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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387701

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The digestive tract of Neotropical cichlids has not been deeply studied, and it is a fundamental topic for understanding fish physiology, nutrition, trophic associations, and evolution. Objective: To describe anatomically and histologically the digestive tract of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus and to immunolocalize the orexigenic peptide (Npy) along the intestine. Methods: We euthanized 14 adult individuals and fixed the organs in Bouin´s solution; we stained 7 μm thick paraffin sections for general description and with Alcian Blue (pH = 2.5, AB) and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to identify acid or neutral glycoconjugates, respectively. Additionally, we performed immunohistochemistry for Npy in 3 adult individuals. We manually counted PAS- and AB-positive cells, and Npy-immunoreactive cells per fold. Results: There is a short oesophagus, a sac-like stomach, and a tubular intestine with two loops. The oesophagus has a stratified epithelium with a high density of PAS- and AB-positive goblet cells and striated muscle fibers in the tunica muscularis. The stomach mucosa is formed by simple columnar epithelium. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium, with brush border and interspersed PAS- and AB-positive goblet cells, and Npy-immunoreactive cells. There is an ileorectal valve in the transition between the posterior intestine and the rectum. This last gut portion has goblet cells and a thicker tunica muscularis. Conclusions: C. dimerus shares features with other Neotropical cichlids, but the goblet cells and gastric glands distribution seems to be unique for the species. To our understanding, this is the first work to describe Npy-immunoreactive cells distribution in the intestine of a Neotropical cichlid fish.


Resumen Introducción: El tracto digestivo de los cíclidos neotropicales no ha sido profundamente estudiado y es un tema fundamental para entender la fisiología, nutrición, asociaciones tróficas y evolución de los peces. Objetivo: Describir anatómica e histológicamente el tracto digestivo del pez cíclido neotropical Cichlasoma dimerus e inmunolocalizar el péptido orexigénico (Npy) a lo largo del intestino. Métodos: Sacrificamos 14 individuos adultos y fijamos los órganos en solución de Bouin; teñimos secciones de parafina de 7 μm de espesor para una descripción general y con azul alcián (pH = 2.5, AB) y ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) para identificar glicoconjugados ácidos o neutros, respectivamente. Además, en 3 individuos adultos se realizaron inmunohistoquímicas contra Npy. Contamos manualmente las células PAS y AB positivas, y las células inmunorreactivas a Npy por pliegue. Resultados: Hay un esófago corto, un estómago en forma de saco y un intestino con dos vueltas. El esófago tiene un epitelio estratificado con una alta densidad de células caliciformes PAS- y AB- positivas y fibras esqueléticas estriadas en las capas musculares. La mucosa del estómago está revestida por epitelio simple cilíndrico. El epitelio intestinal es simple cilíndrico con chapa estriada y células caliciformes PAS- y AB- positivas intercaladas, y células inmunorreactivas a Npy. Hay una válvula ileorrectal en la transición entre el intestino posterior y el recto. Esta última porción intestinal tiene células caliciformes y una túnica muscular más gruesa. Conclusiones: C. dimerus comparte características con otros cíclidos neotropicales, pero la distribución de las células caliciformes y las glándulas gástricas, serían rasgos propios de esta especie. A nuestro entender, este es el primer trabajo que describe la distribución de células inmunorreactivas a Npy en el intestino de un pez cíclido neotropical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/anatomy & histology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Fishes
2.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405586

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proteína precursora del β- Amiloide (β-APP) es una glicoproteína de membrana y un componente habitual de las neuronas. Tiene funciones en el crecimiento y la adhesión celular tras un traumatismo. Es transportada mediante transporte rápido axonal anterógrado y se acumula dentro de las neuronas cuando se daña citoesqueleto. Este proceso es activo, es decir consume energía. El β-APP no es específico de los traumatismos. Se acumula en cualquier circunstancia en la que se dañen los axones, tal como la hipoxia, alteraciones metabólicas, y cualquier otra causa de edema cerebral y aumento de la presión intracraneal que puedan conducir a un daño axonal difuso (DAI) En el presente estudio estudiamos la expresión de esta proteína en casos de traumatismo cráneo-encefálico con diferente evolución cronológica El daño del citoesqueleto producido por la proteólisis, junto con la alteración de las quinasas y las fosfatasas, aumentan la permeabilidad de la membrana, lo que provoca la entrada de calcio en la célula que, a su vez, activa la calmodulina que hace que los neurofilamentos se compacten, los microtúbulos desaparezcan y se rompa la espectrina. Esta disrupción del citoesqueleto tiene como consecuencia que las sustancias que se transportan a su través, se acumulen, sobre todo en las zonas afectadas por el DAI. Al final de todo este proceso, los axones se rompen, lo que se conoce como axotomía secundaria. El estudio de la acumulación del β-APP es útil para valorar la extensión del DAI y para determinar el tiempo de supervivencia tras el traumatismo o cualquier otro daño cerebral.


Abstract β-Amyloid Precursor Protein (β-APP) is a membrane glycoprotein and a common component of neurons. It is involved in adhesion and cell growth processes after traumatic events. It is carried by anterograde fast axonal transport, and it accumulates inside neurons when the cytoskeleton is damaged. This is a vital biochemical process that consumes energy. β-APP is not specific of traumatic events. It accumulates in any case of axonal damage, whatever its cause may be, like hypoxia, metabolic disorders, and any other circumstances that lead to brain swelling and intracranial pressure rising and in consequence to Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI). In this study we review the expression of this protein in cases of traumatic brain injury with different chronological evolution. The damage of cytoskeleton due to proteolysis in addition to the disturbance of kinases and phosphatases increase the permeability of the membrane. Calcium gets into the cell and activates calmodulin, thus neurofilaments compact, microtubules disappear and spectrin breaks. This disruption of the cytoskeleton has as consequence that the transported substances accumulate in the most affected areas by DAI. At the end of this process axon breaks, which is known as secondary axotomy. The study of the accumulation of β-APP is useful to assess the extent of DAI and to determine the time elapsed after trauma or another insult to CNS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amyloid beta-Peptides/chemistry , Diffuse Axonal Injury , Craniocerebral Trauma , Forensic Medicine
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(6): 778-782, Nov.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Congenital and self-healing Hashimoto-Pritzker reticulohistiocytosis is the benign variant of the Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) group. It is characterized by multiple skin lesions (congenital or appearing during the first days after birth), without systemic manifestations and spontaneous resolution in days to months. The authors report the case of a boy with a single congenital leg skin lesion, a rare disease variant. Through histopathology, a dense skin infiltration of S100 protein-, CD1a-, CD207-immunomarked cells was found. KI67 index was high (62%). A complete spontaneous resolution occurred 07 days after the biopsy (25 days after birth). Monolesional disease, distal limb lesion, absence of lesions in the mucous membrane or seborrheic area, and less than 25 percent of LCs with Birbeck granules were said to be possible clues for a favorable prognosis in LCs histiocytosis. But, as a precautionary measure, the child will be followed up until at least 2 years of age.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(5): 680-687, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Custodiol (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) and repetitive blood cardioplegia are the solutions for myocardial protection and cardiac arrest. In this study, we aimed to compare immunohistochemical analysis, clinical outcomes, and cardiac enzyme values of Custodiol and blood cardioplegia groups. Methods: This was a randomized prospective study consisting of 2 groups and 20 patients, 10 patients for each group, who underwent mitral and mitral/tricuspid valve surgery. Group 1 was formed for Custodiol cardioplegia and group 2 for blood cardioplegia. Perioperative and postoperative cardiac events were recorded, cardiac enzymes were analyzed with intervals, and myocardial samples were taken for immunohistochemical analysis. Recorded data were statistically evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference for the Custodiol and blood cardioplegia groups in perioperative and postoperative cardiac performance and adverse events. Cardiac enzyme analysis showed no significant difference between groups. However, two parameters (eNOS, Bcl-2) were in favor of the Custodiol group in immunohistochemical studies. Custodiol performed better in cellular oxidative stress resistance and cellular viability. Conclusion: Clinical outcomes and cardiac enzyme analysis results were similar regarding myocardial protection. However, Custodiol performed better in the immunohistochemical analysis.

5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.2): 9-13, oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has generated globally more than 110.7 million infections and 2.4 million deaths. The severity of this infection can range from asymptomatic, mild to severe. To know the possible associations between the presence of the virus and histopathological alterations found in tissues of fatal cases of COVID-19, the presence of the virus in the lung tissue of a patient with a clinical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated. Lung tissue was histologically processed for immunohistochemical detection of SARS- CoV-2. In the histopathological study, morphological changes associated with pneumonitis of viral origin were observed. Likewise, the location of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of the cells of the inflammatory infiltrate.


La pandemia de COVID-19 causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha generado más de 110,7 millones de infecciones y 2,4 millones de muertes a nivel mundial. Esta infección puede ser asintomática y sus manifestaciones clínicas pueden variar entre leves y graves. Para conocer las posibles asociaciones entre la presencia del virus y las alteraciones histopatológicas encontradas en los tejidos de casos fatales de COVID-19, se evaluó la presencia del virus en el tejido pulmonar de un paciente con antecedentes clínicos de infección por SARS-CoV-2. La muestra se procesó para la detección inmunohistoquímica del virus. En el estudio histopatológico, se observaron cambios morfológicos asociados con neumonitis de origen viral. Asimismo, el virus se localizó principalmente en el citoplasma de las células del infiltrado inflamatorio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Viral
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(5): 91-99, Sep.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1403785

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (SHH, SMO, and GLI-1) in benign epithelial odontogenic lesions (odontogenic keratocyst - OKC, ameloblastoma - AB, and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor - AOT) in order to identify the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The sample consisted of 20 OKCs, 20 ABs, and 10 AOTs. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman's (r) tests were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p < 0.05). The membrane/cytoplasmic expression of SHH was significantly higher in AB compared to AOT (p = 0.022) and OKC (p = 0.02). No differences were found in the membrane/cytoplasmic expression of SMO between the lesions studied. Regarding GLI-1, significant differences were observed at the nuclear level for AB and OKC compared to AOT (p < 0.0001). In addition, significant positive correlations were found between cytoplasmic and nuclear GLI-1 in AB (r = 0.482; p = 0.031) and OKC (r = 0.865; p < 0.0001), and between membrane/cytoplasmic SMO and cytoplasmic GLI-1 in AOT (r = 0.667; p = 0.035) and OKC (r = 0.535; p = 0.015). The results of this study confirm the participation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of the lesions studied. Overexpression of SHH in ABs and nuclear expression of GLI-1 in ABs and OKCs indicate that these proteins contribute to the more aggressive behavior of these two lesions when compared to AOT.


Resumo O presente estudo analisou a expressão de proteínas envolvidas na via de sinalização Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, SMO e GLI-1) em lesões benignas do epitélio odontogênico de comportamento biológico distintos, tais como ceratocistos odontogênicos (CO), ameloblastomas (AMB) e tumores odontogênicos adenomatoides (TOA), com o intuito de identificar o papel destas proteínas na patogênese destas lesões. A amostra foi constituída de 20 CO, 20 AMB e 10 TOA, analisada pela técnica da imuno-histoquímica de forma semiquantitativa por compartimento celular, onde foi feita uma análise da membrana e citoplasma das células nas proteínas SHH e SMO, enquanto que para a proteína GLI-1, foi feita uma análise nuclear e/ou citoplasmática. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis (KW), Mann-Whitney (U) e Spearman (r), com o nível de significância estabelecido em 5% (p < 0,05). Ao analisar a proteína SHH, observou-se que o AMB demonstrou expressão membranar/citoplasmática significativamente maior em comparação ao TOA (p = 0,022) e CO (p = 0,020). Com relação à análise membranar/citoplasmática da SMO, não foram identificadas diferenças entre as lesões estudadas. Para a proteína GLI-1, foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas, em nível nuclear, para o AMB e CO em comparação ao TOA (p< 0,0001). Além disso, foram observadas correlações positivas com significância estatística entre GLI-1 citoplasmático e GLI-1 nuclear para o AMB (r = 0,482; p = 0,031) e CO (r = 0,865; p< 0,0001), e entre o SMO membranar/citoplasmático e o GLI-1 citoplasmático para o TOA (r = 0,667; p = 0,035) e o CO (r = 0,535; p = 0,015). Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a participação da via de sinalização Sonic Hedgehog na patogênese das lesões estudadas e, a superexpressão de SHH em AMBs e GLI-1 nuclear em AMBs e COs, indica que estas proteínas contribuem com o comportamento biológico mais agressivo destas duas lesões quando comparado ao TOA.

7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(5): 781-783, Oct. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405738

ABSTRACT

Resumen El rabdomiosarcoma pulmonar es una entidad rara y muy poco frecuente, más aún en la población adulta, lo que puede dificultar el diagnóstico correcto. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 48 años con un tumor pulmonar. El estudio histológico reveló que se trataba de un rabdomiosaroma embrionario pulmonar primario. Dada la ausencia de lesiones tumorales en otros sitios fue catalogado como primario pulmonar. El pa ciente realizó quimioterapia y posteriormente fue sometido a una neumonectomía por recidiva de la neoplasia. Al año de la cirugía inicial presentó una metástasis en glándula suprarrenal derecha. Falleció al cabo de 20 meses del diagnóstico original. Se enfatiza la importancia de la inmunohistoquímica en el diagnóstico y se analizan las distintas teorías vigentes que intentan explicar la histogénesis de estos tumores en sitios no habituales.


Abstract Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcona is a rare entity and the histopatological differential diagnosis can be difficult. We report on a case of a 48-year-old male patient with a neoplasm located at the hilum of the right lung. The histological study of the lobectomy specimen allowed the diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma to be made. Given the absence of tumor lesions in other sites, it was classified as primary pulmonary neoplasm. The patient underwent chemotherapy and subsequently a completion pneumonectomy for recurrence of the tumor. One year after the initial surgery, he presented a metastasis in the right adrenal gland. He died 20 months after the original diagnosis. The importance of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis is emphasized and the different theories that attempt to explain the histogénesis of these tumors in unusual sites are analyzed.

8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(3): 414-420, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403494

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer is the third cause of cancer worldwide and a quarter of them are in the rectum. DEK oncogene is involved in several nuclear processes and can accelerate tumorigenesis. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the immunoexpression of DEK and Phospho-P38 proteins before neoadjuvant therapy in patients with rectum adenocarcinoma and correlate it with a clinical response and survival. Methods: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the middle and low rectum who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by surgical tumor resection were included. The expression and quantification were studied by immunohistochemistry in the tumor biopsy tissues using a HScore system. Score ≥4 were considered positive and those with <4 negative. Results: 22 patients were included with a mean age of 63.55 years (SD: ±13.49). The clinical-stage before treatment was T3 on 72.7%, T4 on 18.2%, 31.8% were N1, 50% N0 and all M0. After chemo and radiotherapy, 54.6% were T3; 22.7% were classified as T2; 9.1% as T1, and 13.6% were T0. Among the tumors, 22.7% were positive for DEK and 63.6% positive for Phospho-P38. There was a positive correlation between DEK protein before treatment and pTNM stage (P=0.011). Phospho-P38 protein showed no correlation with these parameters. Patients with a negative HScore had a mean survival of 141.33 months (95%CI: 112.41-170.25) and those with a positive HSscore had a mean survival of 25.10 months (95%CI: 17.36-32.84; P<0.001). Conclusion: A higher expression of DEK was observed in advanced stages. Patients who presented DEK expression <4 had a higher survival, being a factor of worst prognosis.


RESUMO Contexto: O câncer colorretal é mundialmente, a terceira causa de câncer e um quarto destes estão localizados no reto. O oncogene DEK está envolvido em vários processos nucleares e pode acelerar a tumorigênese. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a imunoexpressão das proteínas DEK e Fosfo-P38 antes da terapia neoadjuvante em pacientes com adenocarcinoma de reto e correlacioná-la com resposta clínica e sobrevida. Métodos: Foram incluídos pacientes com adenocarcinoma de reto médio e baixo submetidos à quimio e radioterapia seguida de ressecção cirúrgica do tumor. A expressão e quantificação foram estudadas por imuno-histoquímica nos tecidos de biópsia tumoral utilizando um sistema HScore. Escores ≥4 foram considerados positivos e aqueles com <4 negativos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 22 pacientes com média de idade de 63,55 anos (DP: ±13,49). O estágio clínico antes do tratamento era T3 em 72,7%, T4 em 18,2%, 31,8% eram N1, 50% N0 e todos M0. Após a quimio e radioterapia, 54,6% eram T3; 22,7% eram T2; 9,1% eram T1 e 13,6% T0. Entre os tumores, 22,7% foram positivos para DEK e 63,6% positivos para Phospho-P38. Houve uma correlação positiva para a imunoexpressão da proteína DEK e o estágio pTNM (P=0,011). A proteína fosfo-P38 não apresentou correlação com esses parâmetros. Pacientes com HScore negativo para DEK tiveram sobrevida média de 141,33 meses (IC95%: 112,41-170,25) e aqueles com HScore positivo tiveram sobrevida média de 25,10 meses (IC95%: 17,36-32,84) (P<0,001). Conclusão: Observou-se maior expressão de DEK em estágios avançados. Os pacientes que apresentaram expressão de DEK <4 tiveram maior sobrevida, sendo um fator de pior prognóstico.

9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405319

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El carcinoma mioepitelial es una rara neoplasia maligna de las glándulas salivales; puede originarse de novo o desarrollarse en un adenoma pleomórfico preexistente o un mioepitelioma. Las características histológicas e inmunohistoquímicas de un caso de carcinoma mioepitelial de glándula parótida originado por la transformación maligna de un adenoma pleomórfico primario previo se investigaron en este trabajo. Se demostró la presencia de mitosis, pleomorfismo nuclear, áreas necróticas, mioepiteliocitos con una marcación con p63 superior al 75 % y un índice proliferativo de 15 %, características que pueden desencadenar un desenlace adverso. Resulta clave el examen periódico de la paciente que dará una probabilidad superior de curación y sobrevida y de investigar eventuales recurrencias o metástasis.


ABSTRACT: Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands; it may originate de novo or develop into a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma or myoepithelioma. The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland originated by the malignant transformation of a previous primary pleomorphic adenoma were investigated in this work. The presence of mitosis, nuclear pleomorphism, necrotic areas, myoepitheliocytes with a p63 labeling greater than 75 % and a proliferative index of 15 % were demonstrated, characteristics that can trigger an adverse outcome. The periodic examination of the patient is essential, which will give a higher probability of cure and survival and to investigate eventual recurrences or metastases.

10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(8): 761-770, Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407580

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The study aimed to characterize the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profile of women with invasive breast cancer, according to the risk for Hereditary Predisposition Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in a Brazilian population. Methods This is a retrospective study performed from a hospital-based cohort of 522 women, diagnosed with breast cancer treated at an oncology referral center in the Southeast region of Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. Results Among the 430 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who composed the study population, 127 (29.5%) were classified as at increased risk for hereditary predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. There was a lower level of education in patients at increased risk (34.6%) when compared with those at usual risk (46.0%). Regarding tumor characteristics, women at increased risk had higher percentages of the disease diagnosed at an advanced stage (32.3%), and with tumors > 2cm (63.0%), with increased prevalence for both characteristics, when compared with those at usual risk. Furthermore, we found higher percentages of HG3 (43.3%) and Ki-67 ≥ 25% (64.6%) in women at increased risk, with prevalence being about twice as high in this group. The presence of triple-negative tumors was observed as 25.2% in women at increased risk and 6.0% in women at usual risk, with the prevalence of absence of biomarkers being 2.5 times higher among women in the increased risk group. Conclusion From the clinical criteria routinely used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, the care practice of genetic counseling for patients at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer in contexts such as Brazil is still scarce.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo buscou caracterizar o perfil clínico, histológico e imunohistoquímico de mulheres com câncer de mama invasivo segundo o risco para a Síndrome de Predisposição Hereditária ao Câncer de Mama e Ovário em uma população brasileira. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo realizado a partir de uma coorte hospitalar composta por 522 mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer de mama entre 2014 e 2016 assistidas em um centro de referência oncológica localizado na região sudeste brasileira. Resultados Entre as 430 mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer de mama invasivo que compuseram a população de estudo, 127 (29,5%) foram classificadas como de risco aumentado para a síndrome de predisposição hereditária ao câncer de mama e ovário. Verificou-se menor nível de escolaridade nas pacientes com risco aumentado (34,6%) quando comparadas àquelas consideradas como de risco habitual (46,0%). Quanto às características do tumor, as mulheres de risco aumentado apresentaram maiores percentuais de doença diagnosticada em estádio avançado (32,3%) e com tumores > 2cm (63,0%), com prevalência aumentada para ambas as características, quando comparadas àquelas de risco habitual. Ainda nas mulheres de risco aumentado, foram encontrados maiores percentuais de GH3 (43,3%) e Ki-67 ≥ 25% (64,6%), com prevalência cerca de duas vezes maior neste grupo. A presença de tumores triplo-negativos foi observada em 25,2% nas mulheres de risco aumentado e 6,0% nas mulheres de risco habitual, com prevalência de ausência de biomarcadores 2,5 vezes maior entre as mulheres do grupo de risco aumentado. Conclusão A partir dos critérios clínicos rotineiramente utilizados no diagnóstico do câncer de mama, a prática assistencial do aconselhamento genético para as pacientes com risco aumentado de câncer de mama hereditário em contextos como o do Brasil ainda é escarça.

11.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 12(2): 126-135, Jul-Dec. 2022. ilus, ilus, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397586

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el granuloma ulcerativo traumático con eosinofilia estromal es una afección benigna, crónica y autolimitante, que por su evolución clínica puede estar sujeta a confusión diagnóstica. Por ello, el caso que aquí se comparte expone particularidades de esta afección y su respuesta al tratamiento para permitir un mejor conocimiento de esta lesión. Se describen las características clínicas e histopatológicas y su evolución ante la terapéutica empleada. Se presenta una paciente femenina de seis años, con antecedentes de salud y de dientes neonatales, que hace tres meses manifiesta dos úlceras en mucosa sublingual que no cicatrizan ni mejoran al tratamiento anterior. Se indicaron estudios hematológicos, se realizó biopsia incisional de la lesión con su estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Se obtuvo eosinofilia estromal y ausencia de linfocitos anómalos CD30. El tratamiento incluyó aplicación de corticosteroides tópicos e intralesionales, experimentando remisión de la lesión. Se mantiene la paciente bajo seguimiento clínico, sin recidiva de lesión. Conclusiones: el granuloma ulcerativo traumático con eosinofilia estromal es una lesión autolimitante que puede ser confundida con otras lesiones ulcerativas de la cavidad bucal, por lo que su estudio histopatológico resulta imprescindible para su diagnóstico. Asimismo, su análisis inmunohistoquímico es indispensable para precisar su naturaleza y probable evolución. El adecuado y exhaustivo proceso diagnóstico constituye una herramienta vital para lograr su identificación.


Background: Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia is a benign, chronicle and self-healing lesion, which can be misdiagnosed for its clinical evolution, for this reason, this case report is carried out, showing particularities of this disease and its response in front to the treatment, giving a better identifcation of the lesion, were described the clinical and histopathological fndings of a case. A feminine patient, six years old, with neonatal health and dental history. She has presented during three months two ulcerative lesions in sublingual mucosa, which do not improve with the previous treatment. Hematological studies and biopsy were carried out, the incisional biopsy was analyzed with immunohistochemical test, the results were stromal eosinophilia and absence of anomalous lymphocytes CD30. She was treated with topical and intralesional corticosteroids, experiencing remission of the lesion. The patient had a long clinical follow up without recidive. Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia is a self-healed lesion that needs a histopathological and inmunohistochemical analysis for an adequate diagnosis. The correct diagnostic sequence is a vital tool to achieve its identification.


Subject(s)
Female , Child , Ulcer , Eosinophilia , Granuloma , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry
12.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(2): 25-28, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361992

ABSTRACT

Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a common mesenchymal lesion on the skin where it is better known as dermatofibroma. It mainly affects areas of the integument exposed to the sun. It can occur in the mucous membranes, being quite unusual in the oral cavity. This article presents a rare case of benign oral fibrous histiocytoma in childhood. An eleven-year-old male patient sought the stomatology clinic of the dentistry course at a reference university in northeastern Brazil, complaining of an asymptomatic increase in volume on the cheek, with an evolution of approximately two years. On intraoral examination, a lesion in the cheek mucosa was observed, measuring approximately 4 cm. The lesion had a nodular, circumscribed, reddish appearance, showing ulcerated areas covered by a yellowish pseudomembrane on its surface. The clinical diagnostic hypothesis was pleomorphic adenoma. Excisional biopsy was performed and, after morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation, the diagnosis of BFH was reached. Although it is a lesion with an excellent prognosis, BFH must be carefully analyzed for the differential diagnosis with malignant neoplasms that may have a mild appearance, such as fibrosarcoma or dermatofibrosarcoma. In addition, other benign lesions such as desmoplastic fibroblastoma, myofibroma, myopericytoma and nodular fasciitis may, in some histological sections, mimic the microscopic appearance of benign fibrous histiocytoma. In this reported case, immunohistochemical evaluation was essential to conclude the diagnosis of BFH(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/diagnosis , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous
13.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(3): e1927, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405040

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Diversos estudios realizados sobre el linfoma de Hodgkin (LH) han determinado la expresión de la proteína de muerte programada (PD-L1) en las células de Reed-Sternberg-Hodgkin (HRS), con resultados variables. Esta proteína ha adquirido relevancia por su papel en la respuesta inmunitaria en las neoplasias malignas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la expresión inmunohistoquímica de PD-L1 en las HRS y su relación con la edad, sexo, estadio clínico y supervivencia global en una cohorte de pacientes peruanos. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron 25 biopsias de pacientes con diagnóstico de LH, lo que permitió determinar la expresión inmunohistoquímica de PD-L1 en las HRS en asociación con la sobrevida global (SG) y los datos clínicos de los pacientes. Resultados: Todos los casos mostraron expresión de PD-L1 en más del 1 %. No hubo diferencia estadística significativa en la SG cuando se comparó dos grupos de acuerdo con la expresión de PD-L1 con punto de corte en 50 %, ni tampoco con el estadio clínico (EC), la edad y el sexo. Conclusiones: Se ha encontrado una alta expresión de PD-L1 en los tumores con LH previos al tratamiento. No se ha encontrado asociación entre la expresión de PD-L1, la SG, la edad, el sexo o el EC. Son necesarios otros estudios con mayor cantidad de pacientes para reevaluar el impacto pronóstico de la expresión de esta proteína en LH.


ABSTRACT Objective: Various studies on Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) have determined programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, with variable results. This protein has gained relevance for its role in the immune response in malignant neoplasms. This work aimed to determine PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in HRS cells and its relationship with age, sex, clinical stage and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of Peruvian patients. Materials and methods: Twenty-five (25) biopsies from patients diagnosed with HL were assessed, which allowed determining PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in HRS cells in relation to OS and clinical data of the patients. Results: All cases showed PD-L1 expression in more than 1 % of tumor cells. There was no statistically significant difference in OS when two groups were compared in terms of PD-L1 expression with a cut-off point of 50 %, clinical stage (CS), age and sex. Conclusions: High PD-L1 expression was found in pre-treatment HL tumors. No association was found between PD-L1 expression, OS, age, sex or CS. Further studies with a larger number of patients are necessary to reassess the prognostic impact of the expression of this protein in HL.

14.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 619-626, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385649

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that homeobox proteins play an important role in the formation and development of tissues and organs in the embryonic period. In our study, the distribution of Dlx-5 and TLX proteins, which are members of the homeobox family, in the testis, epididymis and ductus deferens ducts of some cat breeds were investigated. For this purpose, in the study, 18 testes younger than six months (immature) and older than one year (mature) were examined under a light microscope using an immunohistochemical method (indirect streptavidin-biotin complex). While it was determined that Dlx-5 and TLX1 proteins were expressed at varying levels in cells in immature and mature cat testicles, epithelial cells of ductus epididymis and ductus deferens, and smooth muscle cells of ductus deferens, no differences were observed between cat breeds. Dlx-5 immunoreactivity was more intense in the testes, epididymis and deferens ducts of immature and mature compared to TLX1. These results suggested that both proteins play important roles in the development of male feline genital organs and in the secretion and differentiation of cells, and also further observation of Dlx-5 expression suggested that this protein may be more effective than TLX1 in testicular development and physiological processes.


RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que las proteínas homeobox juegan un papel importante en la formación y desarrollo de tejidos y órganos en el período embrionario. En nuestro estudio, se investigó la distribución de las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX, que son miembros de la familia homeobox, en los testículos, en el epidídimo y en los conductos deferentes de algunas razas de gatos. En el estudio fueron examinados, 18 testículos de animales menores de seis meses (inmaduros) y mayores de un año (maduros) bajo un microscopio óptico utilizando un método inmunohistoquímico (complejo indirecto de estreptavidina-biotina). Si bien se determinó que las proteínas Dlx-5 y TLX1 se expresaron en niveles variables en las células de los testículos de gatos inmaduros y maduros, las células epiteliales del epidídimo y del conducto deferente y las células del músculo liso del conducto deferente, no se observaron diferencias entre las razas de gatos. La inmunorreactividad de Dlx-5 fue más intensa en los testículos, epidídimo y conductos deferentes de gatos inmaduros y maduros en comparación con TLX1. Estos resultados sugieren que ambas proteínas tienen un rol importante en el desarrollo de los órganos genitales felinos masculinos y en la secreción y diferenciación de células, y también la observación de la expresión de Dlx-5 sugirió que esta proteína puede ser más efectiva que TLX1 en el desarrollo testicular y en los procesos fisiológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cats , Testis/growth & development , Testis/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry
15.
Medisur ; 20(3)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405936

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el pronóstico y la terapéutica del cáncer de mama están estrechamente relacionados con las características histopatológicas del paciente. Estas permiten establecer grupos pronósticos, como apoyo en la decisión de tratamientos individuales efectivos. Sin embargo, la información existente sobre la relación entre estos aspectos y los subtipos inmunohistoquímicos de cáncer de mama es limitada en países latinoamericanos. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre las características clínico-patológicas e histológicas y los subtipos inmunohistoquímicos de cáncer de mama en pacientes ecuatorianas. Métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal en pacientes ecuatorianas atendidas en el Hospital Abel Gilbert Pontón entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2017. Se incluyeron 199 pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de cáncer de mama. Se analizaron variables clínico-patológicas: edad, tamaño del tumor y estado de los ganglios linfáticos; histológicas: tipo y grado histológico. Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes fue de 56,77 ± 11,96 años. Se observaron metástasis ganglionares en la mayoría de los casos (63,3 %). El tamaño medio del tumor fue de 3,88 ± 1,61 cm. Más de la mitad de los casos (56,8 %) presentaron un grado histológico moderadamente diferenciado. El subtipo molecular predominante fue la neoplasia luminal A (53,8 %). El análisis demostró una asociación significativa (p <0,0001) entre subtipos inmunohistoquímicos y las características clínico-patológicas e histológicas del cáncer de mama. Conclusiones: la neoplasia mamaria en las pacientes ecuatorianas se diagnostica en estadios avanzados. El estudio enfatiza en la necesidad de introducir las pruebas de receptores inmunohistoquímicos en la práctica clínica para ayudar y determinar la biología del cáncer de mama, mejorar el efecto sobre la terapia y el pronóstico del paciente.


ABSTRACT Background: The prognosis and therapy of breast cancer (BC) is closely related to the histopathological characteristics of the patient. These allow to establish prognostic groups, as support in the decision of effective individual treatments. However, the existing information is limited on the relationship between these aspects and the immunohistochemical subtypes (IHC) of breast cancer in Latin American countries. Objective: To determine the relationship between the clinical-pathological and histological characteristics with the IHC subtypes of BC in Ecuadorian patients. Methods: An observational of the cross-sectional study was carried out in Ecuadorian patients treated at the Abel Gilbert Pontón Hospital between January 2014 and December 2017. 199 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of BC were included. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed: age, tumor size and lymph node status; histological: type and histological grade. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56,77 ± 11,96 years. Lymph node metastases were observed in most cases (63,3%). The mean tumor size was 3,88 ± 1,61 cm. More than half of the cases (56,8%) presented a moderately differentiated histological grade. The predominant molecular subtype was Luminal A neoplasia (53,8%). The analysis showed a significant association (p <0, 0001) between IHC subtypes and the clinicopathological and histological characteristics of BC. Conclusions: Breast neoplasia in Ecuadorian patients is diagnosed in advanced stages. The study emphasizes the need to introduce IHC receptor tests into clinical practice to help determine the biology of breast cancer, improve the effect on therapy and the patient's prognosis.

16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 680-684, May 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376198

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of endoglin and its correlation with histopathological and clinical findings in conjunctival nevi. Methods: The study included archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 44 patients with conjunctival nevi. Immunohistochemical staining for CD105 had been performed with monoclonal mouse antihuman CD105 antibodies. The intratumoral microvessel density for quantification of tumoral vascularization had been determined by this marker. Results: The expression of CD105 was positive in 30 (68.2%) cases. There was a statistically significant difference in the level of CD105 expression regarding the histological type of nevus (p=0.03) and intralesional cysts status (p=0.02). Spearman's rho (ρ −0.316) revealed a significant negative correlation between the expression of endoglin and the histological type of nevus (p=0.03) and between the expression of endoglin and the presence of intralesional cysts (ρ −0.380, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study suggests that endoglin could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in differentiating between benign and malignant melanocytic ocular lesions.

17.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 91-95, mar. 2022. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362719

ABSTRACT

El angiosarcoma es un tumor vascular maligno poco frecuente. Constituye menos del 2% de todos los sarcomas. Existen varias formas clínicas, una es la producida después de radioterapia, en pacientes que fueron tratadas por un cáncer de mama, con cirugía conservadora y radioterapia. Se presenta como un sarcoma de alto grado, localizado en la piel o en el tejido subcutáneo y, ocasionalmente, el parénquima mamario. El único tratamiento curativo es la cirugía, con tendencia a la recurrencia y a hacer metástasis hematógena, el pronóstico es malo, con alta tasa de mortalidad.


Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. It constitutes less than 2% of all sarcomas. There are several clinical forms; the one produced after radiation therapy is that associated with patients who were treated for breast cancer with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. It presents as a high-grade sarcoma located on the skin or the subcutaneous tissue and, occasionally, the breast parenchyma. The only curative treatment is surgery, with a tendency to recurrence and visceral hematogenous metastasis, with a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate.


El angiossarcoma é um tumor vascular maligno pouco frequente. Constitui menos de 2% de todos os sarcomas. Existem várias formas clínicas, uma é a produzida depois da radioterapia, em pacientes que foram tratadas por um câncer de mama, com cirurgia conservadora e radioterapia. Se apresenta como um sarcoma de alto grau, localizado na pele ou no tecido subcutâneo e, ocasionalmente, o parênquima mamário. O único tratamento curativo é a cirurgia, com tendência à recorrência e a fazer metástasehematogênica, o prognóstico é mau, com alta taxa de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Breast , Subcutaneous Tissue , Parenchymal Tissue , Neoplasm Metastasis
18.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 116-121, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400117

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Mutações do gene da filagrina vêm sendo associadas, classicamente, a alterações da barreira epitelial em doenças alérgicas com comprometimento da pele e das superfícies mucosas. Particularmente na dermatite atópica, a relação entre filagrina, mecanismo fisiopatológico e evolução clínica tem sido demonstrada. Recentemente, alterações da barreira epitelial com redução da expressão da filagrina, também têm sido associadas a mecanismos imunológicos envolvidos na patogênese da esofagite eosinofílica. Devido a disfunções na barreira epitelial, microrganismos e alérgenos são capazes de penetrarem no epitélio da mucosa esofágica, assim como na dermatite atópica. Objetivo: Avaliar a possível correlação da expressão da filagrina com os achados histopatológicos em biópsias esofágicas de pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica. Métodos: A expressão da filagrina foi investigada in situ, por imuno-histoquímica, em biópsias esofágicas nos seguintes grupos: Grupo I, controle (n=8), amostras provenientes de pacientes saudáveis; Grupo II (n=27), amostras provenientes de pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica. Resultados: Os resultados demonstraram uma diminuição da expressão da filagrina na mucosa do esôfago de portadores de esofagite eosinofílica. Adicionalmente, a intensidade da marcação imuno-histoquímica foi menor na mucosa esofágica com maior infiltração de eosinófilos. Conclusão: A diminuição da expressão de filagrina pode ser um fenomeno fisiopatológico associado ao aumento da quantidade de eosinófilos na mucosa esofágica, podendo impactar na evolução clínica da esofagite eosinofílica.


Introduction:Filaggrin gene mutations have been classically associated with changes in the epithelial barrier in allergic diseases involving the skin and mucosal surfaces. Particularly in atopic dermatitis, the relationship between filaggrin, pathophysiological mechanism and clinical evolution hás been demonstrated. Recently, changes in the epithelial barrier with reduced expression of filaggrin have also been associated with immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis. Due to dysfunction in the epithelial barrier, microorganisms and allergens are able to penetrate the epithelium of the esophageal mucosa, as well as in atopic dermatitis. Objective: To evaluated the possible correlation of filaggrin expression with histopathological findings in esophageal biopsies of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Methods: Filaggrin expression was investigated in situ by immunohistochemistry in esophageal biopsies in the following groups: Group I, control (n = 8), samples from healthy patients; Group II (n = 27), samples from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Results: The results demonstrated a decrease in the expression of filaggrin in the esophageal mucosa of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Additionally, the intensity of the immunohistochemical labeling was lower in the esophageal mucosa with greater infiltration of eosinophils. Conclusion: The reduction of filaggrin expression may be a pathophysiological phenomenon associated with an increase in the quantity of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosa, which may impact on the clinical evolution of eosinophilic esophagitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Filaggrin Proteins , Patients , Skin , Immunohistochemistry , Allergens , Dermatitis, Atopic , Esophageal Mucosa , Mutation
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 196-206, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374518

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las lesiones del nervio facial afectan la plasticidad a largo plazo en el hipocampo, así como la memoria de reconocimiento de objetos y la memoria espacial, dos procesos dependientes de esta estructura. Si bien se ha descrito una activación de la microglía en la corteza motora primaria asociada con esta lesión, no se conoce si ocurre algo similar en el hipocampo. Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión unilateral del nervio facial sobre la activación de células de la microglía en el hipocampo contralateral. Materiales y métodos. Se hicieron experimentos de inmunohistoquímica para detectar células de la microglía en el hipocampo de ratas sometidas a lesión irreversible del nervio facial. Los animales se sacrificaron en distintos momentos después de la lesión, para evaluar la evolución de la proliferación (densidad de células) y la activación (área celular) de la microglía en el tejido del hipocampo. Los tejidos cerebrales de los animales de control se compararon con los de animales lesionados sacrificados en los días 1,3, 7, 21 y 35 después de la lesión. Resultados. Las células de la microglía en el hipocampo de animales con lesión del nervio facial mostraron signos de proliferación y activación a los 3, 7 y 21 días después de la lesión. Sin embargo, al cabo de cinco semanas, estas modificaciones se revirtieron, a pesar de que no hubo recuperación funcional de la parálisis facial. Conclusiones. La lesión irreversible del nervio facial produce proliferación y activación temprana y transitoria de las células de la microglía en el hipocampo. Estos cambios podrían estar asociados con las modificaciones electrofisiológicas y las alteraciones comportamentales dependientes del hipocampo descritas recientemente.


Introduction: Facial nerve injury induces changes in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity and affects both object recognition memory and spatial memory consolidation (i.e., hippocampus-dependent tasks). Although facial nerve injury-associated microglíal activation has been described regarding the primary motor cortex, it has not been ascertained whether something similar occurs in the hippocampus. Peripheral nerve injury- associated microglíal changes in hippocampal tissue could explain neuronal changes in the contralateral hippocampus. Objective: To characterize the effect of unilateral facial nerve injury on microglíal proliferation and activation in the contralateral hippocampus. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical experiments detected microglíal cells in the hippocampal tissue of rats that had undergone facial nerve injury. The animals were sacrificed at specific times after injury to evaluate hippocampal microglíal cell proliferation (cell density) and activation (cell area); sham-operated animals were compared to lesioned animals sacrificed 1,3, 7, 21, or 35 days after injury. Results: Facial nerve-injured rats' hippocampal microglíal cells proliferated and adopted an activated phenotype 3- to 21-days post-lesion. Such modifications were transient since the microglíal cells returned to their resting state five weeks after injury, despite the injury's irreversible nature. Conclusions: Facial nerve injury causes the transient proliferation and activation of microglíal cells in the hippocampus. This finding might partly explain the morphological and electrophysiological changes described for CA1 pyramidal neurons and the impairment of spatial memory consolidation which has previously been observed in facial nerve-injured rats.


Subject(s)
Facial Nerve , Hippocampus , Rats , Immunohistochemistry
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 58-64, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374453

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Viral hepatitis C is a significant public health challenge. The disease may remain clinically silent in both acute and chronic forms, and chronic infections may progress to advanced disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, requiring costly treatment, compromising the patient's quality of life and even leading to death. For this reason, it is one of the most frequent indications for liver transplantation. Although treatment with direct-acting antivirals represents remarkable progress, many patients are still infected and even those who cleared the viral infection must be followed due to their previous hepatic lesions, especially regarding the disturbances of lobular architecture and the sanguineal and lymphatic vessels. Objective To assess immunohistochemical aspects of lymphatic sprouts and mature lymphatic vascularity with histological variables of liver injury attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and fatty disease. Methods The present study included 72 liver biopsies of cases with chronic hepatitis C. Morphologic changes reflecting "staging" and "activity" were analyzed. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed with monoclonal antibody D2-40 anti-podoplanin. Major histological variables were also semiquantified so as to enable the search for possible associations among histological and Immunohistochemical criteria, as well as with genotypes 1 and 3 of HCV. Results Histological findings showed that the different degrees of strutural changes were well represented in this casuistic. Intralobular/parenchymal necro-inflammatory activity was predominantly mild to moderate. Most cases did not show major evidences of fatty disease, which was found significantly higher in cases infected with HCV genotype 3. The amount of portal lymphatic sprouts increased along with the progression of structural changes, maximal at cirrhosis. Portal lymphatic sprouts as well as portal mature lymphatic vessels also showed an increase parallel to the increase in the degree of portal/septal inflammatory infiltrate. In the present study, no significant association was found between the proportion of portal lymphatic sprouts or portal mature lymphatic vessels and the degree of periportal/periseptal activity. No significant relations were detected between lymphatic sprouts/mature vessels and periportal or parenchymal inflammatory activity, nor with infections due to HCV genotype 1 or 3. Conclusion Visualization and semiquantitation of sprouts and mature lymphatic vessels were clearly yielded by Immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody D2-40. The amount of lymphatics was increased along fibrogenic process, significantly related to progression of liver disease and maximal at cirrhosis. No significant relations were detected with necro-inflammatory activity at interface or in the parenchyma.


RESUMO Contexto A hepatite C é um relevante problema de saúde pública. A doença pode permanecer clinicamente silenciosa tanto na forma aguda como na crônica e as infecções crônicas podem progredir para doenças avançadas, tais como cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC), requerendo tratamentos dispendiosos, comprometendo a qualidade de vida do paciente e até mesmo levando à morte. Por esta razão, é uma das indicações mais frequentes para o transplante hepático. Apesar da introdução do tratamento com antivirais de ação directa (AAD) representar um progresso notável, muitos pacientes não receberam o tratamento e continuam infectados, e mesmo aqueles que eliminaram a infecção viral devem ser seguidos devido às lesões hepáticas anteriores, especialmente no que diz respeito às alterações da arquitetura lobular e dos vasos sanguíneos e linfáticos. Objetivo Avaliar os aspectos imuno-histoquímicos dos brotos linfáticos e dos vasos linfáticos "maduros" com variáveis histológicas de lesão hepática atribuíveis ao vírus da hepatite C (VHC) e à doença gordurosa. Métodos O presente estudo incluiu 72 biópsias hepáticas em pacientes com hepatite C crônica. Foram analisadas alterações estruturais relativas a "estadiamento" e "atividade". Reações imuno-histoquímicas foram realizadas com anticorpo D2-40 anti-podoplanina. As principais variáveis histológicas também foram semiquantificadas, de modo a permitir a procura de possíveis associações entre os critérios histológicos e imunohistoquímicos, bem como com os genótipos 1 e 3 do VHC. Resultados Os achados histológicos mostraram que os diferentes graus de alterações estrutural estavam bem representados nesta casuística. A atividade necro-inflamatória lobular/parenquimatosa foi predominantemente leve à moderada. A maioria dos casos não apresentava grandes evidências de doença gordurosa, que foi encontrada significativamente mais elevada nos casos infectados com o genótipo 3 do VHC. A quantidade de brotos linfáticos portais aumentou com a progressão de alterações estruturais, sendo máxima na cirrose. Os brotos linfáticos portais, bem como os vasos linfáticos "maduros" portais também mostraram um aumento paralelo ao aumento do grau de infiltrado inflamatório portal/septal. No presente estudo, não foi encontrada qualquer associação significativa entre a proporção de brotos linfáticos portais ou vasos linfáticos maduros portais e o grau de atividade periportal/periseptal. Não foram detectadas relações significativas entre os brotos linfáticos/vasos maduros e a atividade inflamatória periportal ou atividade inflamatória parenquimatosa, nem com infecções devido ao genótipo 1 ou 3 do VHC. Conclusão A reação imunohistoquímica com anticorpo monoclonal D2-40 possibilitou a visualização e a semiquantitação de brotos e vasos linfáticos "maduros" nas amostras obtidas por biópsia hepática. A quantidade de linfáticos aumentou ao longo do processo fibrogênico, significativamente relacionada com a progressão da doença hepática e máxima na cirrose. Não foram detectadas relações significativas com a atividade necro-inflamatória periportal ou parenquimatosa.

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