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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366211

ABSTRACT

Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Twins, Dizygotic , Twins, Monozygotic , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , India
2.
Journal of Rural Medicine ; : 166-170, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936713

ABSTRACT

Objective: Healthcare services using mobile-phone based telemedicine provide simple technology that does not require sophisticated equipment. This study assessed community health workers’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (i.e., their readiness) at the village level for uptake of mobile-phone based telemedicine.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 80 community health workers, including Auxiliary Nurse Midwives, Multipurpose Health Workers and Accredited Social Health Activists working in a rural health block of India. A pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-assisted, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their mobile-phone based telemedicine readiness.Results: Sixty (75.0%) health workers owned mobile phones. The median readiness score for mobile-phone based telemedicine was 109.0. The Accredited Social Health Activists showed a better attitude toward mobile-phone based telemedicine than others. There was a significant moderate positive correlation (r=0.67) between knowledge and practice domains. Community health workers who had smartphones showed a significantly better attitude than those who did not.Conclusion: Training programs on telemedicine service delivery, focused on Auxiliary Nurse Midwives/ Multipurpose Health Workers, can improve their attitudes towards telemedicine. A better attitude of the Accredited Social Health Activists must be leveraged to initiate mobile-phone based telemedicine services on a pilot basis initially and later scaled up in other settings.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924474

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected routine healthcare services across all spectra, and tuberculosis (TB) care under the National Tuberculosis Elimination Program have been affected the most. However, evidence available at the community level is minimal. The clinical features, care cascade pathway, and treatment outcomes of TB patients pre- and during/post-COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in a rural community health block in northern India were assessed and compared.Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included all patients diagnosed with TB and initiated treatment under programmatic settings between January 1 and June 30, 2020, in a rural TB unit in northern India. The periods from January 1 to March 23 and March 24 to June 30 were marked as pre-lockdown and during/post-lockdown, respectively.Results: A total of 103 patients were diagnosed and treated for TB during the study period. A significantly higher proportion of pulmonary TB cases were reported during/post-lockdown (43, 82.7%) compared to that pre-lockdown (32, 62.7%), and a higher diagnostic delay was noted during/post-lockdown (35, 81.4%). Through adjusted analysis, patients diagnosed during/post-lockdown period (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.98) and previously treated (aRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60–0.995) had significantly lower favorable treatment outcomes.Conclusions: The symptom and disease (pulmonary/extrapulmonary) pattern have changed during/post-lockdown. The care cascade delays are still high among TB patients, irrespective of the lockdown status. Lockdown had a significant adverse impact on the outcomes of TB treatment.

4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 384-393, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347302

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas clínicas atuais relacionadas à utilização de cânula nasal de alto fluxo por intensivistas pediátricos brasileiros e compará-las com as de outros países. Métodos: Para o estudo principal, foi administrado um questionário a intensivistas pediátricos em países das Américas do Norte e do Sul, Ásia, Europa e Austrália/Nova Zelândia. Comparou-se a coorte brasileira com coortes dos Estados Unidos, Canadá, Reino Unido e Índia. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 501 médicos, dos quais 127 eram do Brasil. Apenas 63,8% dos participantes brasileiros tinham disponibilidade de cânula nasal de alto fluxo, em contraste com 100% dos participantes no Reino Unido, no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos. Coube ao médico responsável a decisão de iniciar a utilização de uma cânula nasal de alto fluxo segundo responderam 61,2% dos brasileiros, 95,5% dos localizados no Reino Unido, 96,6% dos participantes dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% dos médicos canadenses e 84,7% dos participantes da Índia; 62% dos participantes do Brasil, 96,3% do Reino Unido, 96,6% dos Estados Unidos, 96,8% do Canadá e 84,7% da Índia relataram que o médico responsável era quem definia o desmame ou modificava as regulagens da cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Quando ocorreu falha da cânula nasal de alto fluxo por desconforto respiratório ou insuficiência respiratória, 82% dos participantes do Brasil considerariam uma tentativa com ventilação não invasiva antes da intubação endotraqueal, em comparação com 93% do Reino Unido, 88% dos Estados Unidos, 91,5% do Canadá e 76,8% da Índia. Mais intensivistas brasileiros (6,5%) do que do Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e Índia (1,6% para todos) afirmaram utilizar sedativos com frequência concomitantemente à cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Conclusão: A disponibilidade de cânulas nasais de alto fluxo no Brasil ainda não é difundida. Há algumas divergências nas práticas clínicas entre intensivistas brasileiros e seus colegas estrangeiros, principalmente nos processos e nas tomadas de decisão relacionados a iniciar e desmamar o tratamento com cânula nasal de alto fluxo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe current clinical practices related to the use of high-flow nasal cannula therapy by Brazilian pediatric intensivists and compare them with those in other countries. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to pediatric intensivists in North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand for the main study. We compared the Brazilian cohort with cohorts in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, and India Results: Overall, 501 physicians responded, 127 of which were in Brazil. Only 63.8% of respondents in Brazil had a high-flow nasal cannula available, in contrast to 100% of respondents in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. The attending physician was responsible for the decision to start a high-flow nasal cannula according to 61.2% respondents in Brazil, 95.5% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India. A total of 62% of respondents in Brazil, 96.3% in the United Kingdom, 96.6% in the United States, 96.8% in Canada, and 84.7% in India reported that the attending physician was responsible for the decision to wean or modify the high-flow nasal cannula settings. When high-flow nasal cannula therapy failed due to respiratory distress/failure, 82% of respondents in Brazil would consider a trial of noninvasive ventilation before endotracheal intubation, compared to 93% in the United Kingdom, 88% in the United States, 91.5% in Canada, and 76.8% in India. More Brazilian intensivists (6.5%) than intensivists in the United Kingdom, United States, and India (1.6% for all) affirmed using sedatives frequently with high-flow nasal cannulas. Conclusion: The availability of high-flow nasal cannulas in Brazil is still not widespread. There are some divergences in clinical practices between Brazilian intensivists and their colleagues abroad, mainly in processes and decision-making about starting and weaning high-flow nasal cannula therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , United States , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care
5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 168-173, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285539

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Despite the inclusion of hoarding disorder (HD) in the DSM-5, there is little epidemiological data on hoarding from low and middle-income countries. This study, the first from India, examines the prevalence and correlates of HD among primary care patients in the state of Kerala, India. Methods: To assess correlates, the Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview (HRS-I) and other structured instruments were administered to 7,555 subjects selected by stratified random sampling from 71 primary health centers. Results: The prevalence of HD was 1.02% (95%CI 0.8-1.3). Those with HD were more likely to be older and live alone. In the binary logistic regression analysis, after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables, subjects with HD had a higher odds of reporting chronic illness, depression, anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse, and tobacco dependence. Subjects with HD had significantly higher disability scores than unaffected individuals. Conclusion: Although HD is not uncommon in India, this disorder is rarely reported in specialty settings in India, which suggests that awareness and detection should be improved, considering the co-occurring negative correlates and disability among affected individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hoarding Disorder/diagnosis , Hoarding Disorder/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Primary Health Care , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence
6.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 21(1): 99-112, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341509

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The modern hospice movement, which is the origin of what is now known as palliative care, derived strong inspiration from Christianity. Given this original Christian inspiration, the global spread of palliative care even to countries where Christianity is only a minority religion may look surprising. In line with the theory of the "secularization of hospice," it could be argued that palliative care has spread globally because its underlying philosophy has become secular, allowing it to become universal. However, given the continuing importance of religion in many areas of palliative care, we could wonder how secular contemporary palliative care really is. This article argues that the universality of palliative care philosophy resides in its susceptibility to contextualization. Palliative care has become a global success story because people all over the world committed to palliative care's principles and ideas have contextualized these and developed models of palliative care delivery and even philosophy that are adapted to the local socio-economic and cultural-religious contexts. This article analyzes palliative care in India to illustrate this point, describing contextualized models of palliative care delivery and showing that palliative care physicians and nurses in India draw inspiration from their local context and religiosity.


Resumen: el movimiento moderno hospitalario, que es el origen de lo que ahora se conoce como cuidados paliativos, obtuvo una fuerte inspiración del cristianismo. Dada esta inspiración cristiana original, la propagación global de los cuidados paliativos incluso a países donde el cristianismo es sólo una religión minoritaria puede parecer sorprendente. En consonancia con la teoría de la "secularización de la hospitalización", se podría argumentar que los cuidados paliativos se han extendido globalmente puesto que su filosofía subyacente se ha vuelto secular, lo que le permite convertirse en universal. Sin embargo, dada la importancia continua de la religión en muchas áreas de los cuidados paliativos, podríamos preguntarnos cuán seculares son realmente los cuidados paliativos contemporáneos. Este artículo argumenta que la universalidad de la filosofía de cuidados paliativos reside en su susceptibilidad a la contextualización. Los cuidados paliativos se han convertido en una historia de éxito mundial, ya que personas de todo el mundo comprometidas con los principios e ideas de los cuidados paliativos los han contextualizado y han desarrollado modelos de prestación de cuidados paliativos e incluso una filosofía que se adapta al contexto socioeconómico y cultural-religioso local. Este artículo analiza los cuidados paliativos en la India para ilustrar este punto a través de modelos contextualizados de prestación de cuidados paliativos, y muestra que los médicos y enfermeras de cuidados paliativos en la India se inspiran en su contexto local y religiosidad.


Resumo: O movimento moderno hospitalar, que é a origem do que agora é conhecido como "cuidados paliativos", derivou de uma forte inspiragao do cristianismo. Tendo em vista essa inspiração cristã original, a propagação global dos cuidados paliativos, inclusive a países onde o cristianismo é somente uma religião minoritária, pode parecer surpreendente. Em consonância com a teoria da secularização da hospitalização, poderia argumentar-se que os cuidados paliativos vêm se estendendo globalmente, visto que sua filosofia subjacente vem se tornado secular, o que lhe permite converter-se em universal. Contudo, considerando a importância contínua da religião em muitas áreas dos cuidados paliativos, poderíamos perguntar-nos quão seculares são realmente os cuidados paliativos contemporáneos. Neste artigo, argumenta-se que a universalidade da filosofía de cuidados paliativos reside em sua suscetibilidade a contextualização. Os cuidados paliativos vêm se tornando uma história de sucesso mundial, já que pessoas de todo o mundo comprometidas com os princípios e as ideias dos cuidados paliativos os têm contextualizado e tem desenvolvido modelos de prestação de cuidados paliativos e inclusive uma filosofía que é adaptada ao contexto socioeconômico e cultural-religioso local. No texto, são analisados os cuidados paliativos na Índia para ilustrar esse ponto por meio de modelos contextualizados de prestação de cuidados paliativos e é mostrado que os médicos e os enfermeiros de cuidados paliativos na Índia se inspiram em seu contexto local e em sua religiosidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Religion , Bioethics , Christianity , India
7.
J Genet ; 2020 Sep; 99: 1-7
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215486

ABSTRACT

The broad spectrum of causal variants in the newly discovered GIPC3 gene is well reflected in worldwide studies. Except for one missense variant, none of the reported variants had reoccurred, thus reflecting the intragenic heterogeneity. We screened all the six coding exons of GIPC3 gene in a large cohort of 177 unrelated prelingual hearing impaired after excluding the common GJB2, GJB6 nuclear and A1555G mitochondrial variants. We observed a single homozygous pathogenic frameshift variant c.685dupG (p.A229GfsX10), accounting for a low incidence (0.56%) of GIPC3 variants in south Indian population. GIPC3 being a rare gene as a causative for deafness, the allelic spectra perhaps became much more diverse from population to population, thus resulting in a minimal recurrence of the variants in our study, that were reported by authors from other parts of the globe.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215186

ABSTRACT

The current viral outbreak of the Novel Corona virus, or COVID-19 has turned into a global health crisis. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it a public health emergency of international concern. Hospitals are known to have played a very important role in giving necessary medical treatment to the society, particularly at the time of a disaster. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. During the current outbreak of COVID-19, a break in these vital modalities and goods would lead to a break in the provision of acute health care by a not fully prepared health-care facility. Adding to it an elevated rate of personnel absence is predictable. A scarcity of important equipment and goods could prevent access to desired care and have a direct impact on health care delivery. Health workers and carers are at high risk of infection, and healthcare associated amplification of transmission is of concern as is always the case for emerging infections. Non-pharmaceutical interventions remain central for management of COVID-19 because there are no licensed vaccines or coronavirus antivirals. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of the infection. Considering this, India has issued several notifications on how one can be affected by this deadly disease, what the symptoms are, and what preventive measures could be adopted. In addition, the Government of India has issued guidelines for prevention and preparedness of hospitals. This review is to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus and steps which are to be followed to prevent spread of disease in hospitals.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213283

ABSTRACT

Background: Cervical spine injuries, according to severity can leave victims with long standing neck pain or varying degrees of weaknesses. The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiological pattern of cervical spine injury in our hospital so that comparison may be made with other institutions and guidance regarding management may be formulated for the betterment of patients.Methods: This cross-sectional longitudinal study was conducted in Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram and included all patients admitted with clinical or radiological evidence of cervical spine injury, over a period of three months.  Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and details regarding mechanism of injury. Data was analyzed using SPSS.Results: Out of 452 patients enrolled, 69.7% were males and 30.3% were females. Patients were the most commonly between 30-60 years of age (52.4%). Majority (56.1%) had hospital stays lasting less than 10 days. Most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (46.6%). Neck pain was the most common symptom and cervical spine straightening was the most common radiological abnormality. The severity of injuries was more severe in patients who were not restrained by seat belt or using a helmet.Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are the most common cause for cervical spine injuries and majority of patients required only symptomatic care.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212579

ABSTRACT

Background: Psoriasis affects nearly 1% of the world population. It can be a source of significant morbidity and psychological stress to the patient but is not lethal under ordinary circumstances. Patients suffering from the disease feel a lack of empathy on part of care-givers, family members, healthcare professionals as well as society in general. Dermatology life quality index (DLQI) is a questionnaire-based assessment of health related quality of life in patients suffering from skin disorders and has been seen to correlate well with the impact of the disease on a patient. This study was done to understand the impact of psoriasis on the overall well-being of patients using DLQI as the tool of assessment.Methods: The study included 40 cases of psoriasis that were assessed for the severity of the disease based on percentage body surface area involvement. The impact of disease severity and other factors on the quality of life of the patient was assessed using DLQI.Results: Out of 35 patients with BSA involvement <50% (mild and moderate disease), 28.6% (n=10/35) showed a very large or extremely large effect on the quality of life while no patient with a BSA involvement >50% (severe and very severe disease) reported the same. A small, moderate or no effect on the DLQI was seen in 71.4% (n=25/35) of cases from the mild and moderate disease group while 100% (n=5/5) of cases from severe and very severe disease group reported a similar effect. Thus, DLQI was not directly related to the extent of BSA involvement and was dependent on other factors as well.Conclusion: Age had a correlation with the effect of the disease on the quality of life of psoriasis cases. Patients who were younger were more likely to report stress and anxiety related to the recurrences seen with the disease. Patients with lesions on sites that are socially exposed like face, hands, scalp, etc. were more likely to feel embarrassed about their condition. Younger age, female gender, lesions on exposed sites and recently diagnosed patients (<12 months) were factors which had a significant impact on the health-related quality of life of patients. The severity of disease and extent of involvement were not always directly related to extent of impact on the quality of life.

11.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e3445, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126517

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La COVID-19 se propaga por vías respiratorias y aerosoles. La pandemia originada por esta enfermedad causa pánico, miedo y estrés en todos los estratos de la sociedad. Al igual que todas las demás profesiones médicas, los dentistas, particularmente los endodoncistas, que están muy expuestos a los aerosoles, pueden mostrar estrés. Objetivo: Encuestar a los endodoncistas indios para comprender mejor sus niveles de estrés psicológico durante el confinamiento de la India durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Métodos: Del 8 de abril al 16 de abril de 2020 se realizó una encuesta cerrada en las redes sociales de endodoncia. Se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve. Asimismo, se recolectaron datos demográficos básicos, entorno de práctica y otras informaciones relevantes. El estrés psicológico y la angustia percibida se calcularon a través del índice de angustia peritraumática COVID-19 y la escala de estrés percibido. El análisis de regresión multinomial se realizó para estimar la tasa de riesgo relativo y p ≤ 0,05 se consideró significativo. Resultados: Este estudio tuvo 586 endodoncistas indios que completaron esta encuesta. De estos, 311 (53,07 por ciento) eran hombres, 325 (55 por ciento) en el grupo de edad de 25-35 años, 64 por ciento en áreas urbanas, 13,14 por ciento en prácticas individuales y un cuarto de ellos eran residentes. Las mujeres endodoncistas tenían un alto estrés percibido (RRR = 2,46, p = 0,01) en comparación con los hombres, medido por PSS. Los endodoncistas más jóvenes < 25 años (RRR = 9,75; p = 0,002) y 25-35 años (RRR = 4.60; p = 0,004) en comparación con el grupo de edad > 45 años tenían más angustia. Los consultores exclusivos tuvieron RRR = 2,90, p = 0,02, para la angustia leve a moderada en comparación con la normal. Se consideran los factores que impulsan este fenómeno. Conclusiones: Durante el cierre debido a la COVID-19, los endodoncistas indios 1-en-2 tuvieron angustia, según lo medido por CPDI y 4 de cada 5 percibieron estrés, según lo indicado por PSS. Nuestro modelo identificó ciertos factores que impulsan el (des)estrés, lo que ayudaría a los formuladores de políticas a iniciar una respuesta adecuada(AU)


ABSTRACT Background: The novel 2019 COVID-19 spreads by respiratory and aerosols. COVID-19 driven pandemic causes panic, fear and stress among all strata of society. Like all other medical professions, dentists, particularly endodontists, who are highly exposed to aerosols would be exposed to stress. Objective: To survey the Indian endodontists to better understand their levels of psychological stress during the Indian lockdown COVID-19 Pandemic. Methods: From 8th April to 16th April 2020, we conducted an online survey in closed endodontic social media using snowball sampling technique, collecting basic demographic data, practice setting and relevant data. Psychological stress and perceived distress were collected through COVID-19 Peri-traumatic Distress Index and Perceived stress scale. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to estimate relative risk rate and p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: This study had 586 Indian endodontists completing this survey across India. Of these, 311(53.07 percent) were males, 325(55 percent) in the age group of 25-35 years, 64 percent in urban areas, 13.14 percent in solo-practice and a fourth of them were residents. Female endodontists had high perceived stress (RRR = 2.46, p = 0.01) as compared to males, as measured by PSS. Younger endodontists < 25 years (RRR = 9.75; p = 0.002) and 25-35years (RRR = 4.60; p = 0.004) as compared with > 45 years age-group had more distress. Exclusive consultants had RRR = 2.90, p = 0.02, for mild-to-moderate distress as compared to normal. Factors driving this phenomenon are considered. Conclusions: During the lock down due to COVID-19, 1-in-2 Indian endodontists had distress, as measured by CPDI and 4-in-5 of them had perceived stress, as indicated by PSS. Our model identified certain factors driving the (dis)stress, which would help policy framers to initiate appropriate response(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Perception , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Staff , Involuntary Commitment , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , India
12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215090

ABSTRACT

Deep knowledge of the shape and dimensions of the glenoid, and variations in normal anatomy of glenoid, are important in the design and fitting of glenoid component in total shoulder arthroplasty. It is also essential while dealing with the pathological conditions like osseous Bankart lesion, osteochondral defects, etc. MethodsThe cross-sectional study was carried out on 122 undamaged dry adult human scapulae. Out of these 122 scapulae, 62 belonged to right side and 60 belonged to left side. Parameters studied were Maximum Scapular Length, Maximum Scapular Breadth, Vertical Glenoid Diameter (VGD), Transverse Glenoid Diameter I (TGD I), Transverse Glenoid Diameter II (TGD II) and Shape of the glenoid cavity. ResultsThe mean maximum scapular length observed was 140.77 ± 8.19 mm on right and 142.30 ± 7.99; the mean maximum scapular breadth was 100.70 ± 7.70 mm on right side and 99.88 ± 5.57 mm on the left; the mean vertical glenoid diameter was 36.09 ± 2.52 mm on the right and 36.40 ± 1.86 mm on the left side; the mean transverse glenoid diameter I (TGD I) was 24.40 ± 3.67 mm on the right side and 23.57 ± 3.41 mm on the left side; the mean transverse glenoid diameter II (TGD II) was 16.02 ± 2.94 mm on the right side and 16.37 ± 3.35 mm on the left side. In all the measurements bilateral differences were not statistically significant (p values ˃0.05). The most common shape of glenoid cavity recorded in the present study was pear shape (50.82%) followed by inverted comma shape (36.89%). The least common shape was oval (12.30%). ConclusionsThe parameters studied were with minimal regional differences when compared to those of other authors in India except that in shape which definitely differs from others.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213898

ABSTRACT

Background:The growth of metropolitan cities had significantly contributed to the process of urbanization in India. About two-fifth of the urban population, out of total India’s urban population, live in 35 metropolitan cities. It is important to look into the disease dynamics in the population of metro and non-metro regions of India. The study aims to find the differences in the distribution of chronic diseases in metro and non-metro regions of India and depicts the contributions of background factors causing a change in the prevalence of chronic diseases in metro and non-metro regions of India.Methods:Data from India Human Development Survey (IHDS)I and II conducted in 2004 and 2012 respectively have been used. Bivariate analysis has been performed to find the association between independent variables and chronic diseases, and logistic regression has been used to find the effect of predictor variables on chronic diseases by metro and non-metro regions. Fairlie decomposition technique has been used to find the contribution of each predictor variable accounting for differences in chronic diseases between metro and non-metro regions.Results:Age, sex, socio-economic status (education and wealth), alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, and body mass index status are significantly associated with chronic conditions in metro regions of India. Age, wealth, and developed regions contributed most to the differences in chronic diseases between metro and non-metro areas.Conclusions:Metro regions in India suffers from a massive burden of chronic conditions. Metro regions should be given a special focus to tackle the menace of chronic diseases.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207945

ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during the present pregnancy. It affects 7% of all pregnancies worldwide and in India it ranges from 6 to 9% in rural and 12 to 21% in urban area. The aim of this study was to compare the DIPSI criteria with the two-step method (Carpenter and Couston criteria.) and to study merits and demerits of one step and two step tests for GDM.Methods: A total 400 pregnant women of gestational age between 24-28 weeks attending antenatal clinic at this study tertiary care center were enrolled in this study. 200 pregnant women were enrolled in each of the study group (Group I OGTT and Group II DIPSI).Results: In Group I (OGTT) screening 47 (23.5%) were tested positive. In Group II cases, screening test results were found positive among 44 (22%). Out of 95 high-risk pregnant women 38 (40%) were positive for GDM by OGTT and 34 (35.78%) were positive by DIPSI. Out of 305 non high-risk pregnant women, 9 (2.95%) were positive for GDM by OGTT and 10 (3.27%) were positive by DIPSI.Conclusions: Present study concludes that DIPSI is the test which can predict GDM in population comparable to another test like OGTT. Also, India’s major population reside in rural areas, ANC are mostly conducted by ANM, therefore screening test should be easy to perform and interpret.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213143

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal cancer, a formidable health problem worldwide has upto 8% synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis. As only diagnostic laparoscopy can identify them, in countries with economic burden, selection of patients for laparoscopy is ideal. Our aim is to evaluate whether the baseline Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a good selection tool.Methods: A retrospective study of 125 patients, who were diagnosed to have colorectal malignancy (any stage) and underwent elective surgery at our institution from 2012 till 2019 were included. The baseline serum CEA was compared with the intraoperative findings. The threshold levels of serum CEA compared were 6.5 and 100 ng/dl. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for both thresholds were compared in 3 categories of patients, namely peritoneal metastasis (9 cases), metastasis to other organs (36 cases) and cases with no metastasis either in peritoneum or other organs (85 cases). The results were analysed using SPSS software.Results: The mean age was 65, sex ratio (male:female) was 72:53. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) for CEA threshold of 6.5 ng/dl was 44.44%, 60.34%, 8% and 93.33% for category 1. For CEA threshold of 100 ng/dl, it was 33.33%, 97.41%, 50% and 94.95% for category 1. NPV was 96.55% for category 3 (the highest value).Conclusions: If the baseline CEA levels are less than 100 ng/dl,   96.55% of cases will not require a diagnostic laparoscopy. This hopefully will cut down the cost of unnecessary diagnostic laparoscopies, and reduce the morbidity of unnecessary laparotomies.

16.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jun; : 1-16
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214274

ABSTRACT

The sticky rice of Assam is traditionally classified as bora (glutinous) and chokuwa (semi-glutinous) basedon their stickiness after cooking. The Waxy (Wx) gene encodes for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)that controls the synthesis of amylose, which is a key determinant of rice end-use quality attributes. In thisreport, we analysed the level of variation in grain quality traits in a collection of bora and chokuwacultivars, and examined the nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus of selected rice accessions to identify thepossible cause of low-amylose in these rice cultivar groups. The Wx gene sequencing from 24 bora andchokuwa cultivars revealed several nucleotide variations that can explain the variation in the amylosephenotypes. The nucleotide polymorphisms in the downstream intron regions were similar to those reportedin Bangladeshi Beruin cultivars. Among the Wx polymorphisms, the CTn microsatellite in exon 1 and G/TSNP in intron 1 (G/T-Int1) should be considered for marker assisted breeding involving bora cultivars. TheWx gene tree, classified the bora accessions possessing the G/T-Int1 SNP as japonicas. However, clusteranalysis using microsatellite markers classified the bora and chokuwa cultivars as indica, and intermediateof indica-aus. The findings of this study supplemented our understanding on the evolution of the Wx geneunder human selection. The results will assist plant breeders to effectively improve the bora and chokuwalandraces.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210192

ABSTRACT

Objective:Aim of this study is to assess the drug utilization pattern of cardiovascular drugs in cardiology outpatient department (OPD). Methodology:This prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional observational study was conducted at three selected tertiary care hospitals from different regions in South India. A total of 1026 prescriptions of the patients attending cardiology OPD of these selected hospitals 342 each over a period of 12 months was randomly identified and included in this study then critically analysed for WHO/INRUD core prescribing indicators. Results:Medicines prescribed from NLEM were 89.27%, average drugs prescribed was 5, medicinesprescribed by its generic name were 2.33% and encounters with an injection prescribed were 14.52%. Commonly prescribed different class of drugs for CVDs patients were Anti-platelets (67.73%) followed by Statins (62.57%), Beta blockers (49.51%), ACE-inhibitors (40.93%), Angiotensin receptor blockers (30.40%), Calcium channel blockers (30.11%), Nitrates (25.34%), Diuretics (20.56%), Anticoagulants (20.27%), Vasodilators (9.94%) rest of the cardiovascular drugs were prescribed within 0.5-5% only, other class of drugs also prescribed for patients with different comorbidities are Anti-ulcers (69.10%), Opioid analgesics (4.09%), Antacids (3.80%), Anti-emetics and Pro-kinetics (1.85%), a pattern of poly-pharmacy was clearly evident, majority of drugs were prescribed as single drug (86.78%) whereas 13.21% as FDCs. The most commonly prescribed single drug was Aspirin (59.93%) and FDCs were Aspirin + Clopidogrel (40.24%). Anti-thrombotic agents’ particularly antiplatelet drugs expected to overtake anti-cholesterol drugs as the sales leader in the market. Maximum drugs were prescribed from the recent NLEM of India by most of practitioners its shows its acceptance and implementation by the prescribers.Conclusion: Deprescribing PPIs for the non-required patients is suggested to lower the risk of adverse drug interactions and economic burden to patients, also pharmacists needs to encourage the prescriptions with drugs in generic name if it’s deviated from the standards recommended by WHO/INRUD

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207761

ABSTRACT

Background: Considering the magnitude of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to gestational diabetes, the present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus using the international association of diabetes in pregnancy study groups criteria (IADPSG) and diabetes in pregnancy study group India (DIPSI) criteria to ascertain whether the present practice of diagnosing GDM by the guidelines recommended by DIPSI 21 based on WHO criterion of 2-h PG ≥140 mg/dL can still be followed in this study settings or adopt IADPSG recommendation.Methods: This study was done at Antenatal Clinic, department of obstetrics and gynecology, KLES Dr Prabhakar Kore Hospital, Belgaum from January 2013 to December 2013. A total of 225 pregnant women between 24 to 28 weeks gestations were studied. Diagnosis and the prevalence of GDM were assessed by applying both DIPSI and IADPSG criteria.Results: Most of the women (58.11%) were between 22 to 25 years and the mean age was 23.78±3.38 years. Based on the IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of GDM was 19.11% and by applying DIPSI criteria, prevalence of GDM was 16.89%. The difference in diagnostic capability between IADPSG and DIPSI was found to be 2.8% and the kappa statistics showed good strength of agreement between the two tests (p>0.302; Kappa=0.774).Conclusions: It was concluded that, the diagnosis GDM based on DIPSI is as effective as IADPSG criteria. Further, in resource poor countries like India, DIPSI procedure would be used with an advantage of being less costly and without compromising the clinical equipoise.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206215

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is causing unprecedented human health and economic consequences all across the globe. Being an international health emergency, the current state of global and national preparedness is at peak. The cases in India are increasing every day in spite of substantial efforts and control measures by the health authorities. Indian citizen’s knowledge, attitude, awareness, and practice influence their adherence towards COVID-19 control measures. This online study was conducted among Indian citizens KAAP towards COVID 19 during the national lockdown period. An online KAAP questionnaire was shared with four regional coordinators and it was shared with many citizens through online platforms in their regions. There were a total of 16 questionnaires in the KAAP online format. Among the survey respondents (n=12091), 57.9% were females, 51% hold an undergraduate degree, and 63.06% were from urban locality. The majority of the respondents (87.2%) had confidence that India will win the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic health crisis. Also the majority of respondents (86.5%) have adequate knowledge about the COVID-19. The COVID-19 knowledge scores were significantly lower in persons without the confidence of winning (P<0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis showed that COVID-19 knowledge score (OR: 0.69, P<0.0001) were significantly associated with negative attitudes and preventive practices towards COVID-2019 with no confidence of winning. Most of the Indian citizens with an undergraduate degree, particularly females, have adequate knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic, and they hold optimistic attitudes and follow appropriate practice towards COVID-19. More targeted and focused health guidelines meeting the various segments of the Indian population should be provided at improving COVID-19 knowledge, which will improve their optimistic attitude. Due to fewer respondents, the results should not be generalized to the entire population.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203091

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2019, a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus (CoV) family, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan,China’s Hubei province. This was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China at the end of that year and isnow known as COVID -19.Although this is a new strain, related coronaviruses can cause illnesses ranging fromthe common cold to more severe diseases such as SARS and MERS as per the literature.The clinical presentationis generally that of a respiratory infection with a symptom severity ranging from a mild common cold-like illness,to a severe viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome that is potentially fatal.Aim and Objective of the study: Unprecedented measures have been espoused to control the rapid spread of theenduring COVID-19 epidemic in Andhra Pradesh. Health science students and primary health care physician’sadherence to control measures is prejudiced by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID19.The battle against COVID-19 is continuing in India. To guarantee the final success, public adherence to thesecontrol measures are vital, which is mostly pretentious by their knowledge, Awareness, and practices (KAP)towards COVID-19 in accordance with KAP theory.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study is designed to include health sciences students and primary healthcare physicians in Andhra Pradesh state. An interview questionnaire has been designed to assessKnowledge,Awareness and Practices of health sciences students and primary health care physicians, regardingCOVID -19.Results and Discussion: All the registered study participants after giving their consent,completed the questionnaireperfectly. Regarding the Sociodemographic characteristics, out of 243,Male 79 (32.5), Female 164 (67.5) in Gender.Majority of the study participants 128(52.7%) were from Allied Health Science background, 95 (39.1% ) medicinebackground 10(4.1%) and others 10(4.1%). Knowledge variables,Type of Locality and Educational qualificationsvariables, *Awareness variable and *Practices variables i.e.,Occupation variable unvarying with demographicsusing Multiple linear regression endured significant.Educational qualifications variables and Monthly incomewise most of the study participants are students 208.

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