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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Honey/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Environmental Biomarkers , Endosulfan/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides/toxicity , Pakistan , Acetylcholinesterase , Birds , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Ecosystem , Crops, Agricultural
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00157921, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360300

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Mental disorders are the main cause of the young and economically active population worldwide and in Brazil to live with disabilities, being an important public health problem nowadays. The objective was to estimate the burden of mental disorders among professionals working to combat endemic diseases in a state in northeastern Brazil. Medical records of workers linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in Ceará State and fighting endemic diseases were surveyed and, from this, a historical cohort was made. The individual quantification of absenteeism by mental disorders (ICD F-chapter referring to mental disorders) was conducted considering a period of about 35 years, from admission (the 1980s) to December 2017. The global burden of disease was measured by the YLD indicator (years lost to disability). Considering that no deaths due to mental disorders were observed, the YLL indicator (years of life lost) was composed. The high mental disorders burden in this group of workers stands out, whose mood disorders, including depression, conferred a YLD equal to 18.6. This represents just over 18 years of work lived with a disability. Our findings reinforce the need to implement surveillance and health promotion actions in workers to promote effective interventions capable of contributing to the reduction of morbidity in workers and economically active people.


Resumo: Os transtornos mentais são a principal causa de anos vividos com incapacidade entre a população jovem e economicamente ativa no mundo e no Brasil. Os impactos representam um problema importante para a saúde pública hoje. O objetivo do estudo foi de estimar a carga de transtornos mentais entre profissionais que trabalham no combate às doenças endêmicas em um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Foi realizada uma coorte histórica com base na revisão de prontuários médicos dos profissionais que trabalham no combate às doenças endêmicas e vinculados ao Ministério da Saúde no Ceará. Procedemos à quantificação individual do absenteísmo por transtorno mental (CID, capítulo F, sobre transtornos mentais) ao longo de um período de cerca de 35 anos, desde a admissão (anos 1980) até dezembro de 2017. A carga global de doença foi medida pelo indicador anos vividos com incapacidade, considerando que não foram observados óbitos por transtorno mental, que constitui o indicador de anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura. Destaca-se a alta carga de transtorno mental nesse grupo de trabalhadores, cujos transtornos de humor, inclusive depressão, conferiam 18,6 anos vividos com incapacidade, ou seja, mais de 18 anos de trabalho vividos com incapacidade. Nossos achados reforçam a necessidade de implementar medidas de vigilância e promoção da saúde nos trabalhadores para promover intervenções efetivas capazes de contribuir para a redução da morbidade entre trabalhadores e pessoas economicamente ativas.


Resumen: Los desórdenes mentales son la principal causa de años de vida vividos con discapacidad en la población joven y económicamente activa en el mundo y en Brasil. Sus impactos representan un problema importante para la salud pública hoy en día. El objetivo fue estimar la carga de los desórdenes mentales entre profesionales, que trabajan para combatir enfermedades endémicas en un estado del noreste brasileño. Se llevó a cabo con una cohorte histórica procedente de una investigación con registros médicos de trabajadores que luchaban contra enfermedades endémicas, relacionados con el Ministerio de Salud en Ceará. Se procedió a realizar una cuantificación individual del absentismo mediante desórdenes mentales (capítulo ICD F que se refiere a los desórdenes mentales) durante un período de aproximadamente 35 años, desde la admisión (en los años de 1980) hasta diciembre de 2017. Se midió la carga global de la enfermedad mediante el indicador YLD (años perdidos por la discapacidad). Considerando que no se observaron muertes debido a las desórdenes mentales, que conforman el indicador YLL (años de vida perdidos). Destaca la alta carga de desórdenes mentales en este grupo de trabajadores, cuyos trastornos del comportamiento, incluyendo la depresión, confirió un YLD igual a 18,6. Esto representa algo más de 18 años de trabajo vividos con una discapacidad. Nuestros resultados refuerzan la necesidad de implementar acciones de vigilancia y promoción de la salud en los trabajadores, con el fin de promover intervenciones efectivas capaces de contribuir a la reducción de la morbilidad en trabajadores y gente activa económicamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Global Health , Morbidity , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
4.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(3): 423-438, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360037

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las actinobacterias incluyen miembros productores de compuestos multipropósitos restringidamente sobreexplotados al género Streptomyces. No obstante, es necesario reorientar la exploración de bacterias no estreptomiceas para el uso de nuevos bioagentes ecológicos con miras a evitar redescubrimientos y contrarrestar la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en Aedes aegypti. En esta investigación, se caracterizó actinobacterias formadoras de biopelículas para evaluar su dinámica de crecimiento, actividad larvicida y efectos subletales. La identificación, crecimiento y bioactividades de los patógenos se realizaron por cultivos, análisis de imágenes por fotomicrografía y bioensayos. Las biopelículas pertenecen a Pseudonocardiaceae (PsA1TA) y Corynebacteriaceae (CoA2CA) característicamente dependientes a crecer sobre sustratos con revestimiento cuticular específico. PsA1TA coloniza estructuras membranosas de tórax y abdomen de larvas. Las microcolonias desarrollan infectivamente a biopelículas mono y biestratificadas hasta cubrir cuatro veces la amplitud toracoabdominal (envergadura infectiva entre 1010 μm a 1036 μm). En contraste, CoA2CA envuelve radialmente estructuras esclerotizadas cefálica y anal al triplicar la amplitud de los órganos infectados (envergadura infectiva: 1820 a 2030 μm y 1650 a 1860 μm, respectivamente). Las biopelículas ejercen mortalidad diferenciada a todas las etapas larvarias, no obstante, PsA1TA resultó más mortal y virulento frente al segundo estadio (58 %-96 horas, TL50: 3,4 días), mientras que CoA2CA lo fue sobre el cuarto estadio larval (85 %-96 horas, TL50: 2,5 días). CoA2CA indujo emergencia incompleta de farados y despliegue de tarsos curvos en adultos emergentes, además de revestir cadáveres larvarios con robustas biopelículas. Los morfotipos actinobacterianos revelan efecto larvicida y subletal en A. aegypti por formación de biopelículas.


ABSTRACT Actinobacteria include several ubiquitous members involved in the synthesis of multipurpose bioactive compounds strictly derived from the genus Streptomyces. Nevertheless, new bacterial consortia based on non-streptomycetes actinobacteria are needed to be explored in order to avoid rediscoveries and minimize the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. In accordance with the use of eco-friendly bioagents, in this study biofilm-forming actinobacteria were characterized on the basis of assessment their growth dynamics, larvicidal mortality and sublethal effects. Actinobacteria identification, biofilm growth and larvicidal bioactivities were performed by employing bacterial cultures, photomicrograph-based image analysis and bioassays. Bacterial morphotypes belong to Pseudonocardiaceae (PsA1TA) and Corynebacteriaceae (CoA2CA), which showed a distinctly substrate-dependent growth. PsA1TA microcolonies were randomly distributed on abdominal and thoracic membranous epicuticle. Afterwards, the thickness of mono-and bi-layered biofilms were increased fourfold the larval thoracoabdominal width (infectious breadth, 1010 μm - 1036 μm). In contrast, cephalic and anal sclerotized structures were radially encased by CoA2CA biofilms and increased threefold the size of both structures (infectious breadth, 1820 - 2030 μm y 1650 - 1860 μm, respectively). Although biofilms caused dissimilar mortality rates on the four larval instars, PsA1TA exerted highest larvicidal activity and virulence on second instar larvae (58 %-96 hours, LT50: 3.4 days) y CoA2CA on fourth instar larvae (85 %-96 hours, LT5G: 2.5 days). CoA2CA also induced incomplete release of pharate individuals as well as buckled protruding tarsi in newly emergent adults, whilst larval cadavers were overwhelmingly encased within massive biofilm aggregates. Biofilm-forming actinobacteria performed biolarvicidal activity and sublethal responses in A. aegypti.

5.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 62-71, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152669

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The botanical family Solanaceae has many species producing compounds with insecticidal properties, e.g. nicotine and capsaicin, which are used for pest management in agriculture. This fact provides perspectives to identify insecticidal compounds in Brazilian native species of Solanaceae. In this study, we performed a screening with 25 ethanolic extracts from 17 Solanaceae species in order to evaluate their bioactivity against the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). The bioactivity of Solanaceae ethanolic extracts (2,500 mg kg-1) was tested with residual contact bioassays. Adults of Z. subfasciatus were exposed to treated bean grains, and adult mortality, oviposition, F1 progeny and damages on grains were quantified. Most of the ethanolic extracts from Solanaceae reduced the number of eggs per sample, the egg-adult viability, the F1 progeny and the damages on bean grains promoted by Z. subfasciatus, but none of them interfered on its sex ratio. Ethanolic extract from leaves of Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil promoted the most promissory effects on Z. subfasciatus. This ethanolic extracts can be a suitable alternative to control Z. subfasciatus in stored beans, mainly for small farmers and organic farmers.


RESUMEN La familia botánica Solanaceae tiene muchas especies que producen compuestos con propiedades insecticidas, e.g. nicotina y capsaicina, que se utilizan para el control de plagas en la agricultura. Este hecho proporciona perspectivas promisorias para identificar compuestos insecticidas en especies nativas brasileñas de Solanaceae. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un cribado con 25 extractos etanólicos de 17 especies de Solanaceae con el propósito de evaluar su bioactividad sobre el gorgojo pinto del frijol, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). La bioactividad de los extractos etanólicos se evaluó por experimentos de contacto residual. Los adultos de Z. subfasciatus se expusieron a los frijoles tratados con los extractos y se midió la mortalidad de los adultos, la ovoposición, la progenie F1 y el daño en los granos. La mayoría de los extractos etanólicos redujeron el número de huevos, la viabilidad de los huevos, la progenie y el daño en los granos, pero ninguno de ellos interfirió en la proporción sexual de los insectos. El extracto etanólico de las hojas de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil promovió los efectos más prometedores sobre Z. subfasciatus. Este extracto puede ayudar a controlar a Z. subfasciatus en frijoles almacenados, principalmente a los pequeños agricultores y a los agricultores orgánicos.

6.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210005, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351019

ABSTRACT

Background: In the present study, we have tested whether specimens of the medically relevant scorpion Tityus pachyurus, collected from two climatically and ecologically different regions, differ in the biological activities of the venom. Methods: Scorpions were collected in Tolima and Huila, Colombia. Chemical profiles of the crude venom were obtained from 80 scorpions for each region, using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Assays for phospholipase A2, direct and indirect hemolytic, proteolytic, neuromuscular, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities were carried out. Results: The electrophoretic profiles of venom from the two regions showed similar bands of 6-14 kDa, 36-45 kDa, 65 kDa and 97 kDa. However, bands between 36 kDa and 65 kDa were observed with more intensity in venoms from Tolima, and a 95 kDa band occurred only in venoms from Huila. The chromatographic profile of the venoms showed differences in the intensity of some peaks, which could be associated with changes in the abundance of some components between both populations. Phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities were not observable, whereas both venoms showed proteolytic activity towards casein. Insecticidal activity of the venoms from both regions showed significant variation in potency, the bactericidal activity was variable and low for both venoms. Moreover, no differences were observed in the neuromuscular activity assay. Conclusion: Our results reveal some variation in the activity of the venom between both populations, which could be explained by the ecological adaptations like differences in feeding, altitude and/or diverse predator exposure. However more in-depth studies are necessary to determine the drivers behind the differences in venom composition and activities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions , Biological Products , Phospholipases A2 , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210327, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355809

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis, commonly known as soybean caterpillar, causes important economic losses in soybean crops. Synthetic pesticides are the standard practice to control this insect. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances has increased the resistance of this pest. Thus, it is necessary to search for different control alternatives that are also more environmentally friendly. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of Lavandula dentata L. essential oil (EO) and its activity on A. gemmatalis. The major compounds of essential oil were 1,8-cineole (31.5 wt.%), camphor (16.6 wt.%), and fenchone (15.9 wt.%). Bioassays were performed with third-instar caterpillars. EO concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0% v/v were diluted in Tween-80® 0.5% v/v and incorporated into the artificial diet given to caterpillars. Water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% w/v were added as negative and positive controls. For the aversion tests, soybean leaf discs were immersed in solutions with 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% v/v of EO, plus a negative control (water), and offered to caterpillars. In the bioassay, 100% mortality was observed from the concentration 0.6% v/v of the essential oil of L. dentata in 24 h; without statistical difference from 0.4 and 0.5% v/v. There was no important change in mortality between 24 and 72 h. In the aversion test, all EO treatments caused deterrence of caterpillars when compared to control, but without difference between EO concentrations. It was observed that L. dentata EO can be used as an alternative in the control of A. gemmatalis.

8.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 215-224, abr.-jun 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144950

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar que los principios activos de las semillas de Annona muricata combinados con el extracto etanólico y dimetilsulfóxido (EE-DMSO), incrementan la mortalidad de larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti con relación a extractos acuosos (EA) y extractos etanólicos (EE). Las bioactividades se calcularon por comparación de los porcentajes de mortalidad a las 6, 12, 24 y 48 horas in vitro y campo simulado. Los resultados indicaron mortalidad progresiva dependiente de las concentraciones y tiempos de exposición en larvas y reacción knock-down en pupas. In vitro a 5 mg.L-1, EA y EE ejercieron 100% de mortalidad larvaria en 24 horas de exposición (CL50=46.16 y 19.28 mg.L-1 respectivamente), en contraste con EE-DMSO, que inició sobre 62% con 0.5 mg.L-1 a las 6 horas (CL50=20.33 mg.L-1). La acción pupicida de EA y EE reveló 100% de mortalidad desde 24 horas en todas las concentraciones, a diferencia de EE-DMSO que se alcanzó entre 6 y 12 horas. En campo simulado, EA y EE ejercieron 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas en larvas (16.91 y 21.21 mg.L-1 ), mientras que en pupas (20.44 y 23.03 mg.L-1) ocurrió a las 12 horas, entretanto, la actividad pupicida de EE-DMSO fue 100% en 6 horas. Los efectos comparativos in vitro y campo simulado denotaron patrones similares de respuestas larvicida y pupicida, pero con mayor sensibilidad en pupas. Los principios activos de las semillas de A. muricata combinados con EE-DMSO potencian la respuesta mortal de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti in vitro y campo simulado.


Abstract The objective of this study was to demonstrate that active ingredients of Annona muricata seeds can be enhanced as a result of mixture of both ethanolic extract of A. muricata seeds and Dimethylsulfoxide (EE-DMSO). Percentage mortalities at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours on fourth instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti were calculated in order to compare bioactivities of aqueous (AE), ethanolic extracts (EE) and EE-DMSO under laboratory and simulated field conditions. Results showed larval mortality concentration- and time-dependent, and knock-down responses in pupae. In laboratory, AE and EE exerted 100% larval mortality at 5 mg.L-1 after 24 hours (LC50= 46.16 and 19.28 mg.L-1). Conversely, EE-DMSO showed between 62 - 100% mortality at 0.5 mg.L-1 for over 6 hours (LC50= 20.33 mg.L-1). Pupicidal effects in AE and EE revealed 100% mortality at 24 hours employing all concentrations, except in EE-DMSO which commenced when individuals were exposed between 6 and 12 hours. In simulated field, AE and EE provoked 100% larval mortality at 24 hours (16.91 y 21.21 mg.L-1) while pupal mortality at 12 hours (20.44 y 23.03 mg.L-1). Percentage mortality of pupae was 100% using EE-DMSO even before 6 hours. Comparative toxic effects of laboratory and simulated-field systems have shown to maintain a similar pattern of larval mortality and more sensitive responses in pupae. Accordingly, larval and pupal mortality responses of A. aegypti were enhanced with the use of EE-DMSO and active ingredients of A. muricata seeds under laboratory and simulated field conditions.

9.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 149-160
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214487

ABSTRACT

In the present context of pest management in major crops, as the nature of pest pressure evolves, the requirement of new research-based tactics for pest control becomes a continuous process. Insecticide chemistry plays a major, if not dominant role in these developments. In this review, the toxicological aspects of new novel insecticides against crop pests and their selectivity to natural enemies have been discussed.The progress achieved in toxicological research has introduced new insecticides in crop protection during last two decades which are quite different over the existing groups in terms of chemistry and mode of action. It is evident from their mode of action that these chemicals target alternate physiological and biochemical effect. However, it is important to maintain the diversity in chemistry of insecticides for maximizing flexibility, precision and stability in pest management. In recent years, several new insecticide groups viz., neonicotinoids, butenolides, tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives, oxadiazines, diamides, ketoenols, phenylpyrazoles, pyridines, flonicamid, mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI) acaricides, diafenthiuron, tetrazines, oxazolines, and insecticides from soil microorganisms such as avermectins, milbemycins, spinosyns, pyrrole insecticides and insect growth regulators (IGRs) have been discovered and commercialized for agricultural pest management. The ability of these new groups of insecticides to be effective at low rates or doses, high level of selectivity, greater specificity to target pests along with low toxicity to non-target organisms and the environment, replaced many conventional compounds. The conservation of beneficial organisms like natural enemies and pollinators is the fundamental principle of integrated pest management (IPM). Majority of new insecticide groups are safer and fit well into IPM. It is perceived that in the process of entry of new chemical insecticides in crop protection there is a gradual shift from traditional chemicals to selective novel groups which have minimal side-effects on natural enemies of the pests. These selective insecticides have less adverse impact on the conservation and multiplication of bio agents which can be used in a compatible manner with other tools of IPM. The new chemistries are emphasizing to account separately for possible non-target effects on predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. These factors are becoming increasingly important as the agricultural sector moves away from highly persistent broad-spectrum insecticides to more selective rapidly decaying products.

10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 341-352, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146253

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of stored grain pests. The toxicity and repellency of the essential oils of four basil cultivars and three basil hybrids and the monoterpenes linalool, citral, and (E)-methyl cinnamate were evaluated in the stored grain pests Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophillus zeamais. The essential oils of the cultivar Genovese and the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to C. maculatus. Conversely, the essential oils of the cultivar Sweet Dani and the hybrid 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to S. zeamais. Among the monoterpenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate was the most toxic to both pests, taking 0.14 and 0.34 µ L.mL-1 to kill 50% of the C. maculatus and S. zeamais populations, respectively. All essential oils from cultivars, hybrids, and monoterpenes were repellent to S. zeamais, except for (E)-methyl cinnamate. For C. maculatus, this effect was lower, being citral the most repellent compound. Results demonstrate the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of O. basilicum and its monoterpenes in the control of stored grain pests.


Os óleos essenciais surgem como alternativa aos inseticidas sintéticos no controle das pragas de grãos armazenados. A toxicidade e a repelência dos óleos essenciais de quatro cultivares e três híbridos de manjericão e dos monoterpenos linalol, citral e (E)-cinamato de metila foram avaliadas nas pragas de grãos armazenados Callosobruchus maculatus e Sitophillus zeamais. Os óleos essenciais da cultivar Genovese e do híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' foram mais tóxicos para C. maculatus. Já para S. zeamais, os óleos essenciais das cultivar Sweet Dani e do híbrido 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram maior toxicidade. Dentre os monoterpenos, o (E)-cinamato de metila foi o mais tóxico para ambas as pragas. Foram necessários 0,14 e 0,34 µ L.mL-1 para matar 50% da população de C. maculatus e S. zeamais. Todos os óleos essenciais das cultivares, dos híbridos e dos monoterpenos foram repelentes a S. zeamais, com exceção do (E)-cinamato de metila. Já para C. maculatus, este efeito foi reduzido, sendo o citral o composto mais repelente. Nos resultados demonstram o potencial inseticida dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e seus monoterpenos para o controle de pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Lamiaceae , Insecticides
11.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 64(1): e201968, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of all aspects of life, like the domestic, medical and veterinary and causal agent of several pathogenic diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of different insecticide-free baits against house fly by incorporating flower methanol extract of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Tegetes erecta (marigold) at 10%, 20% and 30% bait formulation of corn syrup, dried milk and water. However, imidacloprid and thiacloprid (each at 5% concentration) were also included in the study for comparison. Results showed that insecticide baits were superior in causing mortality of adult house fly but dependent upon syrup. Overall, 20% baits of both extracts caused more than half population death of house fly within 48h. On the other hand, the mortality rate by 30% baits (from sunflower and marigold) had a similar impact as observed in case of imidacloprid and thiacloprid baits. Therefore, biological baits could play a more active and safer role in the management of house fly as compared to synthetic insecticides.

12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 389-395, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024150

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Agrochemicals, also known as pesticides, are widely used in agriculture and in public health. They are organic and inorganic chemical substances with a high level of toxicity not only for the environment, but also for human health. Objective: To verify findings on labyrinthine assessment in endemic disease control agents, and to recommend the inclusion of the vestibular exam in the set of tests for pesticide-exposed populations. Methods: Descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study with a sample comprising 15 endemic disease control agents, males, mean age of 51.6 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9). All of the participants were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological screening, and vestibular assessment. Results: Regarding the most reported complaints, dizziness (73.4%), headache (60%), and tingling in the extremities (53.4%) were observed. The findings of the vestibular exams were normal in 53.3%, while 46.7% showed peripheral vestibular disorder, of which 26.7% were of deficitary type, and 20% of the irritative type. Conclusions: Alteration in the vestibular system was verified in 50% of the workers, with a greater prevalence in the caloric testing. Several disorders related to pesticides intoxication are scientifically known. Actions promoting knowledge and qualification of this population for the proper handling of chemicals are suggested, in addition to the elaboration and inclusion of protocols of vestibular assessment in hearing health programs for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vestibular Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Exposure , Pesticide Exposure , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/diagnosis , Vestibular Diseases/chemically induced , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced
13.
Acta biol. colomb ; 24(2): 391-396, May-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The study aimed to determine the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin in L. longipalpis, through concentration-mortality bioassays. The test here was performed following WHO guidelines, but instead of using exposure WHO recipients and impregnated papers, 250 ml Wheaton glass bottles treated with 1 ml of insecticide solution were used. Batches of ten females of L. longipalpis were exposed to five concentrations of each pyrethroid that caused between 5 and 100 % mortality in this species. After 1 h of exposure, the females were transferred to observation recipients, and mortality was recorded 24 h later. The lethal concentrations (g/ml) that killed 50 and 95 % (LC50 and LC95) of the exposed L. longipalpis females were 0.05 and 0.86 for lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.24 and 3.62 for alpha-cypermethrin and 0.53 and 4.72 for deltamethrin. Based on the LC50 obtained, lambda-cyhalothrin is the most toxic pyrethroid for L. longipalpis, followed by alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. It is expected that these data may be useful in studies on the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of the three pyrethroids on the behavior of L. longipalpis and studies on the vector susceptibility to these pyrethroids.


RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la toxicidad de los piretroides lambdacialotrina, deltametrina y alfacipermetrina en L. longipalpis, a través de ensayos concentración-mortalidad. Los ensayos se hicieron siguiendo los lineamientos de la OMS, pero en lugar de los recipientes de exposición y de los papeles impregnados de la OMS, se utilizaron botellas de vidrio Wheaton de 250 ml tratadas con 1 ml de solución de insecticida en alcohol absoluto. Grupos de 10 hembras de L. longipalpis sin alimentación sanguínea fueron expuestos a cinco concentraciones de cada piretroide, que causaron entre el 5 y 100 % de mortalidad. Pasada una hora de exposición, las hembras se trasladaron a los recipientes de observación y la mortalidad se registró 24 h después. Las concentraciones (g/ml) que mataron el 50 y el 95 % (CL50 y CL95) de las hembras expuestas de L. longipalpis fueron de 0,05 y 0,86 para la lambdacialotrina, 0,24 y 3,62 para la alfacipermetrina y 0,53 y 4,72 para la deltametrina. Basados en las CL50 obtenidas, la lambdacialotrina fue el piretroide con mayor toxicidad para L. longipalpis, seguido por la alfacipermetrina y la deltametrina. Se espera que estos datos puedan ser útiles en estudios de los efectos de concentraciones sub-letales de los tres piretroides en el comportamiento de L. longipalpis y en estudios de la susceptibilidad del vector a los mismos.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188043

ABSTRACT

Aims: To investigate the status of susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to the WHO-approved insecticides for indoor residual spraying in field collected samples in a malaria vector sentinel site in Nigeria and Ts to provide an update on the current status of resistance to the major insecticide classes in wild populations of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Study Design: Field and laboratory –experimental design was used in this study. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at a malaria surveillance site, established by the National Malaria Elimination Programme at Oduoha-Emohua in Rivers State, between April to September, 2015. Methodology: Anopheles larvae were collected from stagnant pools around the malaria surveillance site. The mosquitoes were reared to adulthood in the insectary and identified using morphological keys. Two- to three-day old adult female mosquitoes were exposed to standard diagnostic doses of Deltamethrin, Lambdacyhalothrin, Alphacympermethrin, Permethrin, Bendiocarb, Propoxur, DDT and Premiphos-Methyl using standard WHO protocols, insecticide susceptibility test kits and treated papers. Knockdown every 10 min and mortality 24 h post exposure was noted. All Anopheles mosquitoes tested belonged to the Anopheles gambiae-complex. Results: Mortality results indicated that the vectors were susceptible to Bendiocarb and Alphacympermethrin with mortality rates of 100% and 98% respectively. There was complete resistance to Deltamethrin, Lambdacyhalothrin, Permethrin, Propoxur, DDT and Premiphos-Methyl with mortality ranges of 25%-65%. Conclusion: The present study shows the effectiveness of Bendiocarb and Alphacympermethrin in malaria control with indoor residual spraying. It also provides baseline information for monitoring the status of insecticide resistance in Rivers State.

15.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 28(1): 15-24, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013972

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar la resistencia de una cepa de Aedes. aegypti de Orotina a insecticidas organofosforados (temefós y malatión), y a piretroides (deltametrina, lambda cialotrina y cipermetrina). Métodos: La evaluación de la resistencia se efectuó mediante bioensayos larvarios. A partir de cada uno de los insecticidas se calculó la concentración letal 50% (CL50). También se calculó el factor de resistencia 50% (FR50) con respecto a la cepa Rockefeller, que sirvió como control susceptible. En casos de resistencia, la evaluación se repitió exponiendo previamente las larvas a butóxido de piperonilo (BP), S, S, S tributilfosforotritionato (DEF) y ácido etacrínico (AE) para establecer los mecanismos de detoxificación asociados con la resistencia. En cada caso se calculó un factor de sinergismo 50% (FS50). Resultados: La cepa Orotina mostró susceptibilidad a temefós, malatión, deltametrina y lambda cialotrina, pero mostró resistencia incipiente a cipermetrina (CL50= 0,01103 mg/L, FR50 = 5,32). Sólo el BP revertió la resistencia a este insecticida (FS50 =10,92), lo que representa un mecanismo de detoxificación asociado con el sistema citrocromo P450 monooxigenasa. Discusión: Aunque la cepa de Ae. aegyptide Orotina mostró resistencia a cipermetrina, existen otros insecticidas para los cuales fue susceptible, que brindan opciones a las autoridades de salud para su implementación en el control químico del vector. Conclusiones: El monitoreo de la resistencia es requerido para asegurar la efectividad de los insecticidas que se utilizan en el control químico.


Abstract Objectives: To determine the resistance to organophosphate (temephos and malathion) and pyrethroid (deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin) insecticides in a strain of Aedes aegypti from Orotina. Methods: The evaluation of the resistance was carried out by larval bioassays. Lethal concentration 50% (LC50) was calculated for each insecticide. A factor of resistance 50% (FR50) was also calculated with respect to the Rockefeller strain, which served as susceptible control. In cases of resistance, the evaluation was replicated by exposing the larvae to piperonyl butoxide (PB), S, S, S tributylphosphorotritionate (DEF), and ethacrynic acid (AE), in order to establish the detoxification mechanisms associated with the resistance. In these cases, a factor of synergism 50% (FS50) was also calculated. Results: The Orotina strain of Ae. aegyptiwas susceptible to temephos, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin, but showed incipient resistance to cypermethrin (LC50 = 0.01103 mg/L, FR50 = 5.32). Only PB reversed the state of resistance (FS50 = 10.92), which suggests a detoxification mechanism associated with the citochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Discussion: Although the Ae. aegyptistrain from Orotina showed resistance to cypermethrin, it was susceptible to other insecticides, which can be used as alternative options for chemical control of the vector. Conclusions: Monitoring of resistance is required to ensure the effectiveness of insecticides used in chemical control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/immunology , Chikungunya virus , Public Health , Costa Rica , Dengue , Zika Virus
16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210102

ABSTRACT

Development of resistance by different malaria vector populations to insecticides has become a big threat to malaria vector elimination. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Anophelesmosquito populations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria to permethrin(0.75%), deltamethrin(0.5%), lambdacyhalothrin(0.5%), alphacypermethrin (0.75%), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloethane (DDT), propoxur, bendiocarb and pirimiphosmethylin in World Health Organization(WHO) test tubes following standard protocols. The mosquitoes were obtained as aquatic forms and reared under laboratory conditions to adults. The adults were subjected to WHO susceptibility bioassays following standard procedures. Malaria vectors across the studysites were resistant to permethrin, Original ResearchArticle deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and alphacypermethrin insecticides. Full susceptibility to propoxur and bendiocarb was recorded across the sites. Full susceptibility to pirimiphosmethyl was recorded in populations from three sites. Nevertheless, population of the malaria vectors collected from Oron was resistant to pirimiphosmethyl. KDT50and KDT95estimated for each insecticide using a log-time probit model revealed that knockdown was more rapid for deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, alphacypermethrin, propoxur, bendiocarb and pirimiphosmethyl than for DDT and permethrin across the study sites. Morphological identification of all the mosquito samples used revealed that they were female Anopheles gambiae s.l. Sustained susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethriod is necessary for successful malaria control with insecticide treated nets and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). Emergence of focal points with insecticide resistance gives serious concern especially with the scale-up in distribution of pyrethriod treated nets to these areas. This may increase selection pressures due to overexposure. Further study to identify the exact resistance mechanism(s) of malaria vectors from these sites is recommended

17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0492017, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1024585

ABSTRACT

The present study had the objective of evaluating the longevity of A. mellifera workers fed on a diet incorporating commercial entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana, and Bacillus thuringiensis. It also aimed at verifying possible morphological alterations in the midgut. To this purpose, the entomopathogens used were B. bassiana (Product A) (5.0 × 1011 viable conidia.kg-1), B. thuringiensis (Product B) (2.5 × 109 viable spores.g-1), and B. thuringiensis (Product C) (1.0 × 109 viable spores.g-1); and two controls: T1: sterilized distilled water, and T2: sterilized distilled water + Tween 80® (0.01%). For the bioassays, 2 mL of each treatment were incorporated into Candy paste. For each treatment, 80 bees were individually in flat bottom glass tubes (2.5 cm Ø) covered with voile, containing a piece of cotton soaked in water and Candy paste. These tubes were stored in a B.O.D (30 ± 2°C, R.H 70% ± 10%, 12 h), and mortality was evaluated every six hours, for 10 days. Soon after verifying mortality, two bees per treatment were selected for the removal of their midgut. Midgut samples were processed using standard methodology for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was verified that products A, B, and C reduced the longevity of bees when compared to T1 and T2 controls. In the qualitative analyses carried out using SEM, it was not possible to observe external or internal morphological alterations to midgut tissues. Although products A, B, and C cause a reduction in longevity, their presence was not verified when tissues were analyzed using SEM.(AU)


No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a longevidade de operárias de A. mellifera alimentadas com dieta incorporada com os entomopatógenos comerciais Beauveria bassiana e Bacillus thuringiensis, e verificar possíveis alterações morfológicas em seu mesêntero. Para isso, os entomopatógenos utilizados foram B. bassiana (Produto A) (5,0 × 1011 conídios viáveis.kg-1), B. thuringiensis (Produto B) (2,5 × 109 esporos viáveis.g-1), B. thuringiensis (Produto C) (1,0 × 109 esporos viáveis.g-1); e dois controles: T1: água destilada esterilizada e T2: água destilada esterilizada + Tween 80® (0,01%). Para os bioensaios, 2 mL de cada tratamento foram incorporados à pasta Cândi. Para cada tratamento, 80 abelhas foram acondicionadas, individualmente, em tubos de vidro de fundo chato (2,5 cm Ø), cobertos com voile, contendo um pedaço de algodão embebido em água e pasta Cândi. Os tubos contendo as abelhas foram acondicionados em B.O.D (30 ± 2°C, U.R. 70% ± 10%, 12 h), e a mortalidade foi avaliada a cada seis horas, durante 10 dias. Logo após a verificação da mortalidade, foram separadas duas abelhas por tratamento para a retirada do mesêntero. Essas amostras foram processadas em metodologia padrão para Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). Verificou-se que os produtos A, B e C reduziram a longevidade das abelhas quando comparados aos controles T1 e T2. Nas análises qualitativas realizadas com MEV, não foi possível observar alterações morfológicas externas ou internas nos tecidos do mesêntero. Apesar dos produtos A, B e C causarem redução na longevidade, sua presença não foi verificada quando os tecidos foram analisados por MEV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Bees , Longevity , Bacillus thuringiensis , Beauveria
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Low-dose exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides during pregnancy may adversely affect neurodevelopment in children. To evaluate the OP exposure levels, single urine sampling is commonly adopted to measure the levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs), common OP metabolites. However, the inter-day variations of urinary DAP concentrations within subjects are supposed to be large due to the short biological half-lives of the metabolites, and it is thus considered difficult to accurately assess OP exposure during pregnancy with single sampling. This study aimed to assess intra-individual variations of DAP concentrations and the reproducibility of the exposure dose categorization of OPs according to DAP concentration ranges in pregnant women in Japan.@*METHODS@#Urine samples were collected from 62 non-smoking pregnant women (12-22 weeks of gestation) living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. First morning void (FMV) and spot urine samples taken between lunch and dinner on the same day were collected on five different days during 2 weeks. The concentrations of DAP and creatinine in urine samples were measured using an ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted concentrations were used for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculations and surrogate category analyses.@*RESULTS@#For all DAP metabolites, the creatinine-adjusted single ICCs exceeded 0.4, indicating moderate reliability. Overall, ICCs of spot urine samples taken in the afternoon were better than those taken as FMV. Surrogate category analyses showed that participants were categorized accurately into four exposure dose groups according to the quartile points.@*CONCLUSION@#This study indicated that a single urine sample taken in the afternoon may be useful in assessing OP exposure as long as the exposure is categorized into quartiles when conducting epidemiological studies in early to mid-pregnant women in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Chromatography, Liquid , Creatinine , Urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Methods , Environmental Pollutants , Urine , Female , Humans , Japan , Mass Spectrometry , Organophosphates , Urine , Pesticides , Urine , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Young Adult
19.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 23(3): 263-272, 2019. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045964

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Foi realizado estudo transversal com objetivo de descrever as práticas de uso de inseticidas utilizados no controle dos vetores no ambiente doméstico. Material e Métodos: Foram aplicados questionários em 122 residências no município de Niterói, na Região Oceânica em 2010. Destes, 61 foram realizados em condomínio de classe média alta e 61 em Comunidade de baixa renda. Resultados: Os resultados demonstraram que 92% do grupo Condomínio e 77,7% do grupo Colônia de Pescadores usam inseticidas. Em relação aos cuidados com manuseio de inseticidas, 62,2% dos entrevistados do Grupo Condomínio e 35,6% dos entrevistados do Grupo Colônia de Pescadores, disseram que não tomavam nenhum cuidado ao usar estes produtos. Os dados sugerem que pessoas com menor escolaridade têm mais chances de não usar adequadamente os inseticidas que são produtos potencialmente tóxicos. Conclusão: Conclui-se que aspectos relacionados ao nível educacional e local de moradia estão relacionados ao uso mais adequado de inseticidas domésticos. (AU)


Objetive: Cross-sectional study was performed in order to describe practices with insecticides used in the control of insect vectors in the household. Methods: Questionnaires were applied in 154 households in Niterói City, in the Oceanic Region of Rio de Janeiro ́s State, in 2010. Of these, 77 were performed in upper middle class Apartament Complexes and 61 in the low-income community both in the Oceanic Region of Niterói. Results:The results showed that 92% of Apartment Complexes and 77.7% of Fishermen Colony use insecticides. Regarding care handling insecticides, 62.2% of the respondents of the Apartment Complex Group and 35.6% of the respondents from the Fishermen Colony Group said they were not taking any care when using these products. Data suggests that people with low education are more likely to not properly use potentially toxic pesticides. Conclusion: We conclude that aspects related to educational level and residential location are associated to more appropriate use of household insecticides. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pest Control , Poisons , Environmental Health
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