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An. bras. dermatol ; 99(1): 34-42, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527686


Abstract Background: Real-world, primary data on the treatment of psoriasis are scarce, especially concerning the role of soluble biomarkers as outcome predictors. Objective: The authors evaluated the utility of Th1/Th17 serum cytokines along with clinical characteristics as predictors of drug survival in the treatment of psoriasis. Methods: The authors consecutively included participants with moderate to severe psoriasis who were followed up for 6 years. Baseline interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor-α, and inter-leukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured using a cytometric bead array; clinical data were assessed. The authors calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for drug survival using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The authors included 262 patients, most of whom used systemic immunosuppressants or biologics. In the multivariate model, poor quality of life measured by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.012) and elevated baseline IL-6 (HR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.29-3.08; p = 0.002) were associated with treatment interruption. Study limitations: The main limitation of any cohort study is the presence of confounders that could not be detected in clinical evaluation. Conclusions: Poor quality of life and elevated baseline serum IL-6 level predicted treatment interruption in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Although IL-6 is not the most important mediator of the inflammatory pathway in the skin environment, it is an interesting biomarker candidate for predicting psoriasis treatment response.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 33-39, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005231


With rapid development of organ transplantation, the issue of global organ shortage has become increasingly prominent. At present, liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. Nevertheless, the shortage of donors has been a key problem restricting the development of liver transplantation. China is a country with a larger number of hepatitis B, and the shortage of donor liver is particularly significant. Many critically ill patients often lose the best opportunity or even die because they cannot obtain a matched donor liver in time. As a strategy to expand the donor pool, ABO-incompatible (ABOi) liver transplantation offers new options for patients who are waiting for matched donors. However, ABOi liver transplantation is highly controversial due to higher risk of complications, such as severe infection, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), biliary complications, thrombotic microangiopathy, and acute kidney injury, etc. In this article, research progress in preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative strategies of ABOi liver transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinical application and research of ABOi liver transplantation.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 19-25, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005229


Renal allograft fibrosis is one of the common and severe complications after kidney transplantation, which seriously affects the function and survival rate of renal allograft, and may even lead to organ failure and patient death. At present, the researches on renal allograft fibrosis are highly complicated, including immunity, ischemia-reperfusion injury, infection and drug toxicity, etc. The diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft fibrosis remain extremely challenging. In this article, the latest research progress was reviewed and the causes, novel diagnosis and treatment strategies for renal allograft fibrosis were investigated. By improving diagnostic accuracy and optimizing treatment regimen, it is expected to enhance clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients, aiming to provide reference for clinicians to deliver proper management for kidney transplant recipients.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 289-296, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012502


Organ transplantation has become an effective treatment for multiple end-stage diseases. However, the recipients of organ transplantation need to take immunosuppressive drugs for a long time after operation, which leads to low immune function and relatively high incidence of bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Traditional microbial detection methods, such as pathogen culture, immunological detection and polymerase chain reaction, have been widely applied in infection detection, whereas these methods may cause problems, such as long detection time and presumed pathogens. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing has been widely adopted in infection prevention and control in organ transplantation in recent years due to high detection rate and comprehensive detection of pathogen spectrum. In this article, the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the prevention and control of infection in solid organ transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of transplantation-related infection.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 200-206, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012489


Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ failure. Nevertheless, organ shortage is a global problem, which limits further development of organ transplantation. Recent research shows that genetically modified pig may become a realistic alternative source of clinical organ transplantation donor. Xenotransplantation may serve as one of the effective measures to resolve the problem of organ shortage. Since 2021, 2 cases of living xenotransplantation and 6 cases of xenotransplantation in brain death recipients have been performed worldwide, and phase Ⅰ clinical trial of xenotransplantation has been launched, and the results have exceeded expectations. Therefore, in this article, recent clinical trial results of xenotransplantation in living and brain death recipients were retrospectively analyzed, and scientific, technical and ethical issues related to clinical research of xenotransplantation were illustrated, hoping to provide reference for clinical research of xenotransplantation in China and promote the development of xenotransplantation in clinical practice.

J. bras. nefrol ; 45(4): 480-487, Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528893


ABSTRACT Introduction: Previous research demonstrated benefits of late conversion to mTOR inhibitors against cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), despite of poor tolerability. This study investigated whether stepwise conversion to sirolimus monotherapy without an attack dose modified the course of disease with improved tolerability. Methods: This prospective exploratory study included non-sensitized KTR with more than 12-months post-transplant, on continuous use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI)-based therapy, and with poor-prognosis cSCC lesions. Incidence densities of high-risk cSCC over 3-years after conversion to sirolimus-monotherapy were compared to a non-randomized group with high-risk cSCC but unsuitable/not willing for conversion. Results: Forty-four patients were included (83% male, mean age 60 ± 9.7years, 62% with skin type II, mean time after transplantation 9 ± 5.7years). There were 25 patients converted to SRL and 19 individuals kept on CNI. There was a tendency of decreasing density of incidence of all cSCC in the SRL group and increasing in the CNI group (1.49 to 1.00 lesions/patient-year and 1.74 to 2.08 lesions/patient-year, p = 0.141). The density incidence of moderately differentiated decreased significantly in the SRL group while increasing significantly in the CNI group (0.31 to 0.11 lesions/patient-year and 0.25 to 0.62 lesions/patient-year, p = 0.001). In the SRL group, there were no sirolimus discontinuations, no acute rejection episodes, and no de novo DSA formation. Renal function remained stable. Conclusions: This study suggests that sirolimus monotherapy may be useful as adjuvant therapy of high-risk cSCC in kidney transplant recipients. The conversion strategy used was well tolerated and safe regarding key mid-term transplant outcomes.

RESUMO Introdução: Pesquisas anteriores demonstraram benefícios da conversão tardia para inibidores de mTOR contra carcinomas espinocelulares cutâneos (CECs) em receptores de transplante renal (RTR), apesar da baixa tolerabilidade. Este estudo investigou se a conversão gradual para monoterapia com sirolimo sem dose de ataque modificou o curso da doença com melhor tolerabilidade. Métodos: Esse estudo prospectivo exploratório incluiu RTR não sensibilizados com mais de 12 meses pós-transplante, uso contínuo de terapia imunossupressora baseado em inibidor de calcineurina (CNI) associado a micofenolato de sódio ou azatioprina, com lesões de CECs de mau prognóstico. Comparou-se densidades de incidência de CECs de alto risco durante 3 anos após conversão para monoterapia com sirolimo à um grupo não randomizado com CECs classificados conforme os mesmos critérios de gravidade do grupo sirolimo, mas inadequado/não disposto à conversão. Resultados: Foram incluídos 44 pacientes (83% homens, idade média 60 ± 9,7 anos, 62% com fototipo de pele II, tempo médio pós-transplante 9 ± 5,7 anos). 25 pacientes foram convertidos para SRL e 19 indivíduos mantidos em CNI. Foi observado tendência de diminuição da densidade de incidência de todos CECs no grupo SRL e de aumento no grupo CNI (1,49 a 1,00 lesões/paciente-ano; 1,74 a 2,08 lesões/paciente-ano; p = 0,141). A densidade de incidência de lesões moderadamente diferenciadas diminuiu significativamente no grupo SRL enquanto aumentou significativamente no grupo CNI (0,31 a 0,11 lesões/paciente-ano; 0,25 a 0,62 lesões/paciente-ano; p = 0,001). No grupo SRL não houve descontinuação do sirolimo, nenhum episódio de rejeição aguda e nenhuma formação de DSA de novo. Função renal permaneceu estável. Conclusões: Esse estudo sugere que a monoterapia com sirolimo pode ser útil como terapia adjuvante de CECs de alto risco em RTR. A estratégia de conversão usada foi bem tolerada e segura em relação aos principais desfechos do transplante a médio prazo.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(6): 686-690, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530001


La neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii es una enfermedad fúngica oportunista descrita principalmente en pacientes con VIH, sin embargo, tras la introducción de la TARV, ha incrementado su incidencia en pacientes con inmunosupresión no asociada a VIH, como neoplasias hematológicas y trasplantes de órganos sólidos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 17 años, receptor de un trasplante renal, con inmunosupresión prolongada con corticoesteroides, con cuadro clínico de tos, disnea y fiebre. La TC mostró micronódulos pulmonares centrolobulillares y vidrio esmerilado. El LBA fue compatible con hemorragia alveolar difusa (HAD), con RPC positiva para P. jirovecii. Se descartaron otras infecciones y enfermedades autoinmunes. Recibió tratamiento con cotrimoxazol con buena evolución clínica y mejoría radiológica. Si bien las causas más frecuentes de HAD son etiologías autoinmunes como enfermedades reumatológicas o vasculitis, es prioritario descartar causas infecciosas, incluyendo P. jirovecii, ya que el tratamiento dirigido puede tener un impacto significativo en la mortalidad en este grupo de pacientes.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is an opportunistic fungal infection, described mainly in HIV patients, however, after the introduction of ART, its presentation has increased in patients with non-HIV immunosuppression, such as hematological cancers, solid or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report the case of a 17-year-old male, kidney transplant patient, with prolonged immunosuppression with corticoesteroids, with history of cough, dyspnea, and fever. Chest CT evidences centrilobular pulmonary micronodules with ground glass. BAL was performed compatible with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, with positive PCR for P. jirovecii. Other infections and autoimmune disease were ruled out. He received treatment with cotrimoxazole with clinical improvement of the patient, and follow up chest CT at the end of treatment showed decrease of pulmonary infiltrates. Although the most frequent causes of DAH are autoimmune etiologies such as rheumatic diseases or vasculitis, it is a priority to rule out infectious causes, including P. jirovecii, since targeted treatment could have a significant impact on mortality outcomes in this group of patients.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Alveoli , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Kidney Transplantation , Immunocompromised Host , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Pneumocystis carinii , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533510


Introducción: La enfermedad asociada a anticuerpos contra la glicoproteína de mielina del oligodendrocito (MOGAD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una entidad clínica recientemente identificada. La frecuencia de presentación del MOGAD es desconocida, pero se considera baja con respecto a otras enfermedades inflamatorias desmielinizantes. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura. Resultados: Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta condición son heterogéneas e incluyen neuritis óptica, mielitis, desmielinización multifocal del sistema nervioso central y encefalitis cortical. Se han descrito algunos hallazgos radiológicos que aumentan la sospecha diagnóstica, como el realce perineural del nervio óptico, el signo de la H en el cordón espinal y la resolución de lesiones T2 con el tiempo. El diagnóstico se basa en la detección de inmunoglobulinas G específicas contra MOG, en el contexto clínico adecuado. El tratamiento consiste en manejo de los ataques agudos con dosis altas de corticoides y en algunos casos se deberá considerar la inmunosupresión crónica, considerar la inmunosupresión crónica en pacientes con recurrencia o con discapacidad severa residual tras el primer evento. Conclusiones: En esta revisión narrativa se resumen los aspectos clave con respecto a la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la MOGAD.

Introduction: The disease associated with antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOGAD) is a recently identified clinical entity, with unknown frequency, but is considered low compared to other demyelinating inflammatory diseases. Materials And Methods: Narrative review. Results: The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous, ranging from optic neuritis or myelitis to multi-focal CNS demyelination or cortical encephalitis. There have been described characteristic MRI features that increase the diagnostic suspicion, such as perineural optic nerve enhancement, spinal cord H-sign or T2-lesion resolution over time. The diagnosis is based on the detection of specific G- immunoglobulins against MOG, in the suggestive clinical context. Acute treatment is based on high dose steroids and maintenance treatment is generally reserved for relapsing cases or patients with severe residual disability after the first attack. Conclusions: In this narrative review, fundamental aspects of pathophysiology, clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MOGAD are discussed.

Optic Neuritis , Oligodendrocyte-Myelin Glycoprotein , Myelitis , Serology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Immunosuppression Therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 227-234, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521140


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition that affects the digestive tract and can lead to inflammation and damage to the intestinal lining. IBD patients with cancer encounter difficulties since cancer treatment weakens their immune systems. A multidisciplinary strategy that strikes a balance between the requirement to manage IBD symptoms and the potential effects of treatment on cancer is necessary for effective care of IBD in cancer patients. To reduce inflammation and avoid problems, IBD in cancer patients is often managed by closely monitoring IBD symptoms in conjunction with the necessary medication and surgical intervention. Anti-inflammatory medications, immunomodulators, and biologic therapies may be used for medical care, and surgical options may include resection of the diseased intestine or removal of the entire colon. The current study provides a paradigm for shared decision-making involving the patient, gastroenterologist, and oncologist while considering recent findings on the safety of IBD medicines, cancer, and recurrent cancer risk in individuals with IBD. We hope to summarize the pertinent research in this review and offer useful advice. (AU)

Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Urologic Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Methotrexate , Risk Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Mercaptopurine
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515128


Los pacientes con malignidades hematológicas tienen un riesgo más alto de hospitalización, admisión a cuidado crítico y muerte cuando contraen COVID-19. En este grupo se ha propuesto la vacunación y los refuerzos para disminuir el riesgo de complicaciones. Sin embargo, es posible ver una pobre respuesta humoral y celular a las vacunas. En esta revisión se presenta la evidencia sobre la respuesta a la vacunación, poniendo de presente algunas patologías y tratamientos que pueden disminuirla de forma significativa. Los pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas se deben considerar en riesgo de complicaciones, incluso después de haber sido vacunados de forma completa y haber recibido los refuerzos. Se debe mantener la vigilancia de forma estrecha después de haber sido vacunados y evaluar la posibilidad de otras estrategias (medicamentos, anticuerpos monoclonales) para la prevención o el manejo de COVID-19.

Patients with hematological malignancies have a higher risk of hospital admission, critical care and death when they suffer from COVID-19. In this group of patients, vaccination and boosters have been proposed to mitigate the risk of complications. However, it is possible to observe a diminished rate of humoral and cellular response. In this review, evidence is shown about the response to COVID-19 vaccination, considering some specific pathologies and treatments that can affect such response in a significant account. Patients with malignant neoplasm must be considered at risk of COVID-19 complications, even after a complete vaccine schedule and boosters. Surveillance must be maintained after vaccination over these patients and other strategies must be considered (drugs, monoclonal antibodies) for prevention and management of COVID-19.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533491


Introducción: En Colombia, la información sobre la frecuencia de presentación de la enfermedad por CO-VID-19 y sus desenlaces en personas con esclerosis múltiple (EM) es prácticamente inexistente. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la frecuencia, las características y los factores relacionados con la infección por COVID-19 en una muestra de pacientes con EM en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Análisis descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticados con criterios de esclerosis múltiple que acudieron a nuestro centro entre junio y octubre del año 2021. Los pacientes proporcionaron información sobre la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y su vacunación. Se analizaron los factores relacionados con la infección por COVID-19 mediante modelos de regresión logística binomial uni y multivariable. Resultados: Se analizaron 240 pacientes, de los cuales el 71 % eran mujeres, con una edad promedio de 34 años. La mayoría estaban en tratamiento con terapias modificadoras de la enfermedad y más del 80 % estaban vacunados. Sesenta y nueve pacientes declararon haber tenido COVID-19. En los modelos multivariables, la edad (OR 0,96; IC 95 % 0,93-0,99) fue el único factor asociado con una menor probabilidad de infección por COVID-19. Discusión: La infección por COVID-19 en pacientes con EM en Colombia parece ser independiente de las variables clínicas y de tratamiento y parece estar asociada con la menor edad. Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios para evaluar el comportamiento del COVID-19 en pacientes con EM en el contexto colombiano.

Introduction: The information about the frequency of COVID-19 and its outcomes in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Colombia is practically non-existent. We aimed to describe the frequency characteristics and factors associated with of COVID-19 in a sample of patients with MS. Materials and methods: Descriptive and retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis criteria who attended our center between June and October 2021. Patients provided information about SARS-CoV-2 infection and their vaccination. COVID-19 determinants were analyzed using uni-and multivariable binomial logistic regression models. Results: 240 patients were analyzed, of whom 71% were women, with a mean age of 34 years. The majority of patients were on disease-modifying therapies and over 80 % were vaccinated. 69 patients reported having had COVID-19. In multivariable models, age (OR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.93-0.99) was the only factor associated with a lower odds of COVID-19 infection. Discussion: COVID-19 infection in patients with MS in Colombia appears to be independent of clinical and treatment variables, and it appears to be associated with younger age. Conclusions: More studies are needed to assess the behavior of COVID-19 in MS patients from Colombia.

SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Immunosuppression Therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Breakthrough Infections
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 May; 71(5): 2193-2198
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225048


Purpose: The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID?19) pandemic triggered a mucormycosis epidemic in India. Diabetes mellitus and dysregulated immune response were contributors, and rhino?orbital?cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) was the most common presentation. It is however not known whether bio?chemical parameters at presentation correlate with stage of ROCM or final outcome in terms of vision or mortality. Methods: This retrospective, hospital?based study included all in?patients of mucormycosis with ophthalmic manifestations at presentation admitted during June 1, 2021 to August 31, 2021. It aimed to evaluate the association between severity of infection, serum levels of HbA1c, ferritin, interleukin?6 (IL?6), C?reactive protein (CRP), and D?dimer levels at presentation and outcome. Results: There were altogether 47 eligible cases having a mean age of 48.8 ± 10.9 years with a male:female ratio of 2.6:1; forty?two (89.4%) had pre?existing diabetes, and five (10.6%) had steroid?induced hyperglycemia. The mean HbA1c among diabetics was 9.7 ± 2.1. HbA1c and serum CRP showed an increase over subsequent stages, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.31). IL?6 values for all stages were similar (P = 0.97). Only serum ferritin levels showed a statistically significant increase over stages (P = 0.04). IL?6 was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in patients who survived, whereas CRP levels were significantly lower in patients who had final visual acuity (VA) better than only perception of light (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is a significant association of ROCM. Serum ferritin levels at presentation best correlate with extent of the disease. CRP levels are best to prognosticate cases that will have sufficient VA to carry on activities of daily living, whereas IL?6 levels are best associated with survival

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432171


Exponemos la experiencia del Instituto Nacional de Cardiología de una serie de casos de pacientes sometidos a trasplante cardiaco entre mayo de 2016 y junio 2022. Se realizaron 14 trasplantes, 13 fueron del sexo masculino. La edad osciló entre 19 y 62 años. Las etiologías fueron cardiopatías de tipo idiopática en 57% y valvular en 21%. El 50% se trasplantó en INTERMACS 4 (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support), 21% INTERMACS 3 y solo 28% en INTERMACS 2. Tres pacientes se trasplantaron con asistencia circulatoria tipo membrana circulación extracorpórea. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron las infecciosas. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue 35,7%. Hubo un fallecido en el seguimiento tras 5 años de trasplante.

We present the experience of the National Institute of Cardiology of a series of cases of patients undergoing heart transplantation between May 2016 and June 2022. Fourteen transplants were performed, 13 of the patients were male. The age ranged between 19 and 62 years. The etiologies were idiopathic heart disease in 57% and valvular heart disease in 21%. Fifty percent was transplanted in INTERMACS 4 (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support), 21% in INTERMACS 3 and only 28% in INTERMACS 2. Three patients were transplanted with membrane type extracorporeal circulation circulatory support. The most frequent complications were infectious. Hospital mortality was 35.7%. There was one patient who died during follow-up after 5 years of transplantation.

Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(1): 7-13, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553739


La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de los avances en materia de diagnóstico y tratamiento, se desconocen aún muchos aspectos de su etiopatogenia y fisiopatología. La EM es una de las principales causas de discapacidad neurológica y, por los elevados costos de los tratamientos inmunomoduladores e inmunosupresores, tiene un gran impacto económico en la salud pública. Por ello, se intentaron diversos tratamientos preventivos, como la utilización de la vitamina D. Debido a la acción de la vitamina D sobre el sistema inmune, ha sido prescripta en sujetos de riesgo. Sin embargo, hasta el momento actual, los estudios sobre sus efectos no resultaron concluyentes y persisten las dudas acerca de sus posibles beneficios en materia de prevención. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica es realizar una puesta al día y destacar los aspectos controversiales en relación al uso de la vitamina D como tratamiento preventivo de la esclerosis múltiple. (AU)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, many aspects of its etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology remain unknown. MS is one of the main causes of neurological disability and, due to the high costs of modern immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments, it has a great economic impact on public health. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made in the search for preventive treatments. For this reason, various preventive treatments were tried, such as the use of vitamin D. Due to its action on the immune system, it has been used in subjects at ME risk. However, these studies have been inconclusive to date, and its possible benefits in terms of prevention are still being questioned. The objective of this bibliographic review is to update and highlight the controversial aspects in relation to the use of vitamin D as a preventive treatment of multiple sclerosis. (AU)

Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Immune System/drug effects , Immunity , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jan; 71(1): 321
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224815


Background: Corneal melt with iris prolapse is a rare complication of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Purpose: To highlight a challenging case of a peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) with corneal melt and iris prolapse in a patient’s only eye. Synopsis: A 56?year?old Asian Indian male presented with blurring of vision in the right eye and was diagnosed with cataract. He was a known type 2 diabetes mellitus and a rheumatoid arthritis patient and was not on treatment. He had been previously diagnosed with PUK in the left eye and was lost to follow?up due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID?19) after therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty and lost his vision in that eye. Cataract surgery in the right eye was done under cover of immunosuppression. Subsequently, he developed PUK and was treated with a glue and bandage contact lens. Again, he was lost to follow?up and then presented a few months later with corneal melt with iris prolapse in the right eye. We describe in the video the surgical and medical challenges and successful salvage of both the eyeball and the vision. Highlights: Highlights include the following: 1. A rare case of corneal melt with iris prolapse. 2. Demonstration of surgical technique of patch graft. 3. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after the procedure.

J. bras. pneumol ; 49(4): e20220419, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514416


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the etiology of and factors associated with pulmonary infection in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients. Methods: This was a single-center case-control study conducted between December of 2017 and March of 2020 at a referral center for kidney transplantation in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The case:control ratio was 1:1.8. Cases included kidney or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients hospitalized with pulmonary infection. Controls included kidney or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients without pulmonary infection and matched to cases for sex, age group, and donor type (living or deceased). Results: A total of 197 patients were included in the study. Of those, 70 were cases and 127 were controls. The mean age was 55 years (for cases) and 53 years (for controls), with a predominance of males. Corticosteroid use, bronchiectasis, and being overweight were associated with pulmonary infection risk in the multivariate logistic regression model. The most common etiologic agent of infection was cytomegalovirus (in 14.3% of the cases), followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (in 10%), Histoplasma capsulatum (in 7.1%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in 7.1%). Conclusions: Corticosteroid use, bronchiectasis, and being overweight appear to be risk factors for pulmonary infection in kidney/kidney-pancreas transplant recipients, endemic mycoses being prevalent in this population. Appropriate planning and follow-up play an important role in identifying kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients at risk of pulmonary infection.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a etiologia da infecção pulmonar e os fatores a ela associados em pacientes que receberam transplante de rim ou rim-pâncreas. Métodos: Estudo unicêntrico de caso-controle realizado entre dezembro de 2017 e março de 2020 em um centro de referência em transplantes de rim em Belo Horizonte (MG). A proporção caso:controle foi de 1:1,8. Os casos foram pacientes que haviam recebido transplante de rim ou rim-pâncreas e que foram hospitalizados em virtude de infecção pulmonar. Os controles foram pacientes que haviam recebido transplante de rim ou rim-pâncreas e que não apresentaram infecção pulmonar, emparelhados com os casos pelo sexo, faixa etária e tipo de doador (vivo ou falecido). Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 197 pacientes. Destes, 70 eram casos e 127 eram controles. A média de idade foi de 55 anos (casos) e 53 anos (controles), com predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino. O uso de corticosteroides, bronquiectasias e sobrepeso relacionaram-se com risco de infecção pulmonar no modelo de regressão logística multivariada. O agente etiológico de infecção mais comum foi o citomegalovírus (em 14,3% dos casos), seguido de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (em 10%), Histoplasma capsulatum (em 7,1%) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (em 7,1%). Conclusões: O uso de corticosteroides, bronquiectasias e sobrepeso parecem ser fatores de risco de infecção pulmonar em pacientes que receberam transplante de rim ou rim-pâncreas, e as micoses endêmicas são prevalentes nessa população. O planejamento e acompanhamento adequados desempenham um papel importante na identificação de pacientes transplantados de rim/rim-pâncreas nos quais haja risco de infecção pulmonar.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515155


Las encefalitis autoinmunes son una condición emergente, caracterizada por la aparición repentina de síntomas psicóticos o depresivos "de novo", crisis convulsivas o estatus epiléptico refractario, o demencia rápidamente progresiva. Las encefalitis autoinmunes están asociadas a diversos fenómenos desencadenantes, como infecciones virales previas entre las más comunes, y se asocian con la presencia de anticuerpos antineuronales y/o onconeuronales, que deben estudiarse ante la sospecha de esta entidad. Es muy importante desarrollar un diagnóstico presuntivo y precoz, ya que la terapia con inmunosupresores como los corticoides -iniciados en el momento oportuno-, puede cambiar su evolución hacia la mejoría clínica. Presentamos un paciente con encefalitis autoinmunes y anticuerpos anti-Titina positivos (habitualmente presentes en timoma y miastenia gravis), no asociados a neoplasia conocida y con buena respuesta a esteroides.

Autoimmune Encephalitis, are an emerging condition, characterized by the sudden onset of psychotic or depressive symptoms "de novo", refractory seizures or epilepsy, or rapidly progressive dementias. The autoimmune encephalitis are associated to various triggered phenomena as a previous viral infections among others; it's related to the presence of antineuronal and/or onconeuronal antibodies, and there must be studied when autoimmune encephalitis is suspected. It is very important to develop a presumptive and early diagnosis, since steroid therapy -on opportunity time- can change its evolution towards clinical improvement. We present a patient with autoimmune encephalitis, and positive anti-Titin antibodies (usually presents in thymoma and myasthenia gravis) not associated with known neoplasia, and with a good response to steroids.

Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 589-592, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982100


Bone marrow microenvironment is a highly complex environment surrounding tumor, which plays an important role in the survival, proliferation, drug resistance and migration of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. As an important cellular component in tumor microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages(TAM) has attracted attention due to its key role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Targeting TAM has shown potential therapeutic value in cancer treatment. In order to clarify the role of macrophages in MM progression, it is necessary to understand the differentiation of TAM and its characteristics of promoting MM. This paper reviews the research progress on how TAM is programmed in MM and the mechanism of TAM promoting tumor development and drug resistance.

Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Tumor-Associated Macrophages , Macrophages/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Tumor Microenvironment
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 1-11, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982059


A complex pathophysiological mechanism is involved in the brain injury following cerebral infarction. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a complex multi-cellular structure consisting of endothelial cells , neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes. The dyshomeostasis of NVU directly participates in the inflammatory immune regulation process. The components of NVU promote inflammatory overreaction and also synergize with the overactivation of autonomic nervous system to initiate stroke-induced immunosuppression (SIID). SIID can alleviate the damage caused by inflammation, however, it also makes stroke patients more susceptible to infection, leading to systemic damage and worsening the condition. This article reviews the mechanism of SIID and the roles of NVU components in SIID, to provide a perspective for recanalization, prognosis and immune regulation therapy of cerebral infarction.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 810-816, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997813


Organ shortage is a critical factor limiting the development of organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation is expected to resolve the problem of organ shortage, which has become a new research hotspot. Study of costimulatory signaling pathway related to T cell regulation is a hot topic in terms of immunity of xenotransplantation. Since the discovery of costimulatory molecule CD28, multiple costimulatory molecules have been identified, including costimulatory and coinhibitory receptors and their related ligands. Specific T cell activation of donors is the key factor leading to acute immune rejection. The expression and induction of costimulatory molecules on T cells differ during different immune stages, and these costimulatory molecules play a key role in maintaining T cell tolerance and the balance of T cell immune response. At present, increasing attention has been diverted to the role of costimulatory signaling pathway in organ transplantation. In this article, the latest research progress in costimulatory signaling pathway related to xenotransplantation immunity was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the optimization of xenotransplantation immunosuppression regimen.