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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 11-19, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962620

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo evaluate the pharmacodynamic effect of Huangqintang (HQT) on ulcerative colitis (UC) model mice and investigate its protective effect against UC by regulating intestinal flora. MethodMale Balb/c mice were randomly divided into control group,model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose HQT groups (20, 10, 5 g·kg-1), flora interference group, flora interference model group, and flora interference-drug treatment group (HQT, 20 g·kg-1). The flora interference model was constructed through intragastric administration of antibiotics (200 mg·kg-1 bacitracin and 200 mg·kg-1 vancomycin) for 8 d, and the UC model was constructed by allowing mice with free access to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) solution for 7 d. HQT was administered for 7 d. After the experiments, the mice were sacrificed, and blood, colon, and feces were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the colonic lesions. The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression of Claudin1, MUC1, Occludin, and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) in colon tissues was detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The fecal DNA of mice was extracted and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed increased serum content of IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α (P<0.05, P<0.01) and decreased IL-10 (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the HQT groups displayed decreased serum levels of IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α (P<0.05, P<0.01), increased IL-10 content (P<0.01), increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Claudin1, MUC1, Occludin, and ZO-1 (P<0.05, P<0.01). After flora interference, the diversity and abundance of intestinal bacteria decreased. To be specific, Proteobacteria increased (P<0.01), and Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes decreased (P<0.01). After UC induction by DSS, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes decreased (P<0.05). The high-, medium-, and low-dose HQT groups showed increased Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes (P<0.05, P<0.01) and decreased Firmicutes (P<0.05). Additionally, the abundance of Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Escherichia-Shigella, and Helicobacteris was positively proportional to the dose of HQT. ConclusionHQT can inhibit the inflammatory response of UC mice, restore the imbalance of intestinal flora, and repair the damaged intestinal mucosal barrier.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1134-1143, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973204

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression and role of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operation group (Sham group), SAP model group (SAP group), SAP+Shh signaling pathway-specific agonist purmorphamine group (PUR+SAP group), and SAP+Shh signaling pathway-specific antagonist cyclopamine group (CYC+SAP group) using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group, and each group was further divided into 12-hour and 24-hour subgroups, with 6 rats in each subgroup. Rats were given retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic and bile ducts to establish a model of SAP, and rats in the intervention groups were given intraperitoneal injection of 0.69 mg/kg purmorphamine and 0.69 mg/kg cyclopamine before modeling. Related samples were collected at 12 and 24 hours after modeling. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the pancreas and the ileum; ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of amylase, lipase, diamine oxidase (DAO), and endotoxin-core antibody (EndoCAb); the TUNEL method was used to observe the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells; Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of Shh, Ptch1, and Gli1 in ileal tissue. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t -test was used for further comparison between two groups; the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups and further comparison between two groups. Results Compared with the Sham group, the SAP group had significant increases in the pathological scores of pancreatic and ileum tissue, the serum levels of lipase, amylase, DAO, and EndoCAb, the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and the protein expression levels of Shh, Ptch1, and Gli1 in ileal tissue (all P < 0.05). Compared with the SAP group, the PUR+SAP group had significantly alleviated pathological injury and dysfunction of the pancreas and intestine, a significant reduction in the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and significant increases in the protein expression levels of Shh, Ptch1, and Gli1 in ileal tissue (all P < 0.05). Compared with the SAP group, the CYC+SAP group had significant aggravation of the pathological injury and dysfunction of the pancreas and intestine, a significant increase in the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and significant reductions in the protein expression levels of Shh, Ptch1, and Gli1 in ileal tissue (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The Shh signaling pathway may be involved in intestinal mucosal barrier injury in SAP and exerts a protective effect.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 929-934, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the effects of Ganbao capsules on intestinal mucosal barrier and gut microbiota in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to explore its mechanism of prevention and treatment of NAFLD. METHODS Eight of 26 SD rats were randomly selected as blank group and fed with ordinary diet, and the remaining 18 rats were fed with high diet to establish NAFLD model (2 for modeling inspection); after successful modeling, they were divided into model group and Ganbao group, with 8 rats in each group. Ganbao group were given Ganbao capsules solution (1 440 mg/kg) intragastrically, and the blank group and model group were given the constant volume of distilled water intragastrically, once a day, for consecutive 5 weeks. The contents of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) in serum of rats were detected by automatic analyzer; the contents of lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β in serum of rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological morphology of liver and ileum tissues were observed by HE staining, the expressions of Occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry method, and the intestinal flora were detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing technology. RESULTS Compared with the model group, the serum contents of ALT, AST, TG, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in Ganbao group were decreased significantly (P<0.01), the pathological changes of liver and ileum tissues were improved 262 significantly, and the expressions of Occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (P<0.01). Intestinal microbiotaanalysis revealed that compared with the model group, Ganbao capsules could recover the abundance and diversity of the gut E-mail:hdf8833@126.com microbiota in rats. At the phylum level, Ganbao capsules could significantly increase the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and significantly reduce the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (P<0.01). At the genus level, Ganbao capsules could significantly increase the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Blautia, Bacteroides and Akkermansia, and significantly reduce the relative abundance of Prevotella, Turicibacter, Weissella, SMB53 and Desulfovibrio (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There were different species among the gut microbiota of rats in each group. CONCLUSIONS Ganbao capsules may improve NAFLD by protecting intestinal mucosal barrier function and regulating gut probiotics/harmful bacteria structure.

4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 194-204, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of intestinal inflammation and barrier repair in Crohn's disease (CD) regulated by moxibustion through bile acid (BA) enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, CD model group, mild moxibustion group and herb-partitioned moxibustion group. CD model rats induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid were treated with mild moxibustion or herb-partitioned moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Qihai (CV6). The changes in CD symptoms were rated according to the disease activity index score, the serum and colon tissues of rats were collected, and the pathological changes in colon tissues were observed via histopathology. Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the improvement of moxibustion on intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier in CD by the BA-FXR pathway.@*RESULTS@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion improved the symptoms of CD, inhibited inflammation and repaired mucosal damage to the colon in CD rats. Meanwhile, moxibustion could improve the abnormal expression of BA in the colon, liver and serum, downregulate the expression of interferon-γ and upregulate the expression of FXR mRNA, and inhibit Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA. The IHC results showed that moxibustion could upregulate the expression of FXR and mucin2 and inhibit TLR4 expression. Western blot showed that moxibustion inhibited the protein expression of TLR4 and MyD88 and upregulated the expression of FXR. Immunofluorescence image analysis showed that moxibustion increased the colocalization sites and intensity of FXR with TLR4 or nuclear factor-κB p65. In particular, herb-partitioned moxibustion has more advantages in improving BA and upregulating FXR and TLR4 in the colon.@*CONCLUSION@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion can improve CD by regulating the enterohepatic circulation stability of BA, activating colonic FXR, regulating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway, inhibiting intestinal inflammation and repairing the intestinal mucosal barrier. Herb-partitioned moxibustion seems to have more advantages in regulating BA enterohepatic circulation and FXR activation. Please cite this article as: Shen JC, Qi Q, Han D, Lu Y, Huang R, Zhu Y, Zhang LS, Qin XD, Zhang F, Wu HG, Liu HR. Moxibustion improves experimental colitis in rats with Crohn's disease by regulating bile acid enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 194-204.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Crohn Disease/pathology , Moxibustion/methods , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Colitis , Inflammation , Enterohepatic Circulation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 525-533, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970489

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the recovery effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription on intestinal flora homeostasis control and intestinal mucosal barrier in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet. NAFLD was established in MKR transgenic mice(T2DM mice) by a high-fat diet(HFD), and subsequently treated for 8 weeks with Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription(7.5, 15 g·kg~(-1)) and metformin(0.067 g·kg~(-1)). Triglyceride and liver function were assessed using serum. The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining were used to stain the liver tissue, while HE staining and AB-PAS staining were used to stain the intestine tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing was utilized to track the changes in the intestinal flora of the mice in each group. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1. The results demonstrated that Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription increased the body mass of T2DM mice with NAFLD and decreased the hepatic index. It down-regulated the serum biomarkers of liver function and dyslipidemia such as alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate transaminase(AST), and triglycerides(TG), increased insulin sensitivity, and improved glucose tolerance. According to the results of 16S rRNA sequencing, the Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription altered the composition and abundance of the intestinal flora, increasing the relative abundances of Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bacteroidota and decreasing the relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae, Firmicutes, Deslfobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Desulfovibrionaceae. According to the pathological examination of the intestinal mucosa, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescritpion increased the expression levels of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1, promoted intestinal mucosa repair, protected intestinal villi, and increased the height of intestinal mucosa villi and the number of goblet cells. By enhancing intestinal mucosal barrier repair and controlling intestinal microbiota homeostasis, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription reduces intestinal mucosal damage induced by T2DM and NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Claudin-1/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Liver , Triglycerides/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Homeostasis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 52-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984583

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the mechanism of Renshen Baidusan in regulating adenylate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) autophagy pathway to inhibit mucosal barrier damage in the mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). MethodSixty SD rats were randomized into normal, model, sulfasalazine enteric-coated tablets (0.312 5 g·kg-1, western medicine), and high-, medium-, and low-dose (31.2, 15.6, 7.8 g·kg-1, respectively) Renshen Baidusan groups. The UC model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)/50% ethanol. The drugs were administrated by gavage for 2 weeks, and then the histopathological changes of the colon were examined. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to measure the mRNA level of AMP-activated protein kinase subunit alpha (AMPKα). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of closure protein (Occludin), compact linking protein-2 (Claudin-2), autophagy marker p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and phosphorylated ULK1 (p-ULK1). ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed increased colon injury score (P<0.05), down-regulated mRNA level of AMPKα (P<0.05) and protein levels of p-AMPK, p-ULK1, and Occludin, decreased LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio (P<0.05), and up-regulated protein levels of p62 and Claudin-2 (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, all the doses of Renshen Baidusan lowered the colon injury score, up-regulated the mRNA level of AMPKα and the protein levels of p-AMPK, p-ULK1, and Occluding, increased LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio, and down-regulated the protein levels of p62 and Claudin-2. Moreover, the medium-dose group showed a significant intervention effect (P<0.05). ConclusionRenshen Baidusan can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier from damage, and the medium dose showed the best efficacy. It may activate the AMPK/ULK1 pathway to accelerate the transformation of LC3Ⅰ to LC3Ⅱ and promote the degradation of p62, so as to improve the function of Occludin and Claudin-2 and repair the mechanical damage of the intestinal barrier.

7.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 110-120, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934021

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of compound fermented milk on intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acid (SCFA), intestinal motility and mucosal barrier in mice with constipation.Methods:Twenty-seven C57BL/6JNifdc mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group and intervention group. The model group and the intervention group were given loperamide intragastrically for two weeks. Starting from the second week, the intervention group was treated with compound fermented milk for 7 d. The control group was given normal saline. Food intake, water intake, weight change, fecal moisture content, time of first-time black stool and small intestine propulsion rate were detected. Expression of serotonin C receptor (5-HTR2C), zona occludins-1 (ZO-1) and mucin-2 (MUC-2) at mRNA level in colon was analyzed. Western blot was used to measure the expression of Raf/ERK/MAPK-related proteins. SCFA level in intestinal tract was detected by gas chromatography. Intestinal microbiota diversity was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing.Results:Compared with the control group, the first black stool excretion time was significantly prolonged in the model group ( P<0.01). Moreover, fecal moisture content, small intestine propulsion rate and the expression of 5-HTR2C and ZO-1 at mRNA level in colon were significantly decreased ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the first black stool excretion time was significantly shortened ( P<0.05); fecal moisture content, small intestine propelling rate ( P<0.05), the expression of colon 5-HTR2C and ZO-1 at mRNA level ( P<0.05), phosphorylation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway in the colon, intestinal SCFA-producing bacteria and intestinal SCFA content were increased in the intervention group. Conclusions:Compound fermented milk had a therapeutic effect on constipation in a mouse model by increasing the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria and SCFA content, enhancing the phosphorylation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway to up-regulate the expression of 5-HTR2C at mRNA level in the colon, and increasing the expression of ZO-1 at mRNA level in the colon. Intestinal peristalsis and intestinal mucosal barrier function were enhanced, thus improving the symptom of constipation.

8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 210-215, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932764

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) combined with normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) on the intestinal barrier function in rats with acute rejection of liver transplantation.Methods:Specific pathogen free 2 male Brown Norway (BN) rats (4-5 weeks, 40-60 g) were used to isolat BMMSCs, and HO-1 was infected by adenovirus. Of 24 male Lewis rats (7-8 weeks old, 200-220g) were used as donors, 30 male BN rats (8-9 weeks old, 220-240 g) were used as recipients. Acute rejection models of orthotopic liver transplantation were established in rats using two cuff technique. BN recipient rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, abdomen of the mice was open and closed within 30 min; NMP livers were simply mechanically perfused for 4 h; the BMP group were perfused with BMMSCs through the portal vein; the HBP group were perfused with HO-1/BMMSCs through the portal vein; the FK506 livers were mechanically perfused for 4 h and administered intragastrically of tacrolimus daily following surgery, 6 per group, on days 14 after surgery, the relevant indicators were taken and the rejection activity index (RAI) changes were investigated. The changes of intestinal pathological were analyzed by HE staining and transmission electron microscope, the expression levels of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin protein in intestinal tissue were detected by Western blotting, the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum were detected by ELISA.Results:The RAI of HBP group (2.80±0.84) and FK506 group (2.20±0.84) were significantly lower than that of NMP group (7.60±1.14) and BMP group (6.00±1.58), the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). The intestinal villi in NMP group were significantly sparse, wrinkled and disorderly arranged while the degree of intestinal injury in BMP group, HBP group and FK506 group were more mitigated. Electron microscope observation showed that the microvilli of intestinal epithelial cells in HBP group were rich and orderly, and the tight junction structure between cells was complete. The protein expression levels of ZO-1 and Occludin in the intestinal tissues of HBP group [(0.87±0.06) (1.28±0.26)] were higher than those of NMP group [(0.41±0.12) (0.27±0.18)] and FK506 group [(0.52±0.15) (0.63±0.22)], the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). The concentration of lipopolysaccharide, D-lactic acid and DAO in serum of HBP group was lower than those of NMP group and FK506 group, the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusion:HO-1/BMMSCs combined with NMP protects the intestinal mucosal barrier function of BN rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.

9.
International Journal of Pediatrics ; (6): 44-47, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929801

ABSTRACT

The complete mucosal barrier of the healthy intestine is the line of defense to prevent the translocation of substances.Many animal models and human pathological studies have proved that the changes of intestinal mucosal barrier function are closely related to the occurrence and treatment of liver disease.This review summarizes the composition of intestinal mucosal barrier, its interaction with liver injury and potential therapeutic targets.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1825-1832, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the the reg ulation of intestinal flora and effects of Qingjie huagong decoction on intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)mode rats . METHODS SAP rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein and lipopolysaccharide.The survival state of rats in each group were observed.The levels of serum amylase ,interleukin 10(IL-10),IL-18 and IL- 1β in serum were all detected. The pathological changes of pancreatic and small intestinal tissue were observed. The expressions of Occludin,ZO-1 and HMGB1 were detected in small intestinal tissue of rats. The structure and relative abundance of intestinal microflora in rats were detected by 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing. RESULTS After the intervention of Qingjie huagong decoction ,abdominal distension symptoms of SAP model rats were significantly relieved ,and their mental state recovered better ;the levels of serum amylase and IL- 18 in serum were decreased significantly (P<0.05),while the level of IL- 10 was increased significantly (P<0.05). The necrotic area of pancreatic tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells were reduced , the degree of intestinal epithelial cell structural disorder was alleviated ,and the shedding of intestinal mucosal epithelium was reduced.The protein expression of HMGB 1 in small intestinal tissue was decreased significantly (P<0.05),and the protein expression of Occludin and ZO- 1 were increased significantly . Results of 16S rRNA high throughput sequencing showed that Qingjie huagong decoction could increased the relative abundance of probiotics such as Bacteroidea and Lactobacillus in rat intestine ,reduced the colonization of harmful bacteria such as Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS Qingjie huagong decoction can improve the intestinal barrier by up-regulating the expression of Occludin and ZO- 1 in small intestinal tissue and down-regulating the protein expression of HMGB 1. It can also adjust the relative abundances of different flora to protect the intestinal tract.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 90-98, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905992

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the possible mechanism of Xieheyin in alleviating obese polycystic ovary syndrome with insulin resistance(PCOS-IR)and reducing inflammatory response. Method:Ten of sixty SPF femlae C57BL/6J mice were randomly selected as the normal group,and the rest mice were given letrozole 0.002 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> combined with fecal suspension 2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> for 28 consecutive days to establish model of PCOS-IR.The mice that were successfully modeled were randomized into the model group,metformin group(0.25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>),and low(10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>),medium(20 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>),and high-dose(40 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>)Xieheyin groups,and administered with the corresponding drugs by gavage,once a day,for four consecutive weeks. Except the normal control group, the mice in the other groups were continuously given fecal suspension combined with letrozole solution to maintain the model during the treatment. The mice were weighed once a week.Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) were detected by blood glucose test strips.And enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect serum testosterone(T),follicle stimulating hormone(FSH),luteinizing hormone(LH),fasting insulin(FINS)level,and LH/FSH and Homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated.The uterus and ovaries were weighed and fixed.Hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining was used to observe ovarian tissue pathology morphology. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of tight junction key molecular zonula occludens 1(ZO-1),occludin in colon tissues,and the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B/Nod-like receptor protein 3(TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/NLRP3)signaling pathway and inflammation associated proteins cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(Caspase-1) and interleukin-1<italic>β</italic>(IL-1<italic>β</italic>) in colon tissues. Result:Compared with normal control group,the body weight of mice in the model control group increased significantly(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Serum FINS,FBG,HOMA-IR,T,LH/FSH were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The uterine organ ratio were decreased significantly(<italic>P</italic><0.01),while the ovarian organ ratio were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01). The number of atresia follicles and cystic dilatation follicles increased significantly,and the number of corpus luteum significantly decreased,the thickness of follicular granulosa cells also decreased,while the white membrane thickness of the ovary increased. Tight junction related ZO-1,occludin proteins in colon tissues were all decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.01).The relative expression levels of inflammation-related protein IL-1<italic>β</italic>,Caspase-1 and TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/NLRP3 target protein signaling pathway were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05).Compared with model control group, the body weight of mice in the low,middle and high dose Xieheyin group decreased significantly(<italic>P</italic><0.01). The serum T,LH/FSH,FINS,FBG,HOMA-IR were significantly decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The uterine organ ratio were increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05),while the ovarian organ ratio were decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.05). The number of cystic follicles decreased and corpus luteum increased,the thickness of follicular granulosa cells increased and be arranged normally,while the white membrane thickness of the ovary increased slightly. The expressions of ZO-1,occludin proteins were increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01). The expression levels of IL-1<italic>β</italic>,Caspase-1 and TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/NLRP3 target protein in the high dose group were significantly decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Xieheyin could activate intestinal TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/NLRP3 signaling pathway,inhibit pro-inflammatory factor secretion,improve obesity and IR,which was correlated with rebuilding intestinal mucosal barrier and inhibiting intestinal inflammation.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 232-240, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905949

ABSTRACT

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common digestive system diseases in clinic. Its pathogenesis is complex and has not yet been fully clarified. It easily progresses to severe AP if the treatment is not provided in time, and the resulting condition is dangerous with high mortality. Intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) injury is the key link leading to the aggravation of AP. The IMB injury in the late stage of AP promotes the translocation of harmful intestinal bacteria, the entry of bacteria and the produced endotoxins into blood circulation triggers endotoxemia and enterogenous infection,causing multiple organ failure and even death. Western medicine has limitations in the treatment of IMB injury induced by AP. By contrast, Chinese medicine has been proved effective and reliable in repairing the IMB injury induced by AP through oral administration and external application,and has been widely recognized by physicians and patients. AP falls into the categories of "precordial pain due to spleen disorder", "thoracic accumulation", and "pancreas-heat syndrome" in traditional Chinese medicine. The main causes of AP are excessive intake of sweet and greasy food, improper diet, and cholelithiasis, which lead to damp-heat accumulation in the middle energizer, stagnation of spleen and stomach, and obstruction of fu-organ intestine. Therefore, dredging the interior, purging, clearing heat, removing toxin, moving Qi, and activating blood should be emphasized in treatment. According to the related literature both in China and abroad in the past five years, this paper summarized the action mechanisms of Chinese medicine in the treatment of AP-induced IMB injury as follows: It protects the mechanical barrier by improving intestinal microcirculation disorders, relieving intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress response, reducing the release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. It restores the chemical barrier by promoting gastrointestinal functional recovery and shortening enteral nutrition time. It improved the biological barrier by regulating intestinal microecological imbalance. It reinforces the immune barrier by adjusting the level of immune cells. This paper reviewed the characteristics of IMB injury in AP as well as its therapeutic principles and mechanisms with Chinese medicine, aiming to provide a theoretical and scientific basis for the in-depth study and rational application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of IMB injury in AP.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2710-2714, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905027

ABSTRACT

Liver failure and intestinal barrier injury, especially intestinal microflora imbalance, interacts as both the cause and effect of each other. Intestinal barrier injury is observed during liver failure, including the injuries of chemical, mechanical, immune, and microbial barriers, and meanwhile, gut dysbiosis, increased bacterial endotoxins, and abnormal bile acid metabolism may affect hepatocyte regeneration, increase complications, and aggravate the conditions of liver failure. The maintenance of intestinal barrier function should be taken seriously in the treatment of liver failure, and the treatment targeting intestinal barrier injury, especially microecological disturbance, is a promising method.

14.
Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology ; (12): 429-432, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016204

ABSTRACT

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important metabolic products of intestinal bacteria, and participate in the metabolism of intestinal materials, mediate the interaction between intestinal bacteria and intestinal mucosal epithelial cells, and are closely related to the occurrence of many diseases. Intestinal leakage is a pathological state and disease process in which intestinal function is impaired due to various reasons. Studies on the relationship between SCFAs and intestinal leakage are few. This article reviewed the relationship between SCFAs and intestinal leakage and its impact on diseases.

15.
Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology ; (12): 636-640, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016171

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) are defined as noncoding RNA with a length of more than 200 nucleotides, which can regulate a variety of cellular processes. LncRNA H19 is widely involved in the pathophysiological process of intestinal inflammation and intestinal cancer by regulating the function of intestinal mucosal barrier. This article reviewed the effect of lncRNA H19 on intestinal mucosal barrier under different intestinal states and inflammation-cancer related signaling pathway.

16.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 717-723, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014424

ABSTRACT

Aim To observe the protective effect of Gancao Xiexin Decoction (GXD) on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) under endoplasmic reticulum stress from the perspective of PERK-elF2α-CH0P signaling pathway. Methods Caco-2 cells were cultured and divided into normal control group (NC), model control group(MC), low-dose GXD group(GXD-L), mediumdose GXD group (GXD-M) and high-dose GXD group (GXD-H). Models of the stress epithelial cells were induced by tunicamycin(Tm), and GXD groups were treated with GXD contained serum at the same time. The cell survival rate was assessed by CCK-8 method, the cell apoptotic rate and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry, and the cell barrier permeability was determined by TEER and FITC-dextran method; the expression levels of core proteins of PERK-elF2α-CH0P signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. Results Compared with MC group, GXD intervention could improve cell survival rate(P < 0. 05), reduce their apoptotic rate(P <0. 01), relieve cell cycle arrest(P < 0. 01), improve cell barrier permeability by increasing cell TEER value (P < 0. 01) and decreasing FITC-dextran concentration (P < 0.05), and the levels of p-PERK, p-elF2α, ATF4 and CHOP in GXD-M and GXD-H groups all visibly descended (P < 0. 01). Conclusions GXD can reduce the excessive apoptosis of IECs and protect intestinal epithelial cell barrier homeostasis by inhibiting the signal transduction of PERK-elF2α-CH0P apoptotic pathway.

17.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 917-922, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934611

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of different doses of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on levels of tight-junction protein claudin-1 and diamine oxidase (DAO) in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical resection of gynecological malignant tumors.Methods:A total of 60 patients with gynecological malignant tumors who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic radical resection under general anesthesia from January 2019 to January 2020 in the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were selected, including 43 cases of cervical cancer (stageⅠ-Ⅱ A), 9 cases of ovarian cancer (stageⅠ A-Ⅲ C), and 8 cases of endometrial carcinoma (stageⅠ). Accroding to the random number table method, the patients were divided into control group (group C), low-dose Dex group (group D 1) and high-dose Dex group (group D 2), with 20 cases in each group. Patients in group D 1 were given Dex 0.5 μg·kg -1·h -1 by constant rate intravenous infusion pump after induction until 30 min before the end of operation. Patients in group D 2 were given Dex 1.0 μg·kg -1·h -1 by constant rate intravenous infusion pump after induction until 30 min before the end of operation. Group C adopted the same calculation method and received the same amount of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by infusion pump. At 10 min before induction (T 1), 1 hour after pneumoperitoneum (T 2) and 12 hours after pneumoperitoneum (T 3), 5 ml of brachial vein blood was collected from the patients, and the levels of claudin-1 protein, DAO and blood glucose were measured. Results:At T 1, T 2 and T 3, the expression levels of claudin-1 in group C were (77.05±17.61) pg/ml, (66.76±12.97) pg/ml and (55.93±12.71) pg/ml, and the difference was statistically significant ( F = 10.449, P<0.05); the expression levels of DAO in group C were (4.83±0.93) ng/ml, (5.62±1.01) ng/ml and (5.98±1.21) ng/ml, and the difference was statistically significant ( F = 6.139, P < 0.05); the levels of blood glucose in group C were (4.82±0.66) mmol/L, (7.55±0.94) mmol/L and (6.51±0.54) mmol/L, and the difference was statistically significant ( F = 70.197, P < 0.05). At T 2, the expression level of claudin-1 in group D 1 was (69.12±13.02) pg/ml, which was not significantly different from group C ( t = -0.575, P > 0.05); the expression level of claudin-1 in group D 2 was (76.36±14.89) pg/ml, which was higher than that in group C, and the difference was statistically significant ( t = -2.175, P < 0.05). At T 3, the expression levels of claudin-1 in group D 1 and group D 2 were (66.14±14.36) pg/ml and (73.37±16.93) pg/ml, which were higher than that in group C, and the differences were statistically significant ( t values were -2.380 and -3.682, both P < 0.05). The expression levels of DAO in group D 1 and group D 2 were (5.02±0.84) ng/ml and (4.91±0.93) ng/ml at T 2, and (5.29±0.86) ng/ml and (5.20±0.98) ng/ml at T 3, which were lower than those in group C, and the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 2.051, 2.295, 2.079 and 2.285, all P < 0.05). The levels of blood glucose in group D 1 and group D 2 were (7.10±0.66) mmol/L and (6.77±0.97) mmol/L at T 2, and (5.95±0.94) mmol/L and (5.93±0.74) mmol/L at T 3, which were lower than those in group C, and the differences were statistically significant ( t values were 2.565, 5.374, 2.293 and 2.765, all P < 0.05). Conclusion:Continuous infusion of Dex can inhibit the stress response caused by long-term CO 2 pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic radical resection of gynecological malignant tumors, and adjust the changes of expression levels of claudin-1 protein and DAO, reduce the damage of intestinal mucosal cells, facilitate the recovery of intestinal function, and the effect of high-dose Dex is better than low-dose Dex.

18.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1052-1056, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909451

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of curcumin on enterocyte apoptosis and its protective effect on intestinal mucosal barrier in septic rats.Methods:Eighty-seven 3-month male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into Sham group, model group and curcumin group by random number table method, with 29 rats in each group. The septic rat model was reproduced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). 4 mL dimethyl sulfoxide solution were intraperitoneally injected in both Sham group and model group, 200 mg/kg curcumin dissolved by 4 mL dimethyl sulfoxide solution were intraperitoneally injected in curcumin group 10 minutes after operation. The blood samples (15 rats in each group) were collected 2, 12, 24 hours after operation, and the levels of serum procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), D-lactic acid and diamine oxidas (DAO) were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ileum tissues were collected 12 hours, 24 hours after operation in three groups, water content was tested by weighting, pathologic structure was observed by light microscope, the enterocyte apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling method (TUNEL). The 7-day survival rate was observed in three groups (14 rats in each group).Results:The serum levels of PCT, TNF-α, D-lactic acid and DAO were higher in model group at 2, 12, 24 hours after operation than those in Sham group, PCT, TNF-α levels were significantly higher in model group than those in Sham group 2 hours after operation [PCT (μg/L): 1.89±0.17 vs. 0.10±0.02, TNF-α (ng/L): 216.51±1.47 vs. 85.25±8.20, both P < 0.01], D-lactic acid, DAO levels were significantly higher in model group than those in Sham group 12 hours after operation [D-lactic acid (mg/L): 40.53±7.76 vs. 11.29±1.28, DAO (ng/L): 1 120.40±302.35 vs. 330.02±81.28, both P < 0.01]. Compared with model group, the levels of serum PCT, TNF-α, D-lactic acid and DAO were lower in curcumin group 2, 12, 24 hours after operation, the statistical difference appeared from 12 hours after operation [PCT (μg/L): 5.37±0.44 vs. 8.67±0.64, TNF-α(ng/L): 211.12±4.31 vs. 313.30±18.46, D-lactic acid (mg/L): 29.74±1.41 vs. 40.53±7.76, DAO (ng/L): 810.71±201.41 vs. 1 120.40±302.35, all P < 0.05], curcumin group had lower water content in ileum tissues 12 hours, 24 hours after operation [(68.34±0.68)% vs. (70.55±0.87)%, (69.41±0.59)% vs. (71.69±0.87)%, both P < 0.05]. The pathologic structures of intestinal villus were normal in Sham group, however, in model group intestinal villus were atrophic, edematous and shorten 12 hours after operation, it was further exacerbated 24 hours after operation. Compared with model group, the pathologic structures of intestinal villus in curcumin group were relived 12 hours, 24 hours after operation. The number of apoptotic enterocytes were significantly increased in model group compared with Sham group 24 hours after operation (cells: 25.48±6.10 vs. 4.00±2.04, P < 0.05), and the number of apoptotic enterocytes was lower in curcumin group than that in model group at the same time (cells: 15.48±3.75 vs. 25.48±6.10), the difference was statistically significant (both P < 0.05). Seven-day survival rate was significantly lower in curcumin than that in model group [42.9% (6/14) vs. 50.0% (7/14)], however, the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). Conclusion:Curcumin can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by inhibiting enterocyte apoptosis in septic rats.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 235-241, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906353

ABSTRACT

As the first line of defense between the intestinal environment and the outside world, the intestinal mucosal barrier is essential for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosal barrier injury will change the intestinal permeability and allow bacterial translocation and the entry of endotoxins into blood, thus triggering a series of inflammatory responses, followed by the injury of related tissues and the aggravation of primary diseases. The spleen, the acquired foundation, is responsible for maintaining the internal and external balance of the body and resisting external evils. Its physiological function is similar to that of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spleen deficiency easily leads to intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction. Therefore, replenishing Qi, invigorating spleen, and restoring the efficacy of spleen and stomach qi in defensing and governing transportation and transformation are the keys to prevent and treat intestinal mucosal barrier injury. In recent years, studies have shown that the spleen-invigorating Chinese medicinals repair the intestinal mucosal injury by promoting the expression of intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins, regulating the intestinal immune function, microbial flora, and metabolites, and supplementing the intestinal nutrition, enabling them to gradually become a research hotspot. After reviewing the relevant articles published in China and abroad, this paper expounded the common syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the changes in intestinal mucosal barrier induced by spleen deficiency, the repairing effects of spleen-invigorating Chinese medicinals on intestinal mucosal barrier injury, in order to provide some clues for the research on the treatment of intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction-related diseases with spleen-invigorating Chinese medicinals.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 36-46, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906328

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between the efficacy of <italic>Usnea diffracta</italic> in treating atherosclerosis (AS) and the altered microbial flora in rat ileum based on the interior-exterior relationship between heart and small intestine in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Method:Forty-eight SD rats were randomized into a normal group (<italic>n</italic>=8) and a modeling group (<italic>n</italic>=40). The AS model was established with high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of vitamin D<sub>3</sub>. The successfully modeled rats were further randomly divided into the model group, positive control (simvastatin, 4 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and low- (0.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (1.4 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (2.8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) <italic>U. diffracta</italic> ethanol extract groups, with eight rats in each group. After four weeks of intervention, the blood, aorta, ileum, and ileum content of rats in each group were collected. The levels of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α </italic>(TNF-<italic>α</italic>) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the pathological changes in rat thoracic aorta was detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Western blot was conducted to determine the protein expression levels of tight junction protein zonula occluden (ZO-1) and Occludin in rat ileum, and the high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology was employed to detect changes in microbial diversity and abundance in rat ileum of each group. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited obvious aortic plaque deposition, increased LPS, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and IL-6 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01), but decreased ZO-1 and Occludin protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The comparison with the model group revealed that <italic>U. diffracta</italic> significantly ameliorated the aortic plaque deposition of model rats, lowered serum LPS, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and IL-6 levels (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and up-regulated ZO-1 and Occludin protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the model group changed significantly in contrast to that in the normal group, and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes(B/F) value declined (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Alpha and Beta diversity analysis indicated higher total number of intestinal flora species in the model group, but lower richness and uneven distribution (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), with a large number of pathogenic bacteria enriched. The ethanol extract of <italic>U. diffracta</italic> significantly increased the B/F value, corrected the structural disorder of microbial flora in ileum, reduced pathogenic bacteria, and increased the relative abundance of probiotics. Conclusion:<italic>U. diffracta</italic> exerts the therapeutic effect against AS possibly by improving the intestinal microbial communities, strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and reducing the serum LPS and inflammatory factors.

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