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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 820-826, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387161


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide, involves in insulin resistance and inflammatory processes. Dermcidin suppresses the secretion of insulin production from the liver/pancreas and also increases insulin resistance. We aimed to discover whether dermcidin levels were altered in polycystic ovary syndrome women compared to controls and determine the link of dermcidin with hormonal-metabolic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome women. METHODS: The current research was designed as a case-control study and Rotterdam 2003 criteria were used for diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of 75 subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome and 75 age- and body mass index-matched subjects as controls were enrolled in the study. The insulin resistance state was determined using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were assessed to define inflammation. RESULTS: Circulating dermcidin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dermcidin levels were significantly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome subjects compared to controls (172.53±42.41 ng/mL vs. 108.44±31.69 ng/mL, p<0.001). Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were markedly increased, whereas quantitative insulin sensitivity check index levels were notably decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to controls. Linear regression analysis revealed that dermcidin exhibited an independent link with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, whereas dermcidin displayed an inversely independent link with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. CONCLUSION: Increased dermcidin levels were associated with insulin resistance and inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome women, suggesting that dermcidin may play a role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(2): 182-190, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374268


ABSTRACT Objective: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common metabolic complication after liver transplant that negatively affects a recipient's survival and graft function. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with diabetes after liver transplant. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from September to November 2019. Data collection was performed by chart review, and patients were divided into 3 groups: patients without diabetes mellitus (DM), patients with pre-transplant diabetes mellitus, and patients with PTDM. Results: Two hundred and forty-seven patients' medical charts were screened, and 207 patients were included: 107 without DM, 42 with pre-transplant DM, and 58 with PTDM. The leading cause for liver transplant was hepatitis C, followed by hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to alcohol. There was a higher exposure to tacrolimus in patients without DM ( P = 0.02) and to ciclosporin in patients with pre-transplant DM, compared to others ( P = 0.005). Microscopic interface inflammatory activity was more severe in patients without DM as well as those with PTDM ( P = 0.032). There was a higher prevalence of steatosis in recipients with pre-transplant DM than there was in others ( P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression identified the following independent risk factors for DM: cirrhosis due to alcohol, hepatitis C, and triglycerides. For PTDM, these independent risk factors were cirrhosis due to alcohol, hepatitis C, and prednisone exposure. Conclusion: Alcoholic cirrhosis is a risk factor for PTDM in liver recipients. Liver transplant recipients with a pre-transplant history of cirrhosis due to alcohol, hepatitis C, and prednisone exposure deserve more caution during PTDM screening.

Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(2): 86-92, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375533


Resumen Introducción: El índice triglicéridos-glucemia (ITG/G) es considerado un nuevo marcador de resistencia a la insulina y está relacionado con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad del ITG/G para predecir mortalidad intrahospitalaria en los pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico de cohorte que incluyó a 1123 pacientes del Registro Cubano de Infarto del Miocardio Agudo entre enero de 2018 y junio de 2021. Resultados: El punto de corte óptimo del ITG/G para predecir mortalidad fue 8.96 (sensibilidad de 65.2 %, especificidad de 62.0 % y área bajo la curva de 0.636; p < 0.001). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria se incrementó significativamente en el grupo con ITG/G ≥ 8.96. El análisis de regresión logística reveló que el ITG/G fue un marcador predictor independiente de mortalidad (RM = 2.959, IC 95 % = 1.457-6.010, p = 0.003). El modelo multivariado que incluyó el ITG/G elevó su capacidad predictiva (área bajo la curva de 0.917, p < 0.001). Las curvas de Kaplan-Meier mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de pacientes (p < 0.001). Conclusiones: El ITG/G constituye un factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad intrahospitalaria por infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST.

Abstract Introduction: The triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index is considered a new marker of insulin resistance, and is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the capability of TyG index to predict in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: Multicenter cohort study that enrolled 1123 patients included in the Cuban Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction between January 2018 and June 2021. Results: TyG index optimal cutoff point to predict mortality was 8.96 (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 62.0%; area under the curve; 0.636; p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the group with TyG index ≥ 8.96. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the TyG index was an independent mortality predictor (OR = 2.959; 95% CI = 1.457-6.010; p = 0.003). When the TyG index was included in the multivariate model, it increased its predictive capacity (area under the curve, 0.917, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences between patient groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The TyG index constitutes an independent risk factor of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 3-11, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364308


ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze levels of proinflammatory biomarker interleukin-18 (IL-18) in healthy controls and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) focusing on its association with obesity, clinical, hormonal, and metabolic characteristics. Subjects and methods: Fifty-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled in the study fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria and were matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity with 30 healthy controls. Detailed anthropometric measurements, clinical investigations, hormonal and biochemical tests were obtained between the 3rd and 5th day of a menstrual cycle. A subanalysis of the PCOS group was performed separating patients into several groups according to a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), insulin resistance (IR), and free androgen index (FAI). Serum IL-18 levels were measured using the ELISA method. Results: Levels of IL-18 were similar between PCOS patients and controls. IL-18 was higher in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women when analyzing all participants together and separately PCOS or controls group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.01, respectively). Additionally, IL-18 levels were higher in high-WHtR and IR subgroups compared to low-WHtR (p < 0.001) and non-IR PCOS women (p < 0.001). PCOS women with high FAI had greater serum IL-18 levels than normal-FAI patients (p = 0.002). Levels of IL-18 correlated positively with most of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. In multiple linear regression, age, waist circumference, and fasting insulin were independently related factors with IL-18. Conclusion: Elevated levels of IL-18 were related to several indices of general and visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in PCOS.

Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-18 , Body Mass Index , Adiposity , Waist Circumference , Insulin
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 33-40, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360114


Resumo Fundamento A ação do peptídeo natriurético atrial (ANP) na natriurese, diurese e vasodilatação, resistência à insulina, fígado, rim e tecido adiposo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento metabólico e cardiovascular saudável. Embora o nível circulante de ANP seja reduzido em pacientes com obesidade, sua resposta à perda de peso ainda é pouco explorada em populações pediátricas. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos das variações do ANP em resposta à intervenção interdisciplinar para perda de peso na Síndrome Metabólica (SMet) e nos riscos cardiometabólicos em adolescentes com obesidade. Métodos 73 adolescentes com obesidade participaram de uma terapia interdisciplinar para perda de peso de 20 semanas, incluindo uma abordagem clínica, nutricional, psicológica e de exercícios físicos. A composição corporal, análises bioquímicas e pressão sanguínea foram avaliadas. A SMet foi classificada de acordo com a Federação Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) (2007). Após o tratamento, os voluntários foram divididos de acordo com os níveis de plasma do ANP aumento (n=31) ou ANP redução (n=19). Resultados Ambos os grupos apresentaram redução significativa de peso corporal, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferências de cintura, pescoço e quadril (CC, CP e CQ, respectivamente), e aumento da massa livre de gordura (MLG). É interessante observar que houve uma redução significativa na gordura corporal, na razão de TG/HDL-c e na prevalência de SMet (de 23% para 6%) somente no grupo com ANP aumento. Conclusão Este estudo sugere que o aumento nos níveis séricos de ANP após a terapia para perda de peso pode estar associado a melhorias nos riscos cardiometabólicos e na prevalência reduzida de SMet em adolescentes com obesidade.

Abstract Background The action of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on natriuresis, diuresis and vasodilatation, insulin resistance, liver, kidney, and adipose tissue may contribute to the healthy metabolic and cardiovascular development. Even though the circulating level of ANP is reduced in patients with obesity, its response to weight loss remains poorly explored in pediatric populations. Objective To evaluate the effects of ANP variations in response to interdisciplinary weight loss intervention on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risks in adolescents with obesity. Methods 73 adolescents with obesity attended a 20-week clinical interdisciplinary weight loss therapy including clinical, nutritional, psychological and exercise training approach. Body composition, biochemical analyses and blood pressure were evaluated. MetS was classified according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2007). After the treatment, volunteers were divided according to Increasing (n=31) or Decreasing (n=19) ANP plasma levels. Results Both groups present significant reduction of body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist, neck and hip circumferences (WC, NC and HC, respectively) and increasing fat-free mass (FFM). Interestingly, a significant reduction in body fat, TG/HDL-c ratio and MetS prevalence (from 23% to 6%) was observed in the Increased ANP group only. Conclusion This study suggests that an increase in ANP serum levels after weight loss therapy could be associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risks and the reduced prevalence of MetS in adolescents with obesity.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Body Composition , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Mass Index , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368554


ABSTRACT: Objective: to assess the relationship between anthropometric indicators and laboratorial markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children and adolescents, in order to verify whether any anthropometric indicator has a better potential for use in screening cardiovascular risk in the population. Method: retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling 237 individuals aged 7 to 18 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist circumference/height index (WC/H), glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL, triglycerides and TC/HDL and LDL/HDL indexes were obtained. Associations between anthropometric and laboratory markers were tested in contingency tables using the chi-square test. Correlations were tested by Spearman's correlation. Results: higher WC (Freedman cutoffs) was associated with lower levels of HDL and higher score in the TC/HDL and LDL/HDL indexes, but, using +2 z-scores as the cutoff, there were associations with low HDL and higher HOMA-IR. WC/H indicator (0.5 cutoff) was not associated with any of the outcomes, but, using +2 z-scores, an association was found with HOMA-IR. Z-scores of WC, WC/H and BMI showed positive correlation with HOMA-IR, TC/HDL and HOMA-IR, respectively. Negative correlations were found between WC and WC/H z-scores with HDL. WC and WC/H z-score were related to changes in HDL and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: there seems to be an advantage in using WC alone as a possible predictor of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. It is not possible to state that WC, WC/H or BMI measurements differ in their abilities to identify Brazilian children and adolescents with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. (AU)

RESUMO:Objetivo: avaliar a relação entre indicadores antropométricos e marcadores laboratoriais de risco cardiovascular em crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso / obesidade, a fim de verificar se algum indicador antropométrico tem melhor potencial para uso no rastreamento de risco cardiovascular na população. Método: estudo transversal retrospectivo com 237 indivíduos com idades entre 7 e 18 anos. Índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência da cintura (CC), índice de circunferência da cintura / altura (CC / H), glicose, HOMA-IR, colesterol total (CT), LDL, HDL, triglicerídeos e índices CT/HDL e LDL/HDL foram obtidos. As associações entre marcadores antropométricos e laboratoriais foram testadas em tabelas de contingência por meio do teste do qui-quadrado. As correlações foram testadas pela correlação de Spearman. Resultados: CC mais elevado (pontos de corte de Freedman) foi associado a níveis mais baixos de HDL e maior pontuação nos índices TC/HDL e LDL/HDL, mas, usando +2 escores z como ponto de corte, houve associações com HDL baixo e HOMA-IR mais alto. O indicador CC/H (0,5 ponto de corte) não foi associado a nenhum dos desfechos, mas, usando +2 escores z, foi encontrada associação com o HOMA-IR. Os escores Z de CC, CC/E e IMC mostraram correlação positiva com HOMA-IR, TC/HDL e HOMA-IR, respectivamente. Correlações negativas foram encontradas entre CC e escores z de CC/H com HDL. CC e escore z de CC/H foram relacionados a mudanças em HDL e HOMA-IR. Conclusões: parece haver vantagem em usar a CC isoladamente como possível preditor de dislipidemia e resistência à insulina em crianças e adolescentes. Não é possível afirmar que as medidas de CC, CC/E ou IMC diferem na capacidade de identificar crianças e adolescentes brasileiros com fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Weights and Measures , Insulin Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference , Obesity, Abdominal , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2129-2149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929399


Cardiometabolic disease (CMD), characterized with metabolic disorder triggered cardiovascular events, is a leading cause of death and disability. Metabolic disorders trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, and actually, a new concept of metaflammation has been proposed to define the state of metabolism connected with immunological adaptations. Amongst the continuously increased list of systemic metabolites in regulation of immune system, bile acids (BAs) represent a distinct class of metabolites implicated in the whole process of CMD development because of its multifaceted roles in shaping systemic immunometabolism. BAs can directly modulate the immune system by either boosting or inhibiting inflammatory responses via diverse mechanisms. Moreover, BAs are key determinants in maintaining the dynamic communication between the host and microbiota. Importantly, BAs via targeting Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and diverse other nuclear receptors play key roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and amino acids. Moreover, BAs axis per se is susceptible to inflammatory and metabolic intervention, and thereby BAs axis may constitute a reciprocal regulatory loop in metaflammation. We thus propose that BAs axis represents a core coordinator in integrating systemic immunometabolism implicated in the process of CMD. We provide an updated summary and an intensive discussion about how BAs shape both the innate and adaptive immune system, and how BAs axis function as a core coordinator in integrating metabolic disorder to chronic inflammation in conditions of CMD.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929248


Simiao Wan (SMW) is a traditional Chinese formula, including Atractylodis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and Coicis Semen at the ratio of 1:1:2:2. It can be used to the treatment of diabetes. However, its bioactive compounds and underlying mechanism are unclear. This study aimed to screen the antilipolytic fraction from SMW and investigate its therapeutic mechanisms on hepatic insulin resistance. Different fractions of SMW were prepared by membrane separation combined with macroporous resin and their antilipolytic activities were screened in fasted mice. The effects of 60% ethanol elution (ESMW) on lipolysis were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated by palmitic acid (PA) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. In our study, ESMW is the bioactive fraction responsible for the antilipolytic activity of SMW and 13 compounds were characterized from ESMW by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. ESMW suppressed protein kinase A (PKA)-hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) related lipolysis and increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in PA challenged 3T3-L1 adipocytes. AMPKα knockdown abolished the inhibitory effects of ESMW on IL-6 and HSL pSer-660, revealing that the antilipolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of ESMW are AMPK dependent. Furthermore, ESMW ameliorated insulin resistance and suppressed lipolysis in HFD-fed mice. It inhibited diacylglycerol accumulation in the liver and inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis. Conditional medium collected from ESMW-treated 3T3-L1 cells ameliorated insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis in liver cells, demonstrating the antilipolytic activity contributed to ESMW beneficial effects on hepatic glucose production. In conclusion, ESMW, as the antilipolytic fraction of SMW, inhibited PKA-HSL related lipolysis by activating AMPK, thus inhibiting diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation in the liver and thereby improving insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Insulin/metabolism , Lipolysis/physiology , Liver/metabolism , Mice , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928094


This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of 6-gingerol on adipose tissue insulin resistance in naturally aging rats with glycolipid metabolism disorders. Twenty-seven aging male SD rats were randomly divided into a model group(aged, n=9) and two groups treated with 6-gingerol at 0.05 mg·kg~(-1)(G-L, n=9) and 0.2 mg·kg~(-1)(G-H, n=9). Six young rats were randomly assigned to a normal control group(NC). Rats were treated for seven weeks by gavage. Non-esterified fatty acid(NEFA) and insulin content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and adipose tissue insulin resistance index(Adipo-IR) was calculated. HE staining was used to observe the size of adipocytes in epididymal white adipose tissue(eWAT). The gene and protein expression levels of adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1), AMP-activated protein kinase α(AMPKα), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPKα~(Thr172)), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α(PGC-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3 K), protein kinase B(Akt), phosphorylated Akt(p-Akt~(Ser473)), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2(JNK1/2), phosphorylated JNK1/2(p-JNK~(Thr183/Tyr185)), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) in adiponectin(APN), insulin, and inflammatory factor signaling pathways were detected by Western blot and real-time RCR, respectively. The results showed that 6-gingerol at a high dose could significantly decrease the fasting plasma content of NEFA and insulin and reduce Adipo-IR. Additionally, 6-gingerol at a high dose significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of APN, AdipoR1, PGC-1α, and PI3 K in eWAT, elevated the relative expression of p-AMPK~(Thr172) and p-Akt~(Ser 473), reduced the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in eWAT, and decreased the relative expression of p-JNK1 and p-JNK2. This study reveals that 6-gingerol can improve insulin sensitivity of adipose tissues in aging rats with glycolipid metabolism disorders, and this effect is presumedly achieved by enhancing the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation, increasing APN synthesis, enhancing AdipoR1 expression, and activating its downstream AMPK/PGC-1α signaling pathway.

Adipose Tissue , Aging , Animals , Catechols , Fatty Alcohols , Insulin Resistance , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927348


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic effect and safety of acupoint thread embedding therapy in treatment of simple obesity of stomach heat and damp obstruction.@*METHODS@#A total of 144 patients with simple obesity of stomach heat and damp obstruction were randomized into an acupoint thread embedding group (72 cases, 3 cases dropped off and 1 case removed) and a sham-embedding group (72 cases, 6 cases dropped off and 3 cases removed). On the base of the lifestyle adjustment, the acupoint thread embedding therapy with PGLA thread was applied to Tianshu (ST 25), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Shuidao (ST 28), etc. in the acupoint thread embedding group, while in the sham-embedding group, the acupoint selection and operation were all same as the acupoint thread embedding group, but without PGLA thread embedded. In either group, the treatment was given once every 2 weeks, consecutively for 12 weeks and the follow-up was conducted for 3 months after treatment. Separately, before and after treatment as well as in follow-up, the obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] and fat percentage [F%]) were observed in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the indices of blood glucose and insulin (fasting blood glucose [FBG], fasting insulin [FINS] and insulin resistance index [HOMA-IR]), adipocyte factor indices (adiponectin, leptin [LP] and serine protease inhibitor [Vaspin]) and inflammatory factor indices (tumor nercosis factor [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were observed separately in the two groups. The therapeutic effect and safety were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and in follow-up, except WC and WHR in the sham-embedding group, BMI, WC, WHR and F% were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the values in the acupoint thread embedding group were lower than the sham-embedding group (P<0.01). After treatment, except FBG, LP and Vaspin in the sham-embedding group, FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, LP and Vaspin were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.01, P<0.05), and adiponectin was increased as compared with that before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05); the improvements in the acupoint thread embedding group were more significant than the sham-embedding group (P<0.01). After treatment, the levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the acupoint thread embedding group were reduced as compared with the values before treatment and those in the sham-embedding group separately (P<0.01). The total effective rate was 89.7% (61/68) in the acupoint thread embedding group, higher than 19.0% (12/63) in the sham-embedding group (P<0.01). There was no severe adverse reaction reported in the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint thread embedding therapy with PGLA thread can alleviate obesity, regulate glucose metabolism and adipocyte factors activity, improve insulin resistance and inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the patients with simple obesity with stomach heat and damp obstruction, and this therapy presents a satisfactory safety in treatment.

Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Body Mass Index , Hot Temperature , Humans , Obesity/therapy , Stomach
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11795, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374703


There is a high incidence of non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-obese-T2DM) cases, particularly in Asian countries, for which the pathogenesis remains mainly unclear. Interestingly, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats spontaneously develop insulin resistance (IR) and non-obese-T2DM, making them a lean diabetes model. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological therapeutic approach to reduce adipose tissue mass, improving peripheral IR, glycemic control, and quality of life in obese animals or humans with T2DM. In this narrative review, we selected and analyzed the published literature on the effects of physical exercise on the metabolic features associated with non-obese-T2DM. Only randomized controlled trials with regular physical exercise training, freely executed physical activity, or skeletal muscle stimulation protocols in GK rats published after 2008 were included. The results indicated that exercise reduces plasma insulin levels, increases skeletal muscle glycogen content, improves exercise tolerance, protects renal and myocardial function, and enhances blood oxygen flow in GK rats.

Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 8-19, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377868


Skeletal muscle appears to play a central role in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and consequently the metabolic syndrome due to high-fat diets, obesity, and aging. Recent evidence suggests that some bioactive compounds present in natural products can affect blood glucose, possibly due to interactions between the compounds and glucose transporters. As an objective, to evaluate the effect of the extract of the green bean (PV, Phaseolus vulgaris) and apple of small fruit of thinning (Malus domestica, MAF and MIT extracts) on the incorporation of glucose in C2C12 muscle cells. For this, the cytotoxic effect of the extracts on the cells was determined by detecting formazan. Subsequently, glucose incorporation was determined using a fluorescent glucose analog in cells treated with the extracts. Finally, the effect of the extracts on IL-6 and TNFα production was evaluated by ELISA. Results: PV and MAF decreased 50% of viability at 1000µg / mL while MIT only decreased 10% at that concentration. PV had no significant effect on glucose incorporation and the MAF and MIT extract extracts significantly increased glucose incorporation at 100 µg / mL (13500 and 18000 URF respectively). PV increases the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, MAF and MIT only increase the expression of IL-6. Conclusion: These results make it possible to establish natural extracts derived from thinning small fruit apple can be used as a possible treatment for pathologies with high blood glucose levels.

Humans , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Phaseolus , Malus , Glucose
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 14(Supl. 1): e9602, Dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359274


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os indicadores de obesidade associados à resistência à insulina, através de uma revisão sistemática. Dois revisores independentes realizaram uma busca nas bases de dados Medline, Pubmed, LILACS, IBECS-ES e MedCarib até abril de 2019, incluindo estudos caso-controle, coorte ou delineamento transversal, em adultos. A qualidade dos artigos foi avaliada por meio do Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Foram adotadas as normas do PRISMA para a condução da revisão, com protocolo registrado no PROSPERO. Foram incluídos na revisão 12 artigos. Associação positiva entre indicador de obesidade e HOMA-IR foi observada em todos os estudos. O indicador de obesidade que mais esteve positivamente associado ao HOMA-IR foi o IMC, seguido da circunferência da cintura. Os indicadores de obesidade estão associados ao HOMA-IR podendo ser uma ferramenta útil no rastreio da resistência à insulina.

The aim of this study was to verify the obesity indicators associated with insulin resistance by a systematic review. Two independent reviewers performed a search on Medline, Pubmed, LILACS, IBECS-ES and MedCarib databases up to April 2019, which included case-control, cohort or cross-sectional studies in adults. Articles' quality was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. PRISMA guideline for conducting the review were adopted, with protocol registered at PROSPERO. Twelve articles were included in the review. All studies reported a positive association between obesity indicators and HOMA-IR. Obesity indicator most positively associated with HOMA-IR was BMI, followed by waist circumference. Obesity indicators are associated with HOMA-IR and may be a useful tool for screening insulin resistance.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 261-269, dic. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355151


Insulin resistance is a pathological entity that can lead to alterations in lipid metabolism and can increase cardiovascular risk. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different sociodemographic variables such as age, sex and social class and healthy habits such as smoking, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet on the cardiometabolic profile of Spanish workers. Material and methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 1457 Spanish workers in an attempt to evaluate the effect of healthy habits (physical exercise determined with the IPAQ questionnaire, Mediterranean diet and tobacco consumption) and sociodemographic variables (age, sex and social class) on the values of different insulin resistance scales. Results. The progressive increase in the level of physical activity and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet achieved an improvement in the mean values and in the prevalence of elevated values in all the insulin resistance scales analyzed in this study. Age over 50 years and belonging to the least favored social classes (social classes II-III) were the variables that increased the risk of presenting insulin resistance. Male sex also increased the risk of presenting insulin resistance. Conclusions. The different healthy habits such as vigorous physical exercise and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet improve the values of the different scales that assess insulin resistance(AU)

La resistencia a la insulina es una entidad patológica que puede provocar alteraciones en el metabolismo de los lípidos y puede aumentar el riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo. En este trabajo se pretende valorar la influencia de diferentes variables sociodemográficas como la edad, el sexo y la clase social y hábitos saludables como el consumo de tabaco, la actividad física y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en el perfil cardiometabólico de trabajadores españoles. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 1457 trabajadores españoles intentando evaluar el efecto de los hábitos saludables (ejercicio físico determinado con el cuestionario IPAQ, dieta mediterránea y consumo de tabaco) y las variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo y clase social) sobre los valores de diferentes escalas de resistencia a la insulina. Resultados. El aumento progresivo del nivel de actividad física y la alta adherencia a la dieta mediterránea consiguieron una mejoría en los valores medios y en la prevalencia de los valores elevados en todas las escalas de resistencia a la insulina analizadas en este estudio. La edad por encima de los 50 años y la pertenencia a las clases sociales menos favorecidas (clases sociales II-III) fueron las variables que aumentaron el riesgo de presentar resistencia a la insulina. El sexo masculino también incrementó el riesgo de presentar resistencia a la insulina. Conclusiones. Los diferentes hábitos saludables como el ejercicio físico vigoroso y la alta adherencia a la dieta mediterránea mejoran los valores de las diferentes escalas que valoran resistencia a la insulina(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Diet, Mediterranean , Lipid Metabolism , Healthy Lifestyle , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Social Class , Weights and Measures , Exercise , Nutrition Assessment , Abdominal Circumference , Feeding Behavior
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e21009, dic. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356814


Abstract Background: Elevated serum-free fatty acid (FFA) levels induce insulin resistance (IR) or a protective mechanism to IR development in humans; it depends on FFA type. Objetive: This study explores the effects of oleic (OLA - unsatured) and palmitic (PAM - saturated) fatty acids on insulin action in mature adipocytes effect. Methods: Cells were incubated 18 h with or without OLA and PAM at 250 μM, and 500 μM. After the culture period, were measured: adipocyte viability, size, fatty acids mobilisation, insulin signalling proteins, and glucose uptake. Results: Adipocytes exhibited optimal viability tolerances regardless of the kinds of fatty acids used for treatment. However, adipocytes were hypertrophic after OLA and PAM stimuli. Additionally, lipogenesis (lipid synthesis), and lipolysis (lipid breakdown) were significantly increased by treatment with OLA, or PAM (500 μM) compared to control. Moreover, OLA results showed that there was no significant reduction in signalling cascades, except for a downstream proinflammatory response. Instead, PAM hypertrophic adipocytes were insulin resistant with alteration of proinflammatory and stress markers. Conclusions: Current findings suggest that PAM induces insulin resistance, mitochondrial and reticulum stress on fat cells compared to those treated with OLA that, protects adipocytes to all those alterations.

Resumen Introducción: Los niveles elevados de ácidos grasos libres (AGL) en suero inducen resistencia a insulina (RI) o un mecanismo de protección del desarrollo de RI en humanos, esto depende del tipo de AGL. Objetivo: Este estudio explora los efectos de los ácidos grasos oleico (insaturados - OLA) y palmítico (saturados - PAM) sobre la insulina en adipocitos maduros. Métodos: Las células se incubaron 18 h con o sin OLA y PAM a 250 μM y 500 μM. Después del período de cultivo, se evaluó en adipocitos: viabilidad, tamaño, movilización de ácidos grasos, proteínas de señalización de insulina y absorción de glucosa. Resultados: Los adipocitos mostraron viabilidad óptima independientemente de los tipos de ácidos grasos utilizados en el tratamiento. Los adipocitos eran hipertróficos tras estimulo con OLA y PAM. La lipogénesis (síntesis de lípidos) y la lipólisis (degradación de lípidos) aumentaron significativamente con el tratamiento con OLA o PAM (500 μM) en comparación con el control. En los resultados de OLA no se evidenció una reducción significativa en las cascadas de señalización de insulina, a excepción de una respuesta proinflamatoria posterior. En cambio, los adipocitos hipertróficos tratados con PAM presentaron resistencia a la insulina y alteración de los marcadores proinflamatorios y de estrés. Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que PAM induce resistencia a la insulina, estrés mitocondrial y del retículo en las células grasas en comparación con aquellos tratados con OLA, AGL que, en cambio, protegen a los adipocitos de todas esas alteraciones.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 704-712, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349990


ABSTRACT Objective: Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the cutoff point of the TyG index for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR), according to two different diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in a rural Brazilian population. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 790 family farmers from 18 to 59 years old. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) was calculated, and the Metabolic Syndrome was defined using the NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the association of quantitative and qualitative variables. When the qualitative variable had three or more categories, the comparison between the means was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (using the Mann-Whitney U Test two by two to identify the differences). For correlations, Spearman's correlation test was used. The cutoff values of TyG index for MetS were obtained using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with the area under the curve (AUC) and the Youden Index. Results: The median TyG values increased according to the aggregation of the components of MetS. The AUCs and Youden's cutoff point for TyG index according to the NCEP and IDF diagnostic criteria were 0.873, Ln 4.52 (sensitivity: 84.30%; specificity: 75.75%), and 0.867, Ln 4.55 (sensitivity: 80.0%; specificity: 79.82%), respectively. Conclusion: A cutoff point of Ln 4.52 was defined, and it can be used both in clinical practice and epidemiological studies. It represents an important tool for promotion, protection and recovery health of rural populations.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Triglycerides , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucose , Middle Aged
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6)dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385530


SUMMARY: Marein is the main active substance of Coreopsis tinctoria nutt. It not only has anti-oxidation and anti-tumor effects, but also can lower blood lipid, prevent high blood glucose, improve insulin resistance, inhibit gluconeogenesis and promote glycogen synthesis. However, the exact mechanism of its action is still unclear. Here, we explored the effect and mechanism of Marein on insulin resistance. The mice were divided into db/m, db/db, metformin+db/db, and marein+db/db groups. The body weight and kidney weight were recorded. Serum biochemical and renal function tests were measured after 8 weeks of continuous administration. Kidney tissues were subjected to HE staining, PAS staining, and Masson staining. The effect of marein on PI3K/Akt signal and autophagy pathway was detected by Western blot. After 8 weeks of Marein intervention, the body weight and kidney weight of mice did not change significantly, but the fasting blood glucose and blood lipid levels were significantly reduced than db/db group. Marein significantly improved the insulin resistance index, increased serum adiponectin and improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorders of db/db mice. Moreover, marein improved the basement membrane thickness of glomeruli and tubules, improved glomerular sclerosis and tubular fibrosis, as well as renal insufficiency, thereby protecting kidney function and delaying the pathological damage. Furthermore, marein increased the expression of PI3K and the phosphorylation of Akt/Akt (Ser473), and promoted the expression of LC3II/I, Beclin1 and ATG5. Additionally, it promoted the expression of FGFR1 in the kidney of db/db mice, and promoted the increase of serum FGF21 and FGF23. Marein has a protective effect on the kidneys of diabetic mice. It protects diabetic nephropathy by regulating the IRS1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to improve insulin resistance. Therefore, marein may be an insulin sensitizer.

RESUMEN: Marein es la principal sustancia activa de Coreopsis tinctoria nutt. No solo tiene efectos antioxidantes y antitumorales, sino que también puede reducir los lípidos en sangre, prevenir la glucemia alta, mejorar la resistencia a la insulina, inhibir la gluconeogénesis y promover la síntesis de glucógeno. Sin embargo, el mecanismo exacto de su acción aún no está claro. Se analizó el efecto y el mecanismo de Marein sobre la resistencia a la insulina. Los ratones se dividieron en grupos db / m, db / db, metformina + db / db y mareína + db / db. Se registró el peso corporal y el peso de los riñones. Se midieron las pruebas de función renal y bioquímica sérica después de 8 semanas de administración continua. Los tejidos renales se sometieron a tinción HE, tinción PAS y tinción Masson. El efecto de la mareína sobre la señal de PI3K / Akt y la vía de autofagia se detectó mediante Western blot. Al término de 8 semanas de tratamiento con mareína, el peso corporal y el peso de los riñones de los ratones no cambiaron significativamente, pero los niveles de glucosa en sangre y lípidos en sangre en ayunas se redujeron significativamente en relación a los del grupo db / db. Marein mejoró significativamente el índice de resistencia a la insulina, aumentó la adiponectina sérica y mejoró los trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa y los lípidos de los ratones db / db. Además, la mareína mejoró el grosor de la membrana basal de los glomérulos y túbulos, mejoró la esclerosis glomerular y la fibrosis tubular, así como la insuficiencia renal, protegiendo la función renal y retrasando el daño patológico. Además, la mareína aumentó la expresión de PI3K y la fosforilación de Akt / Akt (Ser473), y promovió la expresión de LC3II / I, Beclin1 y ATG5. Además, promovió la expresión de FGFR1 en el riñón de ratones db / db y el aumento de FGF21 y FGF23 en suero. Marein tiene un efecto protector sobre los riñones de ratones diabéticos. Protege la nefropatía diabética regulando la vía de señalización IRS1 / PI3K / Akt para mejorar la resistencia a la insulina. Por tanto, la mareína puede ser un sensibilizador a la insulina.

Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(4): 444-454, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393748


Resumen La prevalencia de la glucosa elevada en ayunas y la diabetes tipo 2 (DT2) está aumentando en la Argentina. Interesa encontrar índices de insulinorresistencia accesibles al laboratorio clínico con bajo costo. En 74 varones y 142 mujeres con riesgo para DT2 se analizaron los índices de McAuley y triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G) para: a) determinar los valores del índice de McAuley y su correlación con el índice T-G; b) comparar ambos índices para la detección del síndrome metabólico (SM) y su concordancia; c) determinar la asociación con los componentes de SM. Para McAuley la mediana fue 6,68 y el rango intercuartílico (5,47-8,25) y para T-G fue 8,71 (8,35-9,05) respectivamente. La correlación entre ambos fue r=-0,802, p<0,001. Respecto del SM, las áreas bajo la curva ROC fueron: índice T-G=0,816±0,029 (IC95% 0,758-0,873), p<0,001 y para el 1/índice de McAuley=0,816±0,030 (IC95% 0,758-0,874) p<0,001. La concordancia Kappa entre ambos fue 0,630, p<0,001, Chi cuadrado 85,74 (p<0,001). Para T-G y McAuley la sensibilidad fue 80,7% y 80,7%, la especificidad 70,7% y 69,4%, PP+ 62,5% y 62%, PP- 83,9 y 85,3%, la razón de probabilidad positiva (RP+) fue 2,65 y 2,64 y la negativa (RP-) fue 0,30 y 0,27 respectivamente. Ambos se asociaron con triglicéridos ≥150 mg/dL y glucosa ≥100 mg/dL y ninguno con C-HDL bajo y presión arterial ≥130/85 mmHg o en tratamiento. McAuley mostró asociación con cintura ≥102/88 cm (p>0,001). Se concluye que T-G mostró una aceptable concordancia con McAuley y ambos una similar asociación con SM. T-G podría ser útil para estudios en poblaciones pero para su aplicación en la clínica se necesitan más estudios.

Abstract The prevalence of high fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in our country. It is interesting to find insulin resistance indices accessible to the clinical laboratory at low cost. In 74 men and 142 women at risk for T2D, the McAuley and triglyceride-glucose (T-G) indices were analised to: a) determine the McAuley index values and they correlation with the T-G index; b) compare both indices for the detection of metabolic syndrome (MS) and their concordance; c) determine the association with MS components. For McAuley the median was 6.68 and the interquartile range (5.47-8.25) and for T-G it was 8.71 (8.35-9.05) respectively. The correlation between both was r=-0.802, p<0.001. Regarding MS, the areas under the ROC curve were: TG index=0.816±0.029 (95%CI 0.758-0.873), p<0.001 and for the 1/McAuley index=0.816±0.030 (95%CI 0.758-0.874) p<0.001. The Kappa agreement between the two indices was 0.630, p<0.001, Chi square 85.74 (p<0.001). For TG and McAuley the sensitivities were 80.7% and 80.7%, the specificities 70.7% and 69.4%, PP+ 62.5% and 62%, PP- 83.9 and 85.3%, the ratios of positive probability (PR+) were 2.65 and 2.64 and negative probability (PR-) were 0.30 and 0.27 respectively. Both were associated with triglycerides≥150 mg/dL and glucose≥100 mg/dL and neither with low HDL-C and blood pressure≥130/85 mmHg or treated. McAuley showed an association with waist≥102/88 cm (p>0.001). It is concluded that T-G showed acceptable agreement with McAuley and both similar association with SM. T-G could be useful for population studies but further studies are needed for its clinical application.

Resumo A prevalência de glicose elevada em jejum e a diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) está aumentando na Argentina. Interessanos achar índices de resistência à insulina acessíveis ao laboratório clínico a baixo custo. Em 74 homens e 142 mulheres em risco de DT2, os índices de McAuley e triglicerídeos-glicose (T-G) foram analisados para: a) determinar os valores do índice de McAuley e sua correlação com o índice T-G; b) comparar os dois índices para detecção da síndrome metabólica (SM) e sua concordância; c) determinar a associação com componentes SM. Para McAuley a mediana foi de 6,68 e o intervalo interquartil (5,47-8,25) e para T-G foi de 8,71 (8,35-9,05), respectivamente. A correlação entre os dois foi r=-0,802, p<0,001. Em relação à SM, as áreas sob a curva ROC foram: índice T-G=0,816±0,029 (IC95% 0,758-0,873), p<0,001 e para o 1/índice de McAuley=0,816±0,030 (IC95% 0,758-0,874) p<0,001. A concordância Kappa entre os dois foi de 0,630, p<0,001, Qui quadrado 85,74 (p<0,001). Para T-G e McAuley a sensibilidade foi 80,7% e 80,7%, especificidade 70,7% e 69,4%, PP+ 62,5% e 62%, PP- 83,9 e 85,3%, a razão de probabilidade positiva (RP+) foi 2,65 e 2,64 e negativa (RP-) foi de 0,30 e 0,27, respectivamente. Os dois foram associados com triglicerídeos≥150 mg/dL e glicose≥100 mg/dL e nenhum com C-HDL baixo e pressão arterial≥130/85 mmHg ou tratamento. McAuley mostrou associação com cintura≥102/88 cm (p>0,001). Conclui-se que T-G apresentou concordância aceitável com McAuley e ambos os dois associação semelhante a SM. T-G poderia ser útil para estudos populacionais, mas mais estudos são necessários para sua aplicação clínica.