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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634

ABSTRACT

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Diet
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(3): 177-179, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365714

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: A suitable combination of physical exercise and nutrition can effectively improve the body's immunity and function. It has a positive effect and value on the healthy development of the body. Objective: To compare the immune function of athletes and non-athletes. We study the immune effect of spleen gland peptides on athletes. Methods: This study used different exercise methods, intensities, durations, and evaluated the effect of spleen peptide on the immune function of the body. Results: Physical exercise can improve human immunity. The spleen peptide directly exerts a positive two-way regulation effect on the immune function of athletes after intense and stressful exercise. Conclusion: The oral administration of spleen aminopeptidase enhances the athlete's body fluid and cellular immune function and effectively reduces the infection rate of the athlete's respiratory tract. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Uma associação adequada de atividade física e nutrição pode trazer melhorias efetivas à imunidade e à função corporais, com efeito positivo e custo-benefício no desenvolvimento saudável do corpo. Objetivo: Comparar a função imune de atletas e não-atletas. Estudamos o efeito imune de peptídeos do baço em atletas. Métodos: Este estudo utilizou atividade física em diferentes métodos, intensidades e duração, avaliando o efeito dos peptídeos do baço na função imune do corpo. Resultados: Exercícios físicos podem melhorar a imunidade humana. O peptídeo do baço tem um efeito regulador bidirecional no sistema imune de atletas depois de exercícios intensos ou com muita tensão. Conclusão: A administração oral de aminopeptidase esplênica aumenta os fluídos corporais e a função imune celular no corpo do atleta, efetivamente reduzindo os níveis de infecção de seu trato respiratório. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação de resultados de tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Una asociación adecuada de actividad física y nutrición puede ocasionar mejorías efectivas a la inmunidad y a la función corporales, con efecto positivo y costo-beneficio en el desarrollo saludable del cuerpo. Objetivo: Comparar la función inmunitaria de atletas y no atletas. Estudiamos el efecto inmunológico de los péptidos del bazo en atletas. Métodos: Este estudio utilizó actividad física en diferentes métodos, intensidades y duración, evaluando el efecto de los péptidos del bazo en la función inmune del cuerpo. Resultados: Ejercicios físicos pueden mejorar la inmunidad humana. El péptido del bazo tiene un efecto regulador bidireccional en el sistema inmunitario de atletas después de ejercicios intensos o de alto estrés. Conclusión: La administración oral de aminopeptidasa esplénica aumenta los fluidos corporales y la función inmunitaria celular en el cuerpo del atleta, reduciendo eficazmente los niveles de infección de sus vías respiratorias. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de resultados de tratamiento.

4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 99-102, Mar-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: After long-term research, it was found that athletes are susceptible to suffering from upper respiratory tract infections and digestive system diseases when subjected to high-intensity exercise for long periods. Objective: To verify whether consuming probiotic supplements after exercise can significantly improve the function of the immune system and play a positive role in the health of athletes. Method: This is a quantitative study with distribution analysis to verify whether probiotic supplements could improve immune response after exercise. Results: After using probiotic supplements, by recording the individual differences in the distribution characteristics of athletes› gastrointestinal flora, we found that the changes of subjects› sports performance, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and gastrointestinal flora after six weeks of special training were different. Conclusion: Long-term oral probiotics for athletes can effectively reduce inflammation in the body, reduce damage to the body during exercise, and effectively improve the gastrointestinal tract›s immune function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Após pesquisas de longo prazo, descobriu-se que os atletas são suscetíveis a infecções do trato respiratório superior e doenças do sistema digestivo quando submetidos a exercícios de alta intensidade por longos períodos de tempo. Objetivo: Verificar se a suplementação probiótica pós-exercício pode melhorar significativamente o funcionamento do sistema imunológico e desempenhar um papel positivo na saúde dos atletas. Métodos: Este foi um estudo quantitativo com análise distributiva para verificar se os suplementos probióticos poderiam melhorar a resposta imunológica após o exercício. Resultados: Após o uso de suplementos probióticos, ao registrar diferenças individuais nas características de distribuição da flora gastrointestinal dos atletas, descobrimos que as mudanças no desempenho esportivo dos sujeitos, leucócitos, neutrófilos, linfócitos e flora gastrointestinal após seis semanas de treinamento especial foram diferentes. Conclusão: Probióticos orais de longo prazo para atletas podem efetivamente reduzir a inflamação no corpo, reduzir os danos corporais durante o exercício e efetivamente melhorar a função imunológica do trato gastrointestinal. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Tras una investigación a largo plazo, se descubrió que los atletas son susceptibles de sufrir infecciones del tracto respiratorio superior y enfermedades del sistema digestivo cuando se someten a ejercicios de alta intensidad durante largos períodos. Objetivo: Verificar si el consumo de suplementos probióticos después del ejercicio puede mejorar significativamente la función del sistema inmunológico y desempeñar un papel positivo en la salud de los atletas. Método: Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo con análisis de distribución para verificar si los suplementos probióticos podrían mejorar la respuesta inmunitaria después del ejercicio. Resultados: Después de usar suplementos probióticos, al registrar las diferencias individuales en las características de distribución de la flora gastrointestinal de los atletas, encontramos que los cambios del rendimiento deportivo de los sujetos, los leucocitos, los neutrófilos, los linfocitos y la flora gastrointestinal después de seis semanas de entrenamiento especial eran diferentes. Conclusión: Los probióticos orales a largo plazo para los atletas pueden reducir eficazmente la inflamación en el cuerpo, reducir el daño al cuerpo durante el ejercicio y mejorar eficazmente la función inmune del tracto gastrointestinal. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 3-12, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365122

ABSTRACT

Resumen Luego de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 se producen anticuerpos específicos y continúa siendo objeto de estudio su cinética, cuantificación y umbral protector. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar la cinética de aparición de anticuerpos IgG/IgM anti SARS-CoV-2, magnitud de respuesta y duración en el tiempo, en 55 pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, y relacionar el patrón de respuesta con diferentes parámetros demográ ficos y clínicos. Medidas con un ensayo cualitativo automatizado, VIDAS® SARS-Cov-2 (Biomerieux - ELFA) se evaluaron las variaciones en la concentración de anticuerpos a lo largo del tiempo con un modelo generalizado de efectos fijos. Todos los pacientes seroconvirtieron IgM e IgG, al día 10 y 10.5 respectivamente, patrón sincrónico mayoritario; no siendo de utilidad la IgM aislada como indicador de respuesta aguda. La sensibilidad clínica fue: semana 1, 30%, semanas 2 y 3, 72%, 4: 91% y 8: 96%. IgG permaneció detectable hasta los 6 meses (período de seguimiento) con gran heterogeneidad de magnitud; IgM negativizó en el 90.9% de los pacientes. Observamos un nivel mayor de IgM en los pacientes > 56 años, y en hombres respecto a mujeres. En pacientes con enfer medad pulmonar obstructiva crónica la respuesta de IgM está aumentada; los inmunocomprometidos y aquellos con enfermedad pulmonar intersticial difusa tuvieron menor IgM e IgG respectivamente. De nuestro grupo de pacientes, aquellos que requirieron cuidados críticos, asistencia respiratoria mecánica y los que fallecieron no presentaron diferencias significativas en magnitud de respuesta humoral respecto de quienes tuvieron un curso menos grave. La metodología utilizada refleja adecuadamente la cinética de anticuerpos.


Abstract Specific antibodies are produced after infection by SARS-CoV2. Currently, the understanding of antibody responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2 is limited including the magnitude, duration of responses and correlates of protective immunity following infection. Here we intended to characterize humoral immune response in a cohort of 55 hospitalized patients for COVID-19 and its relationship with different demographic and clinical parameters. The ELFA assay VIDAS® SARS-Cov-2 (Biomerieux) measured IgG/IgM antibodies. Their concentration over time was evaluated with a fixed effects generalized linear model. All patients seroconverted IgM and IgG, at day 10 and 10.5 respectively, showing a majority synchronous pattern; IgM alone would not be useful as a marker of acute response. Clini cal sensitivity was: week 1, 30%, weeks 2 and 3, 72%, 4: 91% and 8: 96%. IgG seropositivity was sustained in patients up to 180 days (last time point measured), in contrast, IgM response was short-lived (91days) in 90.9% of patients. Longer term follow-up is needed to determine the duration of IgG responses. We observed a higher level of IgM in patients > 56 years, and in men compared to women. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, the IgM response is increased, while in immunocompromised and interstitial lung disease patients, IgM and IgG were lower, respectively. Those patients who required critical care, mechanical ventilation and those who died did not present significant differences in the magnitude of humoral response compared to those who had a less severe course. The methodology used adequately reflects the kinetics of antibodies.

6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6474, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the epidemiological profile of patients aged 50 years or older diagnosed as HIV/AIDS, in a Specialized Service of the Public Health System. Methods A retrospective cohort study using secondary data from medical records in the period 2014 to 2018. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and features related to treatment adherence were organized in a database. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean (or median) ± standard deviation (or interquartile range), and categorical variables expressed as number and percentage of patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to assess the probability of overall specific survival. Results Of the 241 initially eligible patients, 149 patients were evaluated, registering 19 deaths in the studied period. There was a predominance of males aged 50-59 years, with severe immunodeficiency upon admission (29.7%), and with a CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells in 62 (46.3%) of patients. Elderly people aged 61 or over were more adherent. There was an increase in the CD4+ T lymphocyte count by an average of 139.63 in the first 6 months, and 50.51 from the first 6 months to 12 months of follow-up, with an average increase in the first 12 months of 157.63 cells. Specific overall survival in the period was 85%. Conclusion Patients older than 50 years had an immune response and no viral load detection in the 12-month period, deserving further studies to improve survival.

7.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Despite the many efforts of researchers around the world, there is currently no effective vaccine for malaria. Numerous studies have been developed to find vaccine antigens that are immunogenic and safe. Among antigen candidates, Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) has stood out in a number of these studies for its ability to induce a consistent and protective immune response, also being safe for use in humans. This review presents the main studies that explored MSP3 as a vaccine candidate over the last few decades. MSP3 formulations were tested in animals and humans and the most advanced candidate formulations are MSP3-LSP, a combination of MSP3 and LSP1, and GMZ2 (a vaccine based on the recombinant protein fusion GLURP and MSP3) which is currently being tested in phase II clinical studies. This brief review highlights the history and the main formulations of MSP3-based vaccines approaches against P. falciparum .

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920546

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory tract is directly connected with the external environment, and its natural immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens. In antiviral infection, interferon (IFN) is the main component of the antiviral natural immune system and IFN-λ is a newly discovered immune effector molecule that is mainly produced in the mucosal barrier. IFN-λ exerts a biological role through Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, and plays an important part in regulating innate and acquired immunity of respiratory mucosa. IFN-λ principally expresses on the mucosal barrier with a long-lasting antiviral impact and controls immune-inflammatory damage, which is becoming a new focus of antiviral immunity research in the upper respiratory tract, especially in fighting against 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19). Thus, we summarize the research progress of IFN-λ antiviral immunity in the upper respiratory tract to provide new insight in the prevention and treatment of viral infection in the upper respiratory tract.

9.
International Eye Science ; (12): 443-446, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920426

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To measure the levels of IL-8 and IL-12p70 in the aqueous humor of patients with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma(AACG)and age-related cataract(ARC), and to investigate the clinical significance.<p>METHODS:Totally 29 eyes of 29 AACG patients, and 17 eyes of 17 ARC patients were enrolled in the study from October 2019 to December 2020. The levels of IL-8 and IL-12p70 were measured in the aqueous humor using Cytometric Beads Array. The clinical information was recorded in the same time for the correlation.<p>RESULTS:The level of IL-8 in AACG group was statistically elevated compared with the control group(Z= -5.384, P<0.05). However the IL-12p70 level did not differ in AACG group compared with ARC group(Z= -1.587, P=0.112). The IL-8 level was positively correlated with the duration of acute attack(rs=0.387, P=0.038). The concentrations of IL-8 and IL-12p70 in the filtration surgery group were significantly increased than that of the non-filtration surgery group(P<0.05).<p>CONCLUSION: The level of the inflammatory factor IL-8 in the aqueous humor of patients with AACG was significantly elevated. With the progression of the disease, the concentration of the immune-related factor IL-12p70 increased differentially. Both inflammation and immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AACG.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920389

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium leprae is virtually non-toxic. After invading the human body, it can grow and reproduce in large quantities in the tissues but does not cause any clinical symptoms. The manifestations of skin, mucous membrane and peripheral nerve damage of leprosy are mainly caused by the immune response of the body to the leprae. Schwann cells can support and nourish nerve fibers. As an important parasitic site of leprosy bacteria, Schwann cells are closely related to leprosy immunity, and the research on these cells is of great significance.

11.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(8): e20210182, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were: 1) determine total specific IgG and subisotypes in serum and colostrum of pregnant mares vaccinated against Theileria equi and Streptococcus equi subspecies equi; 2) determine total specific IgG and subisotypes in foals born from these mares. In mares, the highest total serum IgG value for T. equi was at 335 days of gestation declining 30 days postpartum, while for S. equi was at 328 days of gestation remaining high up to 30 days postpartum. Transfer of passive immunity against both antigens was observed with specific IgG values in colostrum and foals' serum proportional to mares' values. The most detected specific IgG subisotypes were IgG3/5 and IgG4/7 for both antigens. Foals born from mares immunized with T. equi kept maternal IgG values until 2 months of age, while those born from mares immunized with S. equi kept maternal IgG values until 3-4 months of age. These results suggest that foals should be vaccinated after this period.


RESUMO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1) determinar IgG total específica e seus subisotipos no soro e colostro de éguas vacinadas contra Theileria equi e Streptococcus equi subspécie equi; 2) determinar IgG total específica e seus subisotipos em potros provenientes dessas éguas. Em éguas vacinadas contra T. equi, o maior nível sérico de IgG total específico ocorreu aos 335 dias de gestação, decaindo 30 dias pós parto, enquanto nas vacinadas contra S. equi, ocorreu aos 328 dias de gestação e manteve-se pelo mesmo período. A avaliação de IgG total específica no colostro de éguas vacinadas demonstrou níveis de IgG proporcionais aos títulos do soro materno. Os isotipos de IgG mais detectados foram IgG3/5 e IgG4/7 para ambos antígenos avaliados. Potros provenientes de éguas vacinadas com antígeno de T. equi mantiveram os níveis de IgG específica até dois meses de idade, enquanto potros provenientes de éguas vacinadas com antígeno de S. equi mantiveram por três a quatro meses, sugerindo que esse seja o período ideal para início do esquema vacinal em potros.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913057

ABSTRACT

RTS, S/AS01 vaccine has recently been recommended by the WHO for large-scale uses in malaria-endemic areas, which is a milestone in the history of the fight against parasitic infections. Nevertheless, RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is not perfect. Hereby, the shortages of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine were discussed, and the potential challenges during the research and development of next-generation malaria vaccines were analyzed.

13.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 113-122, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358147

ABSTRACT

Se presenta conceptos de la inmunocompetencia y su relación con la nutrición en niños, que describen aspectos fisiológicos integrales. También se describen los aspectos inmunológicos, que permiten interpretar los mecanismos de la respuesta inmune, destacándose conceptos y criterios fisiológicos. Un niño malnutrido presenta alteraciones inmunológicas, y las mismas se las puede identificar como deficiencias a predominio celular, y a predominio humoral. Se destaca la importancia del eje Neuroinmunoendocrinológico como integrador de respuestas fisiológicas. El propósito del presente trabajo, esta dirigido a identificar las herramientas que permiten el estudio del sistema inmune en nuestro contexto, haciendo especial hincapié en la ecografía del timo, por ser una herramienta útil para evaluar al sistema inmune en niños con estado nutricional alterado en forma leve o moderada.


Concepts of immunocompetence and its relationship with nutrition in children are presented, describing comprehensive physiological aspects. Immunological aspects are also described, which allow to interpret the mechanisms of the immune response, highlighting physiological concepts and criteria. A malnourished child presents immunological alterations, and these can be identified as deficiencies with a cellular predominance, and with a humoral predominance. The importance of the Neuro-immunoendocrinological axis as an integrator of physiological responses is highlighted. The purpose of this work is aimed at identifying the tools that allow the study of the immune system in our context, with special emphasis on ultrasound of the thymus, as it is a useful tool to evaluate the immune system in children with altered nutritional status, mild or moderate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thymus Gland , Nutritional Status , Growth and Development , Nutritional Sciences , Physiological Phenomena , Immune System , Immunocompetence
14.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(3): 345-351, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360029

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La bacteriosis vascular de la yuca, causada por la bacteria gram negativa Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), anteriormente conocida como Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, es la principal enfermedad bacteriana que compromete su producción. Con la meta de generar una resistencia durable y de amplio espectro a la bacteriosis es posible explotar los mecanismos naturales presentes en plantas no-hospedero. Arabidopsis es una planta modelo extensamente estudiada, la cual es no-hospedero de Xpm. La meta de este estudio fue determinar si la resistencia no-hospedero de Arabidopsis es consecuencia de la presencia de barreras físicas o si esta depende de determinantes genéticos. En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad de plantas de Arabidopsis de responder a la inoculación con Xpm. Ninguno de los ocho ecotipos de Arabidopsis evaluados mostraron una respuesta hipersensible a la inoculación con ocho diferentes cepas de Xpm. Aunque no se identificó la presencia de especies reactivas de oxígeno si se encontró un bloqueo en el crecimiento de Xpm en las plantas de Arabidopsis. En conjunto, los resultados aquí presentados sugieren que Arabidopsis no está activando una respuesta contra Xpm y que la resistencia observada puede ser consecuencia de las barreras físicas presentes en Arabidopsis que Xpm no es capaz de superar.


ABSTRACT Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), previously known as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is the main bacterial disease compromising cassava production. With the aim to generate durable and broad-spectrum resistance to CBB is possible to exploit the natural mechanism present in non-host plants. Arabidopsis is an extensively studied model plant, which is a non-host of Xpm. The aim of this study was to determinate if the Arabidopsis non-host resistance is a consequence of physical barriers or if it depends on genetic determinants. In this work we evaluated the ability of Arabidopsis plants to respond after Xpm inoculation. None of the eight Arabidopsis ecotypes showed a hypersensitive response after inoculation with eight different Xpm strains. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was not present, impairment in Xpm proliferation was found. These results suggest that Arabidopsis is not activating an immunity response against Xpm and the resistance might be a consequence of physical barriers present in Arabidopsis that Xpm is not able to overcome.

15.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 493-500, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365921

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar el título de anticuerpos frente al dominio de unión al receptor (RBD) de la proteína espiga (S) en personal de salud entre la 4.ª y 12.ª semana luego de haber recibido la vacuna BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm). Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 168 trabajadores de salud de dos hospitales de la región, quienes cumplían el esquema completo con vacuna de Sinopharm, y se realizó la medición de anticuerpos en suero mediante la prueba Elecsys®Anti-SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. Todos los participantes desarrollaron anticuerpos frente al dominio RBD. El valor mínimo fue de 1,78 U/mL. En 70 (41,7%) participantes se encontraron niveles iguales o por encima de 250. La media geométrica fue de 82,6 (IC 95% 67,8-100,6). Las mujeres presentaron un mayor nivel de anticuerpos. El grupo de participantes en los que se midieron anticuerpos entre las semanas 4 y 7 posvacunación mostró niveles de anticuerpos significativamente mayores que los pacientes cuyas determinaciones fueron realizadas entre las 10 y 12 semanas posvacunación. Entre los pacientes con antecedente de COVID-19, los niveles de anticuerpos se encontraron en cifras iguales o por encima de 250 U/mL en el 88% de casos, en comparación con 6% entre aquellos sin antecedente de COVID-19, (p<0,001). Conclusión. Todos los participantes inmunizados con la vacuna BBIBP-CorV presentaron positividad a anticuerpos frente al RBD de la proteína S del SARS-CoV-2. Es necesario evaluar la correlación entre la magnitud de los títulos y la protección frente a COVID-19 y el tiempo de protección conferido por la vacuna.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the titer of antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) in health personnel between the 4th and 12th week after receiving the BBIBP-CorV vaccine (Sinopharm). Materials and methods. We included a total of 168 healthcare workers from two hospitals in the region, who complied with the complete Sinopharm vaccine schedule; serum antibodies were measured using the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 test. Results. All participants developed antibodies to the RBD domain. The lowest antibody titer level was 1.78 U/mL. Levels equal to or above 250 were found in 70 (41.7%) participants. The geometric mean was 82.6 (95% CI: 67.8-100.6). Women had higher antibody levels. Participants whose antibodies were measured between 4- and 7-weeks post-vaccination showed significantly higher antibody levels than patients whose antibody levels were measured between 10- and 12-weeks post-vaccination. Among patients with a history of COVID-19, antibody levels were found to be at or above 250 U/mL in 88% of cases, compared to 6% among those without a history of COVID-19, (p<0.001). Conclusion. All participants immunized with BBIBPCorV vaccine were positive for antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD. The correlation between the titer level and protection against COVID-19, as well as the length of the protection provided by the vaccine, needs to be evaluated.

16.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341784

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development using different platforms is one of the important strategies to address coronavirus disease pandemic. The global need for vaccines requires effective vaccine approaches and collaboration between pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies, governments and the industrial and academic sectors. About 72 percent of the vaccine candidates are being developed by the private sector, while 28 percent are carried out by the public sector and different non-profit organizations. COVID-19 vaccines are based on complete viruses (inactivated or attenuated), viral vectors (replicating or not), antigenic subunits (proteins or peptides), nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) or virus-like particles. Important aspects of vaccine development include manufacturing flexibility, speed, cost, safety, cellular and humoral immunogenicity, vaccine stability and cold chain maintenance. Vaccines can be prepared using different manufacturing platforms, computational biology, gene synthesis, structure-based antigen design and protein engineering. Individual confidence, convenience and complacency are factors that affect the attitude towards acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. This could be complicated by socio-demographic, psychologic, cognitive and cultural factors(AU)


El desarrollo de vacunas utilizando diferentes plataformas es una de las estrategias importantes para abordar la pandemia de COVID-19. La necesidad mundial de vacunas requiere enfoques de vacunas eficaces y la colaboración entre las empresas farmacéuticas y biotecnológicas, los gobiernos y los sectores industrial y académico. Alrededor del 72 por ciento de los candidatos vacunales están siendo desarrolladas por el sector privado, mientras que el 28 por ciento, por el sector público y diferentes organizaciones sin fines de lucro. Las vacunas contra la COVID-19 se basan en virus completos (inactivados o atenuados), vectores virales (replicantes o no), subunidades antigénicas (proteínas o péptidos), ácidos nucleicos (ARN o ADN) o partículas similares a virus. Aspectos importantes del desarrollo de vacunas incluyen la flexibilidad de fabricación, la velocidad, el costo, la seguridad, la inmunogenicidad celular y humoral, la estabilidad de la vacuna y el mantenimiento de la cadena de frío. Las vacunas se pueden preparar con precisión utilizando diferentes plataformas de fabricación, biología computacional, síntesis de genes, diseño de antígenos basado en estructuras e ingeniería de proteínas. La confianza individual, la conveniencia y la complacencia son factores que afectan la actitud hacia la aceptación de la vacunación contra la COVID-19. Esto podría complicarse por factores sociodemográficos, psicológicos, cognitivos y culturales(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 25-32, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352900

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado cambios que afectan los sistemas de salud y el abordaje de las enfermedades infecciosas a nivel mundial. La esperanza de recuperar un cierto nivel de "normalidad" se basa en el desarrollo de vacunas. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las actitudes hacia la vacuna COVID-19 en la población paraguaya, explorando factores que podrían ser abordados para apoyar la campaña de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal y descriptivo. Los participantes fueron reclutados a través de una encuesta basada en Internet, difundida a través de las redes sociales, durante el mes de marzo de 2021. Todos los participantes recibieron información completa sobre el objetivo del estudio, la privacidad y el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: De los 2297 participantes, el 67,9% (n=1559) eran mujeres, el 49,9% (n=1147) estaban empleados, el 89,1% (n=2046) reportaron educación universitaria y el 96,6% (n=2218) eran de áreas urbanas. En general, el 81,8 % (n=1879) de los participantes afirmó que estarían dispuestos a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 si hubiera una vacuna disponible. Se ha encontrado una relación significativa entre haber solicitado la vacuna antigripal y la intención de vacunarse frente al COVID-19 (p<0,0001), con un OR: 3,09 (IC 95% 2,1-4,5). Conclusión: El porcentaje de participantes inclinados a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 es similar al de aquellos que esperan una inmunización adecuada de la vacuna. Las agencias gubernamentales y de salud deben hacer un esfuerzo para brindar información precisa que responda a las inquietudes de las personas sobre la vacunación, en cualquier nivel de la sociedad.


Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the main public health problems globally. Teen behavior patterns and lifestyle may affect their physical and mental health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the adolescent population nationwide. Materials and methods: A quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, the questionnaire of the Global School Health Survey was applied in school adolescents of the eighth and ninth grades of the 3rd cycle of Basic School Education and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of Secondary Education in 49 schools and colleges in the country. 1,803 students aged 13 to 15 years were included in this study. Results. 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in Paraguay are active, being significantly higher in men than in women (p-value 0.000) and 22% are inactive more frequently in women than in men (p-value 0.000). It was observed that 33.5% of the adolescents had sedentary behavior, 43.4% of the adolescents did not use active displacement to attend school. Adolescents who did not participate in physical education classes at school accounted for 15.6%. Conclusion: Although 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 are active, the large percentage of inactive adolescents with sedentary behavior is worrying.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Population , Behavior , Immunization , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 683-687, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351038

ABSTRACT

Resumen La rápida propagación del coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, agente causal de la enfermedad pandémica emergente COVID-19 y sus nuevas variantes, requiere del compromiso de la comunidad inmunológica para comprender la magnitud y naturaleza de la respuesta inmunológica adaptativa desarrollada por pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 e individuos vacunados con diferentes estrategias y protocolos, a los fines de imple mentar nuevas políticas sanitarias. En la actualidad, la determinación de la inmunidad contra SARS-CoV-2 se basa principalmente en la detección de anticuerpos específicos y la determinación de su actividad neutralizante. Sin embargo, a pesar de la alta sensibilidad de estos ensayos, un número considerable de pacientes e indivi duos vacunados carecen de respuesta humoral detectable, o evidencian una disminución rápida de la misma en el tiempo. Con el objetivo de estudiar la respuesta inmune celular desencadenada frente a SARS-CoV-2, en nuestro laboratorio desarrollamos la "Plataforma COVID-T" estrategia integral optimizada dirigida a caracte rizar y monitorear la respuesta de linfocitos T específicos de SARS-CoV-2 a partir de muestras de sangre de individuos vacunados y/o recuperados de COVID-19. Esta plataforma permite evaluar la naturaleza, magnitud y persistencia de la inmunidad celular T generada tanto por la infección con SARS-CoV-2, como por distintos esquemas y protocolos de vacunación en diferentes poblaciones de individuos. Asimismo, permite evaluar la respuesta inmunológica T generada frente a nuevas variantes del virus e identificar individuos sanos resistentes a SARS-CoV-2 con inmunidad pre-existente hacia coronavirus estacionales.


Abstract The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2, the caus ative agent of the emergent pandemic disease COVID-19, requires the urgent commitment of the immunology community to understand the adaptive immune response developed by COVID-19 convalescent patients and individuals vaccinated with different strategies and schemes, with the ultimate goal of implementing and optimizing health care and prevention policies. Currently, assessment of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is mainly focused on the measurement of the antibody titers and analysis of their neutralizing capacity. However, a considerable proportion of individuals lack humoral responses or show a progressive decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutral izing antibodies. In order to study the cellular response of convalescent patients and vaccinated individuals, we have developed the 'COVID-T Platform', an optimized strategy to study SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. This platform allows assessment of the nature, magnitude and persistence of antigen-specific T-cell immunity in COVID-19-convalescent patients and vaccinated individuals. Moreover, it gives the opportunity to study cellular responses against emerging coronavirus variants and to identify individuals with cross-reactive immunity against seasonal coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
19.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 464-467, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288615

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Immunity is closely related to health. When the body's immunity is strong, it is healthy. On the contrary, various diseases appear. Sports dance is an entertainment and fitness sports project that integrates sports, music, aesthetics, and dance, the body movement dance as the necessary content and two-person or collective exercises as the primary form of exercise. Studies have shown that long-term adherence to Tai Chi exercise can significantly increase the serum immunoglobulin IgA, IgG, and IgM levels. Objective: The paper explores the effect of physical dance exercise on serum immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets of college students. Methods: The thesis randomly selected 16 male and female students in the first-grade physical dance optional course of public physical education as the experimental group. They performed physical dance exercises three times a week, 40 minutes each time, and the training intensity was controlled at a heart rate of 135-150 beats/min. Ten weeks; besides, 16 male and female students in the first grade were selected as the control group, and no physical dance exercise was performed; all the subjects were drawn from the elbow venous blood on an empty stomach at the same time before and after the experiment to measure serum immunoglobulin and T lymph Cell subpopulation content. Results: After ten weeks of sports dance training, the serum immunoglobulin IgG of both men and women in the experimental group increased significantly (P<0.01), and the CD4+% and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of T lymphocyte subgroups showed extremely significant and significant increases (P <0.01, P<0.05), serum IgM tended to increase, IgA, CD8+% tended to decrease, but there was no significant change. Conclusions: Long-term physical dance exercise can improve the body's immune function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: la inmunidad está estrechamente relacionado con la salud. Cuando la inmunidad del cuerpo es fuerte éste está sano. En caso contrario, aparecen diversas enfermedades. La danza deportiva é um projeto de entretenimiento y fitness que integra el deporte, la música, la estética y la danza, el movimiento corporal como contenido necesario y los ejercicios de das personas ou colectivos como forma principal de ejercicio. Los estudios han demonstraram que a adesão a largo plazo al ejercicio de Tai Chi pode aumentar também os niveles séricos de imunoglobulina IgA, IgG e IgM. Objetivo: O artigo explora o efeito do exercício físico de danza em subconjuntos de imunoglobulina sérica e linfocitos T de estudiantes universitários. Métodos: Para que a tese seja selecionada aleatoriamente, 16 ex-alunos e ex-alunos do curso optativo de danza física de primer grado de educação física pública como grupo experimental. Realizaron ejercicios de danza física tres veces por semana, 40 minutes cada vez, y la intensidad del entrenamiento se controló a una frecuencia cardíaca de 135-150 latidos/min. durante as semanas; además, se selecionar 16 alumnos y alumnas de primer grado como group de control, el que no realizó ningún ejercicio físico de danza. A todos os sujetos se les extrajo sangre venosa del codo com o estómago vacío, durante, antes e depois do experimento para medir o conteúdo da subpoblación de células T y de imunoglobulina sérica. Resultados: Después de diez semanas de entrenamiento de danza deportiva, la imunoglobulina IgG sérica de hombres y mujeres en el grupo experimental aumentó complementar (P <0,01), y la proporción CD4 +% y CD4 +/CD8 + de los subgrupos de linfocitos T mostró incrementos extremadamente provados. (P <0,01,P <0,05), la IgM sérica tendió a aumentar, la IgA, CD8 +% tendió a disminuir, mas nenhum hubo cambio projetado. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de danza física a largo plazo puede mejorar la función inmunológica del cuerpo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los results del tratamiento.


RESUMEN Introducción: la inmunidad está estrechamente relacionada con la salud. Cuando la inmunidad del cuerpo es fuerte éste está sano. En caso contrario, aparecen diversas enfermedades. La danza deportiva es un proyecto de entretenimiento y fitness que integra el deporte, la música, la estética y la danza, el movimiento corporal como contenido necesario y los ejercicios de dos personas o colectivos como forma principal de ejercicio. Los estudios han demostrado que la adherencia a largo plazo al ejercicio de Tai Chi puede aumentar significativamente los niveles séricos de inmunoglobulina IgA, IgG e IgM. Objetivo: El artículo explora el efecto del ejercicio físico de danza en subconjuntos de inmunoglobulina sérica y linfocitos T de estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Para la tesis se seleccionaron aleatoriamente a 16 alumnos y alumnas del curso optativo de danza física de primer grado de educación física pública como grupo experimental. Realizaron ejercicios de danza física tres veces por semana, 40 minutos cada vez, y la intensidad del entrenamiento se controló a una frecuencia cardíaca de 135-150 latidos/min. durante diez semanas; además, se seleccionaron 16 alumnos y alumnas de primer grado como grupo de control, el que no realizó ningún ejercicio físico de danza. A todos los sujetos se les extrajo sangre venosa del codo con el estómago vacío, durante, antes y después del experimento para medir el contenido de la subpoblación de células T y de inmunoglobulina sérica. Resultados: Después de diez semanas de entrenamiento de danza deportiva, la inmunoglobulina IgG sérica de hombres y mujeres en el grupo experimental aumentó significativamente (P <0.01), y la proporción CD4 +% y CD4 + / CD8 + de los subgrupos de linfocitos T mostró incrementos extremadamente significativos. (P <0.01, P <0.05), la IgM sérica tendió a aumentar, la IgA, CD8 +% tendió a disminuir, pero no hubo cambios significativos. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de danza física a largo plazo puede mejorar la función inmunológica del cuerpo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Universities , Immunoglobulins/blood , Dancing/physiology , Immunity/physiology , Student Health Services , Time Factors , Lymphocyte Count
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e4101, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289625

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La duración de la inmunidad natural generada por la COVID-19 está por definir, lo que determina la probable reinfección. Objetivo: Destacar la necesidad de mantener las medidas de prevención a propósito de un caso de reinfección en un trabajador sanitario. Presentación de caso: Paciente femenina de 48 años de edad con antecedentes de salud que, en junio, 2020 y marzo, 2021 se le diagnóstica la COVID-19, en ambos casos con el comportamiento de enfermedad sintomática leve. Después de 24 horas de comenzar con cefalea, mareos y tos seca se confirma el diagnóstico de infección por SARS CoV-2 con PCR positivo y umbral de ciclo (CT) en 24.84. Pasados 9 meses y 9 días de la infección original, y dos días posteriores a recibir la vacuna BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), comienza con malestar general, tos seca, secreción nasal y dolor de garganta, con PCR positivo y CT de 17.61. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de la reinfección por la COVID-19 orienta la necesidad de fortalecer las acciones de prevención de la transmisión en instituciones de salud en tanto las evidencias científicas nos provean de recursos más eficaces para su control(AU)


Introduction: The duration of natural immunity generated by COVID-19 is yet to be defined, which determines the probable reinfection. Objective: To analyze issues related to natural infection and the need to maintain prevention practices regarding a case of reinfection in a health care worker. Case presentation: Forty-eight-year-old female patient without comorbidities who was diagnosed with COVID-19 in June 2020 and March 2021, in both cases as a mild symptomatic disease. Twenty-four hours after the onset with headache, dizziness, and dry cough, the diagnosis of SARS CoV-2 infection was confirmed by positive PCR and cycle threshold (CT) at 24.84. Nine months and nine days after original infection, and two days after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech), the patient began with general malaise, dry cough, runny nose, and sore throat, with a positive PCR and CT of 17.61. Conclusions: The possibility of reinfection by COVID-19 points to the need to strengthen transmission prevention practices in healthcare facilities as long as scientific evidence provides us with more effective resources for its control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Reinfection , COVID-19 , Health Facilities , Immunity, Innate , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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