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1.
E-Cienc. inf ; 12(1)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384765

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Un elemento de la e-salud que ha cobrado gran relevancia es el Expediente Clínico Electrónico (ECE) ya que es un medio para lograr mejores resultados en la práctica médica. Al momento, han sido pocas las investigaciones que se han centrado en analizar e identificar la situación de esta estrategia en el mundo. Por ello, el objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el panorama actual del ECE en diversos países considerando las ventajas, desventajas, desafíos y factores de éxito en su implementación. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente sobre el ECE en base de datos especializadas. Para obtener estos estudios se utilizó la base de datos de scopus y sciencedirect , utilizando palabras de búsqueda como como registro electrónico de salud, registro médico electrónico o expediente clínico electrónico; se seleccionaron solamente aquellos estudios con un alto factor de impacto, mismo que se refiere al número de veces que se hayan citado los artículos consultados. Se seleccionaron y analizaron 64 estudios académicos. Resultados. Se encontró que aún existen importantes desafíos y desventajas en la implementación del ECE como la interoperabilidad semántica y el estrés laboral que genera en los usuarios este sistema. Conclusiones. Existen cuestiones importantes que aún quedan por resolver para una implementación eficaz del ECE. Es necesario integrar a todos los involucrados en el proceso de cambio, así como establecer las medidas de seguridad necesarias para garantizar la privacidad de la información.


Abstract Introduction. An element of e-health that has gained great relevance is the Electronic Medical Record (ECE) since it is a means to achieve better results in medical practice. At the moment, few investigations have focused on analyzing and identifying the situation of this strategy in the world. Therefore, the objective of this research is to analyze the current panorama of ECE in various countries considering the advantages, disadvantages, challenges and success factors in its implementation. Methodology. A review of the existing literature on ECE was carried out in specialized databases. To obtain these studies, the scopus and sciencedirect databases were used, using search words such as "electronic health record", "electronic medical record" or "electronic medical record"; Only those studies with a high impact factor were selected, which refers to the number of times the articles consulted have been cited. 64 academic studies were selected and analyzed. Results. It was found that there are still important challenges and disadvantages in the implementation of ECE such as semantic interoperability and the work stress that this system generates in users. Conclusions. There are important issues that remain to be resolved in the effective implementation of the ECE. It is necessary to integrate all those involved in the change process as well as to establish the necessary security measures to guarantee the privacy of the information.

2.
Hacia promoc. salud ; 27(1): 67-85, ene.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375574

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Política de Atención Integral en Salud (PAIS) con sus marcos estratégico y operativo, busca ser garante del derecho a la salud en Colombia. Dado que la fase de implementación de toda política es considerada como crítica para el cumplimiento de los objetivos, resulta válida la mirada de actores en la cotidianidad laboral en salud de un territorio. Objetivo: describir el proceso de implementación de la PAIS percibido desde sus actores y las particularidades territoriales del departamento del Cauca. Materiales y métodos: investigación de perspectiva cualitativa que adopta el estudio de caso y como referente, el modelo analítico de Subirast. Se realizaron 14 entrevistas semiestructuradas a líderes de procesos, se revisaron 47 documentos de planeación y se complementó información con un diario de campo. Resultados: el proceso de implementación de la PAIS permitió avances desde algunos elementos del marco estratégico y operativo, sin embargo, los participantes vivencian limitaciones en la adopción de la atención primaria, la autoridad sanitaria y la articulación de actores. El talento humano en salud es fundamental en la política, sin embargo, su permanencia en territorio es discontinua. Conclusiones: el limitado trabajo interinstitucional, las prácticas clientelares, la débil autoridad sanitaria y la falta de estructuras de gestión acorde a la PAIS, conducen a pensar en la necesidad de acrecentar capacidades y recursos para nivelar la comprensión y operación de estrategias contemplados en la política. Se insiste en la debilidad estatal para hacer efectiva la regulación, el control y la vigilancia de los actores en salud.


Abstract With its strategic and operational frameworks, the Comprehensive Health Care Policy (PAIS for its acronym in Spanish) seeks to guarantee the right to health in Colombia. Given that the implementation phase of any policy is considered critical for the fulfillment of its objectives, the perspective of actors in the daily health work of a territory is valid. Objective: To describe the process of implementation of PAIS as perceived by its actors and the territorial particularities of the Department of Cauca. Materials and methods: Research from a qualitative perspective adopting the case study and, as a reference, the Subirast analytical model. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with process leaders, 47 planning documents were reviewed and information was complemented with a field diary. Results: The PAIS implementation process allowed progress from some elements of the strategic and operational framework. However, participants experience limitations in the adoption of primary care, the health authority and the articulation of actors. Human talent in health is fundamental in politics. However, its permanence in territory is discontinuous. Conclusions: The limited inter-institutional work, the clientelist practices, the weak health authority and the lack of management structures according to PAIS, lead to think about the need to increase capacities and resources to level the understanding and operation of strategies contemplated in the policy. The weakness of the State to make effective regulation, control and surveillance of health actors is emphasized.


Resumo A Política de Atenção Integral em Saúde (PAIS) com seus marcos estratégico e operativo, procura ser garante do direito à saúde na Colômbia. Já que a fase de implementação de toda política é considerada como crítica para o cumprimento dos objetivos, resulta válida a olhada de atores na cotidianidade laboral em saúde de um território. Objectivo: descrever o processo de implementação da PAIS percebendo desde seus atores as particularidades territoriais do departamento do Cauca. Materiais e métodos: pesquisa de perspectiva qualitativa que adota o estudo de caso e como referente, o modelo analítico de Subirast. Analisaram-se 14 entrevistas semi-estruturadas a líderes de processos, se revisaram 47 documentos de planejamento e se complementou informação com um diário de campo. Resultados: o processo de implementação da PAIS permitiu avanços desde alguns elementos do marco estratégico e operativo, porém, os participantes têm limitações na adopção da atenção primaria, a autoridade sanitária e a articulação de atores. O talento humano em saúde é fundamental na política, contudo, sua permanência no território é descontínua. Conclusões: o limitado trabalho interinstitucional, as práticas clientelistas, a fraca autoridade sanitária e a falta de estruturas de gestão acorde com PAIS, conduzem a pensar na necessidade de acrescentar capacidades e recursos para nivelar a compreensão e operação de estratégias contemplados na política. Insiste-se na fraqueza estatal para fazer efetiva a regulação, o controle e a vigilância dos atores em saúde.

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 111-: I-117, I, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363702

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los errores en prescripción médica (EPM) son la causa más frecuente de errores prevenibles. El empleo de sistemas de prescripción informatizada (PI) contribuiría a disminuir el error y a mejorar la calidad de atención. Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de la PI en la prevalencia de EPM y eventos adversos (EA) relacionados en pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados. Evaluar la adherencia, aceptabilidad y apropiabilidad de la herramienta por parte de los usuarios. Método. Diseño híbrido, descriptivo y cuasiexperimental tipo antes-después. Se incluyeron prescripciones médicas de pacientes hospitalizados, calculando la prevalencia de EPM y EA relacionados, en los períodos pre-y pos implementación de la PI en un hospital pediátrico (HP) y en uno general (HG) que se tomó como control. Se evaluó la adherencia mediante la proporción de las PI sobre las totales registradas en el período posimplementación. Se evaluó la aceptabilidad y apropiabilidad de la implementación por encuesta a los usuarios. Resultados. Al comparar la prevalencia de EPM pre- y posimplementación en el HP, se observó una disminución estadísticamente significativa en los dos hospitales: HP 29,1 versus 19,9 EPM/100 prescripciones (OR: 1,65; IC95 %: 1,34-2,02; p < 0,01). En el HG 24,9 versus 13,6 EPM/100 prescripciones (OR: 2,1; IC95 %: 1,5-2,8; p < 0,01). La tasa de adherencia global a la PI fue del 83 %. La implementación presentó aceptabilidad y apropiabilidad satisfactoria. Conclusión. La prevalencia de EPM se redujo un 30 % posimplementación. La adherencia global a la herramienta fue satisfactoria


Introduction. Prescription errors are the most common cause of preventable errors. Electronic prescription (EP) systems may help to reduce errors and improve the quality of care. Objectives. To assess the effect of EP on the prevalence of prescription errors and related adverse events (AE) among hospitalized pediatric patients. To assess EP adherence, acceptability, and suitability among users. Method. Hybrid, descriptive, and quasi-experimental, before-and-after design. Prescriptions made to hospitalized patients were included, estimating the prevalence of prescription errors and related AE in the pre- and post- EP implementation periods at a children's hospital (CH) and a general hospital (GH) used as control. Adherence was assessed based on the proportion of EP among all prescriptions registered in the post-implementation period. The acceptability and suitability of EP implementation was assessed via a user survey. Results. The prevalence of prescription errors pre- and post-EP implementation at the CH was compared and a statistically significant reduction was observed in both hospitals: CH: 29.1 versus 19.9 prescription errors/100 prescriptions (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.34-2.02;p < 0.01). GH: 24.9 versus 13.6 prescription errors/100 prescriptions (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.8; p < 0.01). The rate of overall adherence to EP was 83%. The implementation of EP was adequately acceptable and suitable. Conclusion. The prevalence of prescription errors reduced 30% after the implementation of EP. The overall adherence to EP was adequate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Electronic Prescribing , Hospitals, Pediatric , Medication Errors/prevention & control
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 133-150, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356049

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Housing First (HF) tem se difundido no cenário internacional como uma intervenção baseada em evidência para superar a situação de rua entre pessoas com agravos de saúde mental. No Brasil, o HF tem sido adotado como referência no desenvolvimento de iniciativas voltadas para pessoas em situação de rua que fazem uso prejudicial de drogas. Estudos apontam a necessidade de maior compreensão da dinâmica implantação do modelo HF em diferentes cenários. De tal modo, utilizando o método de revisão de literatura, analisamos os fatores que facilitam e dificultam a implantação do HF. Foram selecionados 68 artigos, publicados entre 2003 e 2020, nas bases PubMed, Scopus, PsychoINFO, Embase, Lilacs e Scielo. Identificamos fatores em quatro dimensões: características da intervenção, contexto de implantação, aspectos institucionais e processo de implantação. A indisponibilidade de habitações, a falta de coordenação dos serviços necessários aos moradores e a resistência dos agentes implantadores aos princípios do HF são fatores que dificultam a implantação. Por sua vez, agentes com valores, atitudes e competências convergentes ao modelo e educação permanente aparecem como facilitadores. Apontamos a necessidade de se compreender e favorecer o processo de integração do HF aos sistemas de proteção social existentes.


Abstract Housing First (HF) has spread on the international scene as an evidence-based intervention to overcome homelessness among people with mental health problems. In Brazil, the HF has been adopted as a reference in the development of initiatives geared to people living in the streets who make harmful use of drugs. Studies point to the need for greater understanding of the dynamics of implementation in different settings. Thus, using the literature review method, we analyzed the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation of HF. Sixty-eight papers published from 2003 to 2020 were selected from the PubMed, Scopus, PsychoINFO, Embase, Lilacs, and Scielo databases. We identified factors in four dimensions: intervention characteristics, implementation context, institutional aspects, and implementation process. The unavailability of housing, the lack of coordination of the services needed by residents, and the resistance of implementing agents to the HF principles are factors that hinder the implementation. In turn, agents with values, attitudes, and skills converging with the model and continuing education appear as facilitators. We point out the need to understand and favor the HF integration process in the existing social protection systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Social Problems , Brazil , Housing
5.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359088

ABSTRACT

Objective: to describe the implementation and to assess the effectiveness of a pilot integrated qualification program to improve the medication use in a long-term care facility (LTCF). Methods: This was a type 1 hybrid effectiveness-implementation study. A pilot integrated qualification program to improve the medication use in a LTCF was carried out by implementing a new drug distribution system and a comprehensive medication management (CMM) service according to the following four steps: I) implementation of the drug distribution system followed by the evaluation of the health team's opinion; II) prescription review with the identification of potential drug therapy problems (PDTPs); III) provision of the CMM service according to the framework of Pharmaceutical Care practice within one year; and, IV) evaluation of the effectiveness of the program through the comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters (blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin and lipid fractions) using the t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In step I, the distribution system was fully outsourced to a company that furnished all solid oral dosage forms in individual boxes containing a plastic coil with multiple envelopes for 30 days. In step II, 180 PDTPs were identified, and all patients presented with at least one of them. In step III, after the first assessment of the CMM Service, 43 actual drug therapy problems (DTPs) were identified. After one year of service provision, 96 DTPs were identified and 75.8% of them were resolved (n=72). In step IV, a statistically significant difference was observed between the initial and final minimum and maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0,05). Conclusions: The pilot integrated qualification program had a positive impact on the clinical parameters. The global population is rapidly aging, making this type of study important to exemplify a multifaceted strategy to improve the quality of drug therapy for institutionalized patients.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928899

ABSTRACT

The high incidence of cardiovascular diseases is a serious threat to human health, and endovascular surgery has become the standard treatment for most interventional cardiovascular diseases. The robotassisted endovascular surgery system further enhances surgeons' ability to perform minimally invasive endovascular procedures in interventional cardiology. This study presents a new robotic technique for coronary intervention from the perspective of clinical application. Aiming at clinical application scenarios, this scheme proposed an intuitive guide wire catheter mechanism design, which accurately and perfectly simulates the doctor's hand movements, realizes the positive and negative direction translation of the guide wire catheter, accurate torque control of the guide wire rotation and locking. The results of animal test showed that the R-OneTM has a high degree of dexterity, accuracy and stability,and meets the clinical needs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases , Catheterization , Equipment Design , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Robotics
7.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 510-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924090

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the current situation and demand school health education in five areas across China, and to provide theoretical support for further revision and improvement on school health education.@*Methods@#Stratified multi stage cluster sampling was adopted. A total of 4 052 students were selected from five areas across China [Urumqi( n =1 295), Haikou City( n =448), Shijiazhuang City( n =788), Chengdu City( n =728), Suzhou City( n =793)]. Online questionnaire survey was conducted by questionnair star.@*Results@#About 89.98% of the students used the use of uniform teaching materials, and 63.50% attended the health education classes once a week. The main sources of health knowledge, the use of uniform teaching materials, class schedule and the difference of teachers in different regions and periods were statistically significant ( χ 2=54.98, 40.97, 590.08, 1 061.12;50.70, 47.68 , 356.09, 193.30, P <0.05). The main source of health knowledge was from school/teachers(92.47%). Most health education teachers were classroom teachers(30.03%). Content of health education that students were interested in varied by gender and grade ( χ 2=20.91, 35.90, P <0.05), but not by area ( P >0.05). Demand for health knowledge of students varied by area and grade ( χ 2=177.29, 32.37, P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#The status quo of health education in schools is good. Further attention should be paid to cultivate high quality health education teachers and provide targeted health education activities according to students demand, and ultimately improving health literacy among students.

8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 23, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To show the implementation process of IPT-G in primary care, including facilitating and obstructing factors, implementation strategies, and training and supervision of primary care professionals. METHODS Quantitative (cross-sectional and longitudinal) analysis of pre and post-knowledge tests; qualitative analyses of the training courses; patient recruitment; conduction of IPT-G sessions; supervision of IPT-G therapists; application of a semi-structured questionnaire to assess, investigate, and develop strategies against the identified barriers. RESULTS About 120 clinicians answered the pre-test; 84 completed the post-test. Pre- and post-test scores of IPT-G knowledge were significantly different. Twenty initially trained clinicians completed additional supervision in IPT-G. Qualitative analysis identified twelve barriers and six facilitators to IPT-G implementation in individual, organizational, and systemic contexts. CONCLUSIONS Implementation of IPT-G in primary care is a complex process with several steps. In the first step, health professionals were successfully trained in IPT-G. However, subsequent steps were more complex. Therefore, careful planning of IPT-G implementation is essential to maximize the success of this innovation.

9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e020, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1360253

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to screen the public procurement for dental adhesives in a public health system and evaluate the variables associated with the type and cost of purchased materials. A time series was conducted with secondary data collated from the Brazilian Databank of Healthcare Prices (BDHP). All public procurements for adhesive systems registered from 2010 to 2019 were collated. The frequency of purchase was described, and a multiple linear regression model was used to assess the influence of unit price on predictor variables. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to describe the influence of selected variables on the probability of purchase for different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 2,752 purchases were analyzed, and the total cost of these materials reached US$ 7,022,659.00 in the 10 analyzed years. The 3-step Etch & Rinse adhesives corresponded to 45.63% of the processes, with increased probability of being purchased over time. The process conducted by public universities in recent years, using the auction modality, presented lower unit prices. The year of purchase, the type of institutions, the institution's location, and the procurement modality influenced the procurement process. The performed analyses contribute to the understanding of the variables associated with the procurements for adhesive systems, providing valuable information for rationalizing public expenditure and for implementing evidence-based practices to guarantee cost-effective and clinically effective procedures for users of the Brazilian public healthcare system.

10.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210382, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385946

ABSTRACT

A literatura endossa o crescente papel central de coordenação do governo federal nas políticas de saúde. Porém, há poucos estudos sobre o papel dos entes subnacionais, em especial, dos estados. Assim, este artigo analisou o arranjo institucional de implementação do Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) no estado de Minas Gerais. O trabalho foi realizado com base em análise documental de 31 atas de reuniões da Comissão de Coordenação Estadual e oito entrevistas com atores-chave responsáveis por sua implementação. Os resultados evidenciaram a (i) centralidade decisória do projeto no âmbito federal, a (ii) pouca clareza do papel do governo estadual no arranjo de implementação, a (iii) crise orçamentária do governo mineiro e a (iv) instabilidade política, que resultaram em (v) trocas de governo estadual e federal. Tais fatores, em conjunto, impactaram na capacidade de implementação do projeto em Minas Gerais.(AU)


The literature evidences the growing central coordinating role played by the federal government in health policy. However, there is little research on the role of subnational entities, especially state governments. This article analyzes the institutional arrangement for the implementation of the More Doctors for Brazil Project in the state of Minas Gerais. The study drew on data from a documentary analysis of 31 minutes of meetings of the State Coordinating Commission and eight interviews with key actors responsible for the implementation of the project. The results highlight: (i) Centralized Project decision-making at federal level; (ii) Lack of clarity with regard to the role of the state government in the implementation arrangement; (iii) A state government funding crisis; and (iv) Political instability, which result in (v) Changes in the state and federal government. These combined factors had a negative impact on project implementation capacity in Minas Gerais.(AU)


La literatura endosa el creciente papel central de coordinación del gobierno federal en las políticas de salud. No obstante, hay pocos estudios sobre el papel de los entes subnacionales, en especial de los estados. Por lo tanto, este artículo analizó la organización institucional de implementación del proyecto Más Médicos para Brasil (PMMB) en el estado de Minas Gerais. El trabajo se realizó con base en el análisis documental de 31 actas de reuniones de la Comisión de Coordinación Estatal y ocho entrevistas con actores-clave responsables por su implementación. Los resultados pusieron en evidencia: (i) la centralidad de decisión del Proyecto en el ámbito federal; (ii) la poca claridad del papel del gobierno estatal en la organización de la implementación; (iii) la crisis presupuestaria del gobierno del Estado de Minas Gerais y (iv) la inestabilidad política, lo que resultó en (v) cambios de gobierno estatal y federal. Tales factores, en conjunto, tuvieron impacto sobre la capacidad de implementación del Proyecto en Minas Gerais.(AU)

11.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1386607

ABSTRACT

Abstract The #Tamojunto2.0 program (Unplugged) has been evaluated in Brazil in order to support its implementation as a national public policy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation process of the #Tamojunto2.0 school-based program, disseminated by the Ministry of Health, in the prevention of alcohol and other drug use among adolescents. This is a mixed-methods study. The sample consisted of 13 teachers and eight managers of 8th grade classes of elementary education public schools located in two cities, and a training provider professional for the program's application. Observation, evaluation and semi-structured interview forms were used. Descriptive and thematic analyses were performed. The results indicate low implementation fidelity, good quality in the application of the program, and high student absenteeism. Aspects which facilitate or hinder implementation of the program are also presented. Such results are relevant for the large-scale implementation of #Tamojunto2.0.


Resumo O programa #Tamojunto2.0 (Unplugged) tem sido avaliado no Brasil com vistas a subsidiar sua implantação como política pública nacional. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de implementação do programa escolar #Tamojunto2.0, disseminado pelo Ministério da Saúde, na prevenção do uso de álcool e outras drogas entre adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de métodos mistos. A amostra constituiu-se de 13 professores e oito gestores de turmas de 8º ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas localizadas em duas cidades, e uma profissional ministrante da formação para aplicação do programa. Foram utilizados formulários de observação, avaliação e roteiro de entrevista semiestruturada, os dados coletados foram submetidos às análises descritiva e temática. Os resultados indicam baixa fidelidade de implementação, boa qualidade na aplicação do programa, alto absenteísmo dos estudantes. São também apresentados aspectos que facilitam ou dificultam sua implementação. Tais resultados são relevantes para a implementação do #Tamojunto2.0 em larga-escala.


Resumen El programa # Tamojunto2.0 (Unplugged) ha sido evaluado en Brasil con miras a subsidiar su implementación como política pública nacional. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el proceso de implementación del programa escolar #Tamojunto2.0, difundido por el Ministerio de Salud, en la prevención del consumo de drogas en adolescentes. Es un estudio de métodos mixtos. La muestra se constituyó de 13 maestros y ocho directores de clases del 8º grado de Enseñanza Fundamental en escuelas públicas de dos ciudades, y un profesional provedor de capacitación para la aplicación del programa. Se utilizaron formularios de observación, evaluación y entrevista semiestructurada. Los datos se sometieron a análisis descriptivo y temático. Los resultados indican baja fidelidad en la implementación, buena calidad en la aplicación del programa, alto ausentismo estudiantil. También se presentan aspectos que facilitan o dificultan la implementación del programa. Estos resultados son relevantes para la implementación a gran escala de #Tamojunto2.0.

12.
Ars méd ; 46(4): 40-43, dic. 07, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368130

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is being adopted worldwide. The aim of this paper is to discuss the evolution of CBME and address some perceived challenges in CBME curriculum development and implementation in postgraduate (residency) medical education. Methods: This is an opinion paper based on lived experiences and personal beliefs. The authors have professional training in medical education and are actively involved in CBME research, curriculum development and implementation around the world. Results: The issue of local and system-wide context seems to be of particular importance to individuals, programs, institutions, governing bodies and other stakeholders involved in the development and implementation of CBME programs. CBME has evolved differently at different places, and there are concerns regarding the fidelity of implementation. Stakeholders have been dealing with challenging questions in their CBME journeys, which reflect the varied, complex and dynamic nature of health and education systems. Recently, scholars have established core components of any CBME program. Discussion and conclusions: CBME design should benefit from ground-up strategies that consider the local context. It is essential to approach implementation with a quality improvement lens and pay special attention to the fidelity and integrity of the core CBME components.


Introducción: la educación médica basada en competencias (CBME) se está adoptando en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir la evolución de la CBME y abordar algunos desafíos percibidos en el desarrollo y la implementación de los estándares de CBME en la educación médica de posgrado (residencia). Métodos: este es un artículo de opinión basado en experiencias vividas y creencias personales. Los autores tienen formación profesional en educación médica y participan activamente en la investigación, el desarrollo y la implementación de programas de CBME en varios países. Resultados: la cuestión del contexto local y de todo el sistema parece ser de particular importancia para las personas, los programas, las instituciones, los órganos de gobierno y otras partes inte-resadas involucradas en el desarrollo y la implementación de los programas de CBME. La CBME ha evolucionado de manera diferente en diferentes lugares y existen preocupaciones con respecto a la fidelidad de la implementación. Las partes interesadas han estado lidiando con cuestiones difíciles en sus proyectos de CBME, que reflejan la naturaleza variada, compleja y dinámica de los sistemas de salud y educación. Recientemente, los académicos han establecido componentes centrales de cualquier programa CBME. Discusión y conclusiones: el diseño de la CBME debería beneficiarse de estrategias de base que consideren el contexto local. Sin embargo, es importante abordar la implementación con una lente de mejora de la calidad y prestar especial atención a la fidelidad e integridad de los componentes centrales de la CBME.

13.
Colomb. med ; 52(3): e2034524, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360374

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: hip fracture is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Geriatric fracture programs promise to improve the quality of care, health outcomes and reduce costs. Objective: To describe the results related to the Geriatric fracture programs implementation in two Colombian institutions to assess reproducibility. Methods: We performed A retrospective descriptive study of the patients treated under the Geriatric fracture programs in two institutions in Colombia. The information was collected from the initial year of implementation until 2018. Demographic characteristics, length of stay, hospitalization complications, readmissions and mortality were described. Consumption of healthcare resources was defined using base cases determined with local experts and costs were estimated using standard methods. Results: 475 patients were included in the Geriatric fracture programs. We observed an increase in the number of patients. The length of stay decreased between 8.5% and 26.1% as did the proportion of total complications, with delirium having the greatest reduction. A similar situation was seen for first year mortality (from 10.9% to 4.7%), in-hospital deaths and readmissions. Estimates of costs of stay and complications showed reductions in all scenarios, varying between 22% and 68.3%. Conclusions: The present study presents the experience of two institutions that implemented the Geriatric fracture programs with increase in the number of patients treated and reductions in the time of hospital stay, the proportion of complications, readmissions, mortality and estimated costs. These are similar between both institutions and with other published implementations. This could hint that geriatric fracture program may be implemented with reproducible results.


Resumen Antecedentes: las fracturas de cadera son una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Los programas de fracturas geriátricas prometen mejorar la calidad de la atención, los desenlaces clínicos y reducir costos, Objetivos: Describir los resultados relacionados con la implementación de un programa de fracturas geriátricas en dos instituciones en Colombia para evaluar la reproducibilidad Métodos: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de los pacientes atendidos en el programa de fracturas geriátricas en dos instituciones en Colombia. Se obtuvo información desde el año de implementación hasta 2018. Se describió información demográfica, de estancia hospitalaria, de complicaciones, de rehospitalizaciones y de mortalidad. Se determinó un caso base de consumo de recursos con expertos y se costeó usando métodos estandarizados. Resultados: Se incluyeron 475 pacientes. Se observó un aumento en la cantidad de pacientes. La duración de estancia disminuyó entre 8.5% y 26.1%, así como la frecuencia de complicaciones. Se encontraron reducciones en mortalidad en el primer año (entre 10.9% y 4.7%), muertes hospitalarias y rehospitalizaciones. Los costos estimados mostraron reducciones entre 22% y 68.3%. Conclusiones: El presente estudio muestra la experiencia de implementación de programa de fracturas geriátricas en dos instituciones en Colombia, mostrando aumento en cantidades de pacientes y reducciones en estancia hospitalaria, frecuencia de complicaciones, rehospitalizaciones, mortalidad y costos estimados. Los resultados fueron similares en las dos instituciones y comparables con otros descritos en literatura. Esto sugiero que los programas de fracturas geriátricas se pueden implementar con resultados reproducibles.

14.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(4): 995-1006, jul.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340887

ABSTRACT

Resumo Para além da defesa normativa e prescritiva da intersetorialidade, sabe-se pouco sobre os condicionantes de sua implementação. O objetivo deste artigo é suprir essa lacuna, usando uma estratégia analítico-metodológica baseada nos estudos acerca de implementação e metodologia da análise de redes sociais (ARS). Com base em dados primários coletados em entrevistas aprofundadas e analisados por meio da ARS, o texto compara duas ações intersetoriais destinadas à população em situação de rua: o projeto Oficina Boracea, desde seu início, em 2002, até 2016, e o programa De Braços Abertos (DBA), a partir de sua formulação, em 2013, até seu término, em 2016. Os resultados indicam que, mais do que um modelo de gestão bem-formulado, a intersetorialidade é um produto de interações cotidianas e estratégias de coordenação construídas entre diferentes escalões da burocracia e entre atores estatais e não estatais, em distintos arranjos de implementação.


Resumen Con excepción de la defensa normativa y prescriptiva de la intersectorialidad, poco se sabe sobre las condiciones para su implementación. El objetivo de este artículo es llenar ese vacío, utilizando una estrategia analítico-metodológica basada en estudios de implementación y en la metodología de análisis de redes sociales (ARS). A partir de datos primarios recopilados a través de entrevistas en profundidad y analizados mediante ARS, este artículo compara dos proyectos intersectoriales para personas sin hogar: el proyecto Oficina Boracea, desde su inicio en 2002 hasta 2016, y el programa De Braços Abertos (DBA), desde su formulación en 2013 hasta su finalización en 2016. Los resultados indican que, más de un modelo de gestión bien formulado, la intersectorialidad es el producto de interacciones cotidianas y estrategias de coordinación construidas entre diferentes niveles de burocracia y entre actores estatales y no estatales, en diferentes arreglos de implementación.


Abstract Apart from the normative and prescriptive defense of intersectorality, the conditions related to the implementation of intersectoral programs are still little explored. This article aims to fill this gap, using an analytical-methodological strategy based on studies on implementation and the methodology of social network analysis (SNA). Based on primary data collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using SNA, this article compares two programs for homeless people: the Oficina Boracea program, from its beginning in 2002 to 2016, and the program De Braços Abertos (DBA), from 2013 when it started until its end, in 2016. The results indicate that intersectorality is more than a well-designed management model. It is the product of everyday interactions and coordination strategies built with the participation of different levels of bureaucracy and state and non-state actors, gathered in different implementation arrangements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Administration , Homeless Persons , Data Collection , Intersectoral Collaboration , Projects , Social Networking , Implementation Science
15.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(2): 251-262, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249754

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo desta pesquisa foi a avaliação dos custos de implantação (CAPEX) e de operação (OPEX) de diferentes alternativas de desaguamento e higienização de lodo, em Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto (ETEs) com reatores anaeróbios de manto de lodo (UASB) e pós-tratamento aeróbio, visando fornecer subsídios para Estudos de Concepção. As tecnologias consideradas foram: leitos de secagem, centrífugas, wetlands construídos para lodo (WCL), estabilização alcalina prolongada (EAP) e secagem térmica. Curvas de custo para vazões de esgoto entre 5 e 750 L.s−1 foram elaboradas, desconsiderando-se os custos de aquisição de área e destinação final do lodo. Verificou-se que o CAPEX das centrífugas pode ser inferior ao dos leitos de secagem para ETEs com vazões acima de 80 L.s−1. Porém, ao considerar-se o OPEX, os leitos se mantêm mais econômicos. Também foi avaliada uma alternativa mista, de leitos de secagem e centrífugas em paralelo, mas seus custos mostraram-se mais elevados que cada opção isoladamente. Os WCL apresentaram CAPEX superior ao das centrífugas para ETEs acima de 120 L.s−1, mas foi mantida a alternativa mais econômica de desaguamento quando considerado CAPEX + OPEX. Quanto à higienização, a secagem térmica apresentou CAPEX inferior ao da EAP para ETEs acima de 500 L.s−1. Porém, ao se considerar o OPEX, essa se manteve mais onerosa até 750 L.s−1, mesmo considerando-se o aproveitamento do biogás gerado nos reatores UASB.


ABSTRACT This research assessed the implementation costs (CAPEX) and the operational costs (OPEX) of different sludge dewatering and disinfection alternatives, considering WWTP with UASB reactors and aerobic post-treatment, aiming to provide resources for Conception Studies. The following technologies were considered: Drying Beds, Centrifuges, Sludge Drying Reed Beds (SDRB), Alkaline Stabilization Process (ASP), and Heat Drying. Cost functions for wastewater flows ranging from 5 to 750 L.s−1 were elaborated, while disregarding area acquisition and sludge final disposal costs. It was determined that the Centrifuge's CAPEX could be lower than the Drying Bed's for WWTPs inflows above 80 L.s−1. Nonetheless, Drying Beds remained cheaper when OPEX was considered. A hybrid alternative with Drying Beds and Centrifuges in parallel was evaluated, but their combined costs remained higher than each option considered individually. Moreover, SDRB's CAPEX was higher than the Centrifuge's for WWTPs above 120 L.s−1, but the former remained the cheapest dewatering alternative when considered CAPEX + OPEX. Finally, Heat Drying had lower CAPEX than ASP for WWTPs above 500 L.s−1. Nonetheless, considering OPEX, the former remained more expensive up to 750 L.s−1, even when considering fully UASB biogas reclamation.

16.
Vínculo ; 18(1): 42-52, jan.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280711

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Discute-se o processo de implementação de um ambulatório que oferta psicoterapia de grupo com base psicanalítica às crianças, adolescentes e adultos expostos à violência, adscritos à região Norte de Campinas-SP. A implementação acontecerá no Hospital Universitário - Unicamp, em parceria com o Laboratório de Saúde Coletiva e Saúde Mental - Interfaces, a Assistência Social e de Saúde da Prefeitura Municipal de Campinas. Objetiva-se qualificar a assistência e articulação da rede de serviços públicos no território (Atenção Primária à Saúde e Assistência Social), ofertando-se apoio matricial e seguimento conjunto dos casos; e construir evidências sobre a efetividade da psicanálise de grupo na terapia de transtornos associados à exposição à violência. Utilizar a psicanálise justifica-se no contexto da abordagem e da prevenção à violência na medida em que espaços seguros de escuta possibilitam à pessoa em situação de exposição à violência um lugar de legitimação do sofrimento, elaboração e ressignificação da experiência traumática; do contrário há riscos de invalidar, negar, calar e perpetuar a violência naturalizando-a. A psicanálise tem contribuições significativas para compreensão das causas e consequências individuais e coletivas da violência, bem como para intervir e prevenir a transmissão transgeracional por meio de dispositivos terapêuticos que consideram os níveis coletivo, intersubjetivo e intrapsíquico.


ABSTRACT The process of implementation of an outpatient clinic offering psychoanalytic group psychotherapy to children, adolescents and adults exposed to violence, assigned to the northern region of Campinas-SP, is discussed. The implementation will take place at the University Hospital - Unicamp, in partnership with the Collective Health and Mental Health Laboratory - Interfaces, the Social and Health Care of the Campinas City Hall. The objective is to qualify the assistance and articulation of the public services network in the territory (Primary Health Care and Social Assistance), offering matrix support and joint follow-up of cases; and to build evidence on the effectiveness of group psychoanalysis in the therapy of disorders associated with exposure to violence. Using psychoanalysis is justified in the context of the approach and prevention of violence as safe listening spaces allow the person in a situation of exposure to violence a place of legitimation of suffering, elaboration and resignification of traumatic experience; otherwise there are risks of invalidating, denying, silencing and perpetuating violence by naturalizing it. Psychoanalysis has significant contributions to understand the individual and collective causes and consequences of violence, as well as to intervene and prevent transgenerational transmission through therapeutic devices that consider the collective, intersubjective and intrapsychic levels.


RESUMEN Se discute el proceso de implementación de una clínica ambulatoria que ofrece psicoterapia grupal psicoanalítica a niños, adolescentes y adultos expuestos a la violencia, asignados a la región norte de Campinas-SP. La implementación tendrá lugar en el Hospital Universitario - Unicamp, en colaboración con el Laboratorio de Salud Colectiva y Salud Mental - Interfaces, la Atención Social y de Salud del Ayuntamiento de Campinas. El objetivo es calificar la asistencia y articulación de la red de servicios públicos en el territorio (Atención Primaria de Salud y Asistencia Social), ofreciendo apoyo matricial y seguimiento conjunto de casos; y para construir evidencia sobre la efectividad del psicoanálisis grupal en la terapia de trastornos asociados con la exposición a la violencia. El uso del psicoanálisis se justifica en el contexto del enfoque y la prevención de la violencia, ya que los espacios seguros de escucha permiten a la persona en una situación de exposición a la violencia un lugar de legitimación del sufrimiento, elaboración y resignificación de la experiencia traumática; de lo contrario, existe el riesgo de invalidar, negar, silenciar y perpetuar la violencia al naturalizarla. El psicoanálisis tiene contribuciones significativas para comprender las causas y consecuencias individuales y colectivas de la violencia, así como para intervenir y prevenir la transmisión transgeneracional a través de dispositivos terapéuticos que consideran los niveles colectivos, intersubjetivos e intrapsíquicos.


Subject(s)
Psychotherapy, Group , Social Vulnerability , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Exposure to Violence , Mental Health Services
17.
Motrivivência (Florianópolis) ; 33(64): [1-23], Mar. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252407

ABSTRACT

Os avanços do campo de análise de políticas públicas no Brasil ocorreram a partir dos anos 2000 e sua materialização se dá em diferentes áreas disciplinares. A partir de 2010, observa-se um recrudescimento da produção científica na área de políticas públicas de esporte e lazer com um esforço de aproximação do arcabouço teórico das ciências sociais. O objetivo do ensaio foi apresentar o grupo de pesquisa Polis/NeoPolis da UFMG e refletir sobre a literatura do campo das políticas públicas que tem fundamentado seus trabalhos e publicações na área do esporte e lazer. O grupo tem investido em estudos de políticas públicas com o intuito de produzir conhecimento acerca de uma política setorial que coadune com uma produção mais ampla do campo de políticas públicas nacionais e internacionais. Acredita-se que o recorte escolhido sobre os estudos de implementação possa contribuir com as pesquisas desenvolvidas na área de esporte e lazer.


Since the 2000s, the studies on Public Policy (PP) Analysis advanced and its materialization takes place in different areas. From 2010, there has been an increase of the scientific production in Sport and Leisure PP area, with an effort to bring the theoretical framework of the Social Sciences closer to the discussion. The aim of this essay was to present the research group Polis/NeoPolis from UFMG and reflect about the literature in the PP field that has been supporting the group's works and publications in the area of Sport and Leisure Studies. The group has invested in studies about PP in order to promote the knowledge production about a sectional policy that matches with a broader production in the national and international PP field. It is believed that the chosen subject about the Studies of Implementation can contribute with the research to be developed in the Sport and Leisure field.


Los avances en el campo del Análisis de Políticas Públicas (PP) en Brasil ocurrieron desde la década del 2000 y su materialización se da en diferentes áreas disciplinarias. A partir de 2010 se ha producido un incremento de la producción científica en el ámbito de las PP de deporte y ocio con un esfuerzo por acercar el marco teórico de las ciencias sociales. El objetivo del ensayo fue presentar el grupo de investigación Polis/NeoPolis de la UFMG y reflexionar sobre la literatura en el ámbito de las políticas públicas que viene apoyando sus trabajos y publicaciones. El grupo ha invertido en estudios de PP con el fin de producir conocimiento que sea consistente con una producción más amplia en el campo de las políticas públicas nacionales e internacionales. Se cree que el apartado elegido sobre los estudios de implementación puede contribuir a la investigación desarrollada en el área.

18.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(2): 395-413, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250868

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo busca compreender como mudanças exógenas são afetadas pelos contextos de implementação que encontram em cada local. A partir da análise da Lei 13.415/2017, que reforma o Ensino Médio no Brasil, verifica como as mudanças federais trazidas por esta política provocaram alterações nos estados e qual a variação que os contextos locais geraram na própria reforma. O artigo se baseia em uma pesquisa qualitativa que acompanhou os efeitos da publicação da Lei e o início do processo de implementação da reforma nos 26 estados e Distrito Federal ao longo de dois anos. O caso empírico foi analisado a partir das variáveis de conflito e ambiguidade que caracterizam os contextos de implementação. Estes achados contribuem para a literatura de implementação de políticas públicas, de reformas e mudanças na administração pública e de políticas de educação.


Resumen El artículo busca comprender cómo cambios exógenos son impactados por contextos de implementación establecidos en cada lugar. A partir del análisis de la Ley 13.415/2017, que reforma la Educación Media en Brasil, verifica cómo los cambios federales de esta política provocaron alteraciones en los estados y cómo los contextos locales generaron cambios también a la propia reforma. El artículo se basa en una investigación cualitativa que hizo seguimiento a los efectos de la publicación de la Ley y al inicio del proceso de implementación de la reforma en los 26 estados y el Distrito Federal a lo largo de dos años. El caso empírico fue analizado a partir de las variables de conflicto y ambigüedad que caracterizan los contextos de implementación. El artículo contribuye con la literatura de implementación de políticas públicas, de reformas a la administración pública y de políticas de educación.


Abstract The article seeks to understand how exogenous changes are impacted by implementation contexts established in each place. Based on the analysis of Law 13.415/2017, which reforms High School in Brazil, it verifies how the federal changes proposed by this policy caused alterations in the states and how the local contexts also generated changes in the reform itself. The article is based on a qualitative investigation that monitored the effects of the publication of the Law and the beginning of the process of implementing the reform in the 26 states and the Federal District over two years. The empirical case was analyzed based on the variables of conflict and ambiguity that characterize the contexts of implementation. The article contributes to the literature on the implementation of public policies, reforms in public administration, and education policies.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Education, Primary and Secondary , Education , Brazil
19.
Saúde Soc ; 30(2): e200072, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252196

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo aborda a implementação da estratégia de Redução de Danos (RD) por equipes multiprofissionais nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e outras Drogas (Caps AD) do Distrito Federal. A partir dos aportes teóricos dos estudos sobre implementação de políticas públicas e da sociologia das profissões, buscou-se refletir sobre as implicações do multiprofissionalismo para a tradução da RD em ações práticas junto aos usuários dos serviços. Realizou-se pesquisa de campo nas sete unidades de Caps AD do Distrito Federal, onde as atividades cotidianas foram observadas e profissionais foram entrevistados. A análise revelou que: (1) há variação substantiva na forma como os profissionais atuantes nos Caps AD interpretam e praticam a RD; (2) suas diferentes formas de entendimento e ação associam-se à formação profissional em distintos campos de conhecimento (psicossocial versus biomédico); e (3) estas divergências podem resultar em conflitos entre profissionais e implicar consequências negativas para os usuários dos serviços. Discute-se, também, os meios encontrados pelas gerências para a gestão e mitigação destas implicações. Os achados contribuem para reflexões mais amplas sobre os desafios que se impõem à sustentabilidade do modelo de atenção proposto para os Caps AD.


Abstract The article focuses on the implementation of the Harm Reduction strategy by multiprofessional teams in the Centers for Psychosocial Attention to Users of Alcohol and other Drugs (CAPS AD) at the Brazilian Federal District. Based on theoretical propositions from the fields of policy implementation and sociology of professions, it sought to reflect upon the implications of different professional perspectives about the concept of Harm Reduction, and its translation into practice, for the aims of the Ministry of Health Care Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs Users and its beneficiaries. Our study is supported by empirical research involving qualitative fieldwork on the seven units of CAPS AD in the Federal District. Our findings suggest that: (1) there is substantive variation in the way CAPS AD professionals interpret and practice harm reduction principles; (2) this variation is associated with professional education in distinct fields of knowledge (psychosocial versus biomedical); and (3) divergences among professionals may result in conflicts and produce negative consequences for service users. We also discuss the means by which service managers seek to mitigate those negative implications. These findings contribute to broader reflections on the challenges for sustainability of the Caps AD model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Care Team , Public Policy , Substance-Related Disorders , Harm Reduction , Alcoholism , Mental Health Services
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905820

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the implementation effect of the "Shanghai Construction Project Centralized Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Hygiene Evaluation Specification (Trial)" (hereinafter referred to as the "standard"). Methods:The "Centralized Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Hygiene Evaluation Report Score Sheet" was used to compare the quality of air conditioning hygienic evaluation reports before and after the implementation of the standard. Results:After the implementation of the standard, the total score of the air conditioning health evaluation report was significantly higher than that before the implementation (t=3.164, P=0.002). The scores of format, general theory, engineering analysis and suggested conclusion after the implementation were all higher than before the implementation (t=3.701, 2.012, 2.152, 2.450, respectively, all P<0.05). The difference in scores of evaluation process was not statistically significant between before and after the standard implementation (P=0.465). Conclusion:After the implementation of the standard, the quality of air-conditioning health evaluation reports has significantly improved.

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