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International Eye Science ; (12): 230-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913028


@#Microbial mixed infectious keratitis is an ocular surface disease caused by corneal infection, which has an acute onset and rapid progression and can lead to blindness in severe cases. Establishing an animal model of microbial mixed infectious keratitis is conducive to exploring its pathogenesis, prevention, clinical diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the methods of making animal models of mixed infectious keratitis with microorganisms and the diagnostic methods after successful modelling infections, aiming to provide references for the further development and research of animal models of the disease.

International Eye Science ; (12): 22-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906723


@#AIM:To establish the model of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis infection in tree shrews. To determine the expression of IL-17 in the bacterial infection process of tree shrews cornea, and the mechanism of IL-17 in bacterial keratitis of tree shrews is discussed.<p>METHODS: The tree shrew bacterial keratitis models were established by the contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method. After establishing models successfully, the infection symptoms of the model were evaluated by using anterior segment photography and <i>in vivo</i> confocal microscopy on 1, 4, 7 and 14d after performing inoculation, and pathological sections were made to observe histopathological changes in the cornea. Samples were collected at the corresponding time points above, and the expression of IL-17 mRNA in the corneal tissues of tree shrews was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of IL-17 protein was detected by ELISA.<p>RESULTS:The success rate of modeling the tree shrew pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis models was 96% and 100%.The clinical manifestations and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tree shrew keratitis was consistent with the changing rules of the cornea in histopathological. IL-17 gene and protein expression profiles in tree shrew corneas were consistent with the severity of corneal inflammation basically. <p>CONCLUSION:The use of contact lens-assisted corneal scratching method can successfully establish animal models of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus keratitis in tree shrews that more closely resemble the natural course of human bacterial keratitis infection. IL-17 participated in the occurrence and development of bacterial keratitis in tree shrews.

Medisan ; 25(6)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356472


Introducción: La queratoconjuntivitis seca es una enfermedad de causa multifactorial, que afecta la producción de lágrimas y la superficie ocular, a la vez que ocasiona malestar, visión borrosa e inestabilidad de la película lagrimal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 50 pacientes con diagnóstico de queratoconjuntivitis seca, atendidos en el Centro Oftalmológico del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta julio de 2020. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con queratoconjuntivitis seca según variables epidemiológicas clínicas y oftalmológicas. Resultados: En la serie predominaron las féminas (66,0 %), los pacientes mayores de 60 años (40,0 %), la lectura excesiva como factor de riesgo (42,0 %), la irritación, la fatiga ocular y la visión borrosa como criterios diagnósticos, además de la disminución del tiempo de rotura de la película lagrimal en 68,0 % de la muestra, entre otros resultados. Conclusión: La queratoconjuntivitis seca, desde el punto de vista clínico y epidemiológico fue similar a lo descrito en la bibliografía especializada en cuanto a los grupos de edades, sexo y principales síntomas descritos.

Introduction: The keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a disease of multifactorial cause that affects the production of tears and the ocular surface, at the same time that causes discomfort, blurred vision and instability of the lacrimal thin layer. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 50 patients with diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, assisted in the Ophthalmolgic Center of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January to July, 2020. Objective: To characterize patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca according to clinical, epidemiologic and ophthalmologic variables. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the females (66.0 %), patients over 60 years (40.0 %), excessive reading as risk factor (42.0 %), irritation, ocular fatigue and blurred vision as diagnostic criteria, besides the decrease of the lacrimal thin layer break up time in 68.0 % of the sample, among other results. Conclusion: The keratoconjunctivitis sicca was similar to that described in the specialized literature review as for the age groups, sex and main described symptoms from the clinical and epidemiologic points of view.

Dry Eye Syndromes , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/epidemiology , Keratitis
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(5): 474-480, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339208


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze patient data and the laboratory results of corneal samples collected from patients followed at the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital São Paulo, Brazil over a 30-year period, and correlate the analize with contact lens wearing. Methods: Corneal samples from patients diagnosed clinically with microbial keratitis between January 1987 and December 2016 were included in this study. Cultures that were positive for bacteria, fungi, and Acanthamoeba spp. were analyzed retrospectively. To ascertain if the number of patients with contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis (as a risk factor for microbial infection) changed over time, the analysis was divided into three decades: 1987-1996, 1997-2006, and 2007-2016. Information pertaining to patient gender and age, as well as type of organism isolated, were compared among these periods. Results: The corneal samples of 10.562 patients with a clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis were included in the study, among which 1.848 cases were related to the use of contact lenses. The results revealed that the frequency of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis increased over the last two decades. Overall, females had contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis more frequently (59.5%). Patients aged 19-40 years also had contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis more frequently in all study periods. Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, in the microbial keratitis groups. Among the fungal cases of microbial keratitis, filamentous fungi were the most frequent fungi over the entire study period, with Fusarium spp. being the most frequent fungi in the group with microbial keratitis not associated with contact lens wearing (p<0.001). Samples positive for Acanthamoeba spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were significantly correlated with contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis (p<0.001). Conclusions: Females and young adults aged 19-40 years exhibited the highest frequency of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis in our study. Staphylococcus spp. and Fusarium spp. were the predominant bacteria and fungi, respectively, isolated from corneal samples. Pseudomonas spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. were significantly correlated with contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis in this study.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar da dos epidemiológicos de pacientes e resultados laboratoriais para todas as amostras de córnea coletadas de pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia do Hospital São Paulo, Brasil, durante um período de 30 anos e correlacionar com o uso de lentes de contato. Métodos: Amostras de córnea de pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de ceratite microbiana (de janeiro de 1987 a dezembro de 2016) foram incluídas neste estudo. Resultados laboratoriais para culturas positivas para bactérias, fungos e Acanthamoeba spp. foram analisados retrospectivamente. Para verificar se o número de pacientes com ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato, fator de risco para infecção microbiana, mudou ao longo do tempo, a análise foi dividida em três décadas: 1987-1996, 1997-2006 e 2007-2016. As informações incluindo o sexo do paciente, idade e tipo de organismo isolado foram comparadas entre os períodos. A análise estatística foi realizada no software SAS/STAT 9.3 e SPSS (v20.0). Resultados: Amostras de córnea de 10.562 pacientes com ceratite microbiana foram incluídas no estudo, das quais 1.848 foram relacionadas ao uso de lentes de contato. Os resultados revelaram que a frequência de ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato aumentou nas últimas duas décadas analisadas. No geral, os homens compreendiam uma proporção maior do grupo ceratite microbiana não associada à lente de contato (CMNLC) (60,3%) e as mulheres eram mais frequentes no grupo ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato (59,5%). Pacientes com idade entre 19 e 40 anos foram mais frequentemente observados no grupo ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato em todos os períodos. Staphylococcus spp. foi a bactéria Gram-positiva mais frequentes, enquanto Pseudomonas spp. foi a bactéria Gram-negativa nos grupos ceratite microbiana. Entre os fungos ceratite microbiana, os fungos filamentosos foram os fungos mais frequentes durante todo o período do estudo, com Fusarium spp. sendo o mais frequente no grupo ceratite microbiana não associada à lente de contato. Acanthamoeba spp. e Pseudomonas spp. amostras positivas foram significativamente correlacionadas com ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato. Conclusões: A maior prevalência de ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato no nosso estudo foi observada em mulheres e adultos jovens com idade entre 19 e 40 anos. Staphylococcus spp. e Fusarium spp. foram as bactérias e fungos predominantes isolados nas amostras da córnea. Pseudomonas spp. e Acanthamoeba spp. foram significativamente correlacionados a ceratite microbiana associada à lente de contato neste estudo.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(5): 506-512, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339211


ABSTRACT The degree to which viral infection and the host's immune reaction to viral particles participate in the inflammatory process across various forms of herpetic keratitis has remained controversial. This fact has created conflicts regarding the classification of and therapeutic planning for such morbidities. This review aims to stimulate reflection on the classifications' adequacy, nomenclatures, and therapeutic approaches related to these entities.

RESUMO O grau de participação da infecção viral e da reação imunológica do hospedeiro às partículas virais no processo infamatório das diferentes formas de ceratites herpéticas ainda é objeto de controvérsia. Esse fato gera conflitos de classificação e planejamento terapêutico relativos a essas morbidades. Esta revisão visa estimular a reflexão sobre a adequabilidade das classificações, nomenclaturas e abordagens terapêuticas dessas entidades.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 279-281, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248970


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to discuss a case of late-onset Klebsiella oxytoca keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and its treatment. A 21-year-old female patient presented with redness and effluence in the left eye at 5 months after uncomplicated deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery. In the examination, a single suture was loosened in the superior nasal region and there was an infiltration area and epithelial defect in the graft and recipient bed junction in the area of the loose suture. Topical fortified vancomycin and fortified ceftazidime treatment was started empirically hourly, but there was insufficient response. After K. Oxytoca growth in a swab and suture culture taken from the patient, fortified vancomycin was replaced with fortified imipenem. It was observed that the infiltration area rapidly regressed and the epithelial defect was closed after fortified imipenem treatment. Fortified imipenem may be considered as an alternative treatment, especially in cases in which there is no response to treatment and culture growth is detected.(AU)

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é discutir um caso de ceratite tardia por Klebsiella oxytoca, após ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda, bem como seu tratamento. Uma paciente de 21 anos apresentou vermelhidão e efluxo no olho esquerdo 5 meses após cirurgia de ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda sem complicações. Ao exame, havia uma única sutura solta na região nasal superior e uma área de infiltração com defeito epitelial no enxerto e na junção com o leito receptor na área da sutura solta. Iniciou-se empiricamente um tratamento tópico com vancomicina e ceftazidima fortificada de hora em hora, porém com resposta insuficiente. Após o crescimento de K. oxytoca a partir de cultura de swab e sutura retirados da paciente, a vancomicina fortificada foi substituída por imipenem fortificado. Observou-se que a área de infiltração regrediu rapidamente e que o defeito epitelial foi fechado com o tratamento com imipenem fortificado. O imipenem fortificado pode ser considerado um tratamento alternativo, especialmente nos casos sem resposta ao tratamento e detecção de crescimento na cultura.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolation & purification , Keratitis/diagnosis
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 69-75, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341363


RESUMEN Las manifestaciones oculares de la artritis reumatoide son manifestaciones graves que requieren manejo agresivo. En el presente reporte presentamos un caso de queratitis asociada a derretimiento corneal desencadenado por suspensión abrupta de su medicación reumatológica y cirugía no ocular, que respondió de forma favorable al manejo con metil-prednisolona y ciclofosfamida.

ABSTRACT Ocular signs of rheumatoid arthritis are severe extra-articular manifestations, which usually require aggressive management. In this report, A case is presented here of patient with peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with corneal melt syndrome triggered by abrupt suspension of antirheumatic medication and non-ocular surgery. They symptoms responded favourably to methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

Humans , Male , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Corneal Ulcer , Eye Manifestations , Therapeutics , Diagnosis
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e929, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289535


La queratitis por Acanthamoeba es una infección corneal de baja incidencia, condicionada por varios factores, pero con manifestación clínica variada y sintomatología típica. En su fase epitelial debe ser diferenciada de otras queratitis, específicamente de la queratitis por herpes simple, por la similitud entre ambas en cuanto a las características de la lesión corneal. La microscopia confocal in vivo constituye una alternativa diagnóstica. Es una biopsia fotográfica en cuyas imágenes podemos describir los quistes y trofozoítos de Acanthamoeba desde etapas iniciales, que nos ayudan a diferenciarla de otros tipos de queratitis e iniciar el tratamiento precoz. Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos publicados, con el objetivo de mostrar las imágenes por microscopia confocal de la fase epitelial de la infección corneal por Acanthamoeba y herpes simple. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a low-incidence corneal infection caused by several factors and characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations and typical symptoms. In its epithelial phase, it should be differentiated from other keratitis, particularly from herpes simplex keratitis, due to the similar characteristics of the corneal lesion. In vivo confocal microscopy is a diagnostic alternative consisting in a photographic biopsy showing images of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites since their initial stages, thus allowing differentiation from other types of keratitis and the initiation of early treatment. A search was conducted of published papers with the purpose of showing confocal microscopy images of the epithelial phase of Acanthamoeba and herpes simplex corneal infection. Use was made of the platform Infomed, specifically the Virtual Health Library(AU)

Humans , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis, Herpetic/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): e0049, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351859


ABSTRACT Objective To identify preoperative clinical characteristics of patients undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty who failed to achieve optimal postoperative visual outcomes. Methods In this single-center, retrospective case series, patients who underwent femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty between 2013 and 2018 were included if they required graft revision, subsequent corneal procedure, or additional postoperative visits for a femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty-related issue. Visual outcomes assessed included best-corrected visual acuities and postoperative corneal astigmatism. Results Eight eyes of eight patients meeting the above criteria were included. Mean patient age was 64.5 years (range, 21 to 89 years). Mean included preoperative best-corrected visual acuities was one logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (range, 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution to counting fingers). Indications for femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty included anterior stromal scarring due to viral keratitis (two cases), bacterial keratitis (one case), chronic epithelial defect (one case), Avellino dystrophy (one case), trauma (one case), and chronic endothelial failure (two cases). Six patients had history of prior intraocular surgeries including phacoemulsification (four cases), pars plana vitrectomy (one case), endothelial keratoplasty (two cases), and trabeculectomy (one case). Mean included best-corrected visual acuities at most recent follow-up was one logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (range zero logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution to hand movements) representing improvement or stability in six of eight patients. Visually significant corneal astigmatism was present in four of eight patients. Post-femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedures included graft repositioning, arcuate keratotomy, phacoemulsification, and regraft. Conclusion While femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty offers a less-invasive treatment option compared to penetrating keratoplasty, intraoperative and postoperative management can be complex. Femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty in patients with history of prior endothelial keratoplasty or ongoing ocular comorbidities should be pursued with caution.

RESUMO Objetivo Identificar as características clínicas pré-operatórias de pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo que não alcançaram resultados visuais pós-operatórios ideais. Métodos Nesta série de casos retrospectiva em um único centro, os pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo entre 2013 e 2018 foram incluídos se precisassem de revisão do enxerto, procedimento corneano subsequente ou visitas pós-operatórias adicionais por uma intercorrência relacionada à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo. Os resultados visuais avaliados incluíram melhor acuidade visual corrigida e astigmatismo pós-operatório da córnea. Resultados Oito olhos de oito pacientes que atenderam aos critérios descritos foram incluídos. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 64,5 anos (variação de 21 a 89). A melhor acuidade visual corrigida pré-operatória média foi de um logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução (variação de 0,3 logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução para contagem de dedos). As indicações para ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo incluíram cicatriz do estroma anterior devido à ceratite viral (dois casos), ceratite bacteriana (um caso), defeito epitelial crônico (um caso), distrofia de Avellino (um caso), trauma (um caso) e insuficiência endotelial crônica (dois casos). Seis pacientes tinham história de cirurgias intraoculares anteriores, incluindo facoemulsificação (quatro casos), vitrectomia via pars plana (um caso), ceratoplastia endotelial (dois casos) e trabeculectomia (um caso). O mínimo ângulo de resolução médio no acompanhamento mais recente foi de um logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução (variação de zero logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução para movimentos das mãos), representando melhora ou estabilidade em seis de oito pacientes. Astigmatismo corneano visualmente significativo estava presente em quatro de oito pacientes. Os procedimentos pós-ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo incluíram reposicionamento do enxerto, ceratotomia arqueada, facoemulsificação e enxerto. Conclusão Embora a ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo ofereça uma opção de tratamento menos invasiva em comparação com a ceratoplastia penetrante, o manejo intra e pós-operatório pode ser complexo. A ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo em pacientes com história de ceratoplastia endotelial anterior ou comorbidades oculares correntes deve ser avaliada com cautela.

Humans , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Cornea/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Treatment Outcome , Corneal Surgery, Laser/methods , Laser Therapy/methods , Keratitis , Lasers
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0041, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347258


ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of anterior uveitis caused by Euphorbia milii sap and review all reported cases of keratouveitis related to this species. Methods: A 64-year-old male patient presented with a 10-day history of reduced visual acuity, pain, and photophobia in the left eye after an accidental contact with Euphorbia milii sap. Best-corrected visual acuity was initially 20/200. Upon examination, ciliary injection, mild corneal edema; fine keratic precipitates, and significant anterior chamber reaction. There was no vitritis, and fundoscopy was unremarkable. The patient initiated on topical steroid and tropicamide. Results: Best-corrected visual acuity in left eye improved to 20/20 after using eyedrops for 3 weeks, associated with complete resolution of anterior uveitis. Over the following 6 months, best-corrected visual acuity remained stable, and no evidence of recurrent inflammation was observed. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia milii sap. As observed in other cases of keratouveitis caused by sap of this species, the clinical course is benign and characterized by moderate reaction of the anterior chamber, and corneal involvement of variable intensity.

RESUMO O objetivo foi relatar um caso de uveíte anterior induzida pela seiva da Euphorbia milii e revisar todos os casos relatados de ceratouveíte causados por essa espécie. Paciente do sexo masculino, 64 anos, apresentou história de 10 dias de evolução com redução da acuidade visual, dor e fotofobia no olho esquerdo, após contato acidental com a seiva da planta Euphorbia milii. A acuidade visual com melhor correção era inicialmente 20/200. O exame revelou injeção ciliar, edema de córnea leve, precipitados ceráticos finos e reação de câmara anterior significativa. Não havia vitreíte, e a fundoscopia não exibia alterações. Foram iniciados colírios de esteroides e tropicamida. A acuidade visual no olho esquerdo melhorou para 20/20 em 3 semanas com a utilização dos colírios, além de se ter alcançado a resolução completa da uveíte anterior. Nos 6 meses seguintes, a acuidade visual permaneceu estável, e não foi observada evidência de recorrência da inflamação. Até então, este é o terceiro caso relatado de ceratouveíte pela seiva da Euphorbia milii. Como visto nos demais casos de ceratouveíte induzidos pela seiva dessa espécie, o curso clínico é benigno e caracterizado por reação moderada da câmara anterior, com envolvimento corneano de intensidade variável.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uveitis/chemically induced , Euphorbia/adverse effects , Plant Exudates/adverse effects , Keratitis/chemically induced , Plant Poisoning/complications , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Visual Acuity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908561


Objective:To investigate the risk factors and treatment outcome of recurrent Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) after corneal transplantation. Methods:A serial case-observational study was carried out.Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with AK who underwent corneal transplantation in Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2012 to January 2019 were enrolled.All the eyes received corneal transplantation from failing to respond to topical and systemic anti- Acanthamoeba medical therapy, including 13 eyes that received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and 15 eyes that received lamellar keratoplasty (LKP). The corneal lesion was removed by a trephine with a diameter of 0.5 mm over infiltration area during PKP or LKP.The clinical features of recurrent AK were summarized, including recurrence time, site and signs, and the risk factors of AK recurrence were analyzed.Local and systemic anti- Acanthamoeba medical therapy was performed in all relapsed eyes, and secondary surgery was performed for the eyes with poor response to medication.The therapeutic outcome of recurrent AK was evaluated.The study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki.This study protocol was approved by an Ethics Committee of Shandong Eye Hospital (No.201112). Results:In the 28 eyes, 7 eyes (25%) appeared recurrent AK after keratoplasty, including 2 eyes after PKP and 5 eyes after LKP.There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate between the two methods ( P=0.396). The recurrence rate of eyes that had used glucocorticoids drugs before operation was 57.14% (4/7), which was significantly higher in comparison with 14.29% (3/21) of eyes without glucocorticoids before surgery ( P=0.043). The recurrence rate of eyes with ulcer diameter ≥8.2 mm was 50.00% (5/10), which was significantly higher than 11.11% (2/18) of eyes with ulcer <8.2 mm ( P=0.036). The recurrent lesions began at the edge of implant bed accounted for 85.71% (6/7), and the recurrent lesions located below graft accounted for 14.29% (1/7). In 7 eyes with recurrent AK, 6 eyes were completely cured.Among recurrent AK eyes after LKP, 2 eyes were cured by long-term medical therapy, and 2 eyes were cured by extended-diameter LKP, and another 1 eye was cured by conjunctival flap covering surgery.One eye with recurrent AK after PKP was cured by extended-diameter PKP. Conclusions:The risk factors of recurrent AK after surgery are application of glucocorticoids before surgery and big lesions.Recurrent AK after surgery is curable by individualized therapy targeting to different clinical characteristics.

International Eye Science ; (12): 2090-2095, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904680


@#In recent years, metagenomics(MGS)is the fastest growing fields in microbiology, and has been broadly applied in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. Comparing with the traditional poly merase chain reaction(PCR)-based detecting technology which relies on microbial culture, MGS can directly detect the sequences of the total microbial DNA from uncultured samples with the high-throughput sequencing platform. It can help the doctors identify the involved pathogens more quickly and provide better medication guidance. Among the known ophthalmic diseases, a lot of them are caused by the infection of pathogens and have many difficulties in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The development of metagenomics provides us a more effective and reliable way for detecting the pathogens of ophthalmic diseases. This article was aimed to review the development of MGS, applications and in the field of ophthalmology, as well as its current deficiencies and the possible development directions in the future.

International Eye Science ; (12): 2072-2075, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904676


@#Innate immunity plays an important role in viral keratitis. Recently, it has been found that surfactant proteins(SP)A and D in the innate immune system are essential in viral keratitis. SP can inhibit virus adhesion to host cells and further promote phagocytosis of virus through high affinity for virus ligands. In order to ensure the normal function of tissues in the early stage of virus infection, SP regulates immune cells to maintain a non-inflammatory state. However, when pathogen invasion increases, SP promoted inflammation and increased the immune cells to kill the pathogens. SP-A and SP-D could be expressed in cornea, conjunctiva. To play the role of anti-adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus and other major eye pathogenic viruses, SP-A and SP-D combine with the virus to prevent entry into cells, promote phagocytosis, and directly kill the virus. SP-A and SP-D may be used as clinical diagnostic tools for viral infection. In the future, recombinant SP is expected to be used as an important means for the treatment of viral keratitis. Here, we review the innate immune function of SP-A and SP-D in ocular viral infection.

International Eye Science ; (12): 1412-1416, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882104


@#Interleukin-17(IL-17)is an important pro-inflammatory factor in autoimmune diseases and many inflammatory diseases. Studies have shown IL-17 plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of eye disease. This paper reviews the function and mechanism of IL-17 in keratitis, dry eye, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, providing new ideas and targets for the treatment of these diseases.

International Eye Science ; (12): 1922-1926, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887385


@#AIM:To investigate the application value of fluorescent staining technique in the detection of amoebic pathogens in corneal tissue biopsy, and to apply fluorescent staining technique in the histopathological diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis(AK), comparing the results with those of hemotoxyiln-eosin staining(HE staining)and periodic acid-schiff staining(PAS staining), and analyzing the sensitivity and specificity of these three staining methods.<p>METHODS:Specimens of infected corneal tissue were collected from 74 cases(75 eyes), and then they were divided into an AK group and a non-Acanthamoeba keratitis(NAK)group based on the results of corneal scraping, culture and histopathological diagnosis. The tissues of consecutive sections were stained with HE staining, PAS staining and fluorescence respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of the three staining methods for the diagnosis of AK were analyzed. Area under the curve(AUC)was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve. Further analysis was performed to count the number of Acanthamoeba pathogens found by the three staining methods under the same magnification field of view at the same site, and to clarify the diagnostic value of fluorescent staining technique for AK.<p>RESULTS: The sensitivity of HE staining was 69%(27/39)with a specificity of 92%; the sensitivity of PAS staining was 62%(24/39)with a specificity of 97%, and the sensitivity of fluorescent staining was 95%(37/39)with a specificity of 97%. There were differences in the sensitivity of the three staining methods for the diagnosis of AK(χ2=19.857, <i>P</i><0.001), and pairwise comparison revealed that the differences between HE staining and fluorescent staining, PAS staining and fluorescent staining for the diagnosis of AK were statistically significant(<i>P</i>=0.003,<0.001), while the difference in sensitivity between HE staining and PAS staining for the diagnosis of AK was not statistically significant(<i>P</i>=0.978). The maximum AUC was 0.960 for fluorescence staining, followed by 0.804 for HE staining and 0.794 for PAS staining, respectively. The median number of amoeba cysts detected by HE staining, PAS staining and fluorescent staining at the same site under the same magnification field of view was 4(0, 11), 2(0, 9)and 12(3, 33), respectively(χ2=56.561, <i>P</i><0.001). Pairwise comparison revealed that the differences in the number of amoeba cysts found by HE staining and fluorescence staining, PAS staining and fluorescence staining were statistically significant(<i>P</i><0.001), while the difference in the number of amoeba cysts found by HE staining and PAS staining was not statistically significant(<i>P</i>=0.210). Fluorescently stained histopathological sections make it easier to identify amoebic pathogens.<p>CONCLUSION:Fluorescent staining technique is more sensitive to histopathological diagnosis of AK than HE staining and PAS staining, which can significantly improve the positive rate of detection of amoebic pathogens.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 463-472, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153079


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to characterize alpha-hemolytic streptococci among isolates from cases of infectious endophthalmitis and keratitis and to determine their distributions. Methods: The sample included 27 and 35 nonduplicated isolates of alpha-hemolytic streptococci recovered from patients with infectious endophthalmitis (2002-2013) and keratitis (2008-2013), respectively. Isolates were identified by the optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, using a biochemical identification system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method. Molecular identification was performed by analyses of three constitutive genes and the complementary multilocus sequence. The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated using multilocus sequence typing, and the presence of the capsular polysaccharide-encoding gene was assessed using conventional polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes were evaluated using the patients' medical records. Results: Phenotypic tests differentiated S. pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci, consistent with later molecular identifications. Streptococcus oralis was significantly prevalent among the endophthalmitis isolates, as was S. pneumoniae in the keratitis isolates. High levels of susceptibility to antibiotics were observed, including vancomycin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. High genetic variability was detected among the 19 S. pneumoniae strains, with 15 predicted to be encapsulated. The medical records of patients with infectious endophthalmitis were reviewed (n=15/27; 56%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 12 cases (44%). Many patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/12; 50%), "light perception" (3/12; 25%), or "hand motion" (1/12; 8%). The medical records of patients with infectious keratitis were also reviewed (n=24/35; 69%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 18 cases (51%). Similarly, most patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/18; 33%), "light perception" (1/18; 6%), or "hand motion" (6/18; 33%). Overall, the majority of patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (12/30), "light perception" (4/30), or "hand motion" (7/30). Conclusions: The distribution of alpha-hemolytic streptococci in ocular infections suggested the presence of a species-specific tissue tropism. The prognoses of patients with ocular streptococcal infections were highly unfavorable, and antibiotic resistance did not contribute to the unfavorable clinical progressions and poor outcomes.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos isolados de endoftalmite infecciosa e ceratite e determinar sua distribuição. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 27 e 35 isolados não-duplicados de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos recuperados de pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa (2002-2013) e ceratite (2008-2013), respectivamente. Os isolados foram identificados pelos testes de suscetibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade, utilizando um sistema de identificação bioquímica. A concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. A identificação molecular foi realizada pela análise de três genes constitutivos e análise complementar de sequências multilocus. A epidemiologia molecular do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi investigada por tipagem de sequência multilocus, e a presença do gene codificador do polissacarídeo capsular foi avaliada por reação em cadeia da polymerase convencional. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando os prontuários médicos dos pacientes. Resultados: Os testes fenotípicos diferenciaram S. pneumoniae dos outros estreptococos alpha-hemolíticos, consistentes com identificações moleculares posteriores. S. oralis foi significativamente prevalente entre os isolados de endoftalmite, assim como S. pneumoniae nos isolados de ceratite. Foram observados altos níveis de suscetibilidade a antibióticos, incluindo vancomicina, cefalosporinas e fluoroquinolonas. Alta variabilidade genética foi detectada entre as 19 cepas de S. pneumoniae, com 15 previstas para serem encapsuladas. Os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa foram revisados (n=15/27; 56%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 12 casos (44%). Muitos pacientes evoluiram para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/12; 50%), "percepção luminosa" (3/12; 25%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (1/12; 8%). Também foram revisados os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com ceratite infecciosa (n=24/35; 69%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 18 casos (51%). Da mesma foram, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/18; 33%), "percepção luminosa" (1/18; 6%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (6/18; 33%). No geral, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (12/30), "percepção luminosa" (4/30) ou "movimentos de mãos" (7/30). Conclusões: A distribuição de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos nas infecções oculares sugeriu a presença de um tropismo de tecido específico da espécie. Os prognósticos dos pacientes com infeções oculares por estreptococos foram altamente desfavoráveis e a resistência a antibióticos contribuiu não para as progressões clínicas des­favoráveis e os maus resultados.

Humans , Endophthalmitis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Keratitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 315-319, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137981


Abstract Purpose: To report etiological diagnosis, predisposing risk factors, therapeutic strategies and visual outcome of patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study from medical and laboratory records of the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo, including all patients with culture proven fungal keratitis in 5 years, from October 2012 through October 2017. Results: There were 2260 fungi microbiologic test requests. Of these, 140 samples had positive cultures for fungi and sixty-six patients were followed at our clinic. Forty-five patients (68.2%) were men, and the mean age was 48.06 (±17.39) years. Fusarium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus (32 cases; 48.5%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (12 cases; 18.2%). Thirty-four patients (51.5%) underwent intracameral injection of amphotericin B (5 µg per 0.1 ml). In 11 patients (32.3%), infection was eradicated after intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antifungal treatment and, in 23 patients (67.7%), therapeutic keratoplasty was needed. No complication related to intracameral amphotericin B injection was observed in this series. Forty-three patients (65.1%) ended up with therapeutic keratoplasty. Three patients (4.5%) evolved to evisceration or enucleation. At the last follow-up visit, 53 patients (80.3%) had visual acuity worse than 20/200. Conclusion: Despite current antifungals drugs and distinct administration strategies, fungal keratitis remains challenging. Delayed antifungal therapy may explain poor clinical outcomes. Intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antfungal treatment seems to be a safe and helpful alternative for non-responsive fungal keratitis. But it is important to formulate other treatment strategies, hence to improve patients' outcomes, since most patients ended-up with significant visual impairment even after current treatment.

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever diagnósticos etiológicos, fatores de risco, estratégias terapêuticas e resultados visuais de pacientes com ceratite fúngica tratados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e observacional, a partir da análise de prontuários médicos e laboratoriais do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, incluindo todos os pacientes com ceratite fúngica comprovada por cultura no período de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 2260 solicitações de testes microbiológicos. Destas, 140 amostras apresentaram culturas positivas para fungos, e 66 pacientes foram acompanhados em nosso serviço. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (68,2%) eram do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 48,06 (± 17,39) anos. Fusarium spp. foi o fungo mais freqüentemente isolado (32 casos; 48,5%), seguido por Candida parapsilosis (12 casos; 18,2%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (51,5%) foram submetidos à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B (5 µg por 0,1 ml). Destes, 11 pacientes (32,3%) tiveram a infecção erradicada. Nos outros 23 pacientes (67,7%), o transplante terapêutico foi necessário. Nenhuma complicação relacionada à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B foi observada neste estudo. No total, 43 pacientes (65,1%) evoluíram para transplante terapêutico, e 3 pacientes (4,5%) foram submetidos à evisceração ou enucleação. Cinquenta e três pacientes (80,3%) apresentaram acuidade visual final pior que 20/200. Conclusões: Apesar dos diversos medicamentos antifúngicos atuais e vias de administração, o tratamento das ceratites fúngicas permanece desafiador. O atraso no início do tratamento adequado pode justificar o desfecho clínico desfavorável de grande parte dos pacientes. A injeção intracameral de anfotericina B mostrou-se uma alternativa terapêutica segura para ceratites fúngicas refratárias. Mas outras estratégias de tratamento devem ser formuladas, visando melhorar os resultados visuais dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203004


Introduction: Corneal ulcer is one of the important causesfor ocular morbidity in India. Early presentation with promptdiagnosis and treatment result in good visual rehabilitation.Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the etiology ofcorneal ulcer among patients attending the tertiary careteaching hospital of Jharkhand.Material and Methods: This was a prospective observationalhospital-based study conducted at the Department ofOphthalmology, at a tertiary care hospital, in Jharkhand.Data related to socioeconomic status, predisposing factor,and course of disease was collected. Results were analyzedon the basis of history, slit lamp examination, and appropriatelaboratory investigation.Result: During the study period of one year, 1013 patientswith the clinical diagnosis of corneal ulceration wereevaluated, mean age of the patient was 53 years and majorityof patients of infectious keratitis were in between 46 and 60(45%) age group. Incidence in male was higher than (59%)that of female. The left eye was more commonly involved(53%) as compared to the right eye (47%). Farmers (47%)followed by Industrial worker (27%) were most commonoccupation involved. Incidence of fungal keratitis (42%) washigher than bacterial (31%) and viral (11%).Conclusion: Proper diagnosis and management of cornealulcer is very much necessary among exposed population.Incidence of fungal corneal ulcer is very high amongagriculture and industrial workers and lack of awareness andpoor treatment leads to corneal blindness. Use of protectiveeye wear, masks and face shields may play a key role inprevention of the disease

Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e824, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139081


RESUMEN Se reporta el uso del crosslinking como tratamiento de la queratitis por Acanthamoeba en una serie de 7 pacientes quienes acudieron al Servicio de Córnea por queratitis multitratadas. Se les realizó biopsia corneal, la cual se cultivó en solución de Page. Los pacientes fueron tratados con un protocolo de PACK-CXL durante más de 5 minutos y fueron sometidos a la exposición a la luz UV-A. El edema del nuevo epitelio era de 2 cruces a las 24 horas, y desapareció a las dos semanas del procedimiento en todos los casos. El porcentaje de desepitelización basal al momento del diagnóstico fue de 75,7 por ciento. La agudeza visual mejor corregida fue de entre 20/20 y 20/30. Se concluye que el uso de crosslinking en pacientes con Acanthamoeba en fases inicales pudiera ser una opción terapéutica segura y efectiva(AU)

ABSTRACT A report is presented of the use of crosslinking as treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis in a series of 7 patients attending the Cornea Service for multitreated keratitis. Corneal biopsy was performed, which was cultured in Page solution. The patients were treated with a PACK-CXL protocol for more than 5 minutes and subjected to UV-A light exposure. Edema of the new epithelium was 2 crosses at 24 hours and disappeared 2 weeks after the procedure in all cases. Basal de-epithelialization percentage at diagnosis was 75.7 percent. Best corrected visual acuity ranged between 20/20 and 20/30. It is concluded that the use of crosslinking in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in its initial stages could be a safe and effective therapeutic option(AU)

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acanthamoeba/cytology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/diagnosis , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/drug therapy , Research Report , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic