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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(5): 830-839, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the success of a deep learning model in detecting kidney stones in different planes according to stone size on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 455 patients who underwent CT scanning for kidney stones between January 2016 and January 2020; of them, 405 were diagnosed with kidney stones and 50 were not. Patients with renal stones of 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm, and >2 cm in size were classified into groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Two radiologists reviewed 2,959 CT images of 455 patients in three planes. Subsequently, these CT images were evaluated using a deep learning model. The accuracy rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the deep learning model were determined. Results: The training group accuracy rates of the deep learning model were 98.2%, 99.1%, and 97.3% in the axial plane; 99.1%, 98.2%, and 97.3% in the coronal plane; and 98.2%, 98.2%, and 98.2% in the sagittal plane, respectively. The testing group accuracy rates of the deep learning model were 78%, 68% and 70% in the axial plane; 63%, 72%, and 64% in the coronal plane; and 85%, 89%, and 93% in the sagittal plane, respectively. Conclusions: The use of deep learning algorithms for the detection of kidney stones is reliable and effective. Additionally, these algorithms can reduce the reporting time and cost of CT-dependent urolithiasis detection, leading to early diagnosis and management.

2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(5): 817-827, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394392

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the factors of prolonged urinary leakage (PUL) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and develop a new and simple scoring system to predict it. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with renal stones who underwent PCNL at the University of Health Sciences Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital between April 2011 and January 2020. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PUL, and their preoperative and perioperative data were compared. A multivariate regression analysis was applied to examine the relationship between perioperative descriptors and PUL, and a nomogram was developed using significant predictors. Then, the individual components of the nomogram were assigned points to form a scoring system. Results: There were 92 and 840 patients in the groups with and without PUL, respectively. The results of the univariate logistic regression analysis showed that hydronephrosis grade, parenchymal thickness, duration of nephroscopy, and duration of nephrostomy catheter were significantly associated with PUL. Subsequently, a multivariate regression analysis was carried out with these four factors as possible independent risk factors of PUL after PCNL. Based on the results of this analysis, a nomogram prediction model was developed with an area under the curve value of 0.811, which was consequently used to develop a new simple score system consisting of three characteristics: parenchymal thickness (1-5 points), duration of nephroscopy (1-3 points), and hydronephrosis grade (1-3 points). Conclusion: A novel scoring system is a useful tool for predicting PUL in patients who have undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(4): 637-648, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385134

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The purpose is to compare the efficacy and safety of mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) versus standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard-PCNL) in patients with renal stones >2cm. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies before March 8, 2021. Stone-free rate (SFR), operation time, fever rate, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion rate, and hospitalization time were used as outcomes to compare mini-PCNL and standard-PCNL. The meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager version 5.4. Results Seven randomized controlled trials were included in our meta-analysis, involving 1407 mini-PCNL cases and 1436 standard-PCNL cases. Our results reveal that, for renal stones >2cm, mini-PCNL has a similar SFR (risk ratio (RR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98 to 1.04, p=0.57) and fever rate (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.97-1.51, p=0.08). Standard-PCNL was associated with a significantly shorter operating time (weighted mean difference (WMD)=8.23, 95% CI: 3.44 to 13.01, p <0.01) and a longer hospitalization time (WMD=-20.05, 95% CI: -29.28 to -10.81, p <0.01) than mini-PCNL. Subgroup analysis showed hemoglobin drop and blood transfusion for 30F standard-PCNL were more common than mini-PCNL (WMD=-0.95, 95% CI: -1.40 to -0.50, p <0.01; RR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.58, p <0.01). Conclusion In the treatment of >2cm renal stones, mini-PCNL should be considered an effective and reliable alternative to standard-PCNL (30F). It achieves a comparable SFR to standard-PCNL, but with less blood loss, lower transfusion rate, and shorter hospitalization. However, the mini-PCNL does not show a significant advantage over the 24F standard-PCNL. On the contrary, this procedure takes a longer operation time. Trial registration This meta-analysis was reported consistent with the PRISMA statement and was registered on PROSPERO, with registration number 2021CRD42021234893.

4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(3): 456-467, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385115

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Flexible ureteroscopy is a well-established method for treatment of urinary stones but flexible ureteroscopes are expensive and fragile devices with a very limited lifetime. Since 2006 with the advent of digital flexible ureteroscopes a great evolution has occurred. The first single-use flexible ureteroscope was launched in 2011 and new models are coming to the market. The aim of this article is to review the characteristics of these devices, compare their results with the reusable devices and evaluate the cost-benefits of adopting single-use flexible ureteroscopes in developing countries. Materials and Methods: an extensive review of articles listed at PubMed and published between 2000 and 2021 was performed. Results: Single-use flexible ureteroscopes have a shaft with 65 to 68cm length and weight between 119 and 277g. Their deflection goes up to 300 degrees. Their stone-free rates vary between 60 and 95% which is comparable to reusable scopes and operative times ranges from 54 to 86 minutes which are lower when compared to reusable flexible scopes. Their costs vary between 800 and 3180 US dollars. Conclusion: single-use flexible ureteroscopes are lighter and have superior quality of image when compared to fiberoptic ones. There are no definite data showing a higher stone-free rate or less complications with the use of single-use flexible ureteroscopes. Each institution must perform a cost-benefit analysis before making the decision of adopting or not such devices depending on the local circumstances.

5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 101-109, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356279

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). Conclusions: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Urolithiasis/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 393-396, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933240

ABSTRACT

Hypercalciuria, as a common clinical feature of kidney stones, is a common feature of hereditary diseases such as idiopathic hypercalciuria, autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia, Bartter's syndrome, Dent disease, hereditary hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria, infantile hypercalcaemia, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis, However, the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of these hypercalciuric kidney stones have their own characteristics. We summarized the results of recent genetic studies on hypercalciuria to promote clinical screening, diagnosis and reasonable treatment.

7.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 387-388, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933238

ABSTRACT

Solitary kidney, renal duplication and malrotation are rare congenital renal malformations in urology department, and probably contributed to some complications such as obstruction, hydronephrosis, infection, stones. In this case report, we firstly presented a male patient with rarely multiple renal malformations, including solitary kidney, renal duplication, misaligned malrotation of upper and lower moieties, and accompanied by complete staghorn stones and hydronephrosis, who was treated with open pyelolithotomy under general anesthesia. After the operation, obstruction, hydronephrosis, and infection were relieved.

8.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 384-386, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933237

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of 120 patients admitted to our hospital with renal stones treated by flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) and the imaging-related data measured by virtual reality technology were retrospectively analysed. The results of the univariate analysis showed that stone surface area (S), renal pelvis volume (P), length of calyces funnel (L), pelvic calyceal height (H) and essence of stone (E) were closely related to stone-free rate. The H. L.P.E.S. score was constructed to predict stone-free rate after FURS based on the above factors, and the area under the receiver aperating characteristic curve for the H. L.P.E.S. and S. O.L.V.E. scoring systems was 0.921 and 0.754 respectively.The H. L.P.E.S. scoring system has higher predictive value.

9.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 285-290, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933213

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in renal injury and fibrosis caused by calcium oxalate crystals in mice.Methods:In June 2021, Fifteen male C57/BL6 mice were divided into control group (5 mice), model group (5 mice), and AMD3100 intervention group (5 mice) by random number table method. In model group and AMD3100 intervention group, glyoxylate (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneal for 7 consecutive days for modeling. Meanwhile, the AMD3100 intervention group was also given intraperitoneal injection of AMD3100 (1 mg/kg) for 7 days. The control group was continuously injected with equal volume saline intraperitoneally. After 7 days, peripheral blood was collected from each group to determine the levels of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Scr) to assess the renal function; HE, Von-Kossa, Picrosirius Red staining was also taken from the left kidney to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue. CXCR4, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The expression levels of PI3K/AKT pathway-related proteins were detected by western blot.Results:The results of biochemical indexes showed that the serum Scr [(108.03±13.56) μmol/L vs. (39.50±4.48)μmol/L, P<0.01)] and BUN[(5.66±0.48)mmol/L vs. (0.77±0.10)mmol/L, P<0.01) levels were significantly increased in model group compared with the control group. The AMD3100 intervention group was significantly lower than the model group in terms of Scr [(65.77±3.27)μmol/L vs. (108.03±13.56)μmol/L, P<0.05) and BUN [(2.97±0.44)mmol/L vs. (5.66±0.48)mmol/L, P<0.05) levels. The results of kidney pathology in mice showed that renal tubules were significantly dilated with inflammatory cell infiltration in the model group compared with the control group, and a large number of calcium oxalate crystals and collagen fibers were deposited. The extent of kidney damage, calcium oxalate crystals and collagen fibers deposition were significantly reduced in the AMD3100 intervention group compared with the model group. The results of western blotting showed that the relative expression of CXCR4(0.639±0.019 vs. 0.158±0.012, P<0.01) and TGF-β1(0.698+ 0.018 vs. 0.314+ 0.015, P<0.05) was significantly increased in the model group compared with the control group. The relative expression of CXCR4(0.322±0.231) in the AMD3100 intervention group compared with the model group (0.322±0.231 vs. 0.639±0.019, P<0.05) and TGF-β1(0.445+ 0.017 vs. 0.698+ 0.018, P<0.05) were significantly decreased. The results of immunohistochemical staining showed the trend of CXCR4 and TGF-β1 expression in each group consistent with the results of protein blotting assay. Western blotting results showed that the expression of p-PI3K (0.613±0.016 vs. 0.213±0.011, P<0.01) and p-AKT(0.149±0.013 vs. 0.047±0.014, P<0.01) was significantly increased in the model group compared with the control group. The expression of p-PI3K in the AMD3100 intervention group compared with the model group (0.292±0.020 vs. 0.613±0.016, P<0.05) and p-AKT (0.098±0.021 vs. 0.149±0.013, P<0.05)was significantly decreased. Conclusion:CXCR4 inhibits calcium oxalate crystal-induced kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis in mice by targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway.

10.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 198-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933192

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery(RIRS) with holmium laser lithotripsy in the management of calyceal diverticular calculi.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 56 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi admitted to Huashan Hospital of Fudan University from January 2017 to May 2020. The 56 cases included 25 males and 31 females. The average age was 37.4 (ranging 22-67) years. Calyceal diverticular stones were located in the upper pole of the kidney in 32 cases, middle pole in 16 case and lower pole in 8 cases, with 32 cases on the left side and 24 cases on the right side. Multiple stones occurred in 46 cases, and single stone in 10 cases. The mean diameter of stones was 11.5 (ranging 3.0-17.5)mm. All 56 patients had different degrees of lumbar pain and/or hematuria preoperatively. Among them, 17 patients received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with failure. Moreover, 9 cases suffered with urinary infection. All 56 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi underwent retrograde flexible ureterorenoscopic Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy under general anesthesia. The flexible ureterorenoscope was advanced into the kidney through the ureteral access sheath, looking for the cervical orifice of calyceal diverticulum. After finding renal diverticulum, holmium laser was used to incise and expand the neck or weak part of the diverticulum. The diverticular calculi were fragmented into particles less than 3 mm. Larger fragments were removed through a nitinol stone basket one by one. A F6 D-J stent was indwelled. The intraoperative conditions, postoperative complication rate and stone free rate were statistically analyzed.Results:The calyceal diverticular calculi in all 56 patients were discovered, and the diverticulum orifice were identified in 48 patients(85.7%). 53 of them underwent calyceal diverticular calculi fragmentation successfully. Lithotripsy failed in 3 cases, as the calculi were incarcerated in the lower pole calyceal diverticulum with a long narrow neck and the limitation of flexure at the end of the flexible ureteroscope. Two of them underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy instead due to the calculi located in the posterior calyx. In another one case, ESWL was performed as the calculi located in the anterior calyx. Of the 17 cases received unsuccessful ESWL, RIRS was successful in 16 cases (94.1%). The mean operative time was 68.1(ranging 37-105)min, and mean hospitalization was 1.8 (ranging 1-3)d. The complication rate was 15.1%(8/53). All of these complications were mild (Clavien Ⅰ-Ⅱ). No serious complications such as perforation of the renal pelvis and ureter or major bleeding were occurred. After mean postoperative follow-up of 6.3(ranging 3-12) months, the stone-free rate was 83.0% (44/53) after the first procedure. 7 cases with residual stones ≥4mm received a second procedure. Among them, 6 cases received flexible ureterorenoscopy and the other one received ESWL and external physical vibration lithecbole therapy. The stone-free rate and symptom remission rate was 92.5% (49/53) and 96.2% (51/53) respectively after the second procedure, and no recurrence of calyceal diverticular calculi was observed during the stage of fllow-up.Conclusions:RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi, using the body's natural cavities, is a minimally invasive, safe and efficient strategy with slight complications. RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy is an optional treatment for calyceal diverticular calculi.

11.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 156-160, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933184

ABSTRACT

Some kidney stones are caused by single gene mutations, and monogenic kidney stone diseases associated with purine metabolic disorder mainly including adenine phosphoribosyltransferase(APRT) deficiency, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase(HPRT)deficiency, hereditary xanthinuria(HX), and some diseases caused by gene mutations such as PRS1, SLC22A12, SLC2A9 and ABCG2. Such diseases can lead to abnormal metabolism of purine and uric acid, and then form 2, 8-dihydroxyadenine stones, uric acid stones or xanthine stones. This kind of diseases are rare, the genotype and phenotype of different types of monogenic diseases related to purine metabolism have their own characteristics and are not widely recognized. At present, the main treatment is medical therapy. Gene sequencing will make the diagnosis and find more disease-related genes or mutations. Gene editing, such as CRISPR/Cas9 technology, makes it possible to cure monogenic kidney stone diseases associated with purine metabolism disorder in the future.

12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1198-1206, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340028

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a previous standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Materials and Methods: Outcomes of RIRS performed from January 2017 to January 2020 in adult patients with residual stone fragments ≤20mm after a standard PCNL (Post-PCNL) and symptomatic adult patients with kidney stones ≤20mm (Control) were prospectively studied. Stone-free rate (SFR) was evaluated on a postoperative day 90 non-contrast computed tomography. Surgical complications based on Clavien-Dindo classification during the 90 days of follow-up were recorded. Results: Outcomes of 55 patients and 57 renal units of the post-PCNL group were compared to 92 patients and 115 renal units of the control group. SFR was lower in post-PCNL group than in control (28/57, 49.1% vs. 86/115, 74.8%, p <0.001). Overall complications were more frequent in post-PCNL group (p=0.004). Infundibula strictures were identified and incised with laser in 15/57 (26.3%) renal units of the post-PCNL group. Thirteen renal units had infundibulum stricture at the site of previous percutaneous tract (13/15; 86.7%, p=0.004) and one renal unit had three infundibula strictures. Postoperative complications were not affected by the treatment of infundibula strictures (p=0.198). Conclusions: Previous standard PCNL significantly impairs the outcomes of RIRS. Infundibula strictures can be found in 26.3% of the patients with residual stone fragments after standard PCNL for large burden kidney stones. The main site of infundibulum stricture after standard PCNL is the infundibulum of the entry calyx.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1136-1147, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340023

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the effect of low-calorie diet on 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters of obese adults with idiopathic calcium oxalate kidney stones. Materials and Methods: Adult idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 and a known lithogenic metabolic abnormality, were submitted to low-calorie diet for twelve weeks. After enrolment, anthropometric measures, serum exams, 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters and body impedance were collected one month prior to dietary intervention and at the end of twelve weeks. Correlations between weight loss, waist circumference loss, fat loss and variation in 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters and calcium oxalate urinary supersaturation (CaOx SS) as per Tiselius equation were analysed. Results: From January 2017 to January 2018, 39 patients were enrolled to participate in this study. Median (range) prescribed diet was 1300 (1100-2100) Kcal/day. Mean age was 51.7±11.0 (29-68) years old and 69.2% were female. 30.8% of the participants shifted from obesity to BMI <30kg/m2 and none to BMI <25kg/m2. A significant correlation was found between baseline 24-hour urinary oxalate and weight (p=0.018) and BMI (p=0.026). No correlation was found between variation of weight, waist circumference, fat mass and 24-h urinary stone risk factors or CaOx SS. Conclusions: Short-term modest weight loss induced by twelve weeks of low-calorie diet is not associated with a decrease of 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Calcium oxalate urinary stone formation is probably multifactorial and driven by other factors than weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Kidney Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi , Calcium Oxalate , Calcium , Caloric Restriction , Obesity/complications
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911768

ABSTRACT

A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in 120 patients with hydronephrosis-free lower calyceal calculi in Jiangshan People′s Hospital from June 2020 to August 2021. Patients were divided into drug group, vibration group and combination group by random number table method with 40 cases in each group. The drug group was treated with potassium hydrogen citrate sodium, the vibration group was treated with external physical vibration lithotripsy (EPVL), and the combination group was treated with EPVL combined with potassium hydrogen citrate sodium. The renal stone discharge rate and complications were observed and compared among three groups 1, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. The overall discharge rate in 120 patients was 39.2%(47/120). The discharge rate of vibration group and combination group were higher than that of drug group ( P<0.05). There were no significant differences in stone discharge rate at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment between vibration and combination group ( P=0.63 and 0.14), while the calculi discharge rate at 4 weeks after treatment in combination group was higher than that in vibration group ( P=0.03).The overall incidence of complications in 120 patients was 12.5% (15/120), that of drug group, vibration group and combination group was 7.5%(3/40), 15.0%(6/40), and 15.0% (6/40), respectively ( P<0.05). No serious complication occurred, and all patients recovered well after treatment. The results suggest that EPVL can promote the discharge of small calyceal calculi in hydronephrosis-free patients, and potassium hydrogen citrate sodium can further facilities the discharge of renal stone.

15.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 848-852, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929955

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the rapid development of rigid ureteroscopy and flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy in the field of urology, great changes have been made in the treatment of urinary calculi. Although flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy is easy to be damaged and expensive to maintain, it has high technical requirements for doctors, but it does not need to establish other traumatic channels, but uses the natural cavity of human urinary system, It has been paid more and more attention by urologists and has a good development prospect. Stone free rate is an objective index to judge the efficiency of flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy. The stone free rate and treatment after flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy have always been a difficult problem. Many scholars at home and abroad have studied the influencing factors of stone free rate after flexible ureteroscope lithotripsy, studies have shown that large stone load, hard stone composition, narrow angle of renal pelvis and calyceal and severe hydronephrosis are the main risk factors leading to the reduction of postoperative one-time stone free rate. In this paper, the research results in this field at home and abroad will be summarized.

16.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 773-777, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911113

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive value of serum albumin (Alb) levels in the early postoperative period (within 1 hour) for urosepsis after minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL).Methods:The clinical data of 160 patients treated by single channel holmium laser mPCNL in urolithiasis treatment center of the second hospital of Tianjin Medical University from January 2019 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the sepsis group and the non-sepsis group according to whether the patients developed urosepsis after the operation. There were 110 cases of male, and 50 cases of female, with average age of(51.8±11.9), including 68 cases with hypertension, 26 cases with diabetes, 12 patients with history of preoperative fever, 16 cases with history of endoscopic lithotomy surgery, 6 patients with preoperative catheter, 24 patients with positive preoperative urine culture, 12 patients with positive preoperative nitrite volume, 32 cases with preoperative routine urine leucocyte(+ + + ). The operative time and infusion volume were recorded during the operation. Blood samples were collected from all patients within 1 hour after surgery to detect blood routine and serum albumin (Alb), and the change of haemorrhagic white blood cells and serum albumin were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to statistically analyze the relevant clinical parameters to identify the independent risk factors for urosepsis after mPCNL surgery. The ROC curve was established and the area under the comparison curve was calculated to analyze the predictive value of independent risk factors for postoperative urosepsis.Results:There were 13 patients (8.1%) in the sepsis group, including 7 males and 6 females, with an average age of (53.1±8.2) years. There were 147 patients (91.9%) in the non-sepsis group, including 103 males and 44 females, with an average age of (51.7±12.1)years. Single factor analysis showed the infectious stones (38.5% and 8.8%), surgery duration [(94.6±26.2)min and(63.6±24.5)min], a positive urine culture (46.2% and 12.2%), positive urinary nitrite (30.8% and 5.4%), strong positive urinary leukocyte (61.5% and 11.3%), postoperative albumin levels [(34.2±2.7)g/L and(40.7±6.2)g/L]and changes of serum albumin levels within one hour after surgery [(18.3±4.6)% and(3.8±14.3)%] between the sepsis group and the non-sepsis group had significant differences ( P<0.05). Multiariable logistic regression analysis showed the strong positive urine leucocyte ( OR=57.704, 95% CI 2.407-1383.427, P=0.012), postoperative blood leucocyte level within one hour after surgery ( OR=2.406, 95% CI 1.154-3.627, P=0.014) and the change of serum albumin levels after surgery ( OR=1.373, 95% CI 1.083-1.740, P=0.009) were independent risk factors for sepsis. ROC curve analysis indicated that the AUC of the change amplitude of serum albumin level was 0.926, which was significantly higher than the AUC of the qualitative results of blood leukocyte and the AUC of urinary leukocyte( P<0.01). Conclusions:The positive urinary leucocyte, the change of serum albumin levels after surgery within one hour and the leucocyte level are independent risk factors for postoperative urosepsis after mPCNL. The change of serum albumin level in the early postoperative period has a strong predictive value for the early diagnosis of postoperative sepsis.

17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 540-541, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911065

ABSTRACT

The placement of the flexible ureteroscopic sheath during lithotripsy may injure the ureter. We have developed a double-tube flexible ureteral access sheath. Thirteen patients with renal calculi were treated with double-tube and flexible sheath in one stage. CT examination of 13 cases showed that the ureter was normal. The double-tube flexible ureteral access sheath makes the operation of sheathing easy, safe and effective.

18.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 513-517, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911060

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) bridging program in the perioperative period of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) for long-term antithrombotic patients.Methods:The clinical data of 50 patients who received long-term antithrombotic therapy with mPCNL in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Perioperative anticoagulation plans were drawn up after discussion with an internist. Patients with high thrombosis risk were bridged with LMWH during the perioperative period. Resumed LMWH anticoagulation within 48 hours after surgery. Patients with low or medium thrombosis risk directly discontinued anticoagulation one week before surgery. Preoperative anticoagulation was resumed within 48 hours after removing the nephrostomy tube in all patients. We analyzed the general information before surgery, data during surgery, postoperative hemoglobin changes and stone-free rate (SRF) of all cases. 21 patients were treated with LMWH bridging (bridging group), and 29 patients were directly discontinued with anticoagulant drugs (non-bridging group). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in age [(59.7±7.1) vs. (52.4±10.4)years] , gender [(male/female), 14/7 vs. 19/10], BMI [ (24.3±3.9) kg/m 2 vs. (24.7±5.1) kg/m 2], S. T.O.N.E. score (7.4±1.1 vs. 6.9±1.0), stone surface area [ 314.0(31.4-1 130.4) mm 2 vs. 282.5(64.7-866.0) mm 2], the number of calculi involved in calyces (6/15 vs. 13/16) and stone-related surgical history [ 34% (7/21) vs. 24% (7/29) ]. Results:In the bridging group, 18 patients (86%) performed single-channel mPCNL, 3 patients (14%) underwent dual-channel mPCNL, and the operation time was 80 (35-180) min. In the non-bridging group, 27 patients (93%) underwent single-channel mPCNL, 2 patients (7%) performed dual-channel mPCNL, and the operation time was 80 (30-60) min. The mean changes in hemoglobin in the bridging group and the non-bridging group was 18 (-2 -66) g/L and 14 (-25-64) g/L, respectively ( P = 0.073). The average postoperative hospital stay in the bridging group was (8.6 ± 3.5) days, and the non-bridging group was (7.1 ± 2.3) days ( P= 0.057). Two patients in each group received blood transfusion, and no patients received interventional embolization. The SRF of bridging group and non-bridging group was 81.0% (17/21) vs. 75.9% (22/29) ( P = 0.67) 1 month after the operation. During the perioperative period, no patients had thrombotic complications. Conclusions:When mPCNL was required for long-term antithrombotic treatment patients, the use of LWMH alternatives during the perioperative period did not increase bleeding related complications.

19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(3): 333-340, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the dietary patterns and occurrence of metabolic disorders in children and adolescents with urolithiasis treatment at a referral hospital in southern Brazil in order to learn the features of urolithiasis in this population to better develop preventive actions. Methods: Descriptive study conducted between 2016 and 2017 in a tertiary care referral hospital. Fourty patients aged 2-19 years old with urolithiasis proven by imaging were included. Clinical and dietary data were obtained through interviews and medical records. For statistical analyses, the chi-squared test was performed. Results: 40 individuals were analyzed. Mean age at diagnosis was 7.2 ± 4 years. 25% were overweight or obese. 95% had metabolic disorders, hypocitraturia being the predominant type. Protein intake was adequate in all participants and carbohydrate intake, in 70% of them; 37.5% had lipid intake above recommended and 65% had low fiber intake. The mean daily sodium intake was 2.64 g (±1.74), with 55% of participants ingesting more than the recommended amount. A total of 52.5% had low potassium intake, with a mean of 4.79 g/day (±2.49). Calcium intake was adequate in 27.5%. No significant differences were identified in relation to mean daily consumption among participants with or without the various metabolic disorders. Conclusion: Pediatric urolithiasis is often accompanied by metabolic disorders; therefore, metabolic evaluation should be part of the diagnostic process and subsequent analysis of these patients' dietary patterns, helping to optimize treatment and prevent recurrences and complications.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o padrão alimentar e a ocorrência de distúrbios metabólicos em crianças e adolescentes portadoras de urolitíase acompanhadas em hospital de referências no sul do Brasil a fim de conhecer as particularidades da urolitíase nessa população para melhor desenvolver ações de prevenção. Métodos: Estudo observacional descritivo realizado entre 2016 e 2017 em centro de referência em atenção terciária. Foram selecionados 40 pacientes de dois a 19 anos com urolitíase comprovada por exame de imagem. Dados clínicos e alimentares foram obtidos através de prontuário e entrevista. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado. Resultados: Foram analisados 40 indivíduos, 55% masculinos. Idade média ao diagnóstico 7,2 ± 4 anos; 25% tinham sobrepeso ou obesidade; 95% tinham distúrbios metabólicos, predominou a hipocitratúria. O consumo proteico e de carboidratos foi adequado em 100% e 70% dos participantes, respectivamente, 37,5% apresentaram ingestão de lipídeos acima do recomendado e 65% apresentaram ingestão de fibras alimentares abaixo do recomendado. O consumo diário médio de sódio foi de 2,64 g (± 1,74), com 55% acima do recomendado; 52,5% apresentaram baixa ingestão de potássio com média de 4,79 g/dia (± 2,49). O consumo de cálcio foi adequado em 27,5%. Não foram identificadas diferenças significativas em relação ao consumo médio diário dos nutrientes entre os participantes com ou sem os diversos distúrbios metabólicos. Conclusões: A urolitíase pediátrica é frequentemente acompanhada de distúrbios metabólicos, o que confirma a necessidade de avaliação metabólica adequada ao diagnóstico e análise do padrão alimentar a fim de identificar erros alimentares, aprimorar o tratamento desses distúrbios e prevenir recorrências e complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Urolithiasis , Brazil , Diet , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 454-460, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Large variations in demographic, economic and environmental factors might influence the worldwide distribution of urolithiasis, but scarce data are available concerning their associations with stone composition. We aimed to evaluate the frequency and composition of kidney stones and their associations with temperature, humidity, and human development index (HDI). Materials and Methods: A total of 1,158 stones from distinct patients (47±14 years old, male/female 2:1) were included. The mean annual temperature and relative humidity of each town were considered separately. Results: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) was disclosed in 38.8% of patients, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) in 22.1%, mixed COD/apatite in 9.4%, pure apatite in 1.9%, brushite in 1.8%, struvite in 8.3%, pure uric acid in 11.1%, mixed uric acid/COM in 5.6%, and cystine/rare types in 0.8%. Mean HDI of all pooled cities was 0.780±0.03. However, people living in HDI<0.800 regions had twice the odds of having a struvite stone versus those living in HDI>0.800 (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.11-4.11). Furthermore, a progressive increase in the struvite stones frequency from 4.5 to 22.8% was detected from HDI>0.800 through HDI<0.700. No significant difference for other stone types was disclosed. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association of each stone composition with gender, temperature, humidity and HDI as covariates. Conclusion: Patients living in low HDI areas are more prone to develop struvite stones, possibly due to lower access to healthcare. Temperature and humidity did not represent a specific risk factor for any stone type in the present sample.


Resumo Introdução: Grandes variações em fatores demográficos, econômicos e ambientais podem influenciar a distribuição mundial da urolitíase, mas há muito pouco dado disponível sobre suas associações com a composição do cálculo renal. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a frequência e composição dos cálculos renais e suas associações com temperatura, umidade e índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH). Materiais e Métodos: Foram incluídos 1.158 cálculos de pacientes distintos (47 ± 14 anos, masculino / feminino 2:1). A temperatura média anual e a umidade relativa de cada cidade foram consideradas separadamente. Resultados: O oxalato de cálcio monohidratado (COM) foi detectado em 38,8% dos pacientes; oxalato de cálcio dihidratado (COD) em 22,1%; mistos de COD/apatita em 9,4%; apatita pura em 1,9%; brushita em 1,8%; estruvita em 8,3%, ácido úrico puro em 11,1%; mistos de ácido úrico /COM em 5,6% e cistina/tipos raros em 0,8%. O IDH médio de todas as cidades em conjunto foi de 0,780 ± 0,03. No entanto, indivíduos que vivem em regiões com IDH <0,800 apresentaram duas vezes a razão de chances de ter cálculo de estruvita do que aqueles que vivem em cidades com IDH > 0,800 (OR = 2,14; IC 95% 1,11-4,11). Além disso, um aumento progressivo na frequência de cálculos de estruvita de 4,5 para 22,8% foi detectado em IDH> 0,800 até IDH <0,700. Não foi observada nenhuma diferença significante para outros tipos de cálculos. Modelos separados de regressão logística foram utilizados para avaliar a associação de cada tipo de cálculo com gênero, temperatura, umidade e IDH como covariáveis. Conclusão: Pacientes que vivem em áreas com baixo IDH são mais propensos a desenvolverem cálculos de estruvita, possivelmente devido ao menor acesso à assistência médica. A temperatura e a umidade não representaram um fator de risco específico para qualquer tipo de cálculo na presente amostra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Kidney Calculi/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Temperature , Calcium Oxalate , Humidity
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