic disorders and mixed acidosis. He later progressed to multiorgan failure and rhabdomyolysis (hemodynamics, ventilatory, renal), and died 48 hours after admission. Conclusion: The number of bites and the amount of poison inoculated are predictive factors of high mortality and low survival. The transfer in a timely manner and multidisciplinary management are essential to determine a good prognosis in these patients.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 80-84, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041440


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours) presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hymenoptera/classification , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Bees , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Disease Notification , Middle Aged
J. Health NPEPS ; 2(1): 122-129, Janeiro-Março. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1052507


Os acidentes com os himenópteros são poucos incidentes no Brasil e normalmente possuem evolução benigna, no entanto casos graves com evolução para choque anafilático e óbito já foram registrados. Neste contexto torna-se primordial a construção de conhecimentos sobre esse risco de acidentes e gravidades, principalmente no que tange a população, para identificar os riscos e procurar os serviços de saúde precocemente, assim como para os profissionais de saúde, para que estejam preparados para propiciar uma assistência de qualidade. Ainda é primordial a discussão acerca da efetivação das notificações das ocorrências, pois assim os acidentes com vespas e formigas serão registrados promovendo o conhecimento sobre a real dimensão do problema no país.

Accidents with hymenoptera are few incidents in Brazil and usually have benign evolution, however severe cases with evolution to anaphylactic shock and death have already been recorded. In this context, it is essential to build knowledge about this risk of accidents and seriousness, especially with regard to the population to identify the risk and to seek health services early, both for health professionals, so that they are prepared to Quality assistance. It is still essential to discuss the effectiveness of the notifications of the occurrences, as thus the accidents with wasps and ants will be registered, promoting the knowledge about the real dimension of the problem in the country.

Os acidentes com os himenópteros son pocos incidentes no Brasil y normalmente la evolución benigna, no obstante graves casos con la evolución de la anestesia y el óbito ya se registró. Este contexto se convierte en primordial en la construcción de conocimientos sobre el riesgo de las enfermedades y las gravedad, principalmente en la búsqueda de la población para identificar el riesgo y la búsqueda de los servicios de salud precocemente, tanto para los profesionales de la salud, Asistencia de calidad Ainda é primordial una discusión acerca de la efectividad de las notificaciones de las sucesiones, así como los acidentes con las vespas y las formigas.

Public Health
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842778


ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach.

Humans , Animals , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Bee Venoms/chemistry
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(3): 463-474, jul.-set. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-828022


Las alergias constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades de gran prevalencia. Cuando los procesos alérgicos no se controlan, pueden poner en peligro la salud e, incluso, la vida de los pacientes y, además, su efecto económico y social es considerable. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar un consenso práctico de la información científica disponible sobre el empleo de la inmunoterapia en las enfermedades alérgicas con la colaboración de varios institutos y universidades de Colombia, por solicitud de la Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Inmunología. La revisión incluyó aspectos prácticos presentados desde el punto de vista de médicos generales, alergólogos, inmunólogos, internistas y pediatras con experiencia en el campo de las alergias. Con base en la evidencia científica actual a nivel nacional e internacional, se describió de forma detallada en qué consiste la inmunoterapia, sus indicaciones, contraindicaciones y sus beneficios para la salud, así como en el ámbito socioeconómico. Se concluyó que la inmunoterapia es efectiva y segura, y que, además, puede reducir sustancialmente el costo del tratamiento global de los pacientes alérgicos.

Allergies comprise a set of highly prevalent diseases. When allergic processes are not controlled, they can endanger patients´ health and lives, and have an important economic and social impact. The aim of this paper is to present a practical consensus of the scientific evidence on the use of immunotherapy in allergic diseases. A collaborative review made by various institutes and universities in Colombia was carried out upon request of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología , led by general practitioners, allergists, immunologists, internists and paediatricians with experience in the field of allergies. As a result, based on current national and international scientific evidence, we describe in detail what immunotherapy is about, its indications, contraindications and its economic and health benefits. Conclusions show immunotherapy as a clinically effective and safe treatment, which can substantially reduce the cost of the overall treatment of allergic patients.

Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Conjunctivitis , Consensus , Dermatitis , Hymenoptera , Immunotherapy , Rhinitis
Kampo Medicine ; : 383-389, 2016.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378814


<p>We report five cases of painful swelling caused by hymenoptera stings and centipede bites treated with <i>ourengedokuto </i>and <i>inchingoreisan </i>soon after the time of injury. The first case was a 70-year-old male. He was stung by a hornet on the left hand 30 minutes prior. The second case was a 45-year-old male. He was stung by a hornet on the left face 20 minutes prior. The third case was a 55-year-old male. He was stung by a hornet on the left lower thigh 10 minutes prior. The fourth case was a 39-year-old male. He was stung by a hornet on the right thigh 60 minutes prior. The fifth case was a 35-year-old male. He was bitten by a centipede on the right first toe 20 minutes prior. All cases received Kampo therapies immediately and continued them every few hours. In all cases, their pain, redness and swelling at the site of injury were relieved by the next day. We consider Kampo therapies can contribute to the healing of hymenoptera stings and centipede bites at an early stage.</p>

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49802


Reactions to Hymenoptera stings are classified into local reactions, large local reactions, systemic anaphylactic reactions, systemic toxic reactions, and unusual reactions. They are also classified into immediate and delayed reactions. The most frequent clinical patterns are large local and systemic anaphylactic reactions. The skin, and the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems can be involved. A variety of unusual or unexpected reactions, such as acute encephalopathy, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, rhabdomyolysis, and cataracts, occur in a temporal relationship to insect stings. Here, we report a 31-year-old woman with delayed generalized edema, weight gain, and unusual reactions 24 hours after bee sting.

Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Anaphylaxis , Bees , Bites and Stings , Brain Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Cataract , Edema , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hymenoptera , Insect Bites and Stings , Myocardial Infarction , Nephrotic Syndrome , Rhabdomyolysis , Skin , Weight Gain
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 974-982, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768195


Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2) sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9), Colombia (1) and USA (1). A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI). This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.

Resumo Sequências do Espaço Transcrito Interno 2 (ITS2) têm sido utilizadas em estudos taxonômicos e sua utilidade constatada pela confiabilidade que o método confere à identificação das espécies de Trichogramma. Esta técnica molecular foi bem sucedida em distinguir dezessete espécies nativas e introduzidas de Trichogramma, coletadas na América do Sul. As sequências do DNAr variaram de 379 a 632 pb. Em 11 linhagens de T. pretiosum estudadas, o endosinbionte Wolbachia foi detectado pela primeira vez. Estas linhagens telítocas foram encontradas no Peru (9), Colômbia (1) e Estados Unidos (1). Uma chave dicotômica para identificação de espécies foi construída baseada no tamanho do produto da PCR do ITS2 e em análises de restrição utilizando-se três endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI).

Animals , Wasps/classification , Wasps/physiology , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Parthenogenesis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South America , Wasps/genetics , Wasps/microbiology , Wolbachia/physiology
Iatreia ; 28(1): 55-65, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-734983


La inmunoterapia específica con alérgenos es el único tratamiento que modifica el curso natural de algunas enfermedades alérgicas como asma, rinitis, conjuntivitis, dermatitis atópica y alergia al veneno de himenópteros. Sin embargo, aún existe cierta controversia respecto a su seguridad y su utilidad clínica. En el presente artículo se presenta una revisión de los mecanismos moleculares, las indicaciones y contraindicaciones de dicha inmunoterapia, y se evalúan su seguridad y eficacia en cada una de estas enfermedades mediante casos ilustrativos y una breve revisión del tema.

Allergen specific immunotherapy is currently the only treatment that modifies the natural course of allergic diseases. Its present indications are asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and hymenoptera venom allergy. However, there still is some controversy regarding its safety and clinical utility. In this article, we present a review about the molecular mechanisms, indications, contraindications, safety and efficacy of immunotherapy in each one of these diseases, by means of illustrative cases.

tratamento que modifica o curso natural de algumas doenças alérgicas como asma, rinite, conjuntivite, dermatite atópica e alergia ao veneno de himenópteros. No entanto, ainda existe certa controvérsia com respeito a sua segurança e sua utilidade clínica. No presente artigo se apresenta uma revisão dos mecanismos moleculares, as indicações e contraindicações de dita imunoterapia, e se avaliam sua segurança e eficácia em cada uma destas doenças mediante casos ilustrativos e uma breve revisão do tema.

Humans , Desensitization, Immunologic , Hypersensitivity , Immunotherapy
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 43, 31/03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954759


Hyaluronidases are enzymes that mainly degrade hyaluronan, the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix. They are involved in several pathological and physiological activities including fertilization, wound healing, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, diffusion of toxins and drugs, metastasis, pneumonia, sepsis, bacteremia, meningitis, inflammation and allergy, among others. Hyaluronidases are widely distributed in nature and the enzymes from mammalian spermatozoa, lysosomes and animal venoms belong to the subclass EC To date, only five three-dimensional structures for arthropod venom hyaluronidases (Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris) were determined. Additionally, there are four molecular models for hyaluronidases fromMesobuthus martensii, Polybia paulista and Tityus serrulatus venoms. These enzymes are employed as adjuvants to increase the absorption and dispersion of other drugs and have been used in various off-label clinical conditions to reduce tissue edema. Moreover, a PEGylated form of a recombinant human hyaluronidase is currently under clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the arthropod venom hyaluronidases and provides an overview of their biochemical properties, role in the envenoming, structure/activity relationship, and potential medical and biotechnological applications.(AU)

Animals , Arthropod Venoms , Wound Healing , Biotechnology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Hyaluronic Acid
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176171


Survey was carried out on the insect pollinators visiting apple bloom in Bhudhal area of Rajouri district during April 2012- 13. A total of 06 species of insect belonging to order Hymenopteran comprising of 03 families i.e Apidae (Apis cerana indica, Bombus haemohoidalis, Xylocopa collaris) Vaspidae (Eumeneous coarctatus and Odynerus species) and Scolidae (Compsomeris presmatica) were recorded. The paper also incorporates the taxonomy and diagnostic features of these pollinating species.

Rev. bras. entomol ; 58(2): 168-172, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-714743


Nesting substrata, colony success and productivity of the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga. Colonies of the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga (von Ihering, 1903) are easily found in urban areas. However, in spite of the massive presence of this species in cities, little is known about its nesting habits, colony success and productivity. The present study aimed at answering the following questions: What are the substrates used for nesting by M. cassununga? What is the main foundation strategy adopted by M. cassununga in urban areas: a solitary female or associative foundation? Is there a relationship between foundation strategies and colony success? Is the total number of cells per nest related to the number of adults produced? The study was conducted in Juiz de Fora, southeastern Brazil, from December 2006 to November 2007. Nesting in man-made substrata seems to be a common strategy in M. cassununga (90.9%), with preference for nest building with a horizontal comb facing north. The colonies were established mainly by groups of foundresses (67.6%), with a success of 84%. The number of brood cells produced per nest was 71.74 ± 45.25 (18-203), and it was positively correlated with the number of adults produced. Hence, we can say that the nests founded by M. cassununga are located mainly in man-made substrata and mostly founded by a group of females. The cell reuse behavior increases the number of adults produced, as it optimizes foraging. These characteristics together with its behavior and nesting habits promote the success of this species in thriving in urban environments.

Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 24(supl.2)maio 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-718739


Os acidentes com himenópteros são comuns na infância, provavelmente pelo fato de as crianças estarem mais expostas ao ar livre. A maioria das reações é secundária ao efeito tóxico do veneno e limitada ao local da picadura, sendo sua abordagem feita ambulatorialmente. As reações extensas, as anafiláticas e as tóxicas graves poderão necessitar, além da abordagem ambulatorial, cuidados hospitalares e tratamento intensivo. As manifestações alérgicas resultam de uma reação de hipersensibilidadedo tipo I, mediada pela imunoglobulina E (IgE), a componentes reconhecidos como alérgenos contidos no veneno dos insetos da ordem Hymenoptera, em indivíduos previamente sensibilizados. As reações sistêmicas na infância são incomuns, atingindo menos de 1% dos casos, mas em adultos essa prevalência pode atingir 8,9%. A história clínica detalhada é imprescindível para determinar as condutas diagnóstica e terapêutica, assim como a orientação quanto às medidas preventivas para cadacaso. Os testes cutâneos por puntura e/ ou intradérmicos são os de escolha para o diagnóstico. No entanto, os testes in vivo e in vitro são considerados complementares, já que nenhum deles isoladamente identifica todos os pacientes verdadeiramente alérgicos. O grau de sensibilidade demonstrado nesses testes não se correlaciona com a gravidade dos sintomas.

Accidents with Hymenoptera are common in childhood probably because children are more exposed to the outdoors. Most of the reactions to their poison toxic effect are secondary and confined to the site of the sting, and treatment is performed in the outpatient clinic. Extensive, toxic, and severe anaphylactic reactions may require hospital care and intensive treatment in addition to the outpatient approach. Allergic manifestations result from a type I hypersensitivity reaction, mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) in previously sensitized individuals to components recognized as allergens, present in the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order. Systemic reactions are uncommon in childhood patients, reaching less than 1% of cases, however, this prevalence can reach 8.9% in adults. A detailed medical history is essential to determine diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, as well as guidance for preventative measures in each case. Skin prick and/or intradermal tests are the choice for diagnosis. However, in vivo and in vitro tests are considered complementary because none of them, individually, identifies all patients who are truly allergic. The degree of sensitivity demonstrated in these tests does not correlate with the severity of symptoms.

An. bras. dermatol ; 89(1): 163-164, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703550


We describe the case of a 32-year-old male patient that sought medical treatment complaining of severe pain in his second and third right-hand fingers. The symptoms had started two hours before. The hypotheses of spider bite, scorpion or insect sting and injury caused by a foreign body were considered in the differential diagnoses. On dermoscopy, two foreign bodies were identified on his skin. After extraction, we concluded that they were wasp stingers.

Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Dermoscopy/methods , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Insect Bites and Stings/pathology , Wasps , Foreign-Body Reaction/pathology