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1.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 91-112, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360482

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Impulsividad (UPPS-P) en su versión breve en una muestra de adultos argentinos. Se exploró su estructura factorial y consistencia interna, y su validez convergente con los estilos de pensamiento experiencial y racional, así como con la psicopatía. A su vez, se exploró la relación de la impulsividad con el narcisismo y maquiavelismo, controlando los puntajes en psicopatía. Para ello, se seleccionó una muestra intencional de adultos argentinos (n = 517) de entre 18 y 60 años (54 % femenino, edad media 27), reclutados mediante diversas redes sociales. Los participantes respondieron de forma online a dicha escala, a un inventario sociodemográfico, así como al Inventario Experiencial Racional y a la Escala de Personalidad Oscura. Los resultados obtenidos se procesaron con el programa SPSS 23, Factor 8.10 y AMOS 16.0. Un análisis en paralelo, sumado a análisis factoriales confirmatorios, revelaron una estructura de cuatro factores: urgencia, búsqueda de sensaciones, falta de premeditación y falta de perseverancia. El factor urgencia incluyó tanto la urgencia positiva como la urgencia negativa de la escala UPPS-P. La estructura factorial revelada se asemeja al UPPS, escala de impulsividad previa al UPPS-P, conformada por cuatro factores. Se conservó la totalidad de los ítems de la escala breve. Dos ítems presentaron mayor carga en un factor distinto al que pertenecían en la adaptación. Los valores del alfa de Cronbach fueron adecuados, lo cual aseguró la consistencia interna. El alfa de Cronbach de la escala total fue .79. La escala reveló validez convergente con los puntajes de psicopatía y del Inventario Experiencial Racional. Se observaron correlaciones parciales significativas entre maquiavelismo y narcisismo, y diferentes dimensiones de impulsividad, controlando psicopatía. Se demuestra que la escala de impulsividad en su versión breve mantiene adecuadas propiedades psicométricas en una muestra de adultos argentinos.


Abstract This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P) in its short version in a sample of Argentinean adults. Its factor structure and internal consistency were explored, as well as its convergent validity with experiential and rational thinking styles, along with psychopathy. At the same time, the relationship of impulsivity with narcissism and Machiavellianism was explored, controlling the scores in psychopathy. An intentional sample of Argentinean adults (N = 517) between 18 and 60 years old (54 % female, mean age 27) was selected. Participants responded on-line to this scale, a sociodemographic inventory, as well as to the Rational Experiential Inventory and the Dark Personality Scale. The results obtained were processed with the programs SPSS 23, Factor 8.10, and AMOS 16.0. The sample was randomly divided into two groups of n = 217 and n = 300. An exploratory factorial analysis was first performed on the first group, as a calibration study. After that, a confirmatory analysis was performed on the second group, as a replication study, since there are no previous studies on this subject in Argentina. A parallel analysis was first carried out with the Factor 8.10 program. A number of replications = 100 and percentile representation of simulations = .95 were used. Regarding the exploratory factor analysis, The Unweighted Least Squares method was used along with a Promin rotation. The final solution showed a structure of four factors: urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance, explaining 56 % of the variance. Each of these factors explained 16 %, 24 %, 10 %, and 6 % of the variance, respectively. The urgency factor included both the positive and negative urgency of the UPPS-P scale. The factor structure revealed is similar to the UPPS, a scale of impulsivity prior to the UPPS-P, made up of four factors. All items on the short scale were retained. Two items loaded better on a different factor. Cronbach's Alphas were adequate, ensuring internal consistency. Cronbach's α of the full scale was .79. Internal consistency was analyzed, resulting in Cronbach's α values of .76 for Emergency; .75 for Sensation Search; .69 for Lack of Premeditation, and .74 for Lack of Perseverance. The resulting Cronbach α values are similar to those of the Spanish version, which presented internal consistencies between .61 and .79. Subsequently, based on the factor structure found, confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the second group sample. A relatively good fit was found for the model, with CFI and TLI values above .90 and the SRMR and RMSEA below .05. The authors' original model, which includes five factors, was also tested. The fit was less satisfactory compared to the previous model, because of the CFI, TLI, SRMR, and RMSEA indicators, and the difference in ∆ from the models, which was statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Finally, a second-order model was tested with all four dimensions as first-order latent variables and impulsivity as second-order latent variables. The fit was relatively satisfactory, with CFI and TLI above .90 and SRMR and RMSEA below .05. Thus, the present adjustment revealed a second-order factor, as did the English short version of the UPPS-P (Cyders et al., 2014). The scale revealed convergent validity with the scores of psychopathy and the Rational Experiential Inventory. Psychopathy resulted positively related to impulsivity. In turn, the correlations between the dimensions of impulsivity and those of the Rational Experiential Inventory were negative with the rational thinking style -excluding sensation seeking- and positive with the significant ones of the experiential style. Significant partial correlations were observed between machiavellianism and narcissism and different dimensions of impulsivity, controlling psychopathy scores. It is demonstrated that the impulsivity scale in its short version maintains adequate psychometric properties in a sample of Argentinean adults.

2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(3): 279-288, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374614

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Past suicide attempt (SA) is one of the most important risk factors for suicide death. An ideation-to-action framework posits that impulsivity, potentially traumatic events, and mental disorders also play a role in increasing suicide risk. This study aimed to assess the association between trait impulsivity, lifetime exposure to trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with SA in a sample of Brazilian college students. Methods: A total of 2,137 participants filled self-reported questionnaires consisting of a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, Trauma History Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian version, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Results: Our findings suggest that trait impulsivity may be interpreted as exerting a distal effect on SA, even in the presence of other variables - such as trauma history, psychological neglect, and PTSD - which also increase the odds of SA. High and medium levels of impulsivity, history of trauma, and PTSD increased the likelihood of SA. Conclusions: Intervention strategies to prevent SA may target trait impulsivity and exposure to traumatic experiences.

3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11892, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360237

ABSTRACT

The elevated gradient of aversion (EGA) is an apparatus for investigating the exploratory behavior of rats in 3-min sessions, consisting of three different sections of the same size: tunnel, closed arm, and open arm. Factorial analyses have defined three factors: exploration, impulsivity, and self-protection. In general, male rats are placed in the tunnel end and tend to hesitate leaving this starting point. Then, they hesitate leaving the tunnel and entering the closed arm, which they explore and tend to avoid entering the open arm or even just stick their head in and not enter it at all. Since females were not used for this test and are reported to be more explorative than male rats, the present work aimed to compare the behavior of male and female rats in the EGA. Thirty male and 34 female Wistar rats were submitted to 3-min sessions in the EGA. In general, results indicated that females were different from males: they explored more (Factor 1 - Exploration), are more impulsive (Factor 2 - Impulsivity), and are less anxious/fearful (Factor 3 - Self-protection). These results confirmed the results of other studies obtained with other apparatuses and show that females exhibit higher locomotion than males and are less anxious/fearful.

4.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(2): 102-112, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388382

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Impulsividad y asertividad son dos de los rasgos más estudiados en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA), aunque la impulsividad no ha sido suficientemente caracterizada y la evidencia en cuanto a asertividad es insuficiente. Objetivo: Analizar niveles de impulsividad y asertividad en mujeres con y sin TCA. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio analítico transversal, con muestreo no probabilístico en pacientes de sexo femenino con TCA, contrastándolas con mujeres controles sin TCA. Se aplicaron el Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT-40), las escalas de Barratt (BIS) y de Rathus (RAS) a 42 sujetos controles y 42 con TCA. Resultados: No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos en cuanto a características sociodemográficas. El puntaje del EAT-40 fue mayor en las pacientes con TCA (p=0,000). No hubo diferencias significativas en RAS total, excepto en las subescalas R1 (p= 0,004) y R3 (p=0,035). El puntaje BIS total también tuvo diferencias significativas (p=0,003) así como las subescalas de Impulsividad Cognitiva (IC) (p=0,000) y de Impulsividad Motora (IM) (p=0,0032). Hubo correlación positiva, estadísticamente significativa entre los puntajes totales del EAT-40 y RAS, y las subescalas R1 y R2, y negativa entre EAT-40 y BIS, y las subescalas IC e IM. Conclusiones: Las pacientes con TCA presentan niveles más elevados de impulsividad y más bajos de asertividad.


Background: Impulsivity and assertiveness are two of the most studied features in eating disorders (ED), although impulsivity has not been sufficiently characterized and the evidence regarding assertiveness is scarce. Objective: To analyse levels of impulsivity and assertiveness in women with and without ED. Method: A cross-sectional analytical study, with non-probabilistic sampling in female patients with ED was carried out, contrasting them with women without ED as controls. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40), the Barratt (BIS) and Rathus (RAS) scales were applied to 42 control subjects and 42 patients with ED. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. EAT-40 scores were higher in eating disordered patients (p = 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in total RAS scores, except for R1 (p = 0.004) and R3 (p = 0.035) subscales. Total BIS score also had statistically significant differences (p = 0.003) as well as Cognitive Impulsivity (CI) (p = 0.000) and Motor Impulsivity (IM) subscales (p = 0.0032). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between total scores of EAT-40 and RAS, and R1 and R2 subscales, and a statistically significant negative one between EAT-40 and BIS, and IC and IM subscales. Conclusions: Patients with ED have higher levels of impulsivity and lower levels of assertiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Assertiveness , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Eating , Impulsive Behavior
5.
Psychol. av. discip ; 15(1): 83-93, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356673

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proporción de usuarios de una sustancia de abuso que desarrolla problemas con su consumo (abuso o dependencia) representa solo una parte de esta población. En México, el 63.8 % de la población consume alcohol, y de ellos, el 15 % desarrolla algún trastorno por consumo de alcohol (TCA). Se ha observado una relación causal entre el trastorno por consumo de sustancias (TCS) y la falta de autocontrol. Es decir, satisfacer necesidades de manera impulsiva, v. gr., consumir una droga sin evaluar las consecuencias. La corteza prefrontal (CPF) es el principal sustrato neuroanatómico del autocontrol y característicamente la CPF alcanza la madurez alrededor de los 30 años, sugieriendo que el autocontrol se alcanza despues de esta edad. Se ha propuesto que todos los grupos etarios que no han consolidado el uso del autocontrol son vulnerables al TCS. Similarmente ocurre con aquellos sujetos que por algún trastorno psiquiátrico tienen como característica una limitada función prefrontal. La CPF coordina una red subcortical cuya interacción depende de distintos sistemas de neurotransmisión, entre ellos, endocanabinoides. En este trabajo se revisó la función de la CPF y del sistema de endocanabinoides (sECB) y su relación con la vulnerabilidad a la adicción y otros trastornos psiquiátricos.


Abstract The proportion of users of a substance of abuse who develop problems with its use (abuse or dependence) represents only a part of this population. In Mexico, 63.8% of the population consumes alcohol and only 15% of them develop an alcohol use disorder (AUD). A causal relation has been observed between substance use disorder (SUD) and the lack of self-control. Which means, satisfying needs in an impulsive way, v.gr. using a drug, without considering the consequences. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the main neuroanatomical substrate of self-control and characteristically reaches maturity around the age of 30, suggesting that self-control is reached after this age. We suggest that all age groups that have not consolidated the use of self-control are vulnerable to SUD. The same occurs with those who, due to a psychiatric disorder, have the characteristic of a limited prefrontal function. The PFC coordinates a subcortical network whose interaction depends on different neurotransmission systems among them, the endocannabinoids system (ECBs). In this work we will review the function of the PFC, the ECBs and its relationship with vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Substance-Related Disorders , Impulsive Behavior , Synaptic Transmission , Endocannabinoids , Ethanol , Alcoholism , Self-Control , Mental Disorders
6.
Actual. psicol. (Impr.) ; 35(130)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383491

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de teléfonos celulares ha aumentado exponencialmente en la mayoría de los países del mundo. Desde una perspectiva psicológica, se han desarrollado diferentes técnicas para evaluar el nivel de dependencia hacia el uso del teléfono móvil, y el test TDMB es una de las más utilizadas. Objetivo. El objetivo principal del trabajo fue realizar la adaptación y validación al contexto argentino del cuestionario TDMB y sus relaciones con la impulsividad. Método. Participaron del estudio 339 adultos residentes en Argentina, con edades entre los 18 y 65 años (M = 37.66; DT = 12.87), siendo el 74.3% mujeres. La batería de evaluación incluyó el TDMD, la UPPS-P para evaluar impulsividad y variables ad-hoc relacionadas con el uso del teléfono celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para la versión argentina del TDMB. Asimismo, se observaron relaciones entre todas las dimensiones del cuestionario y la impulsividad, como también diferencias según la edad y el sexo de los participantes. Se discuten los alcances y límites de la prueba, así como sus relaciones con la impulsividad y el uso cotidiano del teléfono móvil.


Abstract. The use of cell phones has increased exponentially in most countries of the world. From a psychological perspective, different techniques have been developed to assess the level of dependence towards the use of the mobile phone, the TDMB test being one of the most used. Objective. The aim of the research was to adapt and validate the TDMB and its relations with impulsivity. Method. 339 adults residing in Argentina participated in the study, with ages between 18 and 65 years (M = 37.66; SD = 12.87), of which 74.3% were women. The evaluation included the TDMD, the UPPS-P to evaluate impulsivity and ad-hoc variables related to cell phone use. Results. Adequate psychometric properties were observed for the Argentine version of the TDMB. Likewise, relationships were observed between all dimensions of the questionnaire and impulsivity, as well as differences according to the age and gender of the participants. The scope and limits of the test are discussed, as well as its relationships with the impulsivity and daily use of the mobile phone.

7.
Colomb. med ; 52(1): e2044342, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Through the culture of thinness, increasingly promoted in our society as a beauty canon, it is not surprising that the number of people affected by eating disorders is increasing. Objective: This research aims to study the relationship between non-suicidal self-injuries and nuclear aspects of eating disorders specified along with this article. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 women diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia. Questionnaires assessing impulsivity, body satisfaction, alexithymia, body attitude and self-esteem were administered. Participants with non-suicidal self-harm were compared with those without it, and participants with anorexia with and without self-harm and participants with bulimia with and without self-harm were compared. Results: Differences were found in body dissatisfaction= 5.71; p ≤0.01), body attitudes= 4.80; p ≤0.02), self-esteem= 14.09; p ≤0.00) and impulsivity (t= 3.39; p ≤0.01) between participants with and without non-suicidal self-harm. Conclusions: These are key factors for the clinical area in the treatment of eating disorders to prevent the presence of self-harm, as it allows focusing the treatment target on those aspects such as dissatisfaction and impulsivity, which are key in the development of self-harm.


Resumen Introducción: A través de la cultura de la delgadez, cada vez más promovida en nuestra sociedad como canon de belleza, no es de extrañar que este aumentado el número de personas afectadas por Trastornos de Conducta alimentaria. Objetivo: Estudiar la relación entre las autolesiones no suicidas y aspectos nucleares del trastorno de conducta alimentaria que se especifican a lo largo de este artículo. Métodos: La muestra ha sido formada por 60 mujeres diagnosticadas de anorexia y bulimia. Se administraron cuestionarios que evaluaban la impulsividad, satisfacción corporal, alexitimia, actitud corporal y autoestima. Se compararon aquellas participantes que presentaban autolesiones no suicidas con las que no lo presentaban, además se compararon participantes con anorexia con y sin autolesiones y participantes con bulimia con y sin autolesiones. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias en insatisfacción corporal = 5,71; p ≤0.01), en actitudes corporales= 4.80; p ≤0.02), autoestima= 14.09; p ≤0.00) e impulsividad, (t= 3.39; p ≤0.01) entre participantes con y sin autolesiones no suicidas. Conclusiones: Estos son factores clave para la clínica en el tratamiento de los trastornos de conducta alimentaria para prevenir la presencia de autolesiones, ya que permite enfocar el objetivo del tratamiento a aquellos aspectos como la insatisfacción e impulsividad, que son claves en el desarrollo de autolesiones.

8.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 52(1): 35452, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282725

ABSTRACT

Emotional Eating (EE) is defined as eating under the influence of negative emotions, and is associated with Eating Disorders, impulsivity, depression and weight gain. However, previous literature is not clear regarding how these variables explain EE. The present study aimed to identify predictors of EE and its relationship to impulsivity, depression, eating style, and weight status in young adults. Sex differences in eating style were examined, and differences in EE between obese/overweight and normal/underweight individuals were tested. Two-hundred college students completed online questionnaires assessing all variables. Low inhibitory control, depression symptoms, female sex, and higher body mass index significantly predicted scores on EE. Obese/overweight and female participants presented increased EE. Correlation analysis evidenced positive associations between EE, Uncontrolled Eating, body mass, and low inhibitory control. Results indicate that EE is related to psychological factors such as impulsivity and depression, and biological factors, such as sex and body mass.


Alimentação Emocional (AE) é definida como comer sob influência de emoções negativas e está associada a transtornos alimentares, impulsividade, depressão e ganho de peso. Entretanto, a literatura não é clara sobre como essas variáveis explicam AE. Este estudo buscou identificar preditores da AE e sua relação com impulsividade, depressão, estilo alimentar e peso corporal em jovens adultos. Foram examinadas diferenças entre sexo no estilo alimentar e diferenças na AE entre indivíduos obesos/com sobrepeso e normais/abaixo do peso. Duzentos estudantes universitários preencheram questionários online avaliando todas variáveis. Baixo controle inibitório, sintomas de depressão, sexo feminino e maior índice de massa corporal predisseram AE. Indivíduos obesos/com excesso de peso e do sexo feminino apresentaram aumento da AE. Foram evidenciadas correlações positivas entre Descontrole Alimentar, peso corporal e baixo controle inibitório. Os resultados indicam que a AE está relacionada a fatores psicológicos, como impulsividade e depressão, e biológicos, como sexo e massa corporal.


Alimentación emocional (AE) se define como comer bajo la influencia de emociones negativas y se asocia con trastornos alimentarios, impulsividad, depresión y aumento de peso. Sin embargo, la literatura no es clara acerca de cómo estas variables explican AE. Este estudio buscó identificar predictores de AE y su relación con impulsividad, depresión, estilo de alimentación y peso corporal en jovenes adultos. Se examinaron diferencias entre sexo en el estilo de alimentación y diferencias en AE entre sujetos obesos/con sobrepeso y normales/con bajo peso. Doscientos estudiantes universitarios completaron cuestionarios en línea evaluando todas variables. Bajo control inhibitorio, síntomas de depresión, género femenino y índice de masa corporal más alto predijeron AE. Personas obesas/con sobrepeso y mujeres mostraron aumento de AE. Se evidenciaron correlaciones positivas entre comida no controlada, peso corporal y bajo control inhibitorio. AE está relacionada con factores psicológicos, como impulsividad y depresión, y biológicos, como género y masa corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Depression/psychology , Impulsive Behavior , Weight Gain , Sex Factors , Emotions
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909507

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis related genes SKA2, AVPR1B, CRHR2 and suicide attempts in patients with depression, and the interaction between the genes and environmental factors.Methods:From March 2017 to August 2018, sixty-one patients with depression who were hospitalized for suicide were selected (case group), and 57 subjects matched with the age, gender and education level of the case group (control group) were selected in the same period.Snapshot genotyping technique was used to test the genotypes of case group and control group.Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-Ⅱ) and life event scale (LES) were used to assess the impulsive traits and mental stress of individuals in the past year.Chi-square test and independent sample t-test were used for inter group comparison by SPSS 22.0 software.Gene-environment interaction was analyzed by the generalized multi factor dimensionality reduction. Results:The total scores of BIS-Ⅱ and LES in case group(65.05± 11.14, 34.16±27.23) were higher than those in the control group (53.30 ± 9.07, 11.67±12.64), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). There was no significant difference in gene frequency and allele frequency of SKA2 and CRHR2 between the two groups ( P>0.05). The genotype frequency and allele frequency of rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene were significantly different between the two groups (χ 2=5.763, 4.279, both P<0.05), but there was no significant difference after Bonferroni correction ( P>0.05). The best interaction model in GMDR was the third-order model constructed by rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene, impulsive traits and life events, with the highest accuracy of 0.789 for sample test( P=0.001). In multiple genetic models, rs28373064 of AVPR1B gene was associated with attempted suicide behavior in patients with depression(dominant model: A/G-G/G ( OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.16-0.88, P=0.021), overdominant model: A/G ( OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.15-0.87, P=0.019), log-additive model: A/A, A/G and G/G ( OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20-0.96, P=0.034)). Conclusion:rs28373064 polymorphism of AVPR1B gene is associated with attempted suicide behavior in patients with depression.AA genotype carriers of AVPR1B gene are more likely to commit suicide under the influence of life events and impulsive.

10.
Ciênc. cogn ; 25(1): 61-81, 30 nov. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292735

ABSTRACT

We review the role of childhood abuse (CA) in the practice of impulsive, risk-taking behaviors during adulthood. CA deregulates the adult response to stress, which in turn disrupts the prefrontal-striatal systems that provide executive control over reward-related behavior. The result is impulsivity and risk-taking, including self-medication with drugs and alcohol and the practice of unsafe sex. These behaviors decrease quality of life and impair the attainment of long-term goals. Risky sexual behavior, in particular, increases the chance of HIV infection and perpetuates the epidemic.


Revisamos o papel do abuso na infância na prática de comportamentos impulsivos e de risco durante a vida adulta. O abuso na infância desregula a resposta do adulto ao estresse, o que, por sua vez, impede os circuitos frontoestriatais de fornecerem o adequado controle executivo sobre comportamentos associados à recompensa. O resultado é a impulsividade e escolhas de risco, incluindo automedicação com drogas e álcool e a prática de sexo inseguro, reduzindo a qualidade de vida e prejudicando o alcance de metas de longo prazo. O comportamento sexual de risco, em particular, aumenta a chance de infecção pelo Vírus de Imunodeficiência Humana e perpetua a sua epidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Social Behavior , Child Abuse, Sexual , Child , Unsafe Sex , Sex Offenses
11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(5): 503-509, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132120

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between neurocognitive profiles and clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods: Forty-five patients diagnosed with BPD and 35 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The BPD group was evaluated with the Borderline Personality Inventory for dissociative, impulsivity and suicidal dimensions. The Verbal Memory Processes Test and the Cambridge Neurophysiological Assessment Battery were administered to both the BPD and healthy control groups. Results: BPD patients differed from controls in sustained attention, facial emotion recognition, and deteriorated verbal memory function. A model consisting of the Dissociative Experiences Scale - Taxon (DES-T), motor impulsivity and Scale for Suicidal Behavior scores explained 52% of the variance in Borderline Personality Inventory scores. It was detected that motor impulsivity, decision-making and recognizing sadness may significantly predict DES-T scores, and response inhibition and facial emotion recognition scores may significantly predict impulsivity. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the disassociation, impulsivity, and suicidality dimensions are sufficient to represent the clinical manifestations of BPD, that they are related to neurocognitive differences, and that they interact with clinical features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attention/physiology , Suicide/psychology , Borderline Personality Disorder/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis , Impulsive Behavior , Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Borderline Personality Disorder/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data
12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 382-388, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132090

ABSTRACT

Objective: Eating behavior is affected by psychological and neurocognitive factors. However, little is known about this relationship in anxious patients. Our aim was to investigate the associations between impulsivity, inhibitory control, energy-dense food consumption, and body mass index (BMI) in women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 51 adult females with GAD answered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and participated in a go/no-go task using food images. Anthropometric measurements were evaluated. A food frequency questionnaire and a snack test were used to study eating behavior. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the variables of interest, adjusted by age. Results: Impulsivity predicted intake of sugar (p = 0.016, 95%CI 0.67-6.05), total fat (p = 0.007, 95%CI 0.62-3.71), and saturated fat (p = 0.004, 95%CI 0.30-1.48). The snack test showed a positive correlation between presence of impulsivity and intake of biscuits (R = 0.296; p = 0.051). Response inhibition to food images in the go/no-go task paradigm did not predict BMI or food intake. Conclusion: Impulsivity was predictive of higher sugar and saturated fat intake in women diagnosed with GAD. Our findings add to the literature regarding the association between neuropsychological factors and food consumption in this specific population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Eating/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Impulsive Behavior , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev. CES psicol ; 13(2): 46-60, maio-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155344

ABSTRACT

Resumen El juego patológico se caracteriza por un patrón persistente y excesivo de juego, con interferencias en la vida personal, social, familiar y laboral. Objetivo: Examinar en estudiantes universitarios diferencias en impulsividad rasgo, distorsiones cognitivas y severidad en el involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas en función de los juegos de apuestas de preferencia (estratégicos y no estratégicos); y variaciones en impulsividad en función de los diferentes niveles de severidad en el involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas (sin riesgo, bajo riesgo, alto riesgo). Método: Participaron 295 estudiantes que completaron instrumentos para medir: 1-ocurrencia y preferencia de juegos de apuestas (cuestionario ad-hoc), 2-severidad en el involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas (versión en español del South Oaks Gambling Screen, 3-impulsividad rasgo (versión en español de UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), 4-distorsiones cognitivas (versión en español del Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire). Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en impulsividad, distorsiones cognitivas y severidad en el involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas en función de la preferencia por determinados tipos de apuestas, y en impulsividad en función del nivel de severidad en el involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas. Conclusión: Los hallazgos describen características psicológicas asociadas a una mayor vulnerabilidad a exhibir modalidades problemáticas de involucramiento con los juegos de apuestas; y sugieren que quienes exhiben preferencias por juegos de apuestas categorizados como estratégicos, o por apuestas estratégicas y no estratégicas combinadas, son quienes parecen estar en mayor riesgo de presentar problemas con el juego de apuestas.


Abstract Pathological gambling is characterized by a persistent and excessive pattern of gambling, with interference in personal, social, family and work life. Objective: To examine, in college students, differences in impulsivity trait, cognitive distortions and severity in gambling involvement as a function gambling preference (strategic and non-strategic); and variations in impulsivity as a function of levels of severity in gambling involvement (no risk, low risk, risk). Method: 295 students completed a survey to measure: 1-occurrence and preference of gambling (ad-hoc questionnaire), 2-severity of gambling involvement (Spanish version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen), 3- impulsivity trait (Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsivity Behavior Scale), 4-cognitive distortions (Spanish version of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire). Results: Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences in impulsivity, cognitive distortions and gambling severity as a function of gambling preference; and significant differences in trait-like impulsivity as a function of gambling severity. Conclusion: These findings describe psychological characteristics associated with increased vulnerability to exhibit gambling problems. The findings also suggest that individuals with a preference for strategic gambling or strategic and no strategic gambling, seem to be at heightened risk for problematic gambling.

14.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 23(1): 346-356, Jan.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Consideration of future consequences is the extent to which people anticipate and are influenced by the potential future consequences of their current behavior. A well-established tool to measure this behavior is the 14-item Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14). The CFC-14 has shown appropriate psychometric properties in several languages. This scale comprises two factors: the CFC-Immediate (CFC-I, 7 items) and the CFC-Future (CFC-F, 7 items). The main goal of this study was to assess the psychometric properties and internal consistency of the CFC-14 Scale in Spanish, using an Argentine sample. A second goal was to determine its convergent validity with impulsivity, and determine differences and invariance across gender and age groups. Using a web-based survey, data were collected from 512 participants (75.2% women) aged 13-74 years (M = 30.8). CFA showed a two-factor model as the best solution for the 13-items version (CFI .961, TLI .952, RMSEA .064 90%IC .054/.074, WRMR 0.979). Standardized regression weights (p ≤ .05) ranged from .50 to .66 for CFC-F and between .43 and .83 for CFC-I. Composite reliability was also adequate: CFC-F achieved p = .80 and CFC-I p = .82. There were no differences across gender and age, but there was a progressive invariance between these groups. The CFC-F and UPPS-P subscales correlations were negative and significant, highlighting the negative and moderate correlation between CFC-F and the lack of premeditation (r=-.41). Thus, CFC-14 has adequate psychometric properties in an Argentine population, although more studies are necessary to determine the robustness of these findings.


Resumen La consideración de las consecuencias futuras se define como el grado en el cual las personas anticipan y son influenciadas por las potenciales consecuencias futuras de su comportamiento actual, y una herramienta muy utilizada para medirla es la Escala de Consideración de las Consecuencias Futuras (CFC-14). Esta escala ha exhibido propiedades psicométricas adecuadas en varios idiomas y se encuentra conformada por dos factores: CFC-Inmediato (CFC-I, 7 ítems) y CFC-Futuro (CFC-F, 7 ítems). El objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas y la consistencia interna de la versión en español de la CFC-14 en una muestra argentina, además de identificar las evidencias de validez convergente con la Escala de Impulsividad y la invarianza en función del género y la edad de los participantes. Para esto, se evaluó mediante una encuesta online a 512 participantes (75.2 % mujeres) de 13 a 74 años (M = 30.8) y se realizó un AFC en el que se encontró un modelo de dos factores como aquel con mejor ajuste para una versión de la escala de 13 ítems (CFI = .961; TLI = .952; RMSEA = .064; IC 90 % = .054-.074; WRMR = 0.979). Específicamente, los pesos de regresión estandarizados (p ≤ .05) fueron de .50 a .66 para CFC-F y de .43 a .83 para CFC-I; los valores de confiabilidad compuesta fueron adecuados, con un p = .80 para CFC-F y un p = .82 para CFC-I; no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del sexo y la edad de los participantes, no obstante, hubo una invarianza progresiva entre estos grupos; y las correlaciones entre las subescalas de la Escala de Impulsividad (UPPPS-P) y la CFC-F fueron negativas y significativas, siendo llamativa la correlación negativa y moderada entre la falta de premeditación y la CFC-F (r = -.41). De este modo, la CFC-14 mostró propiedades psicométricas adecuadas en una muestra argentina, aunque se necesita de más estudios para determinar la robustez de estos resultados.

15.
Aval. psicol ; 19(2): 159-169, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1100903

ABSTRACT

Visando avaliar a relação entre histórico de violência doméstica e autocontrole, 53 homens e 82 mulheres realizaram escolhas em contextos hipotéticos de violência doméstica e de perda de dinheiro, em um programa de computador. No contexto de violência, escolheram entre prisão, para os homens, imediata por um ou seis meses, e prisão após um ano ou com 50% de chance. Com dinheiro, escolheram entre perder R$100,00 imediatamente e perdas com 50% de chance ou após um ano. O tempo de prisão e a perda de dinheiro atrasados/prováveis eram aumentados para avaliar equivalência com as prisões e perdas imediatas. Mulheres e homens sem histórico indicaram menores tempos de prisão atrasados que os homens com histórico. Com dinheiro, os homens com histórico preferiram perdas atrasadas maiores que as mulheres, mas o contrário com probabilidade. Esses dados são compatíveis com maior evitação de consequências imediatas aversivas pelos homens com histórico, um indicativo de maior nível de impulsividade. AU


To assess the relationship between historic of domestic violence and self-control, 53 men and 82 women made choices in hypothetical contexts of domestic violence and money loss using a computer program. In the context of violence, they chose between immediate detention for men for one or six months and detention after one year or with a 50% chance. With money they chose between losing $100 immediately and losses with a 50% chance or after one year. Delayed/probable detention duration and loss of money were increased to assess equivalence with immediate detentions and losses. Women and men without historic violence indicated shorter delayed detention durations than men with historic violence. With money, men with historic violence preferred higher losses than the women, however, presented the opposite regarding probability. These data are compatible with greater avoidance of immediate aversive consequences by men with a history of violence, indicative of a higher level of impulsivity. AU


Con el intuito de evaluar la relación entre el historial de violencia doméstica y el autocontrol, 53 hombres y 82 mujeres tomaron decisiones en contextos hipotéticos de violencia doméstica y pérdida de dinero en un programa de ordenador. En el contexto de violencia para hombres, eligieron entre prisión inmediata por uno o seis meses y prisión pasado un año o 50% de probabilidad. Con dinero, eligieron entre perder R$100,00 de inmediato y pérdidas con una probabilidad del 50% o después de un año. El tiempo de prisión y la pérdida de dinero retrasado/probable se incrementaron para evaluar la equivalencia con las prisiones y las pérdidas inmediatas. Las mujeres y los hombres sin antecedentes indicaron tiempos de prisión más cortos que los hombres con antecedentes. Con el dinero, los hombres con antecedentes prefirieron mayores pérdidas que las mujeres, sin embargo, con la probabilidad justo lo contrario. Estos datos son compatibles con una mayor evitación de consecuencias aversivas inmediatas por parte de hombres con antecedentes de violencia, lo que indica un mayor nivel de impulsividad. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Domestic Violence/psychology , Self-Control/psychology , Impulsive Behavior
16.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 2317/04/2020. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141597

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o estado de humor, a mo- tivação e a impulsividade de escolares participantes dos Jogos Escolares da Juventude. A amostra foi composta por 147 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 12 e 17 anos. Foram aplicados, respectiva- mente, os seguintes instrumentos para humor, motivação e impulsivi - dade: 1) Brunel Mood Scale; 2) Motivação para Atividade Física Medida Revisada; e 3) Escala de Comportamento Impulsivo-UPPS. Os resultados indicaram que o humor dos escolares apresentou fator positivo, com elevados níveis de vigor; as dimensões que mais motivam os escolares se relacionam à competência e diversão; a impulsividade se caracterizou pela busca de sensações e urgência, indicando que tendem a se engajar em situações e atividades excitantes e a curto prazo.


The objective of this study was to analyze the mood, motivation and impulsivity of students participating in the Youth School Games. The sample consisted of 147 students of both genders, ages 12 to 17 years. The following instruments were applied respectively for humor, motivation and impulsivity: 1) Brunel Mood Scale; 2) Motivation for Physical Activity Revised Measure and 3) Impulsive Behavior Scale-UPPS. The results indicated that the mood of the students had a positive factor, with high vigor levels; The dimensions that motivate students the most are related to competence and fun; impulsivity was characterized by the pursuit of sensation and urgency, indicating that they tend to engage in exciting, short-term situations and activities.


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el estado de ánimo, la motivación y la impulsividad de los estudiantes que participan en los Juegos Escolares Juveniles. La muestra consistió en 147 estudiantes de ambos sexos, de 12 a 17 años. Los siguientes instrumentos se aplicaron respectivamente para el humor, la motivación y la impulsividad: 1) Escala de estado de ánimo de Brunel; 2) Motivación para la actividad física Medida revisada y 3) Escala de comportamiento impulsivo-UPPS. Los resultados indicaron que el estado de ánimo de los estudiantes tenía un factor positivo, con altos niveles de vigor; Las dimensiones que más motivan a los estudiantes están relacionadas con la competencia y la diversión; La impulsividad se caracterizó por la búsqueda de la sensación y la urgencia, lo que indica que tienden a participar en situaciones y actividades emocionantes a corto plazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Sports , Behavior , Affect , Motivation , Students , Impulsive Behavior , Motor Activity
17.
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2020. 188 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1381621

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas houve um aumento significativo da prevalência de sujeitos que fazem o consumo de substâncias psicoativas de forma problemática. O consumo dessas drogas tornou-se preocupação mundial em virtude dos riscos e consequências que essa situação pode acarretar ao dependente. A literatura evidencia que um dos fatores que podem contribuir com o consumo de drogas na vida adulta são as situações estressoras vivenciadas na infância, denominadas como estresse precoce, além disso, a impulsividade e o comportamento suicida são elencados como graves resultados desencadeados pela dependência química. Sendo assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a relação entre o estresse precoce, a impulsividade e o comportamento suicida. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo de abordagem quantitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas do município de Rio Verde - Goiás. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Escala de Impulsividade de Barratt e a Escala de Ideação Suicida de Beck. Os dados foram compilados e analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. A amostra consistiu em 105 pacientes diagnosticados com transtorno por uso de álcool ou crack. Os resultados identificaram uma alta prevalência da exposição aos diferentes subtipos de estresse precoce entre os usuários de drogas, com maiores índices entre os usuários de crack. O estresse precoce mostrou uma significativa influência nas manifestações de impulsividade na amostra avaliada, explicando por meio da exposição aos diferentes tipos de abuso e negligência significativa variabilidade dos escores de impulsividade. Ao analisar a relação entre o estresse precoce e o comportamento suicida, os usuários que haviam realizado a tentativa pregressa de suicídio apresentaram maiores exposições ao abuso emocional, físico e sexual. Somado a isso, os subtipos de abuso foram significativamente associados à probabilidade da tentativa de suicídio. O comportamento suicida, avaliado por meio da ideação e tentativa de suicídio, foi mais prevalente em dependentes de crack quando comparado aos dependentes de álcool. No entanto, a diferença no transtorno por uso de substância não foi preditora do comportamento suicida, revelando que a problemática do suicídio é observada no paciente com transtorno por uso de drogas independente da substância utilizada. A presente pesquisa proporcionou uma melhor compreensão de fatores contribuintes e de risco do consumo de substâncias psicoativas e a relação entre essas variáveis, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de ações da prática clínica e de pesquisa para trabalhadores e pesquisadores da saúde mental e áreas afins


In the last few decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of subjects who use psychoactive substances in a problematic way. The use of these drugs has become a worldwide concern due to the risks and consequences that this situation can bring to the addict. The literature shows that one of the factors that can contribute to drug consumption in adulthood are the stressful situations experienced in childhood, called early stress, in addition, impulsivity and suicidal behavior are listed as serious results triggered by chemical dependence. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the relationship between early stress, impulsivity and suicidal behavior. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Data collection was performed at the Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs in the city of Rio Verde - Goiás. The evaluations were carried out using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Barratt's Impulsivity Scale and the Suicidal Ideation Scale of Beck. The data were compiled and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The sample consisted of 105 patients diagnosed with alcohol or crack use disorder. The results identified a high prevalence of exposure to different subtypes of early stress among drug users, with higher rates among crack users. Early stress showed a significant influence on the manifestations of impulsivity in the sample evaluated, explaining through exposure to different types of abuse and significant neglect in the variability of impulsivity scores. When analyzing the relationship between early stress and suicidal behavior, users who had previously attempted suicide had greater exposure to emotional, physical and sexual abuse. In addition, the subtypes of abuse were significantly associated with the likelihood of attempted suicide. Suicidal behavior, assessed through ideation and attempted suicide, was more prevalent in crack addicts when compared to alcohol addicts. However, the difference in substance use disorder was not a predictor of suicidal behavior, revealing that the problem of suicide is observed in patients with drug use disorder regardless of the substance used. The present research provided a better understanding of contributing factors and risk of consumption of psychoactive substances and the relationship between these variables, favoring the development of clinical practice and research actionsfor workers and researchers in mental health and related areas.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Drive , Suicidal Ideation , Psychological Distress
18.
Aval. psicol ; 18(4): 411-418, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055245

ABSTRACT

A Escala Breve de Autocontrole (BSCS) foi desenvolvida para avaliar diferentes níveis de autocontrole, uma capacidade individual de ativamente alterar os próprios desejos, comportamentos, emoções e pensamentos. Apesar da estabilidade do modelo unidimensional no estudo original, sua replicabilidade estrutural não foi corroborada pela literatura posterior. O presente estudo teve por objetivo oferecer informações sobre validade de construto em amostra brasileira, incluindo avaliação de modelos bidimensionais alternativos. A amostra foi composta por 405 indivíduos (61,2% mulheres) com idades entre 18 e 46 anos (M = 22,32 DP = 4,782). Foram realizadas análises fatoriais exploratórias (AFE) e confirmatórias (AFC), e a adequação do modelo foi avaliada por meio de índices de ajuste. Apenas um modelo emergiu satisfatoriamente. Os resultados são discutidos com base na literatura vigente e na relação da escala com outros instrumentos que fazem uso de diversas medidas do construto de autocontrole (Adiamento de Gratificação e Impulsividade). (AU)


The Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) was developed to measure the individual self-control spectrum, as a cognitive skill to actively alter one's own desires, behavior, emotions and thoughts. In the original validation, the BSCS displayed adequate psychometric properties for its unidimensional structure. However, this structure was difficult to replicate in subsequent studies. This study aimed to adapt and to assess evidence of validity of the measure for a Brazilian sample. The sample was composed of 405 individuals (61.2% women) with ages ranging from 18 to 46 years (M = 22.32 SD = 4.782). Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis were conducted, and the adequacy of the model was assessed by means of model fit indexes. Only one model was found to be appropriate. The results are discussed based on recent scientific data and the relations between the scale and other instruments that evaluate diverse self-control measures (Delaying Gratification and Impulsivity). (AU)


La Escala Breve de Autocontrol (BSCS) fue desarrollada para evaluar diferentes niveles de autocontrol, una capacidad individual alterar activamente la propia voluntad, comportamientos, emociones y pensamientos. En su estudio de validación, el instrumento presentó buenas propiedades psicométricas en su modelo unidimensional. No obstante, tal estructura no fue encontrada en investigaciones posteriores. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo proporcionar información sobre la validez de constructo en una muestra brasileña, incluyendo la evaluación de modelos bidimensionales alternativos. Participaron de la muestra 405 individuos (61,2% mujeres) con edades entre 18 y 46 años (M = 22,32 DS = 4,782). Se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios (AFE) y confirmatorios (AFC). Se evaluó la adecuación del modelo por medio de índices de ajuste. Solo un modelo obtuvo resultados satisfactorios. Los resultados se discuten con base en la literatura vigente y en la relación de la escala con otros instrumentos que hacen uso de diversas medidas del constructo de autocontrol (Aplazamiento de la Gratificación e Impulsividad). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Behavior , Drive , Emotions , Self-Control/psychology , Neuroticism , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical
19.
Rev. ecuat. neurol ; 28(3): 41-46, sep.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058472

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Inhibitory control has been described as a factor causing difficulties in the regulation present in the ADHD. Objective: The aim was to analyze the relationship between inhibitory control and symptoms of ADHD in a sample of 81 subjects diagnosed with ADHD (Mage=10.05, SD=2.53). Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and correlational scope research was carried out. The instruments used were the ADHD RS IV and SIMON experiment. Correlation inferential statistical regression and regression processes were applied. Results: Three regression models were tested, where inhibitory control presents a significant prediction with the (a) attention deficit F (1,79) =20.69, p=<.001, R 2 =.21, (b) hyperactivity and impulsivity F (1, 79) =5.90, p=.01, R 2 =.07 and (c) the combination of both (a+b) F (1, 79) =13.25, p=< .01, R 2 =.14. Conclusions: The findings suggest that inhibitory control is one of the main executive functions that determines the degree of affectation of the symptomatology of the child population with ADHD.


Resumen Antecedentes: El control inhibitorio ha sido descrito como un factor causal que genera problemas de déficit de atención, impulsividad e hiperactividad que engloban la sintomatología del TDAH. Objetivo: El fin de esta investigación fue analizar la relación entre el control inhibitorio y los síntomas del TDAH en una muestra de 81 sujetos diagnosticados con TDAH (M edad = 10.05, DE = 2.53). Método: Se ejecutó una investigación cuantitativa, transversal y alcance correlacional. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron ADHD RS IV y el experimento SIMON. Se aplicaron procesos de análisis estadístico inferencial correlacional y regresión. Resultados: Tres modelos de regression fueron testeados, donde el control inhibitorio present una relación significativa, prediciendo (a) el déficit de atención F (1, 79) = 20.69, p=< .001, R 2 =.21, (b) hiperactividad e impulsividad F (1, 79) = 5.90, p=.01, R 2 =.07 y (c) la combinación de ambos (a+b) F (1, 79) = 13.25, p=< .01, R 2 =.14. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos encontrados sugieren que el control inhibitorio es una de las funciones ejecutivas principales que determina el grado de afectación de la sintomatología de la población infantil con ADHD.

20.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(4): 358-368, Oct.-Dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059188

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction To improve the comprehension of the interface between smartphone addiction (SA) and Facebook addiction (FA), we hypothesize that the occurrence of both technological addictions correlate, with higher levels of negative consequences. Moreover, we hypothesize that SA is associated with lower levels of social support satisfaction. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of undergraduate students from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, with age ranging between 18 and 35 years. All subjects completed a self-fulfilled questionnaire comprising sociodemographic data, the Brazilian Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-BR), the Bergen Scale for Facebook Addiction, the Barrat Impulsivity Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS), and the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS-8). After completing the questionnaire, the interviewer conducted a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results In the univariate analysis, SA associated with female gender, with ages 18 to 25 years, FA, substance abuse disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, low scores in SSSS, high scores in BSSS-8, and high scores in BIS. The group with SA and FA presented a higher prevalence of substance abuse disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders when compared to the group with SA only. Conclusion In our sample, co-occurrence of SA and FA correlated with higher levels of negative consequences and lower levels of social support satisfaction. These results strongly suggest that SA and FA share some elements of vulnerability. Further studies are warranted to clarify the directions of these associations.


Resumo Introdução Para melhorar a compreensão da interface entre dependência de smartphone (DS) e a dependência de Facebook (DF), avaliamos a hipótese de que a ocorrência simultânea de ambas as dependências corelaciona-se com o número de consequências negativas por elas produzidas. Além disso, avaliamos se a DS está associada a níveis mais baixos de satisfação com o suporte social. Método Recrutamos uma amostra de conveniência de estudantes de graduação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, na faixa de 18 e 35 anos. Todos os sujeitos preencheram o questionário avaliando dados sociodemográficos e contendo a versão brasileira do Smartphone Addiction Inventory, a Escala de Bergen para DF, a Escala de Impulsividade de Barrat 11 (BIS-11), a Escala de Satisfação com o Suporte Social (SSSS) e a Escala Breve de Busca de Sensações (BSSS-8). Após o preenchimento do questionário, os entrevistadores realizaram a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Resultados Na análise univariada, a DS associou-se ao sexo feminino, pessoas na faixa de idade entre 18 e 25 anos, rastreio para DF, transtornos por uso de substâncias, transtorno depressivo maior, transtornos de ansiedade, baixos escores na SSSS, altos escores na BSSS-8 e altos escores na BIS. O grupo rastreado positivamente para DS e DF apresentou maior prevalência de transtornos por uso de substâncias, depressão e transtornos de ansiedade quando comparado ao grupo rastreado apenas para DS. Conclusão Na amostra avaliada, a comorbidade de DS e DF se correlacionou a níveis mais altos de consequências negativas e níveis mais baixos de satisfação com o suporte social. Esses resultados sugerem que DS e DF compartilham fatores de vulnerabilidade. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer a direção dessas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/etiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Personal Satisfaction , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Social Support , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Risk Factors , Behavior, Addictive/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/psychology
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