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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 246-254, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383755

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular está entre as principais causas de morte entre pacientes transplantados. Embora esses pacientes possam teoricamente se beneficiar de programas de reabilitação baseada em exercícios (RBE), sua implementação ainda é um desafio. Objetivo: Apresentamos nossa experiência inicial em diferentes modos de realização de um programa piloto de RBE em receptores de transplante de rim e fígado. Métodos: Trinta e dois pacientes transplantados renais ou hepáticos foram convidados para um programa de RBE de 6 meses realizado na academia do hospital, na academia comunitária ou em casa, de acordo com a preferência do paciente. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Dez pacientes (31%) não completaram o programa. Entre os 22 que completaram, 7 treinaram na academia do hospital, 7 na academia comunitária e 8 em casa. O efeito geral foi um aumento de 11,4% nos METs máximos (tamanho do efeito de Hedges g = 0,39). O grupo de academia hospitalar teve um aumento nos METs de 25,5% (g = 0,58, tamanho de efeito médio) versus 10% (g = 0,25) e 6,5% (g = 0,20) para os grupos de academia comunitária e em casa, respectivamente. Houve efeito benéfico nas pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica, maior para os grupos academia hospitalar (g= 0,51 e 0,40) e academia comunitária (g= 0,60 e 1,15) do que para os pacientes treinando em casa (g= 0,07 e 0,10). Nenhum evento adverso significativo foi relatado durante o seguimento. Conclusão: Programas de RBE em receptores de transplante de rim e fígado devem ser incentivados, mesmo que sejam realizados fora da academia do hospital, pois são seguros com efeitos positivos na capacidade de exercício e nos fatores de risco cardiovascular.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in solid organ transplant recipients with a functional graft. Although these patients could theoretically benefit from exercise-based rehabilitation (EBR) programs, their implementation is a challenge. Objective: We present our initial experience on different delivery modes of a pilot EBR program in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Methods: Thirty-two kidney or liver transplant recipients were invited for a 6-month EBR program delivered at the hospital gym, community gym or at home, according to the patient's preference. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: Ten patients (31%) did not complete their program. Among the 22 who did, 7 trained at the hospital gym, 7 at the community gym, and 8 at home. The overall effect was an 11.4% increase in maximum METs (Hedges' effect size g = 0.39). The hospital gym group had an increase in METs of 25.5% (g= 0.58, medium effect size) versus 10% (g= 0.25), and 6.5% (g= 0.20) for the community gym and home groups, respectively. There was a beneficial effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressures, greater for the hospital gym (g= 0.51 and 0.40) and community gym (g= 0.60 and 1.15) groups than for the patients training at home (g= 0.07 and 0.10). No significant adverse event was reported during the follow-up. Conclusion: EBR programs in kidney and liver transplant recipients should be encouraged, even if they are delivered outside a hospital gym, since they are safe with positive effects on exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk factors.

3.
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 27: e81630, Curitiba: UFPR, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384632

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: construir e validar por concordância uma cartilha educativa sobre o uso dos imunossupressores no pós-transplante renal. Método: estudo metodológico, realizado em um ambulatório de acompanhamento de pacientes pós transplantados, no período de dezembro de 2019 a agosto de 2020. Desenvolvido em duas fases: construção da cartilha e validação por concordância do material por juízes especialistas. Foi considerado o nível de concordância de, no mínimo, 80% para se garantir a validação do material. Resultados: dos 30 itens avaliados da cartilha, na primeira fase, 15 foram modificados. Após as modificações do material, na segunda fase, somente um item apresentou valor de concordância inferior a 80%. Conclusão: a cartilha foi validada do ponto de vista de conteúdo e aparência, possibilitando auxílio aos profissionais de saúde no processo de educação em saúde, sendo um alicerce na assistência prestada aos pacientes transplantados renais.


ABSTRACT Objective: Construct and validate by agreement an educational booklet on the use of immunosuppressive drugs after kidney transplantation. Method: Methodological study carried out in an outpatient follow-up clinic for post-transplant patients, from December 2019 to August 2020. It was developed in two phases: construction of the booklet and validation by agreement of the material by expert judges. A minimum level of agreement of 80% was necessary for the validation of the material. Results: Of the 30 items evaluated in the booklet, in the first phase, 15 were modified. After the modifications in the material performed in the second phase, only one item had an agreement value lower than 80%. Conclusion: The booklet was validated in content and appearance. Thus, the material could be used to assist health professionals in the health education process and support the care provided to kidney transplant patients.


RESUMEN Objetivo: construir y validar por concordancia un folleto educativo sobre el uso de los inmunosupresores en el postrasplante renal. Método: estudio metodológico, realizado en un ambulatorio de seguimiento de pacientes post-trasplantados, en el periodo diciembre de 2019 a agosto de 2020. Desarrollado en dos fases: construcción del folleto y validación por concordancia del material por jueces especialistas. Se consideró un nivel de concordancia de al menos un 80% para garantizarse la validación del material. Resultados: de los 30 ítems evaluados del folleto en la primera fase, 15 fueron modificados. Después de las modificaciones del material, en la segunda fase, sólo un ítem presentó valor de concordancia inferior a 80%. Conclusión: el folleto fue validado desde el punto de vista del contenido y apariencia, posibilitando auxilio a los profesionales de la salud en el proceso de educación en salud, siendo una piedra angular en la asistencia prestada a los pacientes trasplantados renales.

4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(2): 215-223, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is recommended in transplant candidates due to the association between this infection and gastrointestinal disorders, which could significantly increase morbidity after renal transplantation with the use of immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to analyze the rate of eradication of H. pylori after antimicrobial treatment in chronic kidney disease patients who are candidates for kidney transplantation. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted. All adult chronic kidney disease patients seen at our institution were included. In the pre-transplantation evaluation, 83 patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with 2 diagnostic methods to detect H. pylori: histology and the rapid urease test. In total, 33 patients with H. pylori infection received treatment with 20 mg omeprazole, 500 mg amoxicillin, and 500 mg clarithromycin once daily for 14 days. Another upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed 8 to 12 weeks after the end of treatment to check for healing. Results: The study showed a prevalence of H. pylori in 51 (61.4%) patients. Histology was positive in 50 (98%) patients and the rapid urease test was positive in 31 (60.8%). The infection eradication rate was 48.5% (16 patients). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence rate of H. pylori and a low eradication rate after the long-term antimicrobial triple scheme used. The association of the rapid urease test with gastric mucosa histology did not increase the detection rate of H. pylori.


Resumo Introdução: Recomenda-se o tratamento da infecção por Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) nos candidatos a transplante devido à associação entre esta infecção e distúrbios gastrointestinais, que podem aumentar significativamente a morbidade após transplante renal com o uso de imunossupressão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a taxa de erradicação do H. pylori após tratamento antimicrobiano em pacientes com doença renal crônica, candidatos a transplante renal. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico. Incluímos todos os pacientes adultos com doença renal crônica atendidos em nossa instituição. Na avaliação pré-transplante, 83 pacientes foram submetidos a uma endoscopia digestiva alta com 2 métodos diagnósticos para detecção do H. pylori: histologia e teste rápido de urease. No total, 33 pacientes com infecção por H. pylori receberam tratamento com 20 mg de omeprazol, 500 mg de amoxicilina e 500 mg de claritromicina uma vez ao dia durante 14 dias. Outra endoscopia digestiva alta foi realizada 8 a 12 semanas após o término do tratamento para verificação da resposta. Resultados: O estudo mostrou prevalência de H. pylori em 51 (61,4%) pacientes. A histologia foi positiva em 50 (98%) pacientes e o teste rápido de urease foi positivo em 31 (60,8%). A taxa de erradicação da infecção foi 48,5% (16 pacientes). Conclusões: Após o esquema triplo antimicrobiano de longo prazo utilizado, houve uma alta taxa de prevalência de H. pylori e baixa taxa de erradicação. A associação do teste rápido de urease com a histologia da mucosa gástrica não aumentou a taxa de detecção do H. pylori.

5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 439-446, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377376

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies involving large samples usually face financial and operational challenges. OBJECTIVES: To describe the planning and execution of ADHERE Brazil, an epidemiological study on 1,105 kidney transplant patients, and report on how the study was structured, difficulties faced and solutions found. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional multicenter study in 20 Brazilian kidney transplantation centers. METHODS: Actions developed in each phase of implementation were described, with emphasis on innovations used within the logistics of this study, aimed at estimating the prevalence of nonadherence to treatment. RESULTS: Coordination of activities was divided into four areas: general, regulatory, data collection and statistics. Weekly meetings were held for action planning. The general coordination team was in charge of project elaboration, choice of participating centers, definition of publication policy and monitoring other coordination teams. The regulatory team provided support to centers for submitting the project to ethics committees. The data collection team prepared a manual on the electronic collection system, scheduled web meetings and was available to respond to queries. It also monitored the data quality and reported any inadequacies found. Communication with the centers was through monthly reports via e-mail and distribution of exclusive material. The statistical team acted in all phases of the study, especially in creating the data analysis plan and data bank, generation of randomization lists and data extraction. CONCLUSIONS: Through these logistics, we collected high-quality data and built a local research infrastructure for further studies. We present supporting alternatives for conducting similar studies. CLINICAL TRIAL ANNOTATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ on October 10, 2013; NCT02066935.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communication
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 263-267, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376529

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Combined solid organ transplantation is infrequently performed in Brazil. The objective of this article is to present our initial experience with combined heart and kidney transplantation. Methods: From January 2007 to December 2019, four patients were submitted to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Their mean age was 55.7±4.4 years, and three (75%) patients were males. All patients had Chagas cardiomyopathy, two were hospitalized and inotrope dependent, and all patients were on preoperative dialysis (median of 12 months prior to transplant). Results: All patients survived and were in New York Heart Association functional class I at the latest follow-up (mean 34.7±17.5 months). Mean retarded kidney graft function was 22.9±9.7 days. One patient lost the kidney graft two years after the transplant due to Polyomavirus infection. Conclusion: Our initial experience of combined heart and kidney transplantation was favorable in selected patients with advanced heart failure and end-stage kidney disease. It requires involvement of a dedicated multispecialty team throughout all the diagnostics and treatment steps.

7.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022204, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, not every KT is successful and some patients persist on RRT. OBJECTIVE: To model a logistic regression with pre- and post-KT risk covariates capable of predicting secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching stage V of CKD until the first six months post-KT. METHODS: Cohort with KT recipients from Northeastern Brazil. Medical records of KT performed between 2011-2018 were analyzed. KT-recipients with insufficient data or who abandoned follow-up were excluded. The covariables analyzed were: demographic; infectious; pre- and post-KT comorbidities; panel reactive-antibodies; number of HLA mismatches; acute rejection episodes mediated by T-cell (ACR) or antibodies (AAR) six months after KT; and laboratory tests six months after KT. RESULTS: Covariates with higher risk for the analyzed outcomes six months after KT were: elderly KT recipients (OR:1.41; CI95%:1.01-1.99), time between onset of RRT and KT (ΔT-RRT&KT)>10years (OR:3.54; CI95%:1.27-9.87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pre-KT (OR:3.35; CI95%:1.51-7.46), pyelonephritis (OR:2.45; CI95%:1.24-4.84), polyomavirus nephropathy (OR:4.99; CI95%:1.87-13.3), AAS (OR:4.82; CI95%:1.35-17.2), 24h-proteinuria ≥300mg/24h (OR:5.05; CI95%:2.00-12.7) and serum calcium (Ca) <8.5mg/dL (OR:4.72; CI95%:2.00-11.1). The multivariate model presented an accuracy of 88.1% and the mean variance inflation factor is 1.81. CONCLUSION: Elderly-recipients, ΔT-RRT&KT>10 years, pre-KT DM, and post-KT aggressions until six months (pyelonephritis, polyomavirus nephropathy, ABMR, 24h-proteinuria≥300mg/24h, and Ca<8.5mg/dL) are associated with high predictive power for secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching CKD stage V until the first six months post-KT.


INTRODUÇÃO: Transplante renal (TR) é a terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) de escolha para pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Entretanto, nem todo TR é bem-sucedido e alguns pacientes persistem em TRS. OBJETIVO: Modelar uma regressão logística com covariáveis de risco pré e pós-TR preditora da disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR. MÉTODOS: Coorte com receptores transplantados realizado em hospital no Nordeste brasileiro. Analisou-se registros médicos dos TR realizados entre 2011-2018. Receptores com dados insuficientes ou que abandonaram seguimento foram excluídos. Foram analisadas covariáveis: demográficas; infecciosas; comorbidades pré e pós-TR; painel de reatividade; incompatibilidades de HLA; episódios de rejeições agudas mediadas por células-T ou por anticorpos; exames laboratoriais seis meses pós-TR. RESULTADOS: Receptores idosos (OR:1,41; IC95%:1,01-1,99), tempo entre início da TRS e TR (∆T-TRS&TR)>10 anos (OR:3,54; IC95%:1,27-9,87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pré-TR (OR:3,35; IC95%:1,51-7,46), pielonefrite (OR:2,45; IC95%:1,24-4,84), nefropatia por poliomavírus (OR:4,99; IC95%:1,87-13,3), RAMA (OR:4,82; IC95%:1,35-17,2), proteinúria de 24h (Pt24h) ≥300mg/24h (OR:5,05; IC95%:2,00-12,7) e cálcio sérico (Ca)<8,5mg/dL (OR:4,72; IC95%:2,00-11,1) foram identificadas como covariáveis de maior risco para os desfechos analisados até seis meses pós-TR. O modelo multivariado apresentou acurácia de 88,1% e fator de inflação da variância médio de 1,81. CONCLUSÃO: Receptores idosos, ∆T-TRS&TR>10anos, DM pré-TR e agressões até seis meses pós-TR (pielonefrite, nefropatia por poliomavírus, RAMA, Pt24h≥300mg/24h e Ca<8,5mg/dL), apresentam alto poder preditivo para disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Allografts , Proteinuria , Pyelonephritis , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Immunosuppression Therapy , BK Virus , Disease Progression , Hypocalcemia
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(1): 75-83, Jan-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are at increased risk for dengue virus (DENV) infection. The aim of this study was to outline the clinical presentation and laboratory profile of DENV infection in KTR and its impact on renal function. Methods: This was a retrospective study of KTR diagnosed with DENV infection. Adult patients who visited Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Nephrology Center between April and September 2019 were included. Patients who did not sign the Informed Consent were excluded. Data were collected from the database and medical records. The study was approved by the local Institutional Ethics Committee and the Informed Consent was obtained. Results: Nineteen KTR were evaluated. The main signs and symptoms were myalgia, headache/retro-orbital pain, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Two patients had acute cholecystitis without calculus, three experienced pleural and/or pericardial effusion, and one developed acute myocarditis. All patients were under immunosuppression with prednisone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate, and most were not receiving induction therapy. Temporary suspension/reduction of immunosuppression was required in 58% of patients and leukopenia was the most common reason. Thrombocytopenia was common and 58% of patients developed acute kidney injury. All patients recovered renal function. Conclusions: DENV infection in KTR patients seems to follow a similar course as in the general population. Although there was no control group, we suspect that immunosuppression, preexisting kidney disease or type of donor was not a determining factor in most patients. Transient renal dysfunction was common but reversible. No patient experienced death or graft loss.


Resumo Introdução: Receptores de transplante renal (RTR) apresentam maior risco de infecção pelo vírus da dengue (DENV). O objetivo deste estudo foi delinear apresentação clínica e perfil laboratorial da infecção por DENV em RTR e seu impacto na função renal. Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo de RTR diagnosticados com infecção por DENV. Incluiu-se pacientes adultos que estiveram no Centro Nefrológico da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte entre Abril/Setembro, 2019. Foram excluídos pacientes que não assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Dados foram coletados do banco de dados e registros médicos. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética Institucional local e obteve-se o Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Resultados: Avaliou-se dezenove RTR. Principais sinais e sintomas foram mialgia, cefaleia/dor retro-orbital, febre, sintomas gastrointestinais. Dois pacientes apresentaram colecistite aguda sem cálculo, três sofreram derrame pleural e/ou pericárdico, um desenvolveu miocardite aguda. Todos os pacientes estavam sob imunossupressão com prednisona, tacrolimus, micofenolato. A maioria não estava recebendo terapia de indução. Suspensão/redução temporária da imunossupressão foi necessária em 58% dos pacientes e leucopenia foi a razão mais comum. Trombocitopenia foi comum e 58% dos pacientes desenvolveram lesão renal aguda. Todos recuperaram a função renal. Conclusões: A infecção por DENV em pacientes RTR parece seguir um curso semelhante ao da população em geral. Embora não houvesse grupo controle, suspeitamos que imunossupressão, doença renal preexistente ou tipo de doador não foram fator determinante na maioria dos pacientes. Disfunção renal transitória foi comum, mas reversível. Nenhum paciente veio ao óbito ou sofreu perda do enxerto.

9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(1): 126-129, Jan-Mar. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365029

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a possible serious complication of solid organ transplantation, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Post-transplant TB has varied pathogenesis with many approaches to its prevention, which is the most important way to reduce its incidence. Treatment of TB in organ recipients is challenging because of drug toxicity and interaction with immunosuppressants. Case report: an 18-year-old woman that underwent kidney transplantation from a deceased donor and was discharged with fair renal function was readmitted at 37th postoperative day with fever. CT showed signs of miliary TB and fluid collection besides graft fistulization through the skin. The patient presented positive BAAR in the drained fluid and Koch's bacillus in the urine. She was treated with a four-drug regimen (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and etambutol), with great response and preserved graft function. We were informed that the recipient of the contralateral kidney also presented post-transplant TB, implying in a donor-derived origin. Conclusion: TB is an important differential diagnosis for infectious complications in patients after solid-organ transplantation, especially in endemic regions. Its initial clinical presentation can be unspecific and it should be suspected in the presence of fever or formation of fluid collections. The suspicion of TB is the key to early diagnosis and satisfactory outcomes in post-transplant TB.


Resumo Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é uma possível complicação grave do transplante de órgãos sólidos, associada à alta mortalidade e morbidade. A TB pós-transplante tem patogênese variada com muitas abordagens para sua prevenção, que é a forma mais importante de reduzir sua incidência. O tratamento da TB em receptores de órgãos é um desafio devido à toxicidade dos medicamentos e à interação com imunossupressores. Relato de caso: uma mulher de 18 anos que foi submetida a transplante renal de um doador falecido e recebeu alta com função renal adequada foi readmitida no 37º dia de pós-operatório com febre. A TC mostrou sinais de TB miliar e coleção de fluidos além de fistulização do enxerto através da pele. A paciente apresentou BAAR positivo no fluido drenado e bacilo de Koch na urina. Ela foi tratada com um esquema de quatro medicamentos (rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol), com ótima resposta e função de enxerto preservada. Fomos informados de que o receptor do rim contralateral também apresentou TB pós-transplante, implicando em uma origem derivada do doador. Conclusão: A TB é um importante diagnóstico diferencial para complicações infecciosas em pacientes após transplante de órgãos sólidos, especialmente em regiões endêmicas. Sua apresentação clínica inicial pode não ser específica e deve ser suspeitada na presença de febre ou formação de coleções de fluidos. A suspeita de TB é a chave para o diagnóstico precoce e desfechos satisfatórios na TB pós-transplante.

10.
Radiol. bras ; 55(2): 84-89, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365293

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os padrões tomográficos relacionados aos agentes etiológicos da pneumonia em pacientes durante o primeiro ano após transplante renal. Materiais e Métodos: Foram analisados dados de prontuários de 956 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal, no período de 2013 a 2018, em um centro transplantador renal do nordeste do Brasil. Nos pacientes que desenvolveram pneumonia, os agentes etiológicos foram classificados em bactérias piogênicas, micobactérias, fungos, vírus e pneumonia polimicrobiana, enquanto os padrões tomográficos foram classificados em consolidação, broncopneumonia, pneumonia intersticial e nódulos e massas. Para verificar associação estatística entre micro-organismos e padrões tomográficos, foi utilizado o teste exato de Fisher, com p < 0,001. Resultados: Foram encontrados 101 casos de pneumonia, dos quais 60 (59,4%) tiveram agente etiológico identificado, sendo as bactérias piogênicas as mais frequentes, detectadas em 22 (36,7%) dos casos. Entre os pacientes com agente causal identificado, o padrão tomográfico predominante foi o de nódulos e massas, identificado em 25 (41,7%) casos. Foi observada associação entre bactérias piogênicas e o padrão de consolidação, fungos com nódulos e massas, bem como entre agentes virais e padrão intersticial. Conclusão: Foi demonstrada associação estatística entre micro-organismos causadores de pneumonia e padrões tomográficos, informação que pode contribuir para o planejamento da terapia de pacientes transplantados renais.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the tomography patterns of pneumonia attributed to various etiological agents during the first year after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 956 patients who underwent kidney transplantation between 2013 and 2018 at a transplant center in northeastern Brazil. Among the kidney transplant recipients who developed pneumonia, the etiologic agents were categorized as pyogenic bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, or polymicrobial pneumonia. The tomography patterns were categorized as consolidation, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, or nodules/masses. To determine the statistical association between the causative microorganism and the tomography pattern, we used Fisher's exact test, for which the level of significance was set at p < 0.001. Results: Among 101 cases of pneumonia reported in kidney transplant recipients, the etiologic agent was identified in 60 (59.4%), the most common category being pyogenic bacteria, which were implicated in 22 cases (36.7%). Among the 60 patients in whom had the causal agent was identified, the pattern in which nodules and masses predominated was the most common, being identified in 25 cases (41.7%). We detected associations between pyogenic bacteria and consolidation, between fungi and nodules/masses, and between viruses and interstitial pneumonia. Conclusion: There were statistical associations between tomography patterns and the microorganisms that cause pneumonia. This knowledge could facilitate the treatment planning for kidney transplant patients.

11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389824

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El trasplante renal corresponde al tratamiento de elección para la enfermedad renal crónica. No existe un protocolo universalmente aceptado para la evaluación otorrinolaringológica del receptor del riñón a implantar, existiendo una gran heterogeneidad en su práctica. La tomografía computada de cavidades paranasales es uno de los estudios más habitualmente utilizados para descartar patologías otorrinolaringológicas que contraindiquen la intervención. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos imagenológicos de las tomografías computadas solicitadas como evaluación pretrasplante renal. Determinar si estos hallazgos condicionaron una contraindicación para trasplante o algún cambio en el manejo del paciente. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal mediante la revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes derivados a estudio pretrasplante renal durante el año 2018 en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren. Resultados: Se obtuvo información de 40 pacientes derivados para evaluación otorrinolaringológica. El promedio de edad fue de 49 ± 11,4 años; 55% fueron mujeres. La causa más frecuente de enfermedad renal fue idiopática (70%). A 34 de 40 pacientes se les solicitó evaluación tomográfica. A cinco pacientes se les indicó corticoides intranasales y se derivó un paciente a evaluación dental. No se generó ninguna contraindicación para el trasplante renal. Discusión: Existe poca literatura sobre la utilidad de la tomografía de cavidades paranasales como estudio pretrasplante renal. En el presente estudio no se encontró ningún hallazgo que contraindicara la intervención. Conclusión: Se necesitan más estudios para poder asegurar si la evaluación otorrinolaringológica y el uso de tomografía tiene alguna implicancia en la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a trasplante renal.


Abstract Introduction: Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for chronic kidney disease. There is no universally accepted protocol for the otorhinolaryngological evaluation of the recipient, and there is heterogeneity in clinical practice. Computed tomography of the paranasal cavities is one of the most commonly used studies to rule out otorhinolaryngological pathologies that contraindicate the intervention. Aim: To describe the imaging findings of the computed tomographies requested as a pre-transplant evaluation. To determine if these findings determined a contraindication for transplantation or any change in the patient's management. Material and Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study by reviewing the clinical records of patients referred to a pre-kidney transplant study during 2018 at the Hospital Carlos Van Buren. Results: Information was obtained from 40 patients referred for otorhinolaryngological evaluation. The average age was 49 ± 11.4 years; 55% were women. The most common cause of kidney disease was idiopathic (70%). 34 of 40 patients had a computed tomography. Five patients received intranasal corticosteroids and one patient was referred for dental evaluation. There were no contraindications for renal transplantation. Conclusion: There is little literature on the usefulness of paranasal cavity tomography as a pre-kidney transplant study. In the present study, no finding was found that would contraindicate the intervention. More studies are needed to be able to ascertain whether the otorhinolaryngological evaluation and the use of tomography have any implications in the evolution of patients undergoing kidney transplantation.

12.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 19-23, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360667

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between shear wave elastography parameters and arterial resistance in kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients. All patients underwent color Doppler to evaluate the resistive index (RI) and ultrasound shear wave elastography for the quantification of renal allograft stiffness. Results: We evaluated 55 patients, of whom 9 (16.4%) had an RI defined as abnormal (≥ 0.79) and 46 (83.6%) had an RI defined as normal (< 0.79). The mean age was higher in the abnormal RI group than in the normal RI group (68.0 ± 8.6 years vs. 42.6 ± 14.1 years; p < 0.001), as was the mean shear wave velocity (2.6 ± 0.4 m/s vs. 2.2 ± 0.4 m/s; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis identified two independent predictors of arterial resistance: age (OR = 1.169; 95% CI: 1.056 to 1.294; p = 0.003) and shear wave velocity (OR = 17.1; 95% CI: 1.137 to 257.83; p = 0.040). Conclusion: We observed an association between rigidity in the cortex of the transplanted kidney, as evaluated by shear wave elastography, and arterial resistance, as evaluated by color Doppler, in kidney transplant recipients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre parâmetros de elastografia por onda de cisalhamento e resistência arterial em pacientes transplantados renais. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal prospectivo. O estudo incluiu de forma consecutiva indivíduos adultos transplantados renais. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à técnica ultrassonográfica para avaliação do índice de resistência (IR) e à quantificação da elasticidade do tecido por ondas de cisalhamento para avaliar a rigidez do aloenxerto renal. Resultados: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes. A média de idade e a velocidade da onda de cisalhamento foram maiores em pacientes com IR ≥ 0,79 (respectivamente, 68,0 ± 8,6 anos e 2,6 ± 0,4 m/s) quando comparados a pacientes com IR < 0,79 (respectivamente, 42,6 ± 14,1 anos, p < 0,001 e 2,2 ± 0,4 m/s, p = 0,013). A análise multivariada identificou a idade (OR = 1,169, IC 95%: 1,056 a 1,294; p = 0,003) e a velocidade da onda de cisalhamento (OR = 17,1, IC 95%: 1,137 a 257,83; p = 0,040) como fatores independentes associados a resistência arterial. Conclusão: Observou-se associação entre a rigidez do córtex do transplante renal avaliada por elastografia por onda de cisalhamento e a resistência arterial em pacientes pós-transplantados renais avaliados por Doppler.

13.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 52-58, 17-feb-2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359848

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el conocimiento de la funcionalidad del injerto y la supervivencia del paciente es fundamental para valorar el éxito del trasplante renal. Objetivo: determinar la supervivencia de los pacientes trasplantados por tipo de donante y la funcionalidad de los injertos renales en una cohorte en México. Material y métodos: cohorte de trasplante renal de 2013 a 2017 en México. Se analizaron 790 pacientes seguidos por un año para valorar la supervivencia de los pacientes trasplantados por tipo de donante y la funcionalidad de los injertos renales. Para ello se usaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, así como tablas de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier con SPSS, versión 25. Resultados: de los 790 pacientes, 518 fueron de donante vivo (65.56%) con supervivencia del paciente de 97.88% y de funcionalidad del injerto de 93.24% a 12 meses de seguimiento; 272 pacientes recibieron el injerto de donante fallecido con supervivencia del paciente de 91.18% y funcionalidad del injerto renal de 84.19%. Conclusiones: aún existe una diferencia de casi 5% en la supervivencia del paciente receptor de un donante vivo en referencia con un donante fallecido. Para la funcionalidad del injerto renal esta diferencia es > 7%. La donación cadavérica ha aumentado; sin embargo, incluso en cifras bajas es de aproximadamente el 35% en México


Background: Knowledge of the functionality of the graft and patient survival is essential to assess the success of kidney transplantation. Objective: To determine the survival of transplanted patients by type of donor and the functionality of kidney grafts in a cohort in Mexico. Material and methods: Kidney transplant cohort from 2013 to 2017 in Mexico. 790 patients followed up for one year were analyzed to assess the survival of transplanted patients by type of donor and the functionality of kidney grafts. For this, measures of central tendency and dispersion were used, as well as Kaplan-Meier survival tables with SPSS, version 25. Results: Out of the 790 patients, 518 were from living donors (65.56%) with patient survival of 97.88% and graft function of 93.24% at 12 months of follow-up; 272 patients received the graft from a deceased donor with patient survival of 91.18% and renal graft function of 84.19%. Conclusions: There is still a difference of almost 5% in the survival of the recipient patient from a living donor compared to a deceased donor. For the functionality of the kidney graft, this difference is > 7%. Cadaveric donation has increased; however, even at low figures is of approximately 35% in Mexico


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival , Kidney Transplantation , Aftercare , Survivorship , Graft Survival , Cohort Studies , Mexico
14.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 24: 1-9, 18 jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1367717

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: elaborar um modelo técnico-assistencial de enfermagem para pacientes de transplante renal. Método: desenvolvimento de modelo técnico-assistencial fundamentado nas teorias de Orem e Watson baseado na pesquisa convergente assistencial. O cenário foi um Centro Transplantador da região sul do Brasil. Coleta de dados - diagnóstico das atividades realizadas no serviço de transplante renal; entrevista semiestruturada com pacientes; e três grupos focais com enfermeiros. Participaram nove pacientes de transplante renal e dez enfermeiros que atuam nas fases do perioperatório. Utilizou-se análise de conteúdo. Resultados: categorias emergidas dos pacientes - expectativas do transplante renal; informação sobre o tratamento após transplante; mudança no estilo de vida após o adoecimento; importância do autocuidado; sentimentos envolvidos no transplante renal e melhorias do centro transplantador. Conclusão: o modelo desenvolvido foi fundamentado nas teorias de Watson e Orem contemplando integralidade, promoção do autocuidado e atuação do enfermeiro, bem como necessidades apontadas pelos pacientes.


Objective: to develop a model of nursing technical care for kidney transplant patients. Method: development of a technical care model based on the theories of Orem and Watson based on convergent care research. The setting was a Transplant Center in southern Brazil. Data collection - diagnosis of activities performed in the kidney transplant service; semi-structured interview with patients; and three focus groups with nurses. Nine kidney transplant patients and ten nurses who work in the perioperative period participated. Content analysis was performed. Results: categories emerged from patients - expectations of kidney transplantation; information about treatment after transplantation; lifestyle changes after illness; importance of self-care; feelings involved in kidney transplantation; and transplant center improvements. Conclusion: the developed model was based on Watson and Orem's theories and contemplated comprehensiveness, promotion of self-care and the role of nurses, as well as needs identified by patients.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Healthcare Models/trends , Perioperative Nursing
15.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 80-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907037

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the predictive and diagnostic value of absolute value and function of different lymphocyte subsets in evaluating the risk of early viral infection after kidney transplantation. Methods Ninety-five kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study, and divided into the stable group (n=77) and infection group (n=18) according to postoperative immune status. Peripheral blood samples were collected for flow cytometry before operation, and 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months and 6 months after operation. The dynamic changes of the absolute values of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were compared between two groups. The function of lymphocyte subsets in two groups was evaluated by detecting the proportion of interferon (IFN)-γ+CD4+T cells, IFN-γ+CD8+T cells and IFN-γ+NK cells. The value of the absolute values and function of lymphocyte subsets in predicting and diagnosing viral infection in the early stage after kidney transplantation was evaluated. Results During viral infection, the absolute values of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells and NK cells in the infection group were at a relatively low level. At 2 months after operation, the absolute values of CD4+T cells and NK cells in the infection group were lower than those in the stable group. At 6 months after operation, the absolute values of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells in the infection group were significantly lower compared with those in the stable group (all P < 0.05). During viral infection, the proportion of IFN-γ+CD4+T cells, IFN-γ+CD8+T cells and IFN-γ+NK cells in the infection group were all at a relatively low level, especially that of IFN-γ+CD8+T cells decreased most significantly. At postoperative 2 months, the proportion of IFN-γ+CD8+T cells and IFN-γ+NK cells in the infection group was significantly higher than those in the stable group. At 6 months after operation, the proportion of IFN-γ+CD4+T cells and IFN-γ+CD8+T cells in the infection group was significantly higher than those in the stable group (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the increasing proportion of IFN-γ+CD8+T cells and IFN-γ+NK cells was correlated with the increasing risk of viral infection at 2 months after operation (both P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that the diagnostic value of absolute values of lymphocyte subsets combined with IFN-γ secretion function for viral infection in the immunocompromised recipients was significantly higher than that of absolute values of lymphocyte subsets alone (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dynamic monitoring of the changes of absolute values and function of lymphocyte subsets provides critical reference value for the prediction, diagnosis and medication guidance of viral infection.

16.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 74-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907036

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the predictive values of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urine NGAL, serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and serum creatinine (Scr) for early delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data, blood and urine samples of 159 kidney transplant recipients were collected. All recipients were divided into the DGF group (n=42) and immediate graft function (IGF) group (n=117) according to the incidence of DGF. Clinical data of all recipients were analyzed. The changes of serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels were statistically compared between two groups. The predictive values of different markers for early DGF were assessed. Results Among 159 kidney transplant recipients, DGF occurred in 42 cases with an incidence rate of 26.4%. There were statistically significant differences in donor age, cold ischemia time of donor kidney and complement-dependent cytoxicity (CDC) between the two groups(all P < 0.05). Within postoperative 2 weeks, the serum NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher than those in the IGF group (all P < 0.05). The Cys-C, Scr and urine NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher compared with those in the IGF group within 3 weeks after kidney transplantation(all P < 0.001). Serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels had certain predictive values for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients. Cys-C yielded the highest predictive value with a cut-off value of 4.73 mg/L, sensitivity of 0.833, specificity of 0.812 and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.895. Conclusions Cys-C has higher predictive value for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients compared with serum NGAL, urine NGAL and Scr.

17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 38-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907030

ABSTRACT

Since the 21st century, minimally invasive technique has become a main development direction of surgery, which has been widely applied in all branches of surgery. In the field of kidney transplantation, minimally invasive technique has been mainly applied in the procurement of living donor kidney, kidney transplantation and the management of complications after kidney transplantation. It not only increases the resource of donor kidney, but also reduces the incidence of postoperative complications and enhances the quality of life of the recipients. The application of minimally invasive technique has become one of the research hot spots in the field of kidney transplantation. In this article, research progresses on the application of minimally invasive technique in the procurement of living donor kidney, kidney transplantation and management of complications after kidney transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for increasing the resource of donor kidney, enhancing the success rate of kidney transplantation and improving clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients, thereby promoting the development of minimally invasive technique in surgery.

18.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 32-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907029

ABSTRACT

To increase the utilization rate of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney, the kidney preservation methods have been ever advancing in recent years. The application of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) promotes the preservation, evaluation and repair of ex vivo donor kidneys and accelerates the innovation of surgical approaches of kidney transplantation. Ischemia-free kidney transplantation (IFKT), which initiated by Organ Transplantation Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, keeps the blood flow and oxygen supply of the donor kidney with NMP machine during the entire process of acquisition, preservation and transplantation, thereby fundamentally avoiding ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the donor kidney and reducing the risk of delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection after surgery. In this article, recent progresses upon the kidney NMP, surgical procedures and short-term outcomes of IFKT were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for enhancing the utilization rate of ECD donor kidney and resolving the issue of organ shortage.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907025

ABSTRACT

In recent years, along with the unremitting efforts of clinical practitioners and the innovation of science and technology, minimally invasive technique has developed rapidly, and robot assisted surgical system has been invented. As a minimally invasive and precise technique, robot assisted surgical system can also be used by remote operation, which is the important development direction of surgical technique in modern era. Robot assisted surgical system has been applied extensively in the field of kidney transplantation, which is one of the research hot spots in this field. At present, da Vinci surgical system is more commonly adopted. In this article, the development history and current status of robot assisted surgical system in the field of kidney transplantation were introduced. The main advantages and disadvantages were summarized and the technical key points were discussed. The evaluation scheme and prospect of robot assisted kidney transplantation were predicted, which may promote the application of robot assisted surgical system in kidney transplantation and provide reference for improving clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients.

20.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 266-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920859

ABSTRACT

Early detection of renal allograft dysfunction plays a critical role in the management of immunosuppression and the survival of renal allograft. However, early detection of renal allograft dysfunction still has certain challenges because no significant changes could be observed in clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters during the early stage. As a novel ultrasound examination tool in recent years, shear wave elastography has been successfully applied in the detection of thyroid, breast, liver and alternative organs. In addition, it also has promising application prospect in the examination of renal allograft due to multiple advantages of real-time, dynamic, accuracy and repeatability. In this article, the classification, principle, advantages, influencing factors of shear wave elastography and its application in the field of kidney transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinicians to make accurate decisions in the prevention and monitoring of renal allograft diseases.

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