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1.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 388-391, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912257

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the reliability between infrared thermal imaging technology(IRT) and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the detection of perforators for anterolateral femoral perforator flap(ALTPF).Methods:From September, 2017 to September, 2019, a total of 25 patients(16 males and 9 females, aged 12-53 years old with an average age of 38.7 years old) underwent ALTPF surgery for the purpose of resurfacing and reconstruction. All patients had pedicled or free ALTPF sized from 5.0 cm×8.0 cm to 7.5 cm×30.0 cm. Among all cases, 21 received free flaps and 4 received pedicled flaps. All patients underwent routine IRT and CDU examinations to locate the perforators preoperatively.Results:Of the 25 patients, CDU detected 53 perforators and IRT detected 51 "hot spots". There were 50 "hot spots" that corresponded to the findings of CDU with a κ index at 0.712( P<0.05), representing a high degree of consistency. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.3% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusion:IRT has a high consistency in detecting perforators for ALTPF in comparison with CDU. IRT features portable, low cost, non-invasive, and easy to operate. At the same time, IRT has advantages in the patients who have thin subcutaneous tissue. With higher accuracy, IRT is expected to become an important part of preoperative perforator navigation.

2.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2020 Sep; 16(5): 1129-1133
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213767

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between infrared thermal imaging-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-pathology of microwave ablation (MWA) of lesions in rabbit lung tumors. Materials and Methods: MR-guided MWA was performed in nine VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. Infrared thermal imaging, postoperative MRI, and pathological presentation were obtained and analyzed. The differences between the infrared thermal imaging-MRI-pathology of MWA were compared. Results: The center of the ablated lesion exhibited a high signal on T1-Vibe, and an isointense envelope was observed; the center of the ablated lesion exhibited a low signal on fat-suppressed turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging (TSE-T2WI-FS) and bands of high signal surrounding it compared with before MWA. No statistically significant difference existed between the maximum diameter of the central low-signal area of the ablation zone on TSE-T2WI-FS after MWA, the high-signal area of the ablation zone on T1-Vibe after MWA, and the maximum diameter of the pathological coagulation necrosis area, as well as between the maximum diameter of the isointense signal area peripheral to the ablation zone on T1-Vibe after MWA, the high-signal area peripheral to the ablation zone on TSE-T2WI-FS, the maximum diameter at the 41°C isothermal zone on infrared thermal imaging, and the maximum diameter of the pathological thermal injury zone. Conclusions: MWA of malignant lung tumors had specific MRI characteristics that were comparable with postoperative pathology. Infrared thermal imaging combined with MRI can be used to evaluate the extent of thermal damage to lung VX2 tumors

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of herb-separated moxibustion combined with budesonide nasal spray (rhinocort) on moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) of kidney- deficiency type, and to explore the correlation between nasal temperature and condition of allergic rhinitis.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 patients with moderate to severe persistent AR were randomized into an observation group (35 cases) and a control group (35 cases, 3 cases dropped off). Both groups were treated with rhinocort, one spray on each side of the nostril (approximately 64 μg each spray), once in the morning and once in the evening, for 4 weeks. On the basis of the above treatment, the observation group was treated with herb-separated moxibustion at Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Zhiyang (GV 9), Dazhui (GV 14), 3 moxibustions per acupoint, a single treatment lasting about 30 min. This treatment was given once every other day, 3 times every week, and totally continuous 4 weeks. The changes of AR symptom visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were observed before and after treatment and at 3 months follow-up after treatment. The heat variation (temperature, range) on projection areas of the nose, lungs, large intestine and kidneys of the two groups' patients before and after treatment were detected by the infrared thermal imaging diagnostic system, and the correlation between the VAS scores and nasal temperature before and after treatment was analyzed. The clinical effects of both groups were evaluated according to the VAS score.@*RESULTS@#The total effective rate in the observation group after treatment was 85.7% (30/35), which was higher than 71.9% in the control group (23/32, <0.05). After treatment and at follow-up, the VAS scores of both groups were lower than those before treatment (<0.05), and the VAS score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group at follow-up (<0.05). After treatment, the nasal temperature, pulmonary range, large intestinal range and renal range of the observation group were all lower than those before treatment (<0.05), the nasal temperature and nasal range of the control group were lower than before treatment (<0.05), and the reduction of nasal temperature, nasal range and renal range in the observation group was greater than that of the control group (<0.05). Before and after treatment, there was a correlation between VAS score and nasal temperature (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The herb-separated moxibustion combining western medication has a better effect and long-term effect than western medication alone for moderate to severe persistent AR, which can improve heat variation on projected areas of the nose, lung, large intestine and kidney of patients. In addition, nasal temperature can reflect the severity of the symptoms of patients with moderate to severe persistent AR, or it can be used as a secondary indicator to evaluate condition of AR.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Budesonide , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Moxibustion , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutics , Yang Deficiency
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of beraprost sodium on digital infrared thermal images in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with beraprost sodium in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study from February 2013 to December 2014. Beraprost sodium (40 μg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 μg/day) for 6 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) were performed to compare the blood flow improvement between before and after dosing. RESULTS: Among the 25 patients included in the evaluation, 22 patients completed the study. A significant increase in body temperature was observed in the front and left side, particularly in the plantar side in DITI compared to that before and after administration. An increase in body temperature was observed at the frontal part from 28.1℃±2.3℃ to 29.1℃±2.1℃ (p=0.021), at the left side from 27.8℃±2.4℃ to 28.6℃±1.9℃ (p=0.028), at the plantar part at 24.0℃±1.5℃, and at the plantar part at 27.1℃±2.4℃ (p < 0.01). The VAS decreased significantly from 5.4±1.3 to 2.7±2.0 after 6 months of treatment (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Beraprost sodium is a safe and easy-to use oral medication for diabetes peripheral arterial disease. It can be expected to increase the blood flow and decrease the lower extremity pain statistically after being taken for 6 months.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Lower Extremity , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Prospective Studies , Sodium
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329067

ABSTRACT

In the paper, the study was reviewed on the infrared temperature characteristics of acupoints in recent 10 years. CNKI, WANFANG, VIP, SciVerse ScienceDirect and Springer databases were retrieved, with"infrared thermal imaging" and "acupoint" as the key words. The retrieving time was from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2016. Totally, 468 relevant papers were searched and 169 papers of them were read carefully on acupoint infrared temperature. In terms of physiological condition, pathological condition and the stimulation methods such as acupuncture, moxibustion,, embedding therapy and cupping therapy, the general situation was reviewed on the infrared temperature characteristics of acupoints separately. It was found that the study on infrared temperature characteristics of acupoints in physiological condition was limited and the characteristics discovered were not enough to systematically review the physiological and physical properties of acupoints. The study in terms of the pathological condition objectively reflected the effects and rules of diseases. It was showed in the study of acupoint infrared temperature characteristics after stimulation that the changes of infrared thermal imaging tempe-rature at some specific region induced by different therapies and parameters might be used to deduce the potential mechanism and optimal parameters or schemes of intervention method and contributed to the formation and deve-lopment of quantitative diagnosis and treatment. The authors believe that the study on infrared temperature characteristics of acupoint provides the active significance in the exploration on the physiological and physical characteristics of acupoint, the effects and rules of diseases as well as the quantitative diagnosis and treatment.

6.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 382-387,后插4,封3, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-606057

ABSTRACT

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common skeletal muscle pain and dysfunction,characterized by the presence of myofascial pain points (MTrPs).At present,the main method of locating MTrPs is palpation which has lower intra-rater reliability,and lacks an objective evaluation approach for therapeutic effects.Therefore,the research on objective evaluation of the characteristics of MPS has been receiving great attention.These studies involve stiffness of trigger points,fascia thickness,surface temperature and other aspects through various methods,such as ultrasonic imaging,magnetic resonance imaging,infrared thermal imaging.In this paper,the research progress and methods of MPS in imaging were surveyed,which can provide the basis for the clinical diagnosis and objective evaluation of therapeutic effects.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490329

ABSTRACT

Objective By using infrared thermal imager (Flir-SC620), to observe the effect of needling Sanyinjiao (SP6) on the skin temperature at Guanyuan (CV4) and Sanyinjiao in patients with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) of cold and dampness stagnation pattern, and to explore the probability of using infrared thermal imaging for diagnosis and as an objective index for evaluating the action and needling qi of acupuncture. Method Thirty-six subjects were recruited and divided into four group, a health control group (group A), a control group of PD of cold and dampness stagnation pattern (group B), a needling-qi-expected group (group C) and a needling-qi-unexpected group (group D). Group A and B were not given acupuncture treatment, while group C and D were treated with acupuncture at bilateral Sanyinjiao with needles retained for 30 min, and the needling sensations were recorded. The infrared thermal imager was used to detect the skin temperature at Guanyuan and bilateral Sanyinjiao for 40 min for each group, and the temperature was recorded every 10 min. The temperature during different periods of time, 0-10 min, 20-20 min, 20-30 min, 30-40 min, 0-30 min, and 0-40 min were then calculated. In group C, those obtained the needling qi sensation were further grouped into C-1 and those didn’t obtain the sensation were into C-2; in group D, those obtained needling qi sensation were further grouped into D-1 and those didn’t obtain the sensation were into D-2. SPSS 17.0 was adopted for data processing, and the data were analyzed by using MANOVA of repeated measuring. Result Compared to group A (6 cases), the temperature at Guanyuan in group B (6 cases) was significantly decreased during 0-30 min and 0-40 min (P<0.05), the temperature at the left Sanyinjiao during 0-40 min in group B was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the temperatures at bilateral Sanyinjiao during 30-40 min in group B significantly dropped (P<0.05). Compared to group B, the temperatures at Guanyuan during 0-30 min and 0-40 min in group C1 (12 cases) and group D1 (11 cases) were significantly increased (P<0.05), the temperature at left Sanyinjiao during 0-40 min in group D1 was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the temperatures at bilateral Sanyinjiao during 30-40 min in group D1 were significantly increased (P<0.05). There was no case in group C2 and only 1 case in group D2, hence, the data were not enough for analysis. Conclusion Decrease of the infrared temperature at Guanyuan and Sanyinjiao can be taken as one of the diagnostic criteria for dysmenorrhea of cold stagnation pattern. Increase of the infrared temperature at Guanyuan can be regarded as one of the objective evidences for the along-meridian transmission characteristic in needling Sanyinjiao.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-487436

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the surface area temperature of dysmenorrhea rats with cold stagnation syndrome; To compare the different effects of Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Guanyuan (RN4).Methods Forty female SD rats were randomized into control group, model group, Sanyinjiao (SP6) group, and Guanyuan (RN4) group, 12 rats in each group. Whole body freezing method combined with estradiol benzoate injection was used to establish models. Sanyinjiao (SP6) group and Guanyuan (RN4) group received moxibustion at corresponding points for 3 times after modeling. Infrared thermal imaging was used to measure the skin temperature at the surface projection area of Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Xuehai (SP10) and Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines before and after moxibustion.Results Compared with control group, the temperature gap between double sides of Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines significantly increased in model group 5-30 min after moxibustion (P<0.05). 30 min after moxibustion, the temperature of right Sanyinjiao significantly decreased in other three groups (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the temperature gap between double sides of Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines significantly decreased after 5-30 min in Sanyinjiao group (P<0.05), while Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines significantly decreased after 10-30 min in Guanyuan group (P<0.05). Comparison between two moxibustion groups, the influence of Sanyinjiao group to temperature gap between double sides of Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines was earlier than Guanyuan group (P<0.05).Conclusion Moxbustion can decrease the temperature gap between double sides of Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines and ease the imbalance. And the influence of moxbustion SP6 to temperature gap between double sides of Sanyinjiao-Xuehai lines is earlier than moxibustion RN4.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301019

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>By observing body surface temperature variation of the intermediate structures of the Lung (Fei) and Large Intestine (Dachang) exterior-interior relationship in asthmatic patients, to investigate the pathological response on the pathway of channels and to substantiate the objective existence of the intermediary structures.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The study included 60 subjects meeting the bronchial asthma inclusion criteria (experimental group) and 60 healthy subjects (normal control group). ATIR-M301 infrared thermal imaging device was used for detecting body surface temperature of the subjects and collecting the infrared thermal images. The temperature values of the intermediate structures of Lung and Large Intestine exterior-interior relationship [throat, Quepen, elbow, nose, Lieque (LU 7), Pianli (LI 6)], control areas (0.2 cm lateral to the above structures) and Yintang (EX-HN 3) were measured on the infrared thermal image by infrared imaging system. Then, the above temperature values were compared and analyzed within and between two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were insignificant differences between the temperature on the left and right sides of the intermediate structures (Quepen, elbow, LU 7, LI 6) in normal control group (P>0.05). Except for that of Quepen, there were insignifificant differences between the temperature of the intermediate structures and their corresponding control areas in normal control group (P>0.05). In the experimental group, the temperature on the left and right sides of the intermediate structures (Quepen, elbow, LU 7, LI 6) showed statistically signifificant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the temperature difference between intermediate structure (throat, Quepen, elbow, nose, LI 6) and their respective control areas were also significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The temperature of the intermediate structures (throat, Quepen, elbow, LU7, LI 6) between the experimental group and normal control group showed signifificant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study is an initial step to validate the objective existence of Lung and Large Intestine exterior-interior relationship intermediate structures, as described in the Chinese classical medical literatures, through the functional imaging angle. The intermediate structures are the pathological reaction areas of the bronchial asthmatic patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Asthma , Diagnosis , Pathology , Biomedical Research , Case-Control Studies , Diagnostic Imaging , Female , Humans , Infrared Rays , Intestine, Large , Pathology , Lung , Pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Temperature , Thermography , Methods
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-461242

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the association between precordial skin temperature and coronary heart disease and effect of moxibustion at Neiguan (PC 6) on precordial skin temperature in patients with coronary heart disease. Method Thirty healthy volunteers (control group) and thirty patients with coronary heart disease (treatment group) received infrared thermal imaging examination on region A (precordial region) and region B on chest. Afterwards, all subjects were given moxibustion at Neiguan (PC 6) and then received infrared thermal imaging examination again. The temperatures of before and after moxibustion were compared. Result In the treatment group, there was a significant difference in comparing the average temperature in region A and B before moxibustion (P<0.05), and the difference was statistically significant after moxibustion (P<0.05). After moxibustion, there was a significant difference in comparing the average temperature in region A between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion To some extent, the precordial skin temperature reflects the blood supply condition of coronary artery. Moxibustion at Neiguan (PC 6) can change the temperature and improve the coronary blood supply.

11.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 900-904, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456714

ABSTRACT

Objective Infrared thermal imaging can be applied to the diagnosis and auxiliary diagnosis of some diseases . The aim of this study is to explore acupuncture-induced changes in skin temperature in acupoint areas and whether skin temperature in -creases or decreases in the acupoint areas along meridians . Methods Thirty two female SD rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups:saline control,cold congealing and dysmenorrhea model , Sanyinjiao (SP6), and Guanyuan( CV4).Models were es-tablished in the latter three groups by subcutaneous injection of estradiol benzoate at 0.5 mg for 10 successive days and , 1hour after the last administration , intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin at 2 U, followed by exposure of the rats to-25℃in a freezer 4 hours a day for 5 days.Meanwhile , the control rats received normal saline only and were not exposed to low temperature .Infrared thermal imaging was used to measure the skin temperature at the acupoint areas of SP6, Xuehai (SP10), and CV4 before and at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after needling . R esults At 0 to 5 min after nee-dling, the skin temperature of the left SP6 and right SP10 was signifi-cantly decreased in both the SP6 and CV4 groups ( [ -0. 56 ± 0.22]℃and [-0.48 ±0.11]℃, P0.05). Conclusion The skin temperature of SP6 and SP10 can be regulated by needling both the acupoints of SP 6 and CV4.The increase in the skin temperature of the right SP6 and SP10 in the SP6 group and no change in the CV 4 group indicated dynamic temperature changes in the acupoint area along the meridian after needling.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study assessed the diagnostic significance of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) in determining the inflammatory state of patients with nonspecific orbital inflammation. METHODS: The present study included 11 patients diagnosed with nonspecific orbital inflammation between December 2009 and March 2011 and who were followed-up for more than 6 months. All patients were all diagnosed based on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance image (MRI) and tissue biopsy. The grade of eyelid swelling was classified as 5 and severe compared with the temperature of location. The temperature of the upper eyelid, caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, lower eyelid, cornea and lateral orbit were measured with DITI. RESULTS: When comparing the normal eye with the diseased eye in patients with nonspecific orbital inflammation, the temperature of the upper eyelid and cornea were statistically significant (p = 0.003, p = 0.038, respectively, Mann-Whitney test). The correlation between the grade of eyelid swelling and the temperature of location was most highly related in the temperature of the upper eyelid (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.55, p = 0.008) and cornea (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.45, p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: DITI may aid in evaluating the inflammatory state of nonspecific orbital inflammation. In particular, the temperature of the upper eyelid and cornea can be very useful indicator. Future studies, including larger study population are necessary in order to confirm DITI as a diagnostic tool which can assess the results of medical treatment by comparing temperature before and after treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Conjunctiva , Cornea , Eye , Eyelids , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Orbit
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of infrared thermal imaging for define the cause of shoulder pain on hemiplegic patients. METHOD: Subjects were 91 stroke patients who admitted to rehabilitation department from January 2002 to June 2003. Retrospective study was done by review of medical records. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=42) without shoulder pain and study group (n=49) who had the shoulder pain. The study group were also divided into subluxation, adhesive capsulitis, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I by main cause of pain. RESULTS: In the control group, the result revealed hypothermia on the involved upper extremity compared with the opposite intact side (p <0.05). In the study group, it revealed hyperthermia on the hand and forearm who diagnosed with CRPS type I. CONCLUSION: Distal infrared thermal imaging is considered to be useful diagnostic tool of CRPS type I in hemiplegic patient with shoulder pain.


Subject(s)
Bursitis , Fever , Forearm , Hand , Humans , Hypothermia , Medical Records , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Pain , Stroke , Upper Extremity
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpetic disorders cause pain and skin lesion. So, asymmetric temperature of both sides of the involving dermatome has been reported in thermogram. This study examined the usefulness of infrared thermography for a predictor of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS: Patients with acute herpes zoster who underwent nerve block were randomly selected. Biographic data, including age, gender and times of onset of the skin lesions, development of PHN, combined diseases were recorded. Infrared thermography was performed and subjective pain severity, dysesthesia and allodynia, skin lesion size were assessed. RESULTS: The temperature differences between the lesion site and the contralateral site at lateral and posterior were significantly correlated with lesion size (P 0.05). PHN was correlated with skin lesion size and infrared thermal imaging (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Infrared thermal imaging cannot demonstrate subjective pain objectively in herpes zoster. Short duration showed high temperature on the lesion sites compared to the contralateral sites. The patients with big skin lesions developed PHN more. The PHN can be predicted by the infrared thermal imaging as low temperature on the lesion site compared to the contralateral site.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Nerve Block , Neuralgia , Paresthesia , Skin , Thermography
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Being a subjective symptom, an objective evaluation of pain and severity is important in the diagnosis and detection of treatment outcome. This study examined the usefulness of infrared thermography for the objective evaluation of pain, irrespective of the original disease. METHODS: Patients with unilateral pain who underwent nerve block were randomly selected. Infrared thermography was performed and subjective pain site and severity were assessed before and after nerve block. RESULTS: The temperature difference between the pain site and the contralateral site was significantly correlated with subjective pain severity before and after block (P < 0.01). Improvements in VAS were correlated with temperature difference decrement between both sides after nerve block (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Infrared thermal imaging can demonstrate subjective pain objectively. Thermal differences between the pain sites and the contralateral sites are an indicator of pain scale in a patient with ipsilateral pain. Moreover the thermal difference may be a useful means of determining outcome.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Nerve Block , Thermography , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sympathetic vasomotor response of the hands to cold and warm stress on the foot with Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI) in normal healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen healthy subjects were participated in this study. The DITI was taken during immersing right foot in cold and warm water bath. The thermal images of the dorsal hands were captured at the starting point and then every 5-minute up to 30 minutes. The ratio of temperature between the ending point (30T) and the starting point (0T) was calculated. RESULTS: In cold stress test, the mean 30T/0T ratio were 92.8+/-2.4% and 92.2+/-2.7% in the right and left hands, respectively. There were no statistically significant side to side differences. The temperature of the each hand was significantly lowered at every 5 minutes interval (p<0.05). In warm stress test, the mean 30T/0T ratio were 104.5+/-1.8% and 104.4+/-2.0% in the right and left hands, respectively. The temperature of each hand was significantly increased at the first 5 minutes (p<0.05), and tended to increase until 10 minutes. After then, the temperature was not significantly changed until 30 miniutes. CONCLUSION: We could identify the normal sympathetic vasomotor response to the cold and warm stress with DITI. It might be served as an useful baseline data for the identification of sympathetic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Baths , Exercise Test , Foot , Hand , Water
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