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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Cities
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e64079, jan. -dez. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371649

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento glicêmico dos pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca valvar e de revascularização do miocárdio, submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de controle glicêmico, e avaliar a incidência de hipoglicemia e mortalidade intra-hospitalar dessa população. Método: estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, quantitativo, que avaliou 354 prontuários de cirurgias realizadas em 2016. Resultados: pacientes revascularizados apresentaram maiores médias glicêmicas (149,14±36,03), maior uso de insulina e coeficiente de variação (23,30%). Entretanto, a incidência de hipoglicemia foi maior entre valvares (35,32%), mais acometidos por lesão renal aguda (6,58%), terapia de substituição renal (11,97%) e mortalidade hospitalar (6,58%). Conclusão: evidenciou-se uma população heterogênea com desfechos clínicos que caracterizaram os valvares como mais criticos, devido a maior número de portadores de fibrilaçao atrial, maior tempo de CEC, e maior uso de vasoaminas e corticosteroides. Logo, é necessário conhecer as particularidades de cada população, para gerenciar protocolos específicos de controle glicêmico para diferentes perfis epidemiológicos.


Objective: to compare the glycemic behavior of patients in the postoperative period of valve heart surgery and myocardial revascularization, submitted to the same glycemic control protocol and to assess the incidence of hypoglycemia and mortality and in-hospital mortality in this population. Method: cohort, retrospective, quantitative study that evaluated 354 medical records of surgeries performed in 2016. Results: revascularized patients had higher blood glucose means (149,14±36.03), greater use of insulin and higher coefficient of variation (23.30%). However, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher (35.32%) valve patients, more affected by acute kidney injury (6.58%), renal replacement therapy (11.97%) and hospital mortality (6.58%). Conclusion: a heterogeneous population with clinical outcomes that characterized the valves as more critical, due to a greater number of patients with atrial fibrillation, longer CEC time, and greater use of vasoamines and corticosteroids. It is necessary to know the particularities of each population, in order to manage specific glycemic control protocols for different epidemiological profiles.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento glucémico de pacientes en postoperatorio de cirugía valvular y revascularización miocárdica, sometidos al mismo protocolo de control glicémico y evaluar la incidencia de hipoglucemia y mortalidad hospitalaria en esta población. Método: estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, cuantitativo que evaluó 354 historias clínicas, entre agosto y octubre de 2020, de cirugías realizadas en 2016. Resultados: pacientes revascularizados presentaron mayores medias de glucemia (149,14±36,03), mayor uso de insulina y mayor coeficiente de variación (23,30%). Aunque, la incidencia de hipoglucemia fue mayor (35,32%) entre las válvulas, que se vieron más afectadas por daño renal agudo (6,58%), terapia de reemplazo renal (11,97%) y mortalidad hospitalaria (6,58%). Conclusión: el estudio mostró una población heterogénea con resultados clínicos que caracterizaron a las válvulas como más críticas, debido a un mayor número de pacientes con fibrilación auricular, mayor tiempo de CEC y mayor uso de vasoaminas y corticoides. Por tanto, es necesario conocer las particularidades de cada población, para gestionar el control glucémico con protocolos específicos para diferentes perfiles epidemiológicos.

3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363761

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus treatment is based on oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Medicinal plants constitute an option, and the leaves of Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) were shown to be effective in reducing glycemia in hyperglycemic animals. Objective: In this paper, we report the effect of P. rusciofolia (Pr) on insulin and incretin secretion in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methodology: The effective dose was selected, and four groups (n=10) of Wistar rats were used. Two groups with normal glycemia received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.), and two groups with hyperglycemia induced by alloxan (intraperitoneal, ip), received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, and incretin and insulin levels were measured at the end of the experimental period. Results: The results showed that extract promotes better tolerance to oral glucose overload, in addition to a statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in blood levels of incretin and insulin, compared to the hyperglycemic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of P. ruscifolialeaves has a hypoglycemic effect in hyperglycemic animals by a mechanism that involves the incretin-insulin system


Antecedentes: la diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica cuyo tratamiento se basa en el uso de agentes hipoglicemiantes orales o insulina. Una opción al tratamiento son las plantas medicinales y en ese sentido, estudios previos en animales con hojas de Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) han demostrado efecto hipoglicemiante. Objetivo: en este trabajo se reporta el efecto de P. rusciofolia (Pr) en la secreción de insulina e incretina, en ratas hiperglicémicas por aloxano. Metodología: se emplearon cuatro grupos de ratas Wistar (n=10). Dos grupos con glicemia normal que fueron tratadas con agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) y dos grupos con hiperglicemia inducida por la inyección intraperitoneal de aloxano recibieron agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) durante dos semanas. Se midieron la tolerancia oral a la glucosa, y los niveles de incretina e insulina al final del periodo de experimentación. Resultados: se encontró que el extracto promueve una mayor tolerancia a la sobrecarga de glucosa, y además un incremento significativo (p<0.001) de los niveles de incretina e insulina en sangre, comparados al grupo de ratas hiperglicémicas. Conclusión: se concluye que e l estracto etanólico de las hojas de P. ruscifolia tienen efecto hipoglicemiante en animales hiperglicémicos por un mecanismo que incluye al sistema incretina-insulina


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperglycemia , Biochemical Phenomena , Incretins , Insulin
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2391-2405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929378

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced hyperglycemia/diabetes is a global issue. Some drugs induce hyperglycemia by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR), but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that PXR activation induces hyperglycemia by impairing hepatic glucose metabolism due to inhibition of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α)‒glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) pathway. The PXR agonists atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, and impaired glucose uptake and utilization in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of PXR downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, while silencing PXR upregulated HNF4α and GLUT2 expression. Silencing HNF4α decreased GLUT2 expression, while overexpressing HNF4α increased GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. Silencing PXR or overexpressing HNF4α reversed the atorvastatin-induced decrease in GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. In human primary hepatocytes, atorvastatin downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α mRNA expression, which could be attenuated by silencing PXR. Silencing HNF4α downregulated GLUT2 mRNA expression. These findings were reproduced with mouse primary hepatocytes. Hnf4α plasmid increased Slc2a2 promoter activity. Hnf4α silencing or pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) suppressed the Slc2a2 promoter activity by decreasing HNF4α recruitment to the Slc2a2 promoter. Liver-specific Hnf4α deletion and PCN impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic glucose uptake, and decreased the expression of hepatic HNF4α and GLUT2. In conclusion, PXR activation impaired hepatic glucose metabolism partly by inhibiting the HNF4α‒GLUT2 pathway. These results highlight the molecular mechanisms by which PXR activators induce hyperglycemia/diabetes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether salvianolic acid B (Sal B) exerts protective effects on diabetic peripheral neuropathy by attenuating apoptosis and pyroptosis.@*METHODS@#RSC96 cells were primarily cultured with DMEM (5.6 mmol/L glucose), hyperglycemia (HG, 125 mmol/L glucose) and Sal B (0.1, 1, and 10 µ mol/L). Cells proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-dilphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot was performed to analyze the expressions of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 9, Bcl-2, Bax, NLRP3, ASC, and interleukin (IL)-1β.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with HG at a concentration of 125 mmol/L attenuated cellular proliferation, while Sal B alleviated this injury (P<0.05). In addition, Sal B inhibited HG-induced ROS production and apoptosis rate (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with Sal B down-regulated HG-induced PARP, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 9, Bax, NLRP3, ASC, and IL-1β expression, but mitigated HG-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Sal B may protect RSC96 cells against HG-induced cellular injury via the inhibition of apoptosis and pyroptosis activated by ROS.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Pyroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924394

ABSTRACT

A crossover study was conducted to evaluate suppressive effect of a commercially available green juice (Katuna-Aojiru;Egao Co., Ltd.) containing mulberry leaf powder as the main ingredient on postprandial hyperglycemia. The blood glucose and iAUC (0-120min) values after loading cooked white rice were significantly lower with the consumption of Katuna-Aojiru than with the consumption of water. Katuna-Aojiru is effective in controlling postprandial blood glucose.

7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18893, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364414

ABSTRACT

Abstract On the increasing prevalence of using mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) in cancer therapy and the severe risk of hyperglycemia, we aimed to analyze the main clinical ADRs of mAbs, with a focus on adverse hyperglycemic events associated with currently clinically used mAbs. mAbs as well as target information were selected from Martinadale book and published articles. Drug approving information was collected from each government website, and ADR statistic data were collected from VigibaseR, comparing with Adverse Event Reporting System of US FDA. Top 10 mAbs were classified within listing in total ADR records, ADRs per year, hyperglycemic ADR records. Vigibase data were updated onto 15 Feb 2019. 20 mAbs were analyzed with 263217 ADR reports, wherein 16751 records on Metabolism and nutrition disorders and 1444 records on Glucose metabolism disorders. The geographic, age, gender distributions and annual ADR report numbers were listed respectively. Of the top 10, Rituximab, Bevacizumab and Nivolumab were on the top 3 in total ADR record and hyperglycemic record. Top 3 record results were similar in Vigibase and FDA database. It is of increasing importance for clinicians to be aware of early detection, patient management, or drug selection strategies when using mAbs, particularly within the high glycemic risk-reported mAbs, to improve the efficacy and tolerability of mAbs regiment and optimize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Research Report , Rituximab , Glucose/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation , Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Strategies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Neoplasms
8.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e305, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278305

ABSTRACT

Las afecciones respiratorias agudas son la primera causa de consulta e ingreso hospitalario en los meses de invierno, y entre ellas el asma ocupa un lugar preponderante. El salbutamol es un broncodilatador con eficacia demostrada en las exacerbaciones y se utiliza de primera línea en el tratamiento. El objetivo de la presente comunicación es analizar dos casos clínicos de niños asmáticos que presentaron efectos adversos al salbutamol y requirieron el ingreso en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva. Se propone revisar los efectos adversos del salbutamol empleado en crisis asmáticas y analizar las alternativas terapéuticas en esta enfermedad. Los síntomas de los efectos secundarios pueden confundirse con los causados por la propia enfermedad, por lo que puede usarse el fármaco de modo excesivo y es importante conocer el perfil posológico y caracterizar los posibles efectos secundarios en los pacientes para usar de manera racional y segura este medicamento.


Acute respiratory conditions are the first cause of consultation and hospital admission in the Winter months, being asthma the most important. Salbutamol is a bronchodilator with proven efficacy in exacerbations used first-line in treatment. The objective of this paper is to analyze two clinical cases of asthmatic children who presented adverse effects to salbutamol and required admission to the Intensive Care Unit. It is proposed to review the adverse effects of salbutamol used in asthmatic crises and to analyze therapeutic alternatives in this disease. Symptoms of side effects can be confused with those caused by the disease itself, determining the excessive use of this drug, thus, it is important to know the dosage profile and characterize the possible side effects to make rational and safe use of this drug.


As doenças respiratórias agudas são a primeira causa de consultas e internações nos meses de inverno e a asma ocupa é a mais importante. O salbutamol é um broncodilatador com eficácia comprovada nas exacerbações e é usado como tratamento de primeira linha. O objetivo desta comunicação é analisar dois casos clínicos de crianças asmáticas que apresentaram efeitos adversos ao salbutamol e necessitaram de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Propõe-se revisar os efeitos adversos do salbutamol utilizado na crise asmática e analisar as alternativas terapêuticas nessa doença. Os sintomas de efeitos colaterais podem ser confundidos com os causados pela própria doença, determinando o uso excessivo desse medicamento, sendo importante conhecer o perfil posológico e caracterizar os possíveis efeitos colaterais nos pacientes para fazer um uso racional e seguro desse medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Acidosis, Lactic , Bronchodilator Agents/adverse effects , Albuterol/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypokalemia/chemically induced , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Recurrence , Asthma/drug therapy , Tachycardia/chemically induced , Tremor/chemically induced , Hallucinations/chemically induced
9.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(3,supl.n.esp): 8-23, 28 dec. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352320

ABSTRACT

Diante da prevalência de distúrbios do controle glicêmico nas internações hospitalares, especialmente em pacientes portadores de diabetes mellitus, foram elaborados, pela equipe de endocrinologia do Hospital Geral Roberto Santos, protocolos informativos para padronização de condutas no manejo da hiperglicemia em pacientes críticos, não críticos e também para manejo de hipoglicemia no ambiente hospitalar. Trata-se de orientações elaboradas por médicos do corpo clínico da endocrinologia voltadas para os profissionais de saúde de todos os setores hospitalares, fundamentadas na importância crucial do correto manejo glicêmico de pacientes graves, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, bem como daqueles sob cuidados médicos nos leitos de enfermaria, durante internação hospitalar. Além disso, diante do grande risco e da morbimortalidade associados aos episódios de hipoglicemia, preconizou-se a elaboração de um fluxo de conduta ágil e assertivo em caso de hipoglicemia. O tratamento objetivo e eficaz nesses cenários impacta fortemente o prognóstico dos pacientes, os desfechos clínicos e o tempo de internação. Palavras-chave: Hiperglicemia. Hipoglicemia. Complicações do diabetes.


Due to the prevalence of glycemic control in inpatients, especially diabetic patients, the Endocrinology team of the Hospital Geral Roberto Santos elaborated informative protocols for standardizing the management of hyperglycemia in critical and noncritical patients, as well as of hypoglycemia. Developed by endocrinologists and aimed at health professionals from all sectors, the protocols consist of orientations on the correct glycemic control in at-risk patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as of nursing ward patients. Considering the high risk and morbimortality associated with hypoglycemia episodes, the protocol also preconizes the elaboration of a quick and assertive conduct. Objective and effective treatment in these scenarios strongly impacts prognoses, outcomes, and length of hospital stay.


Dada la prevalencia de trastornos del control glucémico en los ingresos hospitalarios, especialmente en pacientes con diabetes mellitus, el equipo de Endocrinología del Hospital Geral Roberto Santos creó protocolos informativos para estandarizar la conducta en el manejo de la hiperglucemia en pacientes críticos, no críticos y también para el manejo de hipoglucemia en el hospital. Se trata de guías elaboradas por médicos del cuadro clínico de endocrinología, dirigidas a profesionales de la salud de todos los sectores hospitalarios, basadas en la crucial importancia del correcto manejo glucémico de los pacientes críticos hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos; así como aquellos bajo atención médica en las camas de la sala durante la hospitalización. Además, dado el alto riesgo y la morbimortalidad asociados a los episodios de hipoglucemia, se recomendó el desarrollo de un flujo de conducta ágil y asertivo en caso de hipoglucemia. El tratamiento objetivo y eficaz en estos escenarios tiene un fuerte impacto en el pronóstico de los pacientes, la evolución clínica y la estancia hospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control , Hyperglycemia , Inpatients
10.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1343, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hiperglucemia de ayuno es un factor pronóstico en cirugía. Encontrar el umbral de riesgo mayor en cirugía cardiovascular es una necesidad en la práctica médica actual. Objetivo: Estimar el umbral glucémico ideal de ayuno para un mejor pronóstico en la evolución clínica de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca, en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de enero a junio del año 2017. La muestra quedó constituida por 191 pacientes, a todos los pacientes se les determinó glucemia de ayuno. Se empleó la prueba de independencia Ji-cuadrado (X2) para evaluar la asociación entre variables. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para identificar el efecto independiente de las variables estudiadas. Además, se construyó una curva Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (por sus siglas en inglés) en la que se graficaron especificidad 1 y sensibilidad para cada punto de corte definido para los valores glucémicos. Resultados: La edad de los pacientes predominó entre 40-69 años, el sexo masculino representó 60,7 por ciento de la muestra, el 55,5 por ciento presentó glucemias normales y solo el 1,6 por ciento presentó glucemias mayores a 15 mmol/L. El 33,5 por ciento presentó algún tipo de complicación, los pacientes que presentaron complicaciones tenían la glucemia por encima de 9,9 mmol/L en el 84,4 por ciento. En el análisis multivariado solo hubo significación estadística para la aparición de complicaciones para la glucemia mayor a 10 mmol/L. Conclusiones: La hiperglucemia de ayuno se asoció a mayor riesgo de complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Fasting hyperglycemia is a prognostic factor in surgery. Finding the highest risk threshold in cardiovascular surgery is a necessity in current medical practice. Objective: To estimate the ideal fasting glycemic threshold for a better prognosis in the clinical evolution of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, at Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital from January to June 2017. The sample consisted of 191 patients; fasting blood glucose was determined in all patients. The Chi-square (X2) test of independence was used to evaluate the association between variables. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent effect of the variables studied. In addition, a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve was constructed in which 1-specificity and sensitivity were plotted for each cut-off point defined for the glycemic values. Results: The 40-69 years age of the patients predominated, the male sex represented 60.7 percent of the sample, 55.5 percent had normal blood glucose levels and only 1.6 percent showed blood glucose levels higher than 15 mmol/L. Moreover, 33.5 percent had some type of complication; the patients with complications had blood glucose levels above 9.9 mmol/L in 84.4 percent. In the multivariate analysis, there was only statistical significance for the appearance of complications for glycaemia higher than 10 mmol/L. Conclusions: Fasting hyperglycemia was associated with higher risk of complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Hyperglycemia , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e910, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341408

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus e hiperglucemia, en pacientes con la COVID-19, predisponen a mayor gravedad de la enfermedad y peores resultados a corto plazo. Objetivo: Identificar diferencias clínicas, de parámetros humorales, evolución y en el uso de medicamentos en pacientes infectados con el SARS-CoV-2, en relación con el estado glucémico, durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, de todos los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2, atendidos en el Hospital Militar Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy, desde el 17 de marzo hasta el 4 de junio de 2020. Se recopilaron variables demográficas, evolución de los síntomas, estadía hospitalaria, antecedentes patológicos personales, parámetros humorales al ingreso, complicaciones y uso de medicamentos. Fueron creados tres grupos: diabéticos (n = 16), hiperglucémicos (glucemia en ayunas ≥ 7,8 mmol/L; n = 10) y normoglucémicos (n = 219). Se utilizaron las pruebas de ji cuadrado y H de Kruskal - Wallis, para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Se usó un intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento. Resultados: Los pacientes diabéticos e hiperglucémicos, en relación con normoglucémicos, tuvieron mayor proporción de sintomáticos al ingreso, hipertensión arterial, cardiopatía isquémica, insuficiencia renal crónica, otros antecedentes, complicaciones, mortalidad, uso de esteroides y Jusvinza. Además, tuvieron menores valores de hematocrito y linfocitos, mayores de neutrófilos, plaquetas, creatinina, aspartato amino transferasa, glutamil transpeptidasa, fosfatasa alcalina y deshidrogenasa láctica. Conclusiones: Tanto la diabetes como la hiperglucemia predisponen a formas clínicas más graves de COVID-19, con peores parámetros humorales, evolución y mayor mortalidad. En estos pacientes se usa con mayor frecuencia esteroides y Jusvinza(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia, in patients with COVID-19, predispose to greater severity of the disease and worse short-term outcomes. Objective: To identify clinical differences, of humoral parameters, evolution and in the use of medications in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2; in relation to glycemic status, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Retrospective study of all patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, treated at the Hospital Militar Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy _until June/2020. Demographic variables, evolution of symptoms, hospital stay, personal pathological history, humoral parameters on admission, complications and use of medications were collected. Three groups were created: diabetic (n = 16), hyperglycemic (fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.8 mmol/L; n = 10) and normo glycemic (n = 219). Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for comparisons between groups. A 95 percent confidence interval was used. Results: Diabetic and hyperglycemic patients had a higher proportion of symptoms on admission, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal insufficiency, other antecedents, complications, mortality, and use of steroids and Jusvinza. In addition, they had lower values of hematocrit and lymphocytes, and higher values of neutrophils, platelets, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase, glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase. Conclusions: Both diabetes and hyperglycemia predisposed to more severe clinical forms of COVID-19, with worse humoral parameters, evolution and higher mortality. Steroids and Jusvinza were used more frequently in these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Length of Stay , Reference Standards , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Fasting
12.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 56-63, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280493

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el tratamiento en un hospital de primer nivel de pacientes que consultaron el servicio de urgencias por hiperglucemia, el manejo previo y su probable relación con nuevas hiperglucemias. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal con seguimiento de un año en pacientes mayores de 18 años con hiperglucemia que consultaron en el servicio de urgencias entre septiembre-2016 y agosto-2017. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se establecieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, y farmacológicas. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, X 2 y modelos de regresión logística binaria (P<0.05). Resultados: Se presentaron 86 pacientes con hiperglucemia (edad media de 52.1±14.93 años). Se encontró que en el 58,1% de casos había un diagnóstico previo de diabetes mellitus; 87,2% fueron tratados con insulina cristalina y el 47,0% de los pacientes consultaron nuevamente por una crisis de hiperglucemia en los seis meses posteriores al egreso. Conclusión: Existe alta proporción de pacientes con hiperglucemias no cetónicas, no hiperosmolares que desconocían presentar diabetes mellitus. Además, casi la mitad de los pacientes consultan nuevamente por crisis de hiperglucemia en los siguientes seis meses después del alta.


Abstract Objective: Describe the treatment in a first-level hospital of patients who consulted the emergency department for hyperglycemia, the previous management and its probable relationship with new hyperglycemia. Materials and methods: Observational cross-sectional study with a one-year follow-up in patients over 18 years of age with hyperglycemia who consulted in the emergency department between September-2016 and August-2017. The medical records were reviewed and sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were established. Descriptive statistics, X2 and binary logistic regression models (P <0.05) were used. Results: There were 86 patients with hyperglycemia (mean age 52.1 ± 14.93 years). It was found that in 58.1% of cases there was a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; 87.2% were treated with crystalline insulin and 47.0% of the patients consulted again for a hyperglycemic crisis in the six months after discharge. Conclusion: There is a high proportion of patients with non-ketonic, non-hyperosmolar hyperglycemia who were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. In addition, almost half of the patients consult again for a hyperglycemic attack in the following six months after discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharmacoepidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitals , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Therapeutics , Aftercare , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
13.
Rev. salud pública ; 23(3): e300, mayo-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341646

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de factores de riesgo de tipo metabólico en estudiantes universitarios latinoamericanos a través de una revisión sistemática. Metodología Se realizó una revisión sistemática de artículos en las bases de datos electrónicas de SciELO, PubMed y Google Académico. La búsqueda incluyó referencias publicadas a partir del año 2006 en idiomas español, portugués e inglés que describieran prevalencias de los factores de riesgo mencionados en población universitaria latinoamericana. Resultados Un total de 245 referencias fueron recuperadas, de las cuales 60 fueron seleccionados para su análisis. Los estudiantes universitarios en Latinoamérica presentaron una prevalencia de factores de riesgo metabólicos que, en algunos casos, fue similar a la de la media poblacional en general. Conclusiones Es necesario que la comunidad universitaria y los Gobiernos latinoamericanos planteen estrategias que promuevan estilos de vida saludables tendientes a reducir la adquisición de conductas de riesgo durante la vida universitaria.


ASBTRACT Objective To describe the prevalence of metabolic risk factors in Latin American university students through a systematic review. Methodology A systematic review of articles was carried out in electronic databases SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar. Search included references, published from 2006 in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, that described the prevalence of risk factors in Latin American college population. Results 245 references were retrieved, of which 60 were selected for analysis. University students in Latin America showed a prevalence of metabolic risk factors that, in some cases, was like that of the population average. Conclusions The university community and Latin American governments must propose strategies to promote healthy lifestyles aimed at reducing the acquisition of risky behaviours during university life.

14.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 89(2): 92-97, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356854

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Resultados de nuestro laboratorio sugieren que la disfunción mitocondrial en el corazón precede a la falla miocárdica asociada a la hiperglucemia sostenida. Objetivo: Estudiar los eventos tempranos que ocurren en las mitocondrias de corazón en un modelo de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Materiales y métodos: Ratas Wistar macho fueron inyectadas con estreptozotocina (STZ; 60 mg/kg, ip) y sacrificadas 10 o 14 días posinyección. Se obtuvo la fracción mitocondrial de corazón. Resultados: El consumo de O2 en estado 3 en presencia de malato-glutamato (21%) o succinato (16%) y las actividades de los complejos I-III (27%), II-III (24%) y IV (22%) fueron menores en los animales diabéticos a los 14 días posinyección. Cuando los animales se sacrificaron al día 10, solo el consumo de O2 en estado 3 en presencia de sustratos del complejo I (23%) y su control respiratorio (30%) fueron menores en las ratas inyectadas con STZ, de acuerdo con una reducción en la actividad del complejo I-III (17%). Estos cambios se acompañaron de un aumento en las velocidades de producción de H2O2 (117%), NO (30%) y ONOO- (∼225%), en la expresión de mtNOS (29%) y en la [O2 -]ss (∼150%) y [NO]ss (∼30%), junto con una disminución de la actividad de la Mn-SOD (15%) y la [GSSG+GSH]mitocondrial (28%), sin cambios en la expresión de PGC-1α. Conclusión: La disfunción del complejo I y el aumento en la generación de H2O2, NO y ONOO- pueden considerarse señales subcelulares prodrómicas del deterioro de la función mitocondrial que precede a la disfunción cardíaca en la diabetes.


ABSTRACT Background: Previous results from our laboratory suggest that heart mitochondrial dysfunction precedes myocardial failure associated with sustained hyperglycemia. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the early events that take place in heart mitochondria in a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg, ip.) to induce DM. They were euthanized 10 or 14 days later and the heart mitochondrial fraction was obtained. Results: State 3 O2 consumption in the presence of malate-glutamate (21%) or succinate (16%), and complex I-III (27%), II-III (24%) and IV (22%) activities were lower in diabetic animals 14 days after STZ injection. When animals were euthanized at day 10, only state 3 O2 consumption sustained by complex I substrates (23%) and its corresponding respiratory control (30%) were lower in rats injected with STZ, in agreement with reduced complex I-III activity (17%). These changes were accompanied by increased H2O2 (117%), NO (30%) and ONOO- (~225%) production rates, mtNOS expression (29%) and O2 - (~150%) and NO (~30%) steady-state concentrations, together with a decrease in Mn-SOD activity (15%) and mitochondrial [GSSG+GSH] (28%), without changes in PGC-1α expression. Conclusion: Complex I dysfunction and increased H2O2, NO and ONOO- production rates can be considered subcellular prodromal signals of the mitochondrial damage that precedes myocardial dysfunction in diabetes.

15.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e899, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289522

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con retinopatía diabética desde el punto de vista epidemiológico y clínico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Centro Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba, desde octubre del año 2017 hasta octubre de 2019, en una población de 42 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes con tiempo de diabetes mellitus mayor de 10 años, y edades de 55 años o más (60,0 por ciento); el mayor porcentaje correspondió al color de piel negra (66,7 por ciento ); la agudeza visual mayor de 0,6 se presentó en el 49,4 por ciento de los casos; la retinopatía diabética proliferativa fue la más presentada con 55,9 por ciento. Hubo predominio, además, de los valores de hemoglobina glicosilada por encima del 7 por ciento y de la normoalbuminuria con 46,7 y 66,7 por ciento, respectivamente, en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: Los valores elevados de hemoglobina glicosilada y la normoalbuminuria se asocian, desde el punto de vista clínico, a la retinopatía diabética proliferativa(AU)


Objective: Characterize diabetic retinopathy patients from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 42 type 2 diabetic patients at Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmology Center from October 2017 to October 2019. Results: A predominance was found of patients who had had diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years and were aged 55 years or over (60.0 percent); black skin color prevailed with 66.7 percent; visual acuity above 0.6 was present in 49.4 percent of the cases, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the most common type (55.9 percent). In both groups glycosylated hemoglobin values above 7 percent prevailed, whereas normal albuminuria was predominant with 46.7 percent and 66.7 percent, respectively. Conclusions: High glycosylated hemoglobin and normal albuminuria values are clinically associated to proliferative diabetic retinopathy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Glycated Hemoglobin A/adverse effects , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Albuminuria/etiology , Visual Acuity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemoglobinuria/diagnosis
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 531-540, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153803

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de pré-diabetes e hiperglicemia intermediária em adultos brasileiros, considerando diferentes critérios diagnósticos, e estabelecer fatores associados à sua ocorrência. Análise dos dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, coletados em 2014 e 2015. Foram calculadas as prevalências das condições conforme critérios da Associação Americana de Diabetes (ADA) - Hemoglobina Glicada (HbA1c) 5,7 a 6,4% - e da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), de 6 - 6,4% entre aqueles que não tinham critério para diabetes. Razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas e IC 95% foram calculados por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. A prevalência de pré-diabetes pelo critério ADA foi de 18,5% e de 7,5% pelo critério da OMS. Verificou-se um gradiente de aumento das prevalências segundo a idade da população e presença de fatores de risco como hipertensão arterial, obesidade, circunferência abdominal elevada e baixo colesterol HDL. Os menos escolarizados e os declarados pretos apresentaram prevalências superiores. Este estudo aponta um intervalo entre 7,5 a 18,5% de adultos brasileiros que apresentam pré-diabetes e hiperglicemia intermediária, além de identificar um escore de risco para a ocorrência dessa condição.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of prediabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia in Brazilian adults, according to different diagnostic criteria, and establish associated factors to its occurrence. We analyzed the National Health Survey laboratory data collected from 2014 to 2015. The prevalence of the conditions was calculated according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 6-6.4%, among those without criteria for diabetes. Crude and adjusted prevalence rates (PR) and 95% CI were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of prediabetes by ADA and WHO criteria was 18.5 and 7.5%, respectively. We observed a gradient of increased prevalence by the age of the population and risk factors, like arterial hypertension, obesity, elevated waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol levels. Less educated people and the self-declared black had a higher prevalence. This study pointed out a range from 7.5 to 18.5% of Brazilian adults with prediabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia and identified a risk score to this condition's occurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Health Surveys
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 107-112, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the obstetric and sociodemographic characteristics of gestational diabetic women who maintained hyperglycemia in the postpartum period (6-12 weeks postpartum). Methods This is a longitudinal cohort study with women who have had gestational diabetes and/or macrosomic children between March 1st, 2016 and March 1st, 2017. Between 6 and 12 weeks after birth, women who had gestational diabetes collected fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance test, and glycated hemoglobin results. The data were collected from medical records and during an interview in the first postpartum consultation. A statistical analysis was performed using frequency, percentage, Chi- Squared test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and multivariate Poisson regression. The significance level adopted for the statistical tests was 5%. Results One hundred and twenty-two women were included. Most of the women were younger than 35 years old (70.5%), white, multiparous, and with no history of gestational diabetes. Thirteen percent of the participants developed persistent hyperglycemia. A univariate analysis showed that maternal age above 35 years, being overweight, having grade 1 obesity and weight gain under 5 kg was related to the persistence of hyperglycemia in the postpartum period. Conclusion Maternal age above 35 years, obesity and overweight, and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with hyperglycemia during the postpartum period.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar características sociodemográficas e obstétricas de mulheres com diabetes gestacional que mantêm hiperglicemia no período pós-parto (6-12 semanas pós-parto). Métodos Este é um estudo longitudinal de coorte com mulheres com diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional e/ou macrossomia fetal entre 1° de março de 2016 a 1° de março de 2017. As mulheres coletaram glicemia de jejum, teste de tolerância a glicose e hemoglobina glicada entre 6 a 12 semanas pós-parto. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários médicos e durante entrevista na primeira consulta de revisão pós-parto. Uma análise estatística foi realizada através do cálculo de frequências, porcentagens, teste do qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher, teste de Mann-Whitney e regressão multivariada de Poisson. A significância estatística adotada foi de 5%. Resultados Cento e vinte e duas mulheres foram incluídas. A maioria delas tinha menos de 35 anos de idade (70,5%), eram brancas, multíparas, e não tinham história de diabetes gestacional. Treze por cento das participantes desenvolveu hiperglicemia persistente. A análise univariada mostrou que os fatores relacionados com a persistência de hiperglicemia no período pós-natal foram: idade materna acima de 35 anos, sobrepeso, obesidade grau 1 e ganho de peso abaixo de 5 quilos. A análisemultivariada incluiu o diagnóstico no primeiro trimestre como fator de risco para hiperglicemia persistente. Conclusão Mulheres acima de 35 anos, obesidade, sobrepeso e diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional no primeiro trimestre estão relacionados com hiperglicemia persistente no período pós-parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Puerperal Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Puerperal Disorders/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hyperglycemia/blood
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 138-145, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289066

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Duplicar a percentagem de tempo no intervalo glicêmico 100 - 180mg/dL nos primeiros 3 meses após implementação faseada de um programa de educação formal e, posteriormente, de um protocolo de insulinoterapia, sem condicionar um aumento da frequência de hipoglicemia. Métodos: Foi feita a avaliação retrospetiva do controle glicêmico pré-intervenção. Foram realizados: implementação de um programa formal de educação; distribuição de algoritmos manuais de insulinoterapia endovenosa - otimizados pelos utilizadores, a partir do protocolo de Yale modificado - e formação informal da equipe de enfermagem. Foi dado apoio à utilização dos sistemas eletrônicos de controle glicêmico e do registo prospetivo dos resultados. Resultados: A primeira fase do programa (educação formal) melhorou o tempo no intervalo euglicêmico (28% para 37%). A segunda fase permitiu atingir 66% do tempo de euglicemia, com diminuição das hipoglicemias. A percentagem de doentes sob perfusão endovenosa de insulina às 48 horas de internamento aumentou (6% para 35%). Conclusão: A implementação faseada de um programa formal de educação que favoreceu a aplicação de protocolos de insulinoterapia eletrônicos e manuais dinâmicos demonstrou ter aderência e ser segura e eficaz no controle glicêmico no doente crítico, com diminuição concomitante das hipoglicemias.


ABSTRACT Objective: To double the percentage of time within the 100 - 180mg/dL blood glucose range in the first three months following a phased implementation of a formal education program, and then, of an insulin therapy protocol, without entailing an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: The pre-intervention glycemic control was assessed retrospectively. Next, were carried out the implementation of a formal education program, distribution of manual algorithms for intravenous insulin therapy - optimized by the users, based on the modified Yale protocol - and informal training of the nursing staff. The use of electronic blood glucose control systems was supported, and the results were recorded prospectively. Results: The first phase of the program (formal education) lead to improvement of the time within the euglycemic interval (28% to 37%). In the second phase, euglycemia was achieved 66% of the time, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was decreased. The percentage of patients on intravenous insulin infusion at 48 hours from admission increased from 6% to 35%. Conclusion: The phased implementation of a formal education program, fostering the use of electronic insulin therapy protocols and dynamic manuals, received good adherence and has shown to be safe and effective for blood glucose control in critically ill patients, with a concomitant decrease in hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glycemic Control , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Portugal , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
19.
Rev. Fac. Med. Hum ; 21(1): 50-64, Ene.-Mar. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147155

ABSTRACT

The manuscript summarizes the process of elaboration of the Clinical Practice Guide (CPG) for the management of glycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes mellitus of the AUNA Clinic Network. A multidisciplinary team of medical assistants and methodologists carried out the development of the CPG and then there was an external review by a specialist in the field. The Elaboration Group of the CPG (GEG) concluded on 10 PICO questions. A systematic search for CPG, systematic reviews and primary studies was carried out to answer these PICO questions. To make recommendations we used the "GRADE-Adolopment" methodology and the guidelines of the national regulations. Ten recommendations were made (nine strong and one weak), 18 points of good clinical practice and two flowcharts for management (one for diagnosis and the other for the treatment of glycemic crises), 04 consensus tables on management and 01 table for surveillance and monitoring. The topics covered by the recommendations for the management of glycemic crises were hyperglycemic crises (glycosylated hemoglobin evaluation; b-hydroxybutyrate evaluation; insulin, potassium, 0.9% sodium chloride, phosphorus, sodium bicarbonate treatments) and hypoglycemic crises (carbohydrate administration, monitoring, educational program to avoid reentry)


El artículo resume el proceso de elaboración de la Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) para el manejo de las crisis glucémicas en pacientes adultos con diabetes mellitus de la Red de Clínicas AUNA. El proceso de elaboración se llevó a cabo con la participación de un equipo multidisciplinario de médicos asistenciales, metodólogos y un revisor externo (un especialista con dominio en la metodología y el tema). La priorización de preguntas PICO fue realizada por el Grupo Elaborador de la GPC (GEG) luego de lo cual se concluyó en trabajar 10 preguntas PICO. Para dar respuesta a las preguntas se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de GPC, revisiones sistemáticas y estudios primarios. Se utilizó la metodología "GRADE-Adolopment" y los lineamientos de la normativa nacional para la formulación de recomendaciones. Se formularon 10 recomendaciones (nueve fuertes y una débil), 18 puntos de buena práctica clínica, dos flujogramas para el manejo (uno para el diagnóstico y el otro para el tratamiento de crisis glucémicas), cinco (05) tablas resumen sobre el manejo y una (01) tabla para la vigilancia y seguimiento. Los temas que abarcaron las recomendaciones para el manejo de las crisis glucémicas fueron: crisis hiperglucémicas (evaluación de hemoglobina glucosilada; evaluación de b-hidroxibutirato; tratamiento con insulina, potasio, cloruro de sodio 0.9%, fósforo, bicarbonato de sodio) y crisis hipoglucémicas (administración de carbohidratos, monitoreo, programa educativo para evitar el reingreso).

20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(supl.3): S10-S15, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375496

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre la concentración de glucosa al ingreso y los niveles circulantes de dímeros D en pacientes hospitalizados por enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 187 pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Se evaluaron las características bioquímicas, la concentración de glucosa y dímeros D, la gravedad de la enfermedad definida por la presencia de neumonía y/o insuficiencia respiratoria que ameritó ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) y la causa del egreso hospitalario. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue 52 años, el 68% eran hombres, un 40.8% con obesidad y un 23.5% con hipertensión. Del total de pacientes hospitalizados, el 45.5% presentaba diabetes o hiperglucemia a la admisión. La concentración de proteína C reactiva y de dímeros D (1,134 [646.5-4,135.0] vs. 755 [548.7-1,780.0] ng/ml; p = 0.04] fue superior en pacientes con diabetes e hiperglucemia, en comparación con los pacientes con glucosa normal. Los pacientes que requirieron VMI presentaron también mayor concentración de dímeros D. Se observó una correlación directa entre las concentraciones de glucosa inicial y dímeros D (r: 0.239; p = 0.003). Conclusión: En los pacientes con COVID-19 el estado hiperglucémico se asocia directamente con un incremento de la concentración de dímeros D. Los resultados de este estudio deben conducir a insistir en el control glucémico como estrategia fundamental en los pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between glucose level at admission and circulating levels of D-dimers in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: 187 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were studied. Biochemical characteristics, glucose and D-dimers levels, severity of disease, defined by the presence of pneumonia and/or respiratory failure that required invasive mechanical ventilation (IVM) and the cause of hospital discharge were evaluated. Results: Age was 52 years, 68% were male, 40.8% with obesity and 23.5% with hypertension. Of the total of hospitalized patients, 45.5% had diabetes or hyperglycemia upon admission. Patients with diabetes and/or admission hyperglycemia had higher levels of protein C-reactive and D-dimers [(1134 (646.5-4135.0) vs. 755 (548.7-1780.0) ng/ml, p = 0.04], compared to patients with normal glucose level. Patients who required IMV also had a higher concentration of D-dimers. A correlation between glucose and D-dimers levels was evidenced (r=0.239, p=0.003). Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, the hyperglycemic state is directly associated with an increase in the concentration of D-dimers and severity of disease. The results of this study should lead to insisting on glycemic control as a fundamental strategy in patients with COVID-19.

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