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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(2): 843-856, June 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657823

ABSTRACT

Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia). Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m² quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 843-856. Epub 2012 June 01.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la especificidad de forófito y las preferencias microambientales de los líquenes cortícolas en el Bosque de la Finca Zíngara (Cali, Colombia). Asimismo, se seleccionaron cinco individuos de cinco especies de árboles. Además, se identificaron las especies de líquenes presentes en un cuadrante de 0.50x0.20m2 ubicado en el tronco de cada árbol a 1.3 m de altura. También, se midieron parámetros microambientales como pH de la corteza, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP), estructura de la corteza, humedad relativa e irradianza. Para detectar las preferencias de forófito, se realizó un escalamiento no métrico multidimensional (NMS) y un análisis de especies indicadoras. Luego se efectúo un análisis de correlación de Spearman para evaluar la relación entre las variables ambientales y los agrupamientos encontrados en el NMS. Se encontraron 69 especies de líquenes, de los cuales 37 fueron determinados hasta especie, 18 hasta género y 14 no fueron determinados. El resultado del NMS mostró que algunos individuos de la misma especie de árbol se agruparon a lo largo de las dimensiones del análisis, y están relacionados con los factores intensidad de luz, temperatura y DAP. Sólo tres especies mostraron preferencia por ciertas especies de árboles (Arthonia microsperma por Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla y sorediado 8 por Clusia sp.), lo cual sugiere ausencia de preferencias de forófito.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Lichens/physiology , Trees , Colombia , Lichens/classification
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(2): 259-268, May 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-486750

ABSTRACT

Aiming to evaluate the potential of Passerine birds as bioindicators of forest fragmentation, we studied the avifauna in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro by mist-netting between 2001 and 2005. We sampled six sites, including four small fragments (from 4 to 64 ha) in an agricultural area (Teresópolis), one second-growth forest (440 ha - Miguel Pereira) and a continuous forest (10,600 ha, Serra dos Órgãos National Park - SONP). Indicator Species analysis and a Monte Carlo test were run to detect associations between species and sites, considering at least 30 percent of perfect indication and a significant value for the statistical test, only considering species with at least 10 captures. A total of 30 Passerine birds were sampled, and due to their association to the largest area (SONP), we considered Sclerurus scansor, Mionectes rufiventris, Chiroxiphia caudata and Habia rubica as the best indicators for this area. Five species were more captured not by chance in the 440 ha second-growth: Conopophaga melanops, Myiobius barbatus, Myrmeciza loricata, Philydor atricapillus and Schiffornis virescens and no species were related to any small fragment. This analysis has identified specialized Passerine species in many aspects (foraging substract, needs for nesting, rarity status), and it can be a valuable tool for detecting possible bioindicators.


Para avaliar o potencial de Passeriformes como bioindicadores de fragmentação florestal na Mata Atlântica, estudamos a avifauna da região serrana do Rio de Janeiro, utilizando capturas com redes de neblina entre 2001 e 2005. Foram amostradas seis áreas, sendo quatro pequenos fragmentos (de 4 a 64 ha) em áreas agrícolas (Teresópolis), uma mata secundária com cerca de 40 anos (440 ha - Miguel Pereira) e uma área de mata contínua de 10600 hectares (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos - PARNASO). A análise de espécies indicadoras e o teste de Monte Carlo foram empregados para que se verificassem as espécies mais associadas a cada local amostrado, considerando-se um mínimo de 30 por cento de indicação e valor significativo para o teste mencionado, utilizando-se somente espécies com 10 ou mais capturas. Foi amostrado um total de 30 espécies e, pela sua associação com a maior área (PARNASO), consideramos Sclerurus scansor, Mionectes rufiventris, Chiroxiphia caudata e Habia rubica como as melhores indicadoras. Cinco espécies foram mais capturadas não ao acaso na área de 440 ha: Conopophaga melanops, Myiobius barbatus, Myrmeciza loricata, Philydor atricapillus e Schiffornis virescens. Nenhuma espécie foi associada aos pequenos fragmentos. Como esta análise identificou espécies de Passeriformes especialistas em diversos aspectos (substrato de forrageio, locais de nidificação, status de raridade), ela pode ser uma ferramenta útil na detecção de possíveis bioindicadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Passeriformes/classification , Trees , Brazil , Population Density , Population Dynamics
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