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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11932, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364562

ABSTRACT

Recent findings have confirmed relationships between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and multiple organ dysfunction. The prevalence of cardiac and renal involvement in COVID-19 has been increasingly reported and is a marker of severe disease that not only directly or indirectly affects the organs, but may also exacerbate the underlying comorbid illness. In addition, patients affected by the new coronavirus present a systemic inflammatory condition that results in damage to several tissues, especially the heart, kidneys, and vessels. It is well known that the heart and kidneys are closely related, so that any change in one of the organs can lead to damage to the other, establishing the so-called cardiorenal syndrome. Herein, we explore some case reports of patients with COVID-19 who had heart and kidney abnormalities, consequently resulting in worse prognosis of the disease. These results highlight the importance of understanding the cause and effect between the cardiac and renal systems and the course of early SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364587

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of immature CD1a+ and mature CD83+ dendritic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, to compare immunoreactivity between smokers and nonsmokers, and to correlate the results with histopathological grading. In this observational study, twenty-eight paraffin-embedded biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively retrieved and submitted to immunohistochemistry for immature CD1a+ and mature CD83+. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. The sample consisted of 18 man (64.3%) and 10 women (35.7%), with a mean age of 64.6 years in the nonsmoker group and 53.2 years in the smoker group. The tongue (11 cases, 39.2%) was the most commonly affected anatomical site, followed by gingiva (6 cases, 21.4%). Histopathological grading revealed 7 low-grade and 7 high-grade malignancy cases in each group, and no correlation with the number of positive DCs. The number of immature CD1a+ was not significantly different between smoker and nonsmoker groups, while a lower number of mature CD83+ was detected in the smoker group (p = 0.001). Smoking changes the oral immune system and decreases the ability to activate and mature dendritic cells, which may influence the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

3.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e503, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365454

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los interferones (IFNs) son citoquinas fundamentales en la modulación de la inmunidad innata y adaptativa del hospedero, el papel de los IFNs tipo I en el control de la infección por el Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) es crucial para una eficiente respuesta antiviral del huésped. Esta revisión profundiza sobre las funciones de los IFNs tipo I en la infección causada por el VPH y los mecanismos de evasión de este virus para inactivar los IFNs tipo I, todos estos mecanismos necesarios para el desarrollo y progresión de lesiones malignas en los tejidos infectados por el VPH.


Abstract The interferons (IFNs) are very important cytokines in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity of the host, the role type I IFNs in the control of HPV is pivotal for an efficient immune response, so a wide knowledge about this topic will contribute understanding HPV pathogenicity mechanism. This review focuses on the HPV evasion mechanisms for the type I IFNs which are necessary for a malignant lesion development, otherwise develops knowledge about the type I IFNs functions on the HPV infection.

4.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 5-8, out.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359194

ABSTRACT

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease marked by fluctuating course of muscle weakness. Objectives: The current study was designed to evaluate plasma levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ, and IL-17A) in patients with MG and controls and to investigate whether cytokines levels are associated with clinical parameters. This study was conducted at the Neuromuscular Diseases Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. Methods: Peripheral blood was drawn, and plasma levels of cytokines were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) in 80 treated patients with MG and 50 controls. The MG Composite (MGC) was used to evaluate muscle weakness and severity of typical motor symptoms of MG. Results: Patients with MG undergoing treatment exhibit lower levels of all evaluated cytokines compared to controls. There was a negative correlation between IL-6 levels and the MG Composite score, indicating that higher levels of IL-6 were associated with better control of the disease. Conclusion: This exploratory study suggests that IL-6 is associated with MG clinical status, as assessed by the MGC.


Introdução: A Miastenia Gravis (MG) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada por fraqueza muscular flutuante. Objetivos: avaliar os níveis plasmáticos de citocinas (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ, e IL-17A) em pacientes com MG e controles e investigar se essas citocinas estão associadas com parâmetros clínicos. Este estudo foi conduzido no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brasil. Métodos: Foi coletado sangue periféricos e os níveis plasmáticos das citocinas foram medidos por citometria em 80 pacientes com MG tratados e em 50 controles. O MG composite (MGC) foi utilizado para avaliar a fraqueza muscular e a gravidade dos sintomas motores típicos da MG. Resultados: Os pacientes com MG em tratamento apresentaram menores níveis de todas as citocinas avaliadas comparados ao controle. Houve uma correlação negativa entre os níveis de IL-6 e o MGC, indicando que altos níveis de IL-6 estão associados com melhor controle da doença. Conclusão: este estudo exploratório sugere que a IL-6 está associada com o status clínico da MG, quando avaliado pelo MGC.

5.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 113-122, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358147

ABSTRACT

Se presenta conceptos de la inmunocompetencia y su relación con la nutrición en niños, que describen aspectos fisiológicos integrales. También se describen los aspectos inmunológicos, que permiten interpretar los mecanismos de la respuesta inmune, destacándose conceptos y criterios fisiológicos. Un niño malnutrido presenta alteraciones inmunológicas, y las mismas se las puede identificar como deficiencias a predominio celular, y a predominio humoral. Se destaca la importancia del eje Neuroinmunoendocrinológico como integrador de respuestas fisiológicas. El propósito del presente trabajo, esta dirigido a identificar las herramientas que permiten el estudio del sistema inmune en nuestro contexto, haciendo especial hincapié en la ecografía del timo, por ser una herramienta útil para evaluar al sistema inmune en niños con estado nutricional alterado en forma leve o moderada.


Concepts of immunocompetence and its relationship with nutrition in children are presented, describing comprehensive physiological aspects. Immunological aspects are also described, which allow to interpret the mechanisms of the immune response, highlighting physiological concepts and criteria. A malnourished child presents immunological alterations, and these can be identified as deficiencies with a cellular predominance, and with a humoral predominance. The importance of the Neuro-immunoendocrinological axis as an integrator of physiological responses is highlighted. The purpose of this work is aimed at identifying the tools that allow the study of the immune system in our context, with special emphasis on ultrasound of the thymus, as it is a useful tool to evaluate the immune system in children with altered nutritional status, mild or moderate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thymus Gland , Nutritional Status , Growth and Development , Nutritional Sciences , Physiological Phenomena , Immune System , Immunocompetence
6.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346550

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una infección del tracto respiratorio causada por el SARS-CoV-2, que aparece en pacientes con elevado factores de riesgo como el síndrome metabólico. Objetivo: Actualizar los conocimientos sobre la evolución y el pronóstico de pacientes con síndrome metabólico infectados por el nuevo coronavirus. Desarrollo: Las fuentes secundarias y terciarias consultadas explican la relación directa entre los factores de riesgo del síndrome metabólico y las formas graves de la COVID-19, de manera que la evolución clínica y el pronóstico de estos pacientes es muy desfavorable, a pesar de que los protocolos terapéuticos de actuación hoy día se consideran complejos y contextualizados. Conclusiones: La desfavorable evolución clínica de los pacientes con síndrome metabólico infectados por la COVID-19 enmascara su pronóstico, por lo que las estrategias terapéuticas actuales para la atención a estos enfermos no han podido detener el curso progresivo de la enfermedad infecciosa identificada en la comorbilidad metabólica, lo que dificulta la prevención de complicaciones.


Introduction: The COVID-19 is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by the SARS-CoV-2 that appears in patients with high risk factors as the metabolic syndrome. Objective: To update the knowledge on the clinical course and prognosis of patients with metabolic syndrome infected by the new coronavirus. Development: The secondary and tetiary sources consulted explain the direct relationship between the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and the serious forms of the COVID-19, so that the clinical course and prognosis of these patients is very unfavorable, although the performance therapeutic protocols nowadays are considered complex and contextualized. Conclusions: The unfavorable clinical course of the patients with metabolic syndrome infected by the COVID-19 hides its prognosis, reason why the current therapeutic strategies for the care to these sick persons have not been able to stop the progressive course of the infectious disease identified in the metabolic comorbidity, that makes difficult the prevention of complications.


Subject(s)
Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Clinical Evolution , Immune System
7.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(2): e222, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289363

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El linfedema es una enfermedad crónica con un impacto negativo sobre la salud de las personas que lo padecen. Este se considera un problema de salud subestimado y subregistrado, por lo que requiere de mayores esfuerzos investigativos y sanitarios. Objetivo: Identificar las características de algunos parámetros de la inmunidad humoral y celular en pacientes con linfedema del municipio El Cerro. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 48 pacientes residentes en el municipio Cerro, atendidos en consulta externa del Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular en el período 2011-2015. El grupo se dividió en 24 pacientes con linfedema y 24 sin la enfermedad. A todos se les cuantificaron las concentraciones de las inmunoglobulinas (A, G y M) y de la proteína C reactiva. También se les hizo la prueba de hipersensibilidad retardada. Se utilizó chi cuadrado no paramétrico para asociar el estado inmunológico con la presencia de linfedema, la etiología y los estadios de este. Se trabajó con una confiabilidad del 95 por ciento (p < 0,05). Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes del sexo femenino (58,3 por ciento) y los de 60 años y más (29,2 por ciento). Hubo mayor frecuencia de linfangitis recurrentes (70,8 por ciento), con predominio del linfedema secundario en estadio IIb (45,8 por ciento); de afectación del miembro inferior derecho (45,8 por ciento), con una diferencia significativa de las inmunoglobulinas (IgA e IgG); y de frecuencia de pacientes anérgicos (91,7 por ciento), con proteína C reactiva positiva (45,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con linfedema tienen afectados su sistema inmune, con mayor frecuencia de anérgicos, diminución de las inmunoglobulinas IgA e IgG, y positividad de proteína C reactiva(AU)


Introduction: Lymphedema is a chronic disease with a negative impact on the health of patients with lymphedema. It is considered an underestimated and sub-recorded health problem, which requires greater research and health efforts. Objective: Identify the characteristics of some parameters of humoral and cellular immunity in patients with lymphedema from Cerro municipality. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in 48 patients living in Cerro municipality, who were attended in the external consultation of the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery in the period 2011-2015. The group was divided into 24 patients with lymphedema and 24 patients without the disease. The concentrations of immunoglobulins (A, G and M) and C-reactive protein were quantified in all of them. The test of delayed hypersensitivity was also perfomed. Non-parametric chi-square was used to associate immune state with the presence of lymphedema, etiology and lymphedema stages. Reliability was of 95 percent (p<0.05). Results: Female patients predominated (58.3 percent) and those of 60 years and older (29.2 percent). There was a higher frequency of recurrent lymphangitis (70.8 percent), predominantly stage II b secondary lymphedema (45.8 percent); lower right limb involvement (45.8 percent), with a significant difference of immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG); and frequency of anergic patients (91.7 percent), with positive C-reactive protein (45.8 percent). Conclusions: Patients with lymphedema have their immune system affected, more frequently the anergic ones, a decrease of IgA and IgG immunoglobulins, and positivity of C-reactive protein(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Immunoglobulin A/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immune System , Lymphedema/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
8.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 185-190, Apr.-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Multiple myeloma is a progressive and incurable hematological disease characterized by disordered and clonal multiplication of plasmacytes in the bone marrow. The main clinical manifestations are caused by the presence of neoplastic cells in bone tissue, as well as the excessive production of immunoglobulins and normal humoral immunity suppression. Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody that has promising results in managing the multiple myeloma disease. Objective This study aimed to investigate the scientific evidence concerning the impact of the cytomegalovirus infections in the daratumumab treatment course in extensively pretreated multiple myeloma patients. Method To this end, an integrative literature review was performed in different databases, comprising a 5-year period. Results The studies analysis revealed that the cytomegalovirus infection reactivation can occur during the use of daratumumab in multiple myeloma patients previously treated, which led to treatment discontinuation, compromised the drug efficacy and favored the disease progression. Moreover, it was observed that even with prophylactic antiviral therapy there was an infection reactivation in some cases, as well as deaths, in more severe situations. Conclusion Thus, even considering that few reports on such a topic are available in the scientific literature, the present review showed that cytomegalovirus reactivation can impair daratumumab therapy, mainly in multiple myeloma patients heavily pretreated. In addition, this study could contribute as a tool for the clinical decision and management of adverse effects in medical practices, demonstrating the importance of patient monitoring for the possibility of cytomegalovirus reactivation in heavily pretreated myeloma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Virus Diseases , Review , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immune System , Immunotherapy
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 202-207, Junio 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222985

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una serie de casos de inmunodeficiencias primarias y se describen las variables asociadas a supervivencia en pacientes ≤ 16 años. Los diagnósticos fueron acordes a los criterios de la Unión Internacional de las Sociedades de Inmunología. Se realizó un análisis de supervivencia mediante curvas de Kaplan-Meier.Entre los años 2004 y 2019, se diagnosticaron 40 pacientes con inmunodeficiencias primarias. Las más frecuentes fueron inmunodeficiencias que afectaban la inmunidad celular y humoral, el 32,5 %, y deficiencias predominantemente de anticuerpos, el 32,5 %. La mediana de edad al inicio de los síntomas y al momento del diagnóstico fue de 3,01 y 10,4 meses, respectivamente. Fallecieron el 35 % y el riesgo fue mayor en pacientes con inmunodeficiencias que afectaban la inmunidad celular y humoral y en quienes presentaron manifestaciones clínicas y tuvieron el diagnóstico en los primeros seis meses de vida.


A case series of primary immunodeficiencies is presented and outcome measures associated with survival among patients ≤ 16 years old are described. Diagnoses were made based on the criteria by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves.Between 2004 and 2019, 40 patients were diagnosed with primary immunodeficiencies. The most common were immunodeficiencies affecting humoral and cell-mediated immunity (32.5 %) and predominantly antibody deficiencies (32.5 %). The median age at the onset of symptoms and at the time of diagnosis was 3.01 and 10.4 months, respectively. Thirty-five percent of patients died, and the risk was higher among those with immunodeficiencies affecting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and those who developed clinical manifestations and were diagnosed in the first 6 months of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/therapy , Hospitals, Public , Immune System , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/diagnosis , Infections/epidemiology , Mexico
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(supl.1): 59-66, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To describe the ontogeny of the immune system and the adaptive mechanisms of the immune system in the neonatal period, with an emphasis on transplacental antibody transport and breastfeeding. Source of data: Non-systematic literature review in the PubMed database. Summary of the findings: The last two decades have witnessed a great advance in the knowledge of the immune system since conception. Several investigation tools have provided insight on phenomena that were previously inadequately understood. Still expanding, the functional and molecular investigation of various aspects of the immune system will make it possible to understand how intra-uterus maternal-fetal exchanges, the maternal microbiota interacting with the fetus and newborn, and the acquisition of immunological competence occur in healthy and disease scenarios. Conclusions: In-depth knowledge of the development of the immune system and of the adaptive mechanisms that allow a safer transition to the extrauterine environment are fundamental components of optimizing maternal and young infant vaccination, as well as the strategies associated with full postnatal development, and the early diagnosis and treatment of innate errors of immunity.

11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.


Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Acute Toxicity , Immune System
12.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1310, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los síndromes mielodisplásicos constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de desórdenes hematológicos clonales adquiridos, que afectan la célula madre. Se caracterizan morfológicamente por: hematopoyesis ineficaz, citopenias periféricas progresivas, displasia en uno o más linajes celulares y tendencia evolutiva a leucemia aguda. Los avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos genéticos y moleculares de los síndromes mielodisplásicos, han revelado la asociación entre alteraciones inmunológicas y las mutaciones recurrentes. Las células de la respuesta inmune innata y adaptativa, así como diversos mediadores solubles liberados por ellas, pueden establecer una respuesta antitumoral protectora o, por el contrario, inducir eventos de inflamación crónica que favorezcan la promoción y progresión de esta enfermedad. Objetivos: Resumir los conocimientos actuales de la relación sistema inmune-síndromes mielodisplásicos, enfatizando en las células inmunes del microambiente de la médula ósea y su importancia en la clínica de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó investigación bibliográfica-documental acerca del tema. Se consultaron las bases de datos Scielo y Pubmed. Conclusiones: La comprensión de la función dual que ejerce el sistema inmune en los síndromes mielodisplásicos, constituye un desafío y son necesarios estudios clínicos rigurosos para poder establecer el valor de la manipulación del sistema inmune como una forma posible de tratamiento de esta enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) constitute a heterogeneous group of acquired clonal hematological disorders that affect the stem cell. These are characterized morphologically and clinically by: ineffective hematopoiesis, progressive peripheral cytopenia, dysplasia in one or more cell lineages, in most of cases and evolutionary tendency to acute leukemia. Recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of MDS have revealed the association between immunological alterations and recurrent mutations. Cells of the innate and adaptive immune response, as well as various soluble mediators released by them, can establish a protective antitumor response or, on the contrary, induce events of chronic inflammation that favor the promotion and progression of this disease. Objective: To summarize the current knowledge of the immune system-MDS relationship, emphasizing the immune cells of the bone marrow microenvironment and their importance in the clinic of the disease. Methods: A bibliographic-documentary research was carried out on the subject. The Scielo and Pubmed databases were consulted. Conclusions: Understanding the dual role of the immune system in MDS constitutes a challenge and rigorous clinical studies are necessary to establish the value of manipulating the immune system as a possible form of treatment of this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Leukemia , Adaptive Immunity , Hematopoiesis/genetics , Immune System/physiopathology , Inflammation/diagnosis
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 87-92, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b is a multisystemic disease in which immune and infectious complications are present, in addition to the well-known metabolic manifestations of GSD. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is often indicated in the management of neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE To report on the demographics, genotype, clinical presentation, management, and complications of pediatric patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD 1b), with special attention to immune-related complications. METHODS Retrospective case series of seven patients with GSD 1b diagnosed and followed at a tertiary university hospital in Brazil, from July/2000 until July/2016. RESULTS Mean age at referral was fourteen months. Diagnosis of GSD 1b was based on clinical and laboratory findings and supported by genetic studies in five cases. All patients presented suffered from neutropenia, managed with G-CSF - specifically Filgrastim. Hospitalizations for infections were frequent. Two patients developed inflammatory bowel disease. Six patients remained alive, one died at age 14 years and 9 months. The mean age at the end of the follow-up was 11.5 years. Compliance to treatment was suboptimal: poor compliance to medications, starch and dietetic management of GSD were documented, and outpatient appointments were frequently missed. CONCLUSION Managing GSD 1b is challenging not only for the chronic and multisystemic nature of this disease, but also for the additional demands related dietary restrictions, use of multiple medications and the need for frequent follow-up visits; furthermore in Brazil, the difficulties are increased in a scenario where we frequently care for patients with unfavorable socioeconomic status and with irregular supply of medications in the public health system.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Glicogenose (GSD) tipo 1b é uma doença multissistêmica em que complicações imunológicas e infecciosas estão presentes, além das manifestações metabólicas bem conhecidas da GSD. O tratamento com fator estimulador de colônias de granulócitos (G-CSF) é frequentemente indicado no tratamento da neutropenia e doença inflamatória intestinal. OBJETIVO Relatar sobre a dados demográficos, genótipo, apresentação clínica, manejo e complicações de pacientes pediátricos com GSD tipo 1b (GSD 1b), com atenção especial às complicações relacionadas ao sistema imunológico. MÉTODOS Série de casos retrospectiva de sete pacientes com GSD 1b diagnosticados e acompanhados em um hospital universitário terciário no Brasil, de julho/2000 a julho/2016. RESULTADOS A idade média no encaminhamento foi de 14 meses. O diagnóstico de GSD 1b foi baseado em achados clínicos e laboratoriais e apoiado por estudos genéticos em cinco casos. Todos os pacientes apresentaram neutropenia, tratada com G-CSF - especificamente Filgrastim. As hospitalizações por infecções foram frequentes. Dois pacientes desenvolveram doença inflamatória intestinal. Seis pacientes permanecem vivos, um morreu aos 14 anos e 9 meses de idade. A média de idade ao final do acompanhamento foi de 11,5 anos. A adesão ao tratamento foi sub-ótima: má adesão aos medicamentos, amido e manejo dietético de GSD foram documentados, e consultas ambulatoriais foram frequentemente perdidas. CONCLUSÃO O manejo da GSD 1b é um desafio, não apenas pela natureza crônica e multissistêmica desta doença, mas também pelas demandas adicionais relacionadas a restrições dietéticas, uso de múltiplos medicamentos e a necessidade de consultas de acompanhamento frequentes; no Brasil, isso ainda é dificultado em um cenário em que frequentemente atendemos pacientes com situação socioeconômica desfavorável e com oferta irregular de medicamentos no sistema público de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/complications , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/therapy , Neutropenia , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 102-107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287864

ABSTRACT

Physical exercise training (PET) has been considered an excellent non-pharmacological strategy to prevent and treat several diseases. There are various benefits offered by PET, especially on the immune system, promoting changes in the morphology and function of cells, inducing changes in the expression pattern of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, these changes depend on the type, volume and intensity of PET and whether it is being evaluated acutely or chronically. In this context, PET can be a tool to improve the immune system and fight various infections. However, the current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, which produces cytokine storm, inducing inflammation in several organs, with high infection rates in both sedentary and physically active individuals, the role of PET on immune cells has not yet been elucidated. Thus, this review focused on the role of PET on immune system cells and the possible effects of PET-induced adaptive responses on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19.

15.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 259-261, 20210000. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348032

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to report a case of Buschke-Löwenstein tumor (BLT), which is a mass of genital warts that usually affects immunosuppressed people. The reported case was diagnosed in a young patient with no known immunosuppression. Several tests were performed to confirm the diagnostic hypothesis, including immunohistochemistry, histological, molecular and imaging analysis. The results obtained were confirmatory in all analyses, except in the molecular one. Because BLT is a rare condition, there is still great literary heterogeneity regarding the ideal treatment, but some options can be considered, such as excision and radiotherapy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3446, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289770

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. Method: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). Results: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. Conclusion: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Objective: analisar as evidências científicas existentes na literatura sobre a relação da via de nascimento com a microbiota adquirida pelo recém-nascido. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa sobre a influência da via de nascimento na colonização microbiótica no recém-nascido. Foi realizada uma busca na literatura por meio das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/ PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, tendo como estratégia de busca a seleção de artigos baseados nos descritores desenvolvidos com Medical Subject Headings (termos MeSH) ou Descritores em Ciência da Saúde (DeCS). Resultados: os recém-nascidos por via vaginal apresentam nos primeiros dias de vida maior concentração de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias e Lactobacillus e, com o passar das semanas, mostram maior variabilidade microbiótica. Os recém-nascidos por cesárea apresentam microbioma semelhante ao da pele materna e do ambiente hospitalar e possuem menor diversidade, sendo, principalmente, constituído de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus e Clostridium. Conclusão: a microbiota vaginal materna dispõe de uma maior variedade de microrganismos colonizadores, os quais são responsáveis por auxiliar na capacitação e melhor adequação ao sistema imunológico do recém-nato. Evidencia-se que o parto vaginal é a via ideal, ou seja, a cesariana deve ser realizada apenas quando existem indicações reais.


Objetivo: analizar las evidencias científicas existentes en la literatura sobre la relación de la vía de nacimiento con la microbiota adquirida por el recién nacido. Método: se trata de una revisión integradora sobre la influencia de la vía de nacimiento en la colonización de la microbiota en el recién nacido. Fue realizada una búsqueda en la literatura en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, teniendo como estrategia de búsqueda la selección de artículos basados en los descriptores desarrollados en el Medical Subject Headings (términos MeSH) o Descriptores en Ciencia de la Salud (DeCS). Resultados: los recién nacidos por vía vaginal presentan, en los primeros días de vida, mayor concentración de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias y Lactobacillus; y, con el pasar de las semanas muestran mayor variabilidad de la microbiota. Los recién nacidos por cesárea presentan microbioma semejante a la piel materna y al ambiente hospitalario, poseyendo menor diversidad y siendo principalmente constituida de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus y Clostridium. Conclusión: la microbiota vaginal materna proporciona al neonato una mayor variedad de microorganismos colonizadores que son responsables por auxiliar en la capacitación y mejor adecuación de su sistema inmunológico. Se evidencia que el parto vaginal es la vía ideal y que la cesárea debe ser realizada apenas cuando existen indicaciones reales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteroides , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Parturition , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912423

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is an umbrella term for a group of rare autoimmune retinal degenerative disease presumably caused by cross-reactivity of serum autoantibodies directed against ratinal antigens, and include cancer-associated retinopathy, melanoma-associated retinopathy and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. Common feature of AIR include progressively painless vision loss with abnormal electrophysiology responses associated with positive anti-retinal antibodies. They present a clinical diagnosis challenge on account of the rare incidence, unobvious clinical symptoms and lack of specific and sensitive biological markers. Early diagnosis and treatment may play a critical role to avoid the irreversible immunological retinal damage.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910896

ABSTRACT

Every year more than 10 million people newly infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) worldwide, which seriously threats human health and life. The anti-MTB infection drugs are constantly developed and updated. Vitamin D3 is a drug which can regulate the immune system, its effect on MTB infection has attracted more and more attention. This article reviews the clinical efficacy of vitamin D3 in adjuvant therapy for MTB infection, and its mechanism in regulating the innate and adaptive immune system, to provide insight for treatment of MTB infection.

19.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 577-580, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907218

ABSTRACT

The tumors originate from transformation cells caused by gene mutations. These cells are frequently kept at dormant state or detected and cleared by the immune surveillance. The research data show that the hallmarks of tumors and aging share many similarities, which is the biological basis for tumors as aging-related diseases. With the increase of tumor initiation cells and the decline of immune function in the elderly, the morbidity and mortality of tumors steadily increase. The core mechanisms are inflammaging and immunosenescence in the elderly. This article reviews recent advances in the field of tumorigenesis, inflammaging and immunosenescence, which elucidates the hypothesis and possible mechanism that tumors are aging-related diseases.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906343

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the material basis and mechanism of Sangjiang Ganmao injection (SG) in the treatment of common cold by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) and network pharmacology. Method:UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS was used to identify the chemical components of SG with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 4%-15%A; 10-35 min, 15%-30%A; 35-45 min, 30%-33%A; 45-55 min, 33%-60%A; 55-58 min, 60%A), flow rate of 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, electrospray ionization (ESI) and scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500 under positive and negative ion modes. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and GeneCards 5.0 database were used to screen and predict the potential targets of chemical components in SG, STRING 11.0 database and Cytoscape 3.7.2 software were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) network model, gene ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were performed on potential targets by Metascape 3.5, Reactome database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to build the network of "herbs-ingredients-key targets". Result:A total of 54 components in SG were identified, and 80 potential targets of SG for treatment of common cold were predicted and screened based on this. SG exerted therapeutic effects by acting on targets such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-10, and signaling pathways such as IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway and interaction of cytokine receptors. Conclusion:SG may interfere with the expression of inflammatory cytokines by acting on related targets and pathways such as inflammation and immune system, and regulate the immune function of the body as a whole, thereby exerting a therapeutic effect.

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