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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.


Resumo Desenvolvimento da resistência a inseticidas principalmente em dobradiça com técnicas de manejo para o controle de jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Cinco inseticidas foram aplicados contra populações de jassídeos coletados em campo e em laboratório durante os anos de 2017 a 2019 para traçar o perfil de seu nível de resistência contra populações de jassídeos em campo através do método de imersão nas folhas. Nível de resistência muito baixo foi encontrado em jassid contra confidor, enquanto alto nível de resistência foi observado por piriproxifeno contra outros inseticidas de teste. Resistência gradual foi observada contra o diafenthiuron. Conclui-se que, para o manejo do jassid, a repetição do mesmo inseticida deve ser evitada. O uso de confidor pode ser reduzido para superar a resistência contra jassid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera , Insecticides/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Laboratories
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 98-116, maio 05,2022. ilus, fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370749

ABSTRACT

Introdução: cerca de quatro bilhões de pessoas residem em áreas com risco de dengue, uma arbovirose transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae). Na tentativa de combater esse vetor e reduzir a disseminação da dengue, o meio de controle vetorial frequentemente utilizado são os inseticidas. Entretanto, o uso indiscriminado destes no controle do mosquito está relacionado aos mecanismos de resistência desse vetor. Objetivo: mapear as evidências científicas relacionadas à resistência do mosquito A. aegypti aos inseticidas utilizados para o controle populacional. Metodologia: revisão de escopo, segundo metodologia Instituto Joana Briggs, em bases de dados indexadas: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Através do mnemônico PCC (população, conceito e contexto), elaborou-se a estratégia de busca utilizando descritores do Decs e Mesh. Resultados: foram encontrados 1.631 estudos sobre a temática. Após critérios de elegibilidade e seleção, foram incluídos 30 estudos específicos sobre resistência do Aedes aegypti a inseticidas foram incluídos na revisão. A maior parte tratou de forma experimental e 28 (93,3%) estudos trabalharam o controle químico. Em relação à resistência a inseticidas, em 20 estudos (66,6%) constatou-se resistência metabólica e em 9 (30%) a resistência mediada pela alteração da variabilidade genética. Os estudos que observaram mutação não deixam claro se a mutação gênica é especificamente devido à ação mutagênica aos inseticidas. Conclusões:o A. aegypti desenvolve adaptações que lhe conferem resistência aos inseticidas, sendo que esses mecanismos de resistência estão relacionados à variabilidade genética e a adaptações metabólicas, que são transmitidas a seus descendentes ao longo das gerações. Assim, torna-se necessário um avanço nos estudos visando não apenas identificar e explicar os mecanismos de resistência, mas encontrar meios alternativos de manejo que possam controlar o inseto sem ocasionar resistência aos mesmos.


Introduction: about four billion people live in areas at risk of dengue, an arbovirus transmitted by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae). To combat this vector and reduce the spread of dengue, the means of vector control often used are insecticides. However, their indiscriminate use in mosquito control is related to the resistance mechanisms of this vector. Objective: to map the scientific evidence related to the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to the insecticides used to control dengue. Methodology: scope review, according to the Joana Briggs Institute methodology, in indexed databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library. Using the mnemonic PCC (population, concept and context), a search strategy was developed using Decs and Mesh descriptors. Results: 1,631 studies on the subject were found. After eligibility and selection criteria, 30 specific studies on Aedes aegypti resistance to insecticide were included in the review . Most treated experimentally and 28 (93.3%) studies worked on chemical control. Regarding the resistance to insecticide, in 20 studies (66.6%) there was found metabolic resistance and in 9 (30%) resistance mediated by modification on the genetic variability. Studies that have looked at mutation do not make it clear whether the gene mutation is specifically due to mutagenic action of insecticides. Conclusions: Aedes aegypti develops adaptations that gives them resistance to insecticides, and these resistance mechanisms are related to genetic variability and to metabolic adaptations, which are transmitted to its descendants over generations. Thus, it is necessary to perform advance in studies aiming not only to identify and explain the resistance mechanisms, but to find alternative means of management that can control the insect without causing resistance to them.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides , Dengue/prevention & control
3.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386303

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la industria agrícola se ha implementado el uso de plaguicidas lo que ha aumentado la cantidad y calidad de los productos agrícolas en varios países en desarrollo, su objetivo es mejorar la calidad de vida y sustento de los consumidores, sin embargo, el uso inadecuado puede causar graves intoxicaciones tanto por ingestión accidental, ocupacional o ingestión con fines suicidas u homicidas, lo cual los hace un tema de relevancia médico legal. El fosfuro de aluminio es un rodenticida, insecticida y fumigante sólido usado como una sustancia ideal para la conservación de los granos, ya que es altamente tóxico contra los insectos que invaden los granos en todos sus estadios sin afectar como tal las semillas y su germinación, es un compuesto accesible y económico lo que hace que su uso con fines suicidas y homicidas sea elevado, ante la intoxicación con fosfuro de aluminio se han descritos síntomas bastante inespecíficos como lo son dolor en el epigastrio, vómitos, diarrea, mareos, disnea y en algunos casos acompañado de un olor a ajo que es característico de ésta intoxicación lo que aumenta la sospecha clínica. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos, de los artículos publicados referentes al tema de los últimos doce años, con el objetivo de profundizar en las características del fosfuro de aluminio, su mecanismo de acción y toxicidad. Se concluye que es fundamental conocer los diferentes plaguicidas y sus efectos en la salud, principalmente de aquellos con una alta letalidad, que se podrían estar utilizando clandestinamente y que al ser sumamente económicos son de fácil acceso para emplearse con fines delictivos.


Abstract The agricultural industry has implemented the use of pesticides, which has increased the quantity and quality of agricultural products in several developing countries, its objective is to improve the quality of life and livelihood of consumers, however, improper use can cause serious intoxications both by accidental ingestion, occupational or ingestion for suicidal or homicidal purposes, which makes them an issue of medico-legal relevance. Aluminum phosphide is a rodenticide, insecticide and solid fumigant used as an ideal substance for the preservation of grains, since it is highly toxic against insects that invade the grains in all their stages without affecting the seeds and their germination, it is an accessible and economic compound which makes its use for suicidal and homicidal purposes high, In the face of aluminum phosphide poisoning, quite unspecific symptoms have been described, such as pain in the epigastrium, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, dyspnea and in some cases accompanied by a garlic odor which is characteristic of this poisoning, which increases clinical suspicion. A bibliographic review was conducted in different databases, of the articles published on the subject in the last twelve years, with the aim of deepening in the characteristics of aluminum phosphide, its mechanism of action and toxicity. It is concluded that it is essential to know the different pesticides and their effects on health, those with a high lethality, which could be used clandestinely and which, being extremely cheap, are easily accessible to be used for criminal purposes

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920784

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resistance dynamics of Blattella germanica to commonly used insecticides in Yangpu District of Shanghai during 2014‒2020, and to provide the basis for the rational use of insecticides against cockroaches. Methods Blattella germanica was captured in two farmer’s markets in 2014, 2017 and 2020. The residual film method recommended by WHO was used to test resistance of Blattella germanica to the insecticides. Results In 2014, 2017 and 2020, the resistance ratio of Blattella germanica in Yangpu District was 6.96, 4.39, 7.26 to beta-cypermethrin, 10.41, 6.71, 5.24 to permethrin, and 2.28, 3.16, 1.01 to propoxur. Conclusion The resistance of Blattella germanica to permethrin and propoxur decreases, and the resistance to beta-cypermethrin keeps at low level. Comprehensive management and rotation of insecticides should be implemented to delay the increase of resistance.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920783

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resistance level of adult Aedes albopictus to commonly used insecticides in urban areas of Huzhou City, and analyze the trend of insecticide resistance. Methods Aedes albopictus larvae were collected from different urban areas of Huzhou City in 2019 and 2020. The larvae were reared to adults for determining resistance using the WHO standard test kits by contact tube method. Results The mortality was 97.06%‒100.00% in adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes exposed to 0.4% beta-cypermethrin, 0.1% deltamethrin, 0.5% malathion, 0.05% propoxur and 3% permethrin in 2019. While the adult mosquitoes exposed to 0.4% beta Cypermethrin, 0.08% beta Cypermethrin, 0.03% deltamethrin, 0.4% permethrin, 0.5% malathion and 0.02% propoxur in 2020, the adjusted mortality were 98.58%, 89.09%, 85.64%, 91.34%, 91.43% and 100% respectively . When the insecticide doses on medicated paper were high, the Huzhou populations of Aedes albopictus were sensitive to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and propoxur, and showed suspected resistance to permethrin. While the Aedes albopictus were exposed to low testing dose, they showed suspected resistance to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion, but remained to be sensitive to propoxur. Conclusion The adult Aedes albopictus in Huzhou City from 2019 to 2020 was still sensitive to propoxur, but their resistance to malathion changes from sensitive to resistant. When the contact tube method is used for insecticide resistance, it is suggested that the accurate diagnostic dose should be obtained first before conducting further insecticide resistance tests.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920782

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the type and consumption of sanitary insecticides used in Putuo District of Shanghai, determine the current resistance of Aedes albopictus to the insecticides, and explore the causes of regional variations in insecticide resistance spectrum. Methods Public and private institutions of pest control operation were investigated on the use of sanitary insecticides. Dipping method and tube method were used to measure the insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus, including larvae and adults. Results The main insecticides used in residential areas and governmental units was β-cypermethrin, while that in markets and public environment was propoxur. In addition, and the insecticides in dengue control program was λ-cyhalothrin. Aedes albopictus larvae had medium resistance to parathion, and were sensitive to propoxur, with insignificant change within three years. Their resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was medium and high, respectively. Moreover, resistance to β-cypermethrin increased over years. In contrast, resistance of adult Aedes albopictus differed by area, except consistently being sensitive to fenitrothion. Conclusion Multiple sanitary insecticides have been used in Putuo District. In addition, Aedes albopictus has different resistance to these insecticides by area. It suggests that resistance surveillance should be promoted, which may be crucial for scientific application of insecticides and impede the development of potential resistance.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940057

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the resistance to beta-cypermethrin in Aedes albopictus in Xuhui District, Shanghai, China, and determine the effects of insecticide components, concentration and distance on eliminating resistant population of Aedes albopictus in ultra-low volume (ULV) spray, which would provide scientific evidence for effective mosquito control strategy and rational use of beta-cypermethrin. MethodsLarval impregnation method recommended by the World Health Organization was used to determine the drug resistance in Aedes albopictus larvae to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of insecticides to Aedes albopictus larvae. The resistance to insecticides in female adults of Aedes albopictus was measured by the adult mosquito contact tube method recommended by the World Health Organization, and the 24-hour mortality (%) of female mosquitoes caused by insecticides was measured. Then the 24-hour mortality (%) of resistant female adults of Aedes albopictus due to beta cypermethrin monotherapy and compound agents was calculated by ULV spray. ResultIn 2016, 2017, 2019 and 2021, the resistance ratio in Aedes albopictus larvae to beta-cypermethrin was 9.22, 68.22, 37.33 and 59.22, respectively. In 2021, the 24-hour mortality of Aedes albopictus female adults was 62.07%. ULV sprayer experiments were performed using 4.5% beta-cypermethrin (single dose) and 12.0% beta-cypermethrin-chlorpyrifos (compound dose). The 24-hour mortality increased with the concentration of the insecticides. The overall mortality caused by compound was higher than that by single dose. The mortality were 24.24%, 31.60% and 97.83% at the concentrations of 0.045 0%, 0.067 5% and 0.090 0% for single dose, respectively, and 58.87%, 61.62% and 90.00% at the concentrations of 0.12%, 0.18% and 0.24% for compound dose, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality when spraying distance was 10 m, 30 m and 50 m. ConclusionAedes albopictus in Xuhui District is developed varying resistance to beta-cypermethrin. It warrants to strengthen the monitoring on insecticide resistance to formulate scientific and reasonable strategy for insecticide use. and reduce the resistance level of the Aedes albopictus to beta-cypermethrin. Compound dose is recommended to improve the effect. In addition, comprehensive treatment may be adopted to reduce the resistance.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of pesticides and herbicides on lipid metabolism. Methods: In November 2020, Based on the data of the national health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) (2011-2014) , select the population aged 20~65 who have demographic information, pesticide use and data of four lipid metabolism indicators [total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) ] (n=3039) . The subjects were divided into insecticide group (320 people) and non insecticide group (2719) according to the use of insecticides, and herbicide group (156 people) and non herbicide group according to the use of herbicides. Results: Among the 3039 subjects, the males and female were 1509 (49.7%) and 1530 (50.3%) respectively. The males age was (39.7±12.0) years and the females age was (40.2±12.0) years The concentration of HDLC in the NHANES (55.4±15.0) mg/dl was lower than that of (58.2±14.2) mg/dL in the non herbicide group (P<0.05) (b=-0.044, P<0.05) . The results showed that the use of herbicides was related to the decrease of HDLC and the increase of LDLC and LDLC/HDLC in female population (b=-0.050, 0.062, 0.067, all P<0.05) . Conclusion: Herbicide exposure can cause the change of lipid metabolism, and the effect on female population is more obvious.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Female , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides , Young Adult
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233425, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249266

ABSTRACT

Abstract The secondary metabolism products of plants have influenced great economic interest, given their chemical diversity and biological activities. Because of this, this study evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal, and antioxidant activity of plant extracts and oil of Myrcia oblongata. Saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids were detected. The extracts showed antimicrobial capacity on the tested microorganisms, except for the methanolic extract, which showed no activity for P. mirabilis and S. enteritidis. Regarding the analysis of antioxidant compounds, the hexanic, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed higher antioxidant activities and also higher insecticidal performance on Alphitobius diaperinus larvae, resulting in 80% adult mortality. The results reported here show that there may be a relationship between antioxidant potential and the insecticidal effect of Myrcia oblongata DC. The components present in both the extract and the oil can be used as natural alternative to synthetic compounds in the biological control of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms.


Resumo Os produtos do metabolismo secundário das plantas têm despertado grande interesse econômico, dada sua diversidade química e atividades biológicas. Neste sentido, o estudo objetivou avaliar a composição fitoquímica, atividade antimicrobiana, inseticida e antioxidante dos extratos vegetais e óleo de Myrcia oblongata. Foram detectados a presença de saponinas, esteróides, triterpenóides, taninos e flavonóides. Os extratos apresentaram capacidade antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos testados, exceto o extrato metanólico que não demonstrou atividade para P. mirabilis e S. Enteritidis. Quanto a análise de compostos antioxidantes observou-se que os extratos hexânico, acetato de etila e acetona apresentaram maiores atividades antioxidantes e também maior performance inseticida sobre a larva Alphitobius diaperinus e exibindo mortalidade de 80% na fase adulta. Os resultados aqui reportados mostram que pode haver uma relação entre potencial antioxidante e efeito inseticida do óleo de Myrcia oblongata; os componentes presentes tanto no extrato como o oléo podem ser utilizados como alternativa natural aos compostos sintéticos no controle biológico de parasitas e microrganismos patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Insecticides , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteria , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Antioxidants/pharmacology
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0553, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and can be carried by different species of triatomines, including Rhodnius neglectus, which is wild, well distributed in Brazil, and has formed colonies in palm trees located in urban areas of municipalities in the state of São Paulo. Chemical control has been routinely used to reduce population density, but each year, there has been an increase in species dispersion and density. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of insects to insecticides used in control. Methods: The reference population was collected from Araçatuba municipality, Nilce Maia. Dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the back of the first-stage nymphs, which were biologically synchronized. The control group received pure acetone only. Mortality was assessed after 72 h. Results: The mortality rate with respect to diagnostic dose was 100%. The susceptibility profile observed for this population showed RR50 ranging from 1.76 to 3.632. Conclusions: The populations were susceptible to the insecticides tested. It is possible that the insecticide residual effect on this ecotope has decreased the lifespan, and controlling failures may be the cause of recolonization in this environment.

11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1001-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1345278

ABSTRACT

The goal of this research was to compare the effect of the following products on dairy cattle, parasitized by Rhipicephalus microplus: organosynthetics - Clorfenvinfós and Ivermectina (OG); phytotherapics - Eucalyptus oil (EG) and Neem cake (NG); Homeopathy (HG); The control group (CG) received no treatment. Infestation was by R. microplus (MIC) and weight gain (GP) were evaluated. The study included 60 animals (5 groups) from ­ Dutch / Zebu, aged between 25-44 months and initial weight between 211-477kg. EG and NG showed MIC 84.9% and 14.0% greater than CG, respectively (P <0.05; P = 0). HG and OG had MIC less than CG 24.4% and 16.9%, respectively (P<0.05; P <0.05). EG, NG and OG obtained GP lower than CG in 7.9%, 8.9% and 8.06% (P <0.05) respectively. The HG GP was 4.9% higher (P <0.05) than CG. This was the first research to prove parasitism control by R. microplus in a field test, using homeopathy. The methodology for choosing Homeopathy for the control of enzooties, developed and tested for the first time in this study, proved to be adequate and efficient, opening the possibility for establishing a new methodology for strategic control of parasitism by R. microplus.(AU)


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar o efeito dos seguintes produtos sobre bovinos leiteiros, parasitados por Rhipicephalus microplus: organossintéticos - clorfenvinfós e ivermectina (OG); fitoterápicos - óleo de eucalipto (EG) e torta de Neem (NG) e homeopatia (HG). O grupo controle (CG) não recebeu tratamento. Foram avaliados infestação por R. microplus (MIC) e ganho de peso/grupo (GP) em 60 animais (5 grupos), a partir de ­ holandês/zebu, com idade entre 25 e 44 meses e peso inicial entre 211 e 477kg. EG e NG apresentaram MIC 84,9% e 14,0% maior que CG, respectivamente (P<0,05; P=0). HG e OG apresentaram MIC menor que CG 24,4% e 16,9%, respectivamente (P<0,05; P<0,05). EG, NG e OG obtiveram GP menor que CG em 7,9%, 8,9% e 8,06% (P<0,05), respectivamente. O GP do HG foi 4,9% maior (P<0,05) que o CG. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa a comprovar controle do parasitismo por R. microplus em teste a campo, usando homeopatia. A metodologia para escolha de medicamentos homeopáticos para controle de enzootias, desenvolvida e testada pela primeira vez neste estudo, mostrou-se adequada e eficiente, abrindo a possibilidade para estabelecimento de nova metodologia para controle estratégico do parasitismo por R. microplus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Ticks , Homeopathic Remedy , Tick Control/methods , Acaricides
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876712

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differentially expressed proteins between cypermethrin-resistant and -sensitive Culex pipiens pallens, so as to unravel the mechanism underlying the resistance to cypermethrin in Cx. p. pallens. Methods A quantitative proteomic analysis was performed among cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Cx. p. pallens using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results A total of 164 differentially expressed proteins were identified between cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Cx. p. pallens, including 54 up-regulated proteins and 110 down-regulated proteins. A large number of cuticular proteins, larval cuticular proteins, pupal cuticular proteins and cuticular structural constituent proteins, which are associated with cytoskeletal structure and components, were differentially expressed between cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Cx. p. pallens. Thirteen proteins, which were involved in energy production and conversion, translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis, lipid transport and metabolism, post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, cytoskeleton and intracellular transportation, were validated to be differentially expressed between cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Cx. p. pallens, which may serve as potential markers of cypermethrin resistance. Conclusion Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms contribute to the resistance to cypermethrin in Cx. p. pallens, including cuticular resistance and metabolic resistance, and the cuticular protein genes and cytochrome P450 enzymes may play an important role in the resistance of Cx. p. pallens to cypermethrin.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904629

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and density of Culex mosquito populations and the resistance of Culex pipiens pallens to insecticides in Jiangsu Province in 2018 and 2019. Methods During the period from June to October in 2018 and 2019, six counties (districts, cities) were sampled in southern, northern and central Jiangsu Province as surveillance sites. The density of Culex mosquitoes was measured overnight using the light trapping technique. In addition, Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes were collected from Hai’an of Nantong City and Yandu District of Yancheng City, central Jiangsu Province, and the sensitivity of female first filial generations to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malation, proposur, beta cypermethrin and deltamethrin was tested using the standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assay. Results A total of 104 423 Culex mosquitoes were captured in six surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province in 2018 and 2019, and Culex quinquefasciatus (49.11%), Culex pipiens pallens (28.38%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (21.04%) were predominant species. The density of Culex mosquitoes started to increase since early June, peaked in July and tended to be low in late October. Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes captured from Hai’an was susceptible to malation, while those from Yandu District were moderately resistant to malation. Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes from both Yandu and Hai’an were moderately resistant to proposur, and were resistant to DDT, beta cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Conclusions Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens pallens and Culex tritaeniorhynchus are predominant Culex species in Jiangsu Province. Culex pipiens pallens is resistant to DT, beta cypermethrin and deltamethrin in central Jiangsu Province.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904627

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for local malaria vector control. Methods An. sinensis was captured from Puyang County, Puyang City of Henan Province in September 2018 and July 2020, and the susceptibility of field captured An. sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was tested using the filter-paper bioassay recommended by WHO. The insecticide resistance level was assessed based on the WHO criteria. Results In 2018 and 2010, the half knock-down times (KT50) of malathion were 91.08 min and 40.95 min for An. sinensis, with knock-down rates of 37.50% and 60.87% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 90.91% and 100%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were moderately resistant (M) and susceptible (S). The KT50 of deltamethrin were 415.56 min and 341.19 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 22.92% and 16.98% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 22.92% and 16.98%, and the insecticide resistance levels were all resistant (R). The KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin were 164.22 min and 236.22 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 30.39% and 38.30% 60 min postexposure to malathion and 24 h mortality rates of 19.60% and 21.28%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were all R. Conclusion An. sinensis is relatively susceptible to malathion but has developed high-level resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province..

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881050

ABSTRACT

Pesticides' overuse and misuse have been reported to induce ingredient variations in herbal medicine, which is now gaining attention in the medicinal field as a form of alternative medicine. To date, available studies on pesticide-induced ingredient variations of herbal medicine are limited only on a few compounds and remain most others unexamined. In this study, a plant metabolomics-based strategy was performed to systematically explore the effects of two frequently used insecticides on the comprehensive constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Field trials were designed on a cultivating plot of L. japonica with controls and treatments of imidacloprid (IMI) and compound flonicamid and acetamiprid (CFA). Unbiased metabolite profiling was conducted by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. After data pretreatment by automatic extraction and screening, a data matrix of metabolite features was submitted for statistical analyses. Consequently, 29 metabolic markers, including chlorogenic acids, iridoids and organic acid-glucosides were obtained and characterized. The relative quantitative assay was subsequently performed to monitor their variations across flowering developments. This is the first study that systematically explored the insecticide-induced metabolite variations of LJF while taking into account the inherent variability of flowering development. The results were beneficial for holistic quality assessment of LJF and significant for guiding scientific use of pesticides in the large-scale cultivation.

17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06859, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346690

ABSTRACT

This study analysed the effectiveness of using different levels of a product based on 6% cypermethrin and 2% citronella on broiler production and control the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus). A total of 648 one-day-old chicks (Cobb®) which were allocated to one of three treatments (no application of the commercial product - control, and two concentrations of the product 2.00 and 3.33g/m2) in eight replicates with 27 birds each. The commercial product, which was based on cypermethrin was applied in the chambers with an atomizer. The lesser mealworm population was sampled weekly (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment) using traps, at three points (front, middle and back) inside the pen. The performance, carcass and cut yields were evaluated. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment, the number of lesser mealworm adults and larvae was lower in the treatment groups involving 2.00 and 3.33g/m2 of the product than in the control group. On the first and 14th days of the study, the number of lesser mealworms adults was lower in the group treated with 3.33g/m2 of the product compared to the control group, although the results did not differ statistically from those obtained with 2.00g/m2 of the product. In conclusion, the application of the commercial product at both concentrations (2.00 and 3.33g/m2) was effective in combating Alphitobius diaperinus adults and larvae, and the performance was not influenced by treatments.(AU)


Este estudo analisou a eficácia do uso de diferentes níveis de um produto à base de cipermetrina a 6% e citronela a 2%, na produção de frangos de corte e no controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus). Um total de 648 pintos de um dia de idade (Cobb®) foram distribuídos em três câmaras com os tratamentos (sem aplicação do produto comercial - controle, e duas concentrações do produto comercial - 2,00 e 3,33g/m2) em oito repetições com 27 aves cada. O produto comercial a base de cipermetrina foi aplicado nas câmaras com um atomizador. A população de cascudinho foi amostrada semanalmente (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias do experimento) usando armadilhas, em três pontos (frente, meio e fundo) de cada parcela. Foram avaliados o desempenho, rendimentos de carcaça e cortes. Aos 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias do experimento, o número de adultos e larvas de cascudinho foi menor nos grupos de tratamento envolvendo 2,00 e 3,33g/m2 do produto quando comparado ao grupo controle. No primeiro e no 14º dia do estudo, o número de cascudinhos adultos foi menor no grupo tratado com 3,33g/m2 do produto em comparação ao grupo controle, embora os resultados não tenham diferido estatisticamente daqueles obtidos com 2,00g/m2 do produto. A conversão alimentar de 1 a 21 dias de idade foi significativa, com os melhores resultados para essa variável quando aplicado 3,33g do produto por metro quadrado e no tratamento controle. Em conclusão, a aplicação do produto comercial em ambas as concentrações (2,00 e 3,33g/m2) foi eficaz no combate a adultos e larvas de Alphitobius diaperinus e, não influenciou o desempenho.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Tenebrio , Birds , Chickens/parasitology , Pest Control
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 18, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289991

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate locomotor activity in four field populations of Ae. aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles from the state of São Paulo for two years. METHODS: This study comprised the susceptible Rockefeller strain and four populations from São Paulo, Brazil: two considered populations with "reduced susceptibility" to pyrethroids (Campinas and Marília), and two "resistant populations" (Santos and Ribeirão Preto). First, 2016 and 2017 eggs from these five populations were hatched in laboratory. Virgin females underwent experiments under laboratory conditions at 25°C, with 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod; 24-hour individual activity was recorded using a locomotor activity monitor (LAM). RESULTS: In females from 2016 field populations, both resistant populations showed significant more locomotor activity than the two reduced susceptibility populations and the Rockefeller strain (p < 0.05). As for females from 2017 field populations, reduced susceptibility populations showed a significant increased locomotor activity than the Rockefeller strain, but no significant difference when compared to Santos resistant population (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations show increased locomotor activity, which may affect the transmission dynamics of their arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Aedes , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Locomotion
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07072021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351608

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Since 2013, major Cimex lectularius infestations have been detected in public shelters in Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Due to this, insecticide resistance has been investigated as one of the possible causes for the failure to control bedbugs. METHODS: Cimicids were subjected to bioassays according to the World Health Organization recommendations using deltamethrin and all commercial insecticides available for control of Cimex in Brazil. RESULTS: Cimicids were deltamethrin resistant and presented indicative of resistance to other insecticides, except for propoxur 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The commercial insecticides have a limited effect on bedbug populations, which may justify the unsatisfactory control observed in the shelters studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bedbugs , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance
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