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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Lead , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Osteocalcin , Incidence
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936426

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an evaluation method of uncertainty for the determination of lead in ambient air PM2.5 by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Methods According to HJ657-2013 “Determination of Lead and Other Metal Elements in Air and Exhaust Particulates by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry”, the concentration of lead in ambient air PM2.5 was determined. A mathematical model was established to analyze the source of uncertainty and to calculate each component of uncertainty. The components were combined into the standard uncertainty, and the relative expanded uncertainty was finally obtained. Results The expanded uncertainty of lead in ambient air PM2.5 was 0.16 ng/m3, and the measurement result of lead was (1.75±0.16)ng/m3. Conclusion The main source of uncertainty of this method comes from the relative standard uncertainty introduced by sample pretreatment.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943092

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo obtain content characteristics of inorganic elements in Scutellariae Radix (aged 1-4 years), and to explore the feasibility of identifying the growth years of Scutellariae Radix based on characteristic spectrum of inorganic elements combined with chemometric models. MethodAfter microwave digestion, the contents of Mn, Zn, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Cr, Cu, Se, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ni in 21 batches of Scutellariae Radix were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Meanwhile, characteristic spectrum of inorganic elements in samples was drawn. The identification model was constructed to discriminate the growth years of Scutellariae Radix based on the combination of principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher discriminant function and support vector machine (SVM). ResultThe contents of Mn (7.79-36.48 μg·g-1), Zn (10.12-31.43 μg·g-1), Cu (6.38-17.20 μg·g-1), K (2.98-13.89 μg·g-1), Mg (3.45-7.78 μg·g-1) and Ca (2.32-7.09 μg·g-1) in Scutellariae Radix were detected by ICP-OES and ICP-MS, and their contents increased with the prolongation of growth years. PCA results showed that Cu, Ni, Cd, Na, Mg, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn and Hg were characteristic elements of Scutellariae Radix. Samples with different years could be divided into four categories in the spatial characteristic diagram of Fisher discriminant analysis. The correct rate of SVM model for identifying the growth years of samples was 95.2%. ConclusionThis established method is accurate and rapid for discriminating the growth years of Scutellariae Radix, which can provide reference for the identification of other Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested that some elements should be considered as indexes in subsequent construction of the quality evaluation system of Scutellariae Radix.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1330-1336, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish a m ethod to determine the cont ents of 20 elements impurities in Aminomethylbenzoic acid injection ,and to investigate its compatibility in low-borosilicate glass ampoules. METHODS :The sample was diluted with 5% nitric acid solution ,and then determined by ICP-MS using scandium ,indium and bismuth as internal standards. The nebulizer flow(argon)was 0.92 L/min,collision gas flow (helium)was 4.5 L/min,RF power was 1 895 W,plasma flow was 18 L/min, pump speed was 40 r/min,injection delay time was 65 s. The collision mode was used as measurement mode ,the data sampling adopted peak skipping mode ,and repeated for 3 times. The accelerated test was carried out after sample was stored at 70 ℃ for 1 and 3 months,and the compatibility was investigated by comparing the change trend of element impurity content. RESULTS :The linear range of vanadium ,cobalt,chromium,arsenic,cadmium,antimony,mercury,thallium and lead were 0.01-20 μg/L;those of magnesium ,aluminium,ferrum,nickel,copper,zinc,barium were 0.1-200 μg/L;those of boron ,silicon,potassium and calcium were 1-2 000 μg/L(r≥0.999 8). RSDs of precision ,intermediate precision ,stability(8 h)and repeatability test were all lower than 6%. The limits of quantitation were 0.000 7-2.986 3 μg/L;the limits of detection were 0.000 2-0.895 9 μg/L. The average recoveries were 88.50%-111.00%(RSDs were 0.52%-2.33%,n=9). The minimum content of 20 element impurities was less than detection limits ,the maximum contents were 3 835.9 μg/L(0 month),10 448.4 μg/L(1 month),17 261.2 μg/L(3 month) in Aminomethylbenzoic acid injection from 8 manufacturers. Among the 20 elements impurities ,except that boron , aluminum,magnesium,silicon,calcium and potassium were not specified ,the contents of other elements were less than the threshold. The research of compatibility showed that the impurity contents of seven elements such as boron ,aluminum,silicon, potassium,zinc,arsenic and barium showed an increasing trend. The silicon concentration ,silicon/aluminum concentration ratio and silicon/boron concentration ratio in the accelerated samples after stored for one and three months were significantly different from those stored for 0 month. CONCLUSIONS :The established method is sensitive ,reproducible and accurate ,and can be used for the content determination of 20 element impurities in Aminomethylbenzoic acid injection. The interaction between low-borosilicate ampoule and Aminomethylbenzoic acid injection is obvious.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 289-294, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish the method for the content determination of inorganic elements in Cyperus rotundus ,and to compare the contents of 14 kinds of inorganic elements in C. rotundus from different producing areas ,and to provide theoretical basis for its quality control and high quality resources development . METHODS :The samples were processed by microwave digestion,and ICP-MS method was used to determine the contents of Na ,Mg,K,Ca,Mn,Fe,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Sr,Cd and Pb. SPSS 23.0 software were used for principal component analysis (PCA)and cluster analysis. RESULTS :The average contents of above 14 kinds of inorganic elements in C. rotundus from different producing areas were 168.62,753.71, 6 938.33,24.31,14.69,197.77,0.60,2.43,26.89,0.21,0.06,5.64,0.05,0.32 mg/kg,respectively. The results of PCA showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components was 86.203%,which could reflect most of the information of the original data. C. rotundus from Shandong ,Jiangxi,Shanxi,Hubei and Yunnan ranked the top five places in terms of comprehensive score of inorganic element contents. The results of cluster analysis showed that the samples from 9 producing areas were clustered into 5 categories,showing the characteristics of clustering by producing area. From the perspective of inorganic elements ,the quality of C. rotundus from East China ,Central China ,North China and Southwest China was better than that from South China. CONCLUSIONS :Essential trace elements like Na ,Mg,K,Ca,Mn,Fe,Cu,Zn,Sr are rich in C. rotundus,and there are small amounts of Ni ,As,Se,Cd,Pb elements in it. The contents difference of inorganic elements in C. rotundus from different origins may related to the geographical area it belongs to.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906061

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically evaluate the safety of heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis and its rhizosphere soil and bedrock in epiphytic culture imitated wild rock fissure. The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in carbonate-black limestone-Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis system in the study area were analyzed. Method:Samples of biennial Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, black calcareous soil and carbonate rocks were collected from fracture-epiphytic culture in karst area of Guizhou province. The contents of Cu, Pb, As, Cd in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, and Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Cr in soil and bedrock were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The detection conditions were as follows:plasma power of 1 550 W, feedback power of 2 W, sampling depth of 9 mm, atomization chamber temperature at 2 ℃, analysis mode of full quantitative, and double charge of <1.5%. Hg content in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry, and Hg content in soil and bedrock was determined by mercury analyzer. SPSS 26.0 software was used to analyze the test data. Result:The contents of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis were all within the safety threshold. The contents of Pb, As, Cd, Hg and Cr in black calcareous soil were higher than the corresponding background values of Chinese soil (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), Cd in black calcareous soil was slightly polluted, while Cr, Cu, As, Pb and Hg were clean. The contents of Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg and Cr in carbonate rocks were significantly lower than those in black calcareous soil (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The order of heavy metals in black calcareous soil affected by parent rock was Hg>Cd>Cu>As>Cr>Pb. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis was in the order of Cu>Cd>Pb=Hg>As, but the BCFs of these five heavy metals were all low (all <10%). The contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis increased slightly with the increase of heavy metal content in the rhizosphere soil, while the content of As decreased with the increase of As content in the rhizosphere soil. In addition to Cu content in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, the migration characteristics of Pb, As, Cd and Hg in the system of carbonate-black limestone-Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis showed consistency. Conclusion:The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in geotechnical plant system in the study area show obvious inheritance. The characteristics of high content, low activity and low pollution risk of heavy metals in black limestone soil and low BCF are the main factors affecting the safety threshold of five heavy metals in Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2377-2382, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metal as copper (Cu),arsenic(As),cadmium (Cd),mercury(Hg)and lead (Pb)in Yougui pills ,and to evaluate its safety risk. METHODS :Using yttrium (89Y),indium (115In)and bismuth (209bi)as internal standard ,the contents of each element were determined by ICP-MS. ICP-MS condition included that atomization gas flow rate was 0.95 L/min,auxiliary gas flow rate was 1.2 L/min,plasma gas (argon)flow rate was 18 L/min,pump speed was 30 r/min. RF power of inductively coupled plasma was 1 200 W,the voltage in simulation stage was 1 750 V,the voltage in pulse stage was 1 300 V,the voltage of deflection device was -12 V,and the detector was in analog and pulse dual-mode. The determination methods of various elements were investigated ,and 45 batches of marketed Yougui pills were determined. Hazard index (HI)was used to analyze the non-carcinogenic risk of each element and calculate the maximum residual limit(MRL)of each element. RESULTS :The linear range of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb ranged from 10-200,1-50,0.4-30,0.2-6 and 2-100 μg/L(all r>0.999 0),respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.67,0.23,0.20,0.07,0.27 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.20,0.07,0.06,0.02,0.08 μg/L. RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were all lower than 3.5% (n=6 or n=5). Average recoveries were 92.96%-100.89%(RSD=2.23%-3.62%,n=3). Average contents of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb in 45 batches of Yougui pills were 2.72,0.28,0.07,0.05,0.62 mg/kg,and superimposed HI of each element was less than 1. The contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals in Yougui pills were lower than the proposed MRL (MRL of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb were 20,2,1,0.2,5 mg/kg or 111.11,4.44,2.22,1.48,8.89 mg/kg respectively ). CONCLUSIONS :Established method can be used for the determination of content of 5 kinds of heavy metal in Yougui pills ;the heavy metal pollution rate of marketed Yougui pills is low and the safety risk is small.

9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2218-2222, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To es tablish a method for the content determination of heavy metals [lead (Pb),cadmium(Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg)] and harmful elements [arsenic (As)] in Pediatric paracetamol artificial cow-bezoar and chlorphenamine maleate granules. METHODS :The samples were conducted pretreatment by microwave digestion instrument and determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)using elements germanium ,indium,bismuth as internal standard. RESULTS :The linear ranges of Pb ,As,Cu,Cd and Hg were 1-20,0.5-10,5-100,0.5-10 and 0.2-4 ng/mL, respectively (all r>0.997). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.041 1,0.013 2,0.057 3,0.009 0,0.005 4 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs)were 0.137 0,0.044 0,0.191 0,0.030 0,0.018 0 ng/mL,respectively. RSDs of precision and repeatability tests were all less than 6%. RSDs of stability tests (28 h)of Pb ,As,Cu and Cd were all less than 5%, and that of stability test (28 h)of Hg was less than 7%. The average recoveries were 89.44%(RSD=5.87%,n=9),99.56% (RSD=5.46% ,n=9),96.12%(RSD=4.62% ,n=9),105.82%(RSD=2.80% ,n=9)and 90.23%(RSD=3.59% ,n=9), respectively. Five elements were all detected in 63 batches of samples ,and the contents of them were 0.191 0-1.527 6,0.002 5- 0.047 4,0.034 1-1.549 0,0.001 5-0.078 8 and 0.001 9-0.005 4 mg/kg,respectively. CONCLUSIONS :The method is simple , sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for simultaneous determination of 5 elements in Pediatric paracetamol artificial cow-bezoar and chlorphenamine maleate granules.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828072

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS/MS and ICP-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was employed to explore the differences in chemical compositions of Guilingji(GLJ) before and after alchemy.The changes in organic chemical compositions and inorganic elements were observed and 39 differential organic compositions were found in GLJ after alchemy, 24 compounds of which were identified. The differential compositions of GLJ included violet ketones, chalcones, amides, and fatty acids whose contents were increased after alchemy, as well as flavones, isoflavones, dihydroflavones, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins whose content were decreased after alchemy. This study showed 6 inorganic elements filtered out as markers for distinguishing GLJ before and after alchemy, including B, Si, Mg, K, Cr, and Ni.The contents of Mg, K, Cr and Ni were increased while the contents of B and Si were decreased after alchemy.The difference of the contents after alchemy changed the cold and hot properties of the compound, showing the decrease of dryness, and the hot property was changed to warm and neutral properties; in addition, the membrane permeability and absorption of the compound compositions were improved. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the changes of chemical compositions in GLJ before and after alchemy as well as the effects of alchemy on physical and chemical properties and cold-heat nature of GLJ, laying a foundation for further clarifying the scientific connotation of alchemy process.


Subject(s)
Alchemy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycosides , Multivariate Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828048

ABSTRACT

In this study, the contents of Cu, As, Cd, Pb and Hg in 10 batches of Gardeniae Fructus and 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus from Fuzhou in Jiangxi were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS), and the target hazard coefficient(THQ) for different drug users(adults and children) was calculated by using the international health risk assessment model. According to the ISO and green industry standard, the content of Hg in 4 batches of Gardeniae Fructus exceeded the standard with an over-standard rate of 40%. The THQ and total THQ of Hg in 2 batches of Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. For 10 batches of fried Gardeniae Fructus, the content of every heavy metal and total amount of five heavy metals did not exceed the standard. However, the THQ and total THQ of Hg in 1 batch of fried Gardeniae Fructus were higher than the international standard limit of Gardeniae Fructus. As compared with Gardeniae Fructus, the contents of Cu, Pb and Hg in fried Gardeniae Fructus decreased by 34.0%, 77.6% and 23.1%; the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for adults decreased by 33.3%, 75.0% and 96.9%; and the THQ of Cu, Pb and Hg for children decreased by 37.5%, 75.0%, 90.7%. It showed that the contents of heavy metals in individual batches of Gardeniae Fructus in this experiment had a certain risk to human health, but the contents of these heavy metals in fried Gardeniae Fructus had no obvious effect on human health. This study provided experimental basis and research ideas for safety evaluation of Gardeniae Fructus and fried Gardeniae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gardenia , Humans , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876243

ABSTRACT

Objective To make uncertainty evaluation of total arsenic in pork by using the national food safety standard "GB 5009.11-2014 determination of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in food", and discuss the influence of each uncertainty component on the determination results so as to improve the accuracy of the experimental results. Methods The uncertainty sources that affected the measurement results in the measurement process, including repeatability measurement, sample weighing, sample dilution, standard concentration, standard curve and so on were evaluated.The uncertainty introduced by the repeatability measurement was evaluated by class A, the uncertainty caused by other factors was evaluated by class B, and the phase was calculated according to each component.The synthetic standard uncertainty and the relative expanded uncertainty were discussed, and so were the influence of the uncertainty components on the measurement results. Results According to the contribution of uncertainty from large to small was the sample standard concentration, standard curve, repeatability determination, sample weighing and sample dilution.The calculated relative composite standard uncertainty was 0.0405, and the relative expanded uncertainty was 0.081 (k=2). Conclusion The experimental results show that the concentration of standard substance has a great influence on the measurement process, so it is necessary to standardize the dilution process and simplify the dilution procedure to improve the accuracy of measurement results.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828998

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the rate of erythrocyte iron incorporation and provided guidance for the iron nutrition for prepubertal children.@*Methods@#Fifty-seven prepubertal children of Beijing were involved in this study and each subject was orally administered 3 mg of Fe twice daily to obtain a total of 30 mg Fe after a 5-d period. The stable isotope ratios in RBCs were determined in 14th day, 28th day, 60th day, and 90th day. The erythrocyte incorporation rate in children was calculated using the stable isotope ratios, blood volume and body iron mass.@*Results@#The percentage of erythrocyte Fe incorporation increased starting 14 th day, reached a peak at 60 d (boys: 19.67% ± 0.56%, girls: 21.33% ± 0.59%) and then decreased. The erythrocyte incorporation rates of Fe obtained for girls in 60th day was significantly higher than those obtained for boys ( < 0.0001).@*Conclusions@#The oral administration of Fe to children can be used to obtain erythrocyte iron incorporation within 90 d. Prepubertal girls should begin to increase the intake of iron and further studies should pay more attention to the iron status in prepubertal children.


Subject(s)
Beijing , Child , Erythrocytes , Metabolism , Female , Humans , Iron , Metabolism , Iron Isotopes , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Methods
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846674

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 16 inorganic elements of Mume Fructus, and the elements were analyzed and evaluated. Methods: ICP-MS was used to determine the content of 16 inorganic elements in the samples after microwave digestion. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were performed using SPSS21.0. Results: There were no differences in the types of inorganic elements in the samples of Mume Fructus, and the content of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B was abundant in the 16 elements. Through principal component analysis, 27 batches of samples from the same origin were all clustered together, indicating that the difference of inorganic element content was related to the ecological environment of the origin, but the difference between varieties was not obvious. The characteristic elements of Mume Fructus were Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and the results showed that the scores of samples from Sichuan was the highest. Conclusion: This study established an accurate and efficient method for the analysis and evaluation of inorganic elements in Mume Fructus from different habitats, which provided a scientific reference for the breeding, safety evaluation, and comprehensive utilization of Mume Fructus resource.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846156

ABSTRACT

Objective: The content of 16 kinds of organochlorine pesticides including As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum from different places were determined. Methods: The content of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu in T. hemsleyanum from different places were determined by ICP-MS, and organochlorine pesticides were determined by GC. Results: The contents of heavy metals in T. hemsleyanum were Pb≤4.167 7 mg/kg, Cd≤0.194 6 mg/kg, As≤0.455 0 mg/kg, Hg≤0.042 4 mg/kg, Cu≤7.892 5 mg/kg. Organochlorine preticides were lower in T. hemsleyanum. Conclusion: The method is simple, efficient and accurate, which can be used for the safety evaluation of T. hemsleyanum.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817800

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a method for determining the content of Gd3+ in gadoteric acid meglumine salt injection. Methods ICP-MS was used. The separation column was a metal chelate column (1-ml Chelating Sepharose column), column temperature was normal temperature. Flow rate was 1 ml/min. Injection volume was 500 μl. Atoms were measured by ICP-MS with a molecular weight of 157 (The molecular weight of Gd was 157). The carrier gas was argon. Results The linear range of Gd3+ mass concentration was 0-500 ng/ml (r=1.000); The precision, stability and repeatability of the sample recovery test were all in accordance with the requirements. Conclusion The method was simple in operation, accurate in results and good in repeatability, which could be used to determine the content of Gd3+ in gadoteric acid meglumine salt injection.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773187

ABSTRACT

The element speciation analysis for heavy metals in herbal medicines is still in the beginning stage. In this study,the total amount of arsenic( As) in 103 batches of 17 commonly used Chinese medicines( including 16 plant medicines and 1 medicinal fungus) was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Furthermore,based on HPLC-ICP-MS,the simultaneous detection methods of six As speciation kinds in traditional Chinese medicines were established. An AS7 anion exchange column was selected and the As forms in 17 traditional Chinese medicines was systematically analyzed. The results showed that the method of pretreatment of medicinal materials by microwave digestion and the detection of total amount of As by ICP-MS was stable and reliable. As for the speciation analysis of As,the high-speed ultrasonic extraction method was adopted,and it showed that the linear relationship of the six As speciation was satisfied with the correlation coefficient R2>0. 999 9. The LOQ of six kinds of As speciation were 0. 20,0. 10,0. 15,0. 10,0. 25,0. 10 μg·L~(-1) for arsenic betaine( As B),arsenious acid [As( Ⅲ) ],dimethyl arsenic( DMA),arsenic choline( As C),monomethyl arsenic( MMA),arsenic acid[As( Ⅴ) ],respectively. The recoveries were between 84. 24% and 121. 5%,and the relative standard deviations were 2. 7% to 11%. Among the 103 batches of medicinal materials,only one batch of sample As exceeded the Chinese Pharmacopoeia limit standard; As( Ⅲ) and As( Ⅴ) had high detection rate in 103 batches of Chinese herbal medicines,within which As( Ⅴ) was the main detected form,and inorganic As accounted for the ratio reached 80. 90%-98. 73%; some samples detected DMA,MMA and As B,As C was not detected in any batch. This study established an analytical method suitable for the speciation of As in Chinese herbal medicines,and provided basic data for As residual residue in Chinese herbal medicines,which can provide important reference for the risk assessment and quality standards.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Mass Spectrometry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773185

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Risk Assessment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771514

ABSTRACT

To achieve a comprehensive understanding of heavy metals and harmful elements residues in Niuhuang Qingwei Pills,49 samples from 18 manufactures were collected from 31 provinces in China.Risk assessment and control preparations were applied innovatively in evaluation of exogenous pollution in traditional Chinese Medicine.Determination methods for Pb,Cd,As,Hg and Cu were established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).Based on the procedures including hazard identification,hazard characterization,exposure assessment and risk characterization,risk assessment was performed and residual limits for Pb,Cd,As,Hg and Cu in the drug were formulated.The results showed that the hazardous quotients(HQ) of the elements were decreased in the following order:Pb>As>Cu>Hg>Cd,and the total hazardous index(HI) of heavy metals and harmful elements in Niuhuang Qingwei Pills was above 1,implying health risk of the drug.Under the proposed limits,5 elements in the control preparation as well as Cd and Cu in the samples were within the limits range,but the excess rates of Pb,As and Hg in the samples were 12%,12% and 14%,respectively.For the first time,basic steps for risk assessment of Chinese patent medicine were established,which provided model and reference for risk assessment and limit formulation of other drugs.


Subject(s)
China , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782412

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#Introduction: Eating seafood has become a major health concern for many people due to the present of heavy metal especially cadmium (Cd). Cd can accumulate in the body and disrupt the normal cellular processes which will eventually lead to organ damage. This study aims to determine the seafood consumption pattern and blood cadmium (BCd) as well as the association between these two variables among respondents living along the coastal area of Melaka. Methods: Pretested questionnaires were used to collect background and food frequency intake from coastal villagers through convenient sampling method. Venous blood samples were analysed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for BCd determination. Results: A total of 63 respondents who 54% were female with median age of 34 years old provided complete data in this study. The most frequently consumed seafood and its product were shrimp paste (31.5%) followed by mackerel (13.6%), hardtail-scad (6.2%), flatfish (4.5%) and fish ball (4.0). All blood samples showed the present of Cd with median (IQR) = 0.076 (0.1) μg/L and ranged between 0.007 to 1.284 μg/L. The finding showed no association between frequently consumed seafood and low BCd of the respondents. On the other hand, gender was found to be significantly associated with the BCd. Conclusion: Seafood consumption pattern was not significantly associated with BCd which suggests that frequent seafood consumption may not contribute much to BCd level among the respondents as well as it may indicates safe consumption of these seafood available in the study location.

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