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1.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 154-169, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377464

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Trabajo Emocional deteriora la salud mental de los colaboradores, quienes, en interacción con usuarios, regulan sus emociones para expresar las prescritas en la organización. Objetivo: Mapear sistemáticamente los hallazgos principales sobre el Trabajo Emocional en grupos ocupacionales de Latinoamérica a partir de la revisión de artículos científicos publicados entre 2009 y 2020, mediante una revisión de alcance. Materiales y métodos: A partir de la metodología PRISMA-ScR, se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos LILACS, Redalyc, Dialnet, DOAJ, BVS, Gale One File: Psychology y EBSCOhost; con las palabras clave "trabajo emocional" (español), "emotional labor"/"emotional work" (inglés) y "trabalho emocional" (portugués); y una matriz de registro documental como formulario de gráfico de datos. Resultados: De 186 artículos, se seleccionó 17, con las siguientes características: la mayoría fueron de Brasil; grupos de trabajadores en salud y docentes; con definición de trabajo emocional en 6 categorías; y se utilizaron 11 instrumentos de medición. Conclusiones: Existe amplia concepción sobre el trabajo emocional, sin embargo, la evidencia en Latinoamérica aún es limitada, por ello es necesario continuar investigación de su incidencia en diferentes escenarios laborales, para obtener una comprensión global del constructo.


Abstract Introduction: Emotional work deteriorates the mental health of employees who interact with the public and therefore must regulate their emotions in order to express those established by the organization. Objective: To systematically map the main findings of Emotional Work in occupational groups of Latin America based on the revision of scientific articles published between 2009 and 2020 through a scoping review. Materials and methods: A PRISMA-ScR methodology with the keywords "trabajo emocional" (Spanish), "emotional labor"/"emotional work" (English) and "trabalho emocional" (Portuguese) was used to search the following databases: LILACS, Redalyc, Dialnet, DOAJ, BVS, Gale One File: Psychology and EBSCOhost. A document record matrix was used as format for data graphic. Results: From 186 articles, 17 were selected with the following characteristics: majority were from Brazil; included health employees and professors; defined emotional work using 6 categories; used 11 measurement instruments. Conclusions: There is a wide understanding of the topic of emotional work, however the evidence in Latin America is limited, which is why it is necessary to continue investigating its incidence in different work environments in order to obtain a global understanding of the construct.

2.
Medwave ; 22(7): e002545, 30-08-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392554

ABSTRACT

Introducción El sector económico fue uno de los más afectados durante la pandemia de COVID-19, debido a las medidas impuestas por los gobiernos para reducir la propagación de este nuevo virus. En consecuencia, varios sectores laborales tuvieron que pasar por un proceso de adaptación virtual, resultando en la inestabilidad o pérdida de empleos. El objetivo fue revalidar una escala ultra corta para la medición de la seguridad percibida para conservar el trabajo en Latinoamérica. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de validación de una escala corta que mide la seguridad percibida por el trabajador acerca de poder perder o mantener su trabajo en un corto tiempo. Resultados Los cuatro ítems se mantuvieron en la escala revalidada, también estuvieron en un único factor. Los índices de bondad de ajuste confirmaron dicho factor único: χ2: 7,06; df: 2; p = 0,29; junto a los índices de error de cuadrático medio: 0,015; de bondad de ajuste: 0,998; ajustado de bondad de ajuste: 0,991; de ajuste comparativo: 0,999; de Tucker-Lewis: 0,997; de ajuste normalizado: 0,998; de ajuste incremental: 0,999 y el error cuadrático medio de aproximación: 0,036. En todo momento se mostró un ajuste adecuado. Posterior a eso se midió la confiabilidad, la cual se calculó con el coeficiente de Ω de McDonald, obteniendo un resultado de 0,72. Conclusiones La escala se revalidó de forma correcta en Latinoamérica y se mantuvieron los cuatro ítems en un único factor, siendo fiable.


Introduction Due to the measures imposed by governments to reduce the spread of this new virus, the economic sector was one of the most affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Several labor sectors had to undergo a virtual adaptation process resulting in job instability and job loss. The objective of this study was to revalidate an ultra-short scale for measuring perceived job security in Latin America. Methods A revalidation study was done on a short scale that measures worker's perceived security about losing or keeping their job in the near future. Results The four items remained on the revalidated scale, where all four explained a single factor. The goodness-of-fit measures confirmed the single-factor model (χ: 7.06; df: 2; p = 0.29; mean square error: 0.015; goodness-of-fit index: 0.998; adjusted goodness-of-fit index: 0.991; comparative fit index: 0.999; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.997; normalized fit index: 0.998; incremental fit index: 0.999; and root mean square error of approximation: 0.036). The scale's reliability was calculated using McDonald's omega coefficient, obtaining an overall result of ω = 0.72. Conclusions The scale was correctly revalidated in Latin America, and the four items were kept in a single reliable factor.

3.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; (27): 189-208, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385985

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: el presente artículo analiza las redes de apoyo social y el efecto que pueden tener como soporte de la salud mental, el bienestar y estabilidad emocional de las mujeres durante la pandemia, subrayando sus dimensiones individuales, familiar y colectiva. MÉTODO: el enfoque metodológico de investigación que sigue es de tipo cualitativo desde la perspectiva explicativa del método bibliográfico, es decir, en un estudio y análisis sistemático y crítico a propósito de la crisis de salud producida por el virus COVID-19 y el conjunto de medidas políticas, económicas y sociosanitarias impuestas por los gobiernos a nivel latinoamericano. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: el análisis realizado dirige a entender la situación actual de precariedad y vulnerabilidad en la que se encuentran diversos grupos de mujeres, lo que resalta la vital importancia de las redes de apoyo social en su situación presente y futura.


OBJETIVE: this article analyzes the social support networks and the effect they can have in support of the mental health, well-being and emotional stability of women during the pandemic, highlighting their individual, family and collective dimensions. METHOD: the methodological approach that follows is qualitative from the explanatory perspective of the bibliographic method, that is, in a systematic and critical study and analysis of the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 virus and the set of political measures, economic and social health imposed by governments worldwide. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: the analysis achieved leads to understanding the current situation of precariousness and vulnerability in which various groups of women find themselves, which highlights the vital importance of social support networks in their present and future situation.


OBJETIVO: este artigo analisa as redes de apoio social e os efeitos que podem ter no apoio à saúde mental, bem-estar e estabilidade emocional das mulheres durante a pandemia, destacando suas dimensões individual, familiar e coletiva. MÉTODO: a abordagem metodológica da pesquisa que se segue é qualitativa do ponto de vista explicativo do método bibliográfico, ou seja, em um estudo sistemático e crítico e na análise da crise de saúde produzida pelo vírus COVID-19 e do conjunto de aspectos políticos, econômicos e sociais. medidas de saúde impostas por governos em nível latino-americano. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: a análise realizada permite compreender a situação atual de precariedade e vulnerabilidade em que se encontram vários grupos de mulheres, o que evidencia a importância vital das redes sociais de apoio na sua situação presente e futura.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , COVID-19 , Research , Social Networking
4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389683

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: las benzodiacepinas constituyen un grupo farmacológico de amplia prescripción a nivel mundial desde su aparición en la década de 1960. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la disponibilidad, las modalidades de prescripción y dispensación de benzodiacepinas en diferentes países de América Latina, según reglamentación vigente en cada país participante del estudio. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, realizado con los datos disponibles al año 2022 de todos los países miembros de la Red de Centros de Información de Medicamentos de LatinoAmérica y el Caribe (Red CIMLAC) que fueron parte del estudio. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de las agencias regulatorias, la reglamentación vigente y otros documentos necesarios para obtener la información sobre la dispensación y prescripción en cada país. Resultados: doce de los 20 países de la Red CIMLAC completaron el estudio. El total de benzodiacepinas disponible en cada país varió entre 6 y 12 (media: 9). De ellas, en promedio 5 estaban incluidas en listados de medicamentos esenciales nacionales. La mayoría de los países cuentan con combinaciones a dosis fijas con benzodiacepinas. En todos los países se realiza la prescripción por receta especial. Más de la mitad de los países cuentan con recomendaciones nacionales. Conclusiones: la amplia disponibilidad de benzodiacepinas comercializadas, la existencia de combinaciones a dosis fijas y la falta de recomendaciones nacionales pueden ser factores que contribuyan al uso irracional de este grupo terapéutico.


Summary: Introduction: benzodiazepines constitute a widely prescribed group of drugs around the world, since they appeared in the sixties. This study aims to identify the availability, prescription modalities and dispensing of benzodiazepines in different countries around Latin America, as per the legal provisions in force in each of the countries participating in the study. Method: observational, descriptive, transversal study based on the information available in 2022 about all the member countries of the Network Medicines Information Centers of Latin America and the Caribbean (CIMLAC Network) that were part of the study. The databases of regulatory authorities were used and the legal provisions in force and relevant documents were consulted in order to obtain information on benzodiazepines dispensing and prescription in each country. Results: twelve out of the 20 CIMLAC Network member countries completed the study. The total number of benzodiazepines available in the study ranged from 6 to 12 (mean was 9), and 5 of them on average were included in the national essential medications lists. Most countries have benzodiazepines fixed dose combinations and in all countries a special medical prescription is needed. More than half of the countries have national recommendations. Conclusions: the wide availability of benzodiazepines in the market, the existence of fixed-dose combinations and the lack of national recommendations may constitute factors that contribute to the irrational use of this group of drugs.


Resumo: Introdução: os benzodiazepínicos constituem um grupo farmacológico amplamente prescrito em todo o mundo desde seu surgimento na década de 1960. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a disponibilidade, prescrição e modalidades de dispensação de benzodiazepínicos em diferentes países da América Latina, de acordo com as regulamentações vigentes em cada país participante do estudo. Materiais e métodos: estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal, realizado com os dados disponíveis até o ano de 2022 dos países membros da Rede de Centros de Informação sobre Medicamentos da América Latina e do Caribe (Red CIMLAC) que faziam parte do estudo. As bases de dados das agências reguladoras, normas vigentes e outros documentos necessários foram utilizados para obter informações sobre dispensação e prescrição em cada país. Resultados: doze dos 20 países da Rede CIMLAC completaram o estudo. O número total de benzodiazepínicos disponíveis em cada país variou entre 6 e 12 (média: 9). Destes, uma média de 5 foram incluídos nas listas nacionais de medicamentos essenciais. A maioria dos países tem combinações de dose fixa com benzodiazepínicos. Em todos os países é necessário prescrição especial. Mais da metade dos países têm recomendações nacionais. Conclusões: a ampla disponibilidade de benzodiazepínicos comercializados, a existência de combinações em doses fixas e a falta de recomendações nacionais podem ser fatores que contribuem para o uso irracional desse grupo terapêutico.

5.
rev. psicogente ; 25(47): 198-225, ene.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390576

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: A nivel latinoamericano el suicidio en jóvenes y adolescente representa una problemática grave, por lo que es necesario trabajar en su prevención. En ese sentido, este trabajo presenta una revisión teórica narrativa sobre la temática. Objetivo: Conocer las principales experiencias de prevención de la suicidalidad en jóvenes y adolescentes de Latinoamérica en los últimos 15 años. Método: Se revisaron y analizaron 44 estudios empíricos, realizando búsquedas bibliográficas en revistas científicas indexadas en Scopus, Scielo, WoS, REDALYC y ERIH PLUS y motores de búsqueda como Google Académico y EBSCO. Resultados: Los hallazgos obtenidos en los 44 estudios se organizaron en tres categorías: 1) diagnósticos sobre suicidalidad realizados en población juvenil y adolescente; 2) intervenciones psicoterapéuticas destinadas a tratamiento en suicidalidad; y 3) intervenciones en base a programas, estrategias y técnicas enfocadas en la prevención del suicidio juvenil y adolescente. Discusión: Los principales diagnósticos asociados a la suicidalidad están vinculados a disfuncionalidades emocionales, donde las mujeres son las principales afectadas, la familia y el entorno surgen como principales factores protectores o de riesgo dependiendo de su funcionalidad y cohesión. Además, las intervenciones más valoradas están asociadas a los modelos clásicos de psicoterapia y las estrategias psicoeducativas aparecen como los principales focos de los programas preventivos. Conclusión: Por la multifactoriedad del fenómeno, se debería realizar un cambio paradigmal en el enfrentamiento de la suicidalidad.


Abstract Introduction: At the Latin American level, suicide in young people and adolescents represents a serious problem, so it is necessary to work on its prevention. In this sense, this work presents a narrative theoretical review on the subject. Objective: To know the main experiences of suicide prevention in young people and adolescents in Latin America in the last 15 years. Method: 44 empirical studies were reviewed and analyzed, performing bibliographic searches in scientific journals indexed in Scopus, Scielo, WoS, REDALYC and ERIH PLUS and search engines such as Google Scholar and EBSCO. Results: The findings obtained in the 44 studies were organized into three categories: 1) diagnoses of suicidality made in the youth and adolescent population; 2) psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at treating suicidality; and 3) interventions based on programs, strategies and techniques focused on the prevention of youth and adolescent suicide. Discussion: The main diagnoses associated with suicidality are linked to emotional dysfunctionalities, where women are the main affected, the family and the environment appear as the main protective or risk factors depending on their functionality and cohesion. In addition, the most valued interventions are associated with the classic models of psychotherapy and psychoeducational strategies appear as the main focuses of preventive programs. Conclusion: Due to the multifactorial nature of the phenomenon, a paradigm shift should be made in the confrontation of suicidality.

6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 109-124, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1382064

ABSTRACT

Em 2009, foi proposta uma classificação de alimentos, denominada classificação NOVA. Países da América Latina tem se destacado em seu uso nas recomendações nutricionais e agenda regulatória. Objetivo. Avaliar como a produção científica em alimentação e nutrição na América Latina tem incorporado a classificação NOVA. Materiais e métodos. A análise da produção científica foi realizada a partir de trabalhos apresentados no Congresso Latinoamericano de Nutrição (SLAN) nos anos de 2012, 2015 e 2018. Os termos utilizados para a busca foram: NOVA, ultraprocessado, processado, processamento e guia alimentar, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Após a busca, foram aplicados os critérios de exclusão e inclusão e os resumos selecionados foram descritos de acordo com variáveis analíticas previamente definidas. Resultados. Foram analisados 153, sendo 24 publicados em 2012, 20 em 2015 e 109 em 2018. A maioria dos estudos foram desenvolvidos no Brasil (56,2%) e no México (12,4%) e envolvia adolescentes (28,8%), adultos (21,6%) e alimentos (19,6%) como sujeito/unidade de análise. A maioria dos trabalhos foi classificada na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública (88,9%), era de natureza observacional (82,3%) e empregava método quantitativo (76,5%). A venda e/ou consumo de alimentos (46,4%) e o ambiente alimentar (24,2%) foram os objetos de estudo mais frequentes. Conclusão. A produção científica que considera a classificação NOVA na América Latina aumentou em 2018, com Brasil e México liderando o desenvolvimento dos estudos. Estudos que explorem a relação da classificação NOVA com o preço dos alimentos, habilidades culinárias e políticas públicas são oportunidades de pesquisa(AU)


In 2009, a food classification was proposed, called NOVA classification. Latin American countries have stood out in their use in nutritional recommendations and regulatory agenda. Objective. To evaluate how scientific production in food and nutrition in Latin America has incorporated the NOVA classification. Materials and methods. The analysis of scientific production was carried out from annals at the Latin American Congress of Nutrition (SLAN) in 2012, 2015 and 2018. The terms used for the search were: NOVA, ultra-processed, processed, processing and food guide, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. After the search, the exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied and the selected abstracts were described according to previously defined analytical variables. Results. A total of 153 were analyzed, 24 of which were published in 2012, 20 in 2015 and 109 in 2018. Most studies were carried out in Brazil (56,2%), followed by Mexico (12,4%) and involved adolescents (28,8%), adults (21,6%) and food (19,6%) as subject or unit of analysis. Most of the works were classified in the area of Public Health Nutrition (88,9%), were observational (82,3%) and used a quantitative method (76,5%). The sale and/or consumption of food (46,4%) and the food environment (24,2%) were the most common objects of study. Conclusion. The scientific production that considers the NOVA classification in Latin America increased in 2018, with Brazil and Mexico leading the development of studies. Studies that explore the relationship of NOVA classification to food price, culinary skills and public policy analysis are research opportunities(AU)


Subject(s)
Eating , Food Handling , Processed Food , Research , Congress , Food Guide , Obesity
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(6): 1085-1096, Maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383690

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Implante transcateter de valva aórtica (TAVI) é um procedimento adotado em todo o mundo e suas práticas evoluem rapidamente. Variações regionais e temporais são esperadas. Objetivo: Comparar a prática de TAVI na América Latina com aquela no resto do mundo e avaliar suas mudanças na América Latina de 2015 a 2020. Método: A pesquisa foi realizada em centros de TAVI em todo o mundo entre março e setembro de 2015, e novamente nos centros latino-americanos entre julho de 2019 e janeiro de 2020. As seguintes questões foram abordadas: i) informação geral sobre os centros; ii) avaliação pré-TAVI; iii) técnicas do procedimento; iv) conduta pós-TAVI; v) seguimento. As respostas da pesquisa dos centros latino-americanos em 2015 (LATAM15) foram comparadas àquelas dos centros no resto do mundo (WORLD15) e ainda àquelas da pesquisa dos centros latino-americanos de 2020 (LATAM20). Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% na análise estatística. Resultados: 250 centros participaram da pesquisa em 2015 (LATAM15=29; WORLD15=221) e 46 na avaliação LATAM20. No total, foram 73.707 procedimentos, sendo que os centros WORLD15 realizaram, em média, 6 e 3 vezes mais procedimentos do que os centros LATAM15 e LATAM20, respectivamente. Os centros latino-americanos realizaram menor número de TAVI minimalista do que os do restante do mundo, mas aumentaram significativamente os procedimentos menos invasivos após 5 anos. Quanto à assistência pós-procedimento, observaram-se menor tempo de telemetria e de manutenção do marca-passo temporário, além de menor uso de terapia dupla antiplaquetária nos centros LATAM20. Conclusão: A despeito do volume de procedimentos ainda significativamente menor, muitos aspectos da prática de TAVI nos centros latino-americanos evoluíram recentemente, acompanhando a tendência dos centros dos países desenvolvidos.


Abstract Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a worldwide adopted procedure with rapidly evolving practices. Regional and temporal variations are expected to be found. Objective: To compare TAVR practice in Latin America with that around the world and to assess its changes in Latin America from 2015 to 2020. Methods: A survey was applied to global TAVR centers between March and September 2015, and again to Latin-American centers between July 2019 and January 2020. The survey consisted of questions addressing: i) center's general information; ii) pre-TAVR evaluation; iii) procedural techniques; iv) post-TAVR management; v) follow-up. Answers from the 2015 survey of Latin-American centers (LATAM15) were compared with those of other centers around the world (WORLD15) and with the 2020 updated Latin-American survey (LATAM20). A 5% level of significance was adopted for statistical analysis. Results: 250 centers participated in the 2015 survey (LATAM15=29; WORLD15=221) and 46 in the LATAM20. Combined centers experience accounted for 73 707 procedures, with WORLD15 centers performing, on average, 6- and 3-times more procedures than LATAM15 and LATAM20 centers, respectively. LATAM centers performed less minimalistic TAVR than WORLD15 centers, but there was a significant increase in less invasive procedures after 5 years in Latin-American centers. For postprocedural care, a lower period of telemetry and maintenance of temporary pacing wire, along with less utilization of dual antiplatelet therapy was observed in LATAM20 centers. Conclusion: Despite still having a much lower number of procedures, many aspects of TAVR practice in Latin-American centers have evolved in recent years, followingthe trend observed in developed country centers.

8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(5): 467-474, May 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387917

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a serious diseases, and the recommendation is that the treatment is conducted in centers of excellence. Such hospitals are not easy to find in low- and middle-income countries. We seek to describe the process of prenatal diagnosis, surgical management, and postnatal histological analysis in a low-income country referral hospital with limited resources. Methods A descriptive, retrospective study was carried out including patients with a pre- or intraoperative diagnosis of PAS. The clinical results of the patients were studied as well as the results of the prenatal ultrasound and the correlation with the postnatal pathological diagnosis. Results In total, 129 patients were included. Forty-eight of them had a prenatal PAS ultrasound diagnosis (37.2%). In the remaining 81 (62.8%), the diagnosis was intraoperative. Although hysterectomy was performed in all cases, one-third of the patients (31%) did not have a histological study of the uterus. In 40% of the patients who had a histological study, PAS was not reported by the pathologist. Conclusion The frequency of prenatal diagnosis and the availability of postnatal histological studies were very low in the studied population. Surgical skill, favored by a high flow of patients, is an important factor to avoid complications in settings with limited resources.


Resumo Objetivo O espectro da placenta accreta é uma patologia grave, cujo tratamento é recomendado emcentros de excelência. Esses hospitais não são fáceis de encontrar em países de baixa e média renda. Procuramos descrever o processo de diagnóstico prénatal, tratamento cirúrgico, e análise histológica pós-natal em um hospital de referência de baixa renda com recursos limitados. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, incluindo pacientes com diagnóstico pré ou intraoperatório de espectro da placenta accreta. Foram estudados os resultados clínicos das pacientes, bem como os resultados da ultrassonografia prénatal e a correlação com o diagnóstico patológico pós-natal. Resultados No total, 129 pacientes foram incluídas. Quarenta e oito delas tiveramum diagnóstico de ultrassom do espectro da placenta accreta pré-natal (37,2%). Nos 81 (62,8%) restantes, o diagnóstico foi intraoperatório. Embora a histerectomia tenha sido realizada em todos os casos, um terço deles (31%) não tinha estudo histológico do útero. Em 40% dos pacientes que tiveram estudo histológico, o espectro da placenta accreta não foi relatado pelo patologista. Conclusão A frequência do diagnóstico pré-natal e a disponibilidade de estudos histológicos pós-natais foram muito baixas na população estudada. A habilidade cirúrgica, favorecida por um alto fluxo de pacientes, é um fator importante para evitar complicações em ambientes com recursos limitados.

9.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 170-176, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376875

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia cardíaca más frecuente, es una de las causas más importantes de eventos cerebrovasculares de origen embólico y se asocia con el desarrollo de insuficiencia cardíaca y muerte súbita. En Colombia, constituye una enfermedad con altos costos para el sistema de salud; sin embargo, su prevalencia es desconocida. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular reportada a los sistemas oficiales de información en Colombia. Método: Mediante la extracción, el tabulado y el análisis de datos de la herramienta SISPRO, del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, se calculó la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular estandarizada por edad, global y para las diferentes regiones geográficas del país, entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 143,656 casos reportados con el código I48X, que corresponde a fibrilación auricular en la CIE-10. La prevalencia de fibrilación auricular se incrementó desde 41 hasta 87 por cada 100,000 habitantes entre 2013 y 2017 (p < 0.001). En Colombia, la fibrilación auricular es más frecuente en las mujeres, con mayor prevalencia en mayores de 60 años (606/100,000 en 2017); hay zonas con prevalencia superior a 150/100,000 en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Santander y Bogotá D.C. Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que la fibrilación auricular tiene una tendencia ascendente en Colombia, es más frecuente en las mujeres y más prevalente en los centros urbanos, posiblemente debido a una mayor proporción de pacientes mayores y al mejor acceso a los sistemas de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. It is responsible for an important proportion of embolic strokes and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is highly costly for the healthcare system; however, its true prevalence is unknown. Objective: To describe the prevalence of atrial fibrillation reported to the official information systems in Colombia. Method: We calculated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation through the extraction, tabulation and analysis of data contained in the Integral Information System for Social Protection tool, which was created by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection in Colombia. Global and age-standardized prevalence rates were obtained for the period between years 2013 and 2017. Results: A total of 143,656 cases were identified. These were reported through the ICD-10 code I48X, corresponding to atrial fibrillation. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increased from 41 to 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between years 2013 and 2017 (p < 0.001). In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is more frequent among women, and individuals over the age of 60 (606/100,000 in 2017). The departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Santander and Bogotá D.C had zones with prevalence greater than 150/100,000. Conclusions: This study suggests that atrial fibrillation displays an upward trend in Colombia. Its prevalence is higher in women and urban centers. The latter may be due to the higher proportion of older patients and better access to healthcare in these subgroups.

10.
Serv. soc. soc ; (143): 62-80, jan.-abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357433

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo tem por objetivo debater a gênese, o desenvolvimento e a consolidação da fração mais crítica do Serviço Social no Uruguai. Produto de estudo pós-doutoral realizado na Universidade da República e financiado pela Fapesp em 2020, o texto aborda os elementos centrais que sustentaram a formação de um Serviço Social progressista a partir das lutas latino-americanas coletivamente travadas nas décadas de 1960, 1970 e 1980, e o fim da ditadura cívico-militar no Uruguai em 1985.


Abstract: This article aims to discuss the genesis, development and consolidation of the most critical fraction of Social Work in Uruguay. Product of a postdoctoral study conducted at the University of the Republic and funded by Fapesp in 2020, the text addresses the central elements that sustained the formation of a progressive Social Work from the Latin American struggles collectively fought in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, and the end of the civic-military dictatorship in Uruguay from 1985.

11.
Iatreia ; 35(1): 21-28, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375628

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la mayoría de las investigaciones muestran la situación de los recursos humanos del sistema de salud en países primermundistas, por lo que es necesario caracterizar nuestra realidad latinoamericana en este aspecto. Objetivo: caracterizar el tipo de trabajo y la formación de posgrado de los recursos humanos del área de salud en ocho países de Latinoamérica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo a través de encuestas autoaplicadas sobre las características de los centros de labores y capacitaciones de posgrado que se han tenido. Resultados: de las 1.283 personas que respondieron la encuesta, el 87,1 % laboraba en un hospital (salario promedio mensual: 840 dólares), el 23,3 % también lo hacía en una clínica (salario promedio mensual: 1.200 dólares). Además, solo el 20,5 % trabajaba en un establecimiento del primer nivel de atención (salario promedio mensual: 420 dólares). El 31,2 % había realizado un curso de posgrado, el 23,2 % un diplomado, el 17,8 % una maestría y, el 5,1 %, un doctorado. Conclusiones: los recursos humanos en salud trabajan principalmente en hospitales con sueldos diferentes según el lugar donde laboran. Los médicos son los que tienen mayor remuneración, pero en el sector privado las diferencias son menos marcadas. Menos de la tercera parte han hecho cursos u otras actividades académicas culminadas hace ya varios años. Esto sirve para la mejora de las características laborales y de capacitación.


SUMMARY Introduction: Most research shows the situation of first world countries regarding human resources of health; therefore, it is necessary to characterize our Latin American reality. Objective: To characterize the type of work and postgraduate training of health human resources in eight Latin American countries. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out, through self-applied surveys on the characteristics of its work center, and post-graduate training that them has had. Results: Of the 1283 people who responded to the survey, 87.1% worked in a hospital (average monthly salary: 840 dollars), 23.3% also worked in a clinic (average monthly salary: 1200 dollars). In addition, only 20.5% worked in an establishment of the first level of care (average monthly salary: 420 dollars). 31.2% had completed a post-graduate course, 23.2% had a diploma, 17.8% had a master's degree and 5.1% had a doctoral degree. Conclusions: The human resources in health work mainly in hospitals and the salaries are different according to the place where they work. The physicians are those who have higher remuneration, but in the private sector the salaries are more similar than in the other sectors. Less than a third have taken courses or other academic activities, having been completed several years ago. This serves to improve the work and training characteristics.

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1119-1131, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364682

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study aimed to investigate the association between social capital indicators and depressive symptoms among university students from Brazil. The study drew on a sample of 579 randomly selected university students, from a greater crossnational study conducted in 2018. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, indicators of social capital and lifestyle behaviors. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Indicators of social capital included trust, group membership and frequency of meeting friends. Four social capital indicators were significantly associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Students who agreed that people are likely to take advantage of one another were more likely to report depressive clinically relevant symptoms (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.00 - 3.23) as well as students who agreed that people are not willing to help in case needed (OR: 2.11, 95%CI: 1.02 - 4.36). Perceived stress, smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption were not associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Social capital plays an important role in explaining depressive symptoms among Brazilian university students. The study suggests that creating trust and enhancing participation in social networks can be an important strategy for promoting mental health among university students investigated in this study.


Resumo O estudo investigou a associação entre indicadores de capital social e sintomas depressivos entre estudantes universitários do Brasil. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido com uma amostra de 579 estudantes universitários selecionados randomicamente em 2018. Os estudantes completaram questionários auto-administrados para avaliar sintomas depressivos, indicadores de capital social e comportamentos de estilos de vida. Os dados foram analisados usando modelos de regressão logística multivariada. Indicadores de capital social incluíam confiança, associações em grupos, frequência de encontrar com os amigos, entre outros. Quatro indicadores de capital social se associaram significativamente com relevantes sintomas clínicos de depressão. Estudantes que disseram que as pessoas tendem a tirar mais vantagens umas das outras eram mais propensas a relatar sintomas clínicos relevantes de depressão (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.00 - 3.23), assim como estudantes que relataram que as pessoas não estão dispostas a ajudar caso precise de ajuda (OR: 2.11, 95%CI: 1.02 - 4.36). A autopercepção de estresse, o consumo de álcool e o fumo não se associaram aos sintomas clínicos de depressão. O capital social desempenha um papel importante na explicação dos sintomas depressivos entre os universitários brasileiros. O estudo sugere que promover confiança e aumentar a participação nas redes sociais pode ser uma estratégia importante para a promoção da saúde mental entre os universitários investigados neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Capital , Students/psychology , Universities , Brazil/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(1): 95-104, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to assess the prevalence of rapid weight gain (RWG) in children born with normal weight and its association with overweight (OW) in four Latin America countries. Methods: cross-sectional study in children aged 0 to 5 from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher in Brazil and the Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru,using a birth weight ≥2,500g. The outcome variable was OW, the exposure was RWG and breastfeeding (BF) was the adjustment variable. Prevalence, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervalwere estimated using multivariate logistic regression model. Results: there was a greater prevalence of RWG and BF at less than 6 months in Brazil, and a greater prevalence of OW in Brazil and Bolivia. The chances of OW when RWG was present and adjusted for BF were 6.1 times (CI95% = 3.8-9.7) in Brazil, 4.4 times (CI95% = 3.6-5.3) in Bolivia, 6.7 times (CI95% = 5.5-8.2) in Colombia, and 12.2 times in Peru (CI95% = 9.4-15.7) with a p < 0.001 for all countries. Conclusions: RWG in children with normal birth weight was associated with a greater chance of being OW in the four observed Latin America countries.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência do ganho rápido de peso (GRP) em crianças nascidas com peso normal e sua associação com o excesso de peso (EP) em quatro países da América Latina. Métodos: estudo transversal de inquéritos populacionais com crianças de 0 a 5 anos da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher no Brasil e da Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud da Bolívia, Colômbia e Peru, selecionadas pelo peso ao nascer ≥2.500 gramas. A variável desfecho foi o EP; de exposição o GRP; e de ajuste a amamentação. Foram estimadas as prevalências, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95% por regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: observou-se maior prevalência de GRP e tempo de amamentação menor do que 6 meses no Brasil e maior prevalência de EP no Brasil e Bolívia. As chances de EP quando GRP presente e ajustado por amamentação foram de 6,1 vezes (IC95% = 3,8-9,7) no Brasil; 4,4 vezes (IC95% = 3,6-5,3) na Bolívia; 6,7 vezes (IC95% = 5,5-8,2) na Colômbia; 12,2 vezes no Peru (IC95% = 9,4-15,7) e p<0,001 nos quatro países. Conclusões: o GRP em crianças nascidas com peso normal foi associado a maior chance de EP infantil nos quatro países da América Latina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Weight Gain , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Latin America/epidemiology
14.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 83-90, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389932

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se buscó caracterizar la satisfacción y percepciones de los residentes de Lima Metropolitana sobre distintos aspectos de la ciudad que pueden afectar su calidad de vida y salud, identificando diferencias por nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y cambios en el tiempo. Se realizó un análisis secundario de la Encuesta «Lima Cómo Vamos¼ entre 2010 y 2019, reportando los resultados mediante porcentajes, con diferencias entre NSE para cada año y entre años. En 2019 la satisfacción y percepciones eran mayoritariamente desfavorables, y han disminuido hasta en 30 puntos porcentuales con el tiempo. Las personas de NSE más bajos tenían valoraciones más desfavorables y con mayores reducciones en el tiempo. Esta insatisfacción y percepciones desfavorables revelan deficiencias en servicios públicos y condiciones urbanas que podrían afectar negativamente la calidad de vida y salud, haciendo necesarias políticas que reduzcan las brechas socioeconómicas y mejoren la salud de los ciudadanos de Lima Metropolitana.


ABSTRACT We aimed to characterize the satisfaction and perceptions of the residents of Lima about different aspects of urban life that can affect their quality of life and health, identifying differences by socioeconomic status (SES) and changes over time. A secondary data analysis of the "Lima Cómo Vamos" survey was conducted between 2010 and 2019. Results are reported through percentages, with differences between SES for each year and between years. In 2019, satisfaction and perceptions were mostly unfavorable, and have decreased by up to 30% over time. People with lower SES had more unfavorable evaluations and with greater reductions over time. This dissatisfaction and unfavorable perceptions reveal deficiencies in public services and urban conditions that could negatively affect the quality of life and health, making it necessary to design and implement policies that reduce socioeconomic gaps and improve the health of Lima citizens.

15.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(1): 29-35, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376851

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La hipertensión arterial es el principal factor de riesgo cardiovascular modificable y aumenta la probabilidad de mortalidad de causa cardiovascular. Las mediciones de prevalencia en Colombia han incluido ciudades principales y pequeñas regiones, pero no se dispone de información en el país. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial a partir de los reportes a los sistemas oficiales de información en Colombia. Método: Mediante la extracción y el análisis de datos de la herramienta SISPRO del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, se calculó la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial, estandarizada por edad y para las diferentes regiones geográficas del país, entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados: Durante los 5 años evaluados hubo 12,386,343 registros con diagnóstico principal de hipertensión arterial; en 2013 se observó la menor prevalencia (4.65%) y en 2017 la mayor (5.83%). El promedio de prevalencia nacional en los mayores de 60 años durante los 5 años fue del 28.14%. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres, con una relación mujer: hombre de 1.78:1. El grupo de mayor prevalencia durante el estudio fueron las mujeres mayores de 80 años en 2017, con una prevalencia ajustada del 54.4%. Las regiones con prevalencia mayor al 10% fueron Risaralda, Caldas, Boyacá, Antioquia y Sucre. Conclusiones: La prevalencia nacional de los registros de consultas por hipertensión arterial a las fuentes oficiales de información es menor que la reportada en estudios realizados en poblaciones similares y sugiere que existe un subregistro del reporte a dichas fuentes de información.


Abstract Introduction: Systemic hypertension is the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, leading to increased probability of mortality due to cardiovascular causes. Studies assessing the prevalence of systemic hypertension in Colombia have included main cities and small regions. However, there is no available data regarding the country as a whole. Objective: To describe the prevalence of systemic hypertension according to reports made to the official information systems in Colombia. Method: The prevalence of systemic hypertension was calculated through the extraction and analysis of data contained within the SISPRO tool, the official information system for the Colombian Ministry of Health and Social Protection. The prevalence was then standardized by age, and for the different geographical regions of the country in the period comprised between years 2013 and 2017. Results: During the five years of follow-up, we located 12,386,343 registries reporting systemic hypertension as a main diagnosis. The lowest prevalence (4.65%) was found in year 2013, and the highest prevalence (5.83%) was found in 2017. The mean national prevalence for patients above the age of 60, during the aforementioned 5-year period, was 28.14%. The prevalence was higher in women, with a women-to-men ratio of 1.78:1. The group with the higher adjusted prevalence during the study period was composed of women above the age of 80 in year 2017, with an adjusted prevalence of 54.4%. The regions with a prevalence over 10% were Risaralda, Caldas, Boyacá. Antioquia and Sucre. Conclusions: The national prevalence of registered consultations due to systemic hypertension to the official information sources is lower than that reported in previous studies conducted on similar populations, suggesting the existence of underreport to said information sources.

16.
Rev. salud pública ; 24(1): e203, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze trends in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in Latin American countries. Methods An ecological study with incidence data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from the World Health Organization. The trend of incidence by Joinpoint regression, the variation of the annual average and the 95% confidence interval were analyzed. Results There were increasing trends in incidence in Brazil, in males, aged 40-59 years, and reduction in Costa Rica. In females, there was stability in all age groups. The mortality rates increased in the elderly in Brazil (AAPC: 1.09%; 95% CI: 0.76; 1.42), Peru (AAPC: 1.76%; 95% CI: 0.36; 3.17) and El Salvador (AAPC: 2.88%; 95% CI: 0.38; 5.43), while in Mexico, there was a reduction. In females, this rate increased in Brazil (AAPC: 1.38%; 95% CI: 1.07; 1.69), Peru (AAPC: 2.25%; 95% CI: 0.68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3.62%; 95% CI: 1.96; 5.31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2.51%; 95% CI: 0.36; 4.71) and Paraguay (AAPC: 1.17%; 95% CI: 0.37; 1.98) and a downward trend was observed in Colombia and Ecuador. Conclusions Pancreatic cancer had a higher incidence in the elderly population of both sexes and an increase of the mortality trend in females was noted.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las tendencias en la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de páncreas en los países latinoamericanos. Método Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos de incidencia de la Agencia Internacional de Investigación sobre Cáncer y datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se analizó la tendencia de incidencia por regresión de Joinpoint, la variación del promedio anual y el intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados Hubo tendencias crecientes en la incidencia en Brasil en varones entre 40 y 59 años, y una reducción en Costa Rica. En las mujeres, hubo estabilidad en todos los grupos de edad. Las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron en los ancianos en Brasil (AAPC: 1,09%; IC 95%: 0,76; 1.42), Perú (AAPC: 1,76%; IC 95%: 0,36; 3,17) y El Salvador (AAPC: 2,88%; 95% IC 0,38; 5,43), mientras que en México hubo una reducción. En las mujeres, esta tasa aumentó en Brasil (AAPC: 1,38%; IC 95%: 1,07; 1.69), Perú (AAPC: 2,25%; IC 95%: 0,68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3,62%; IC 95%: 1,96; 5,31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2,51%; IC 95%: 0,36; 4,71) y Paraguay (AAPC: 1,17%; IC 95%: 0,37; 1,98) y se observó una tendencia a la baja en Colombia y Ecuador. Conclusiones El cáncer de páncreas tuvo una mayor incidencia en la población anciana de ambos sexos; cabe también señalar que debido a este aumentó su mortalidad en las mujeres.

17.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(1): 23-46, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365463

ABSTRACT

Abstract The relation between taxation and partisanship is a widely studied topic in Political Science. However, previous works have provided conflicting findings without clarifying which parties are most prone to progressive taxation. These studies also did not consider one distinctive feature of Latin American politics: coalition governments. Using the level of direct tax collection as a proxy for progressive taxation and panel data of Latin American countries since 1990, we investigate how progressive taxes vary across a scale of ideology observed in the executive branch along with the ideological heterogeneity of its coalition. The results show that ideologically heterogeneous governments present a policy drift, as the policies being enacted depart from parties' original preferences. Homogeneous left-wing governments collect more direct taxes than ideologically heterogeneous coalitions led by governments with the same ideology. The same dynamic is observed with homogeneous right-wing governments, which collect more indirect taxes in ideologically homogeneous coalitions. These results create new paths of research highlighting the need to include the government's composition in the analysis to understand policy design and the need to unravel the mechanism through which policy drift occurs in ideologically heterogeneous governments.


Resumen La relación entre tributación y partidismo es un tema ampliamente estudiado en Ciencias Políticas. Sin embargo, trabajos previos han proporcionado hallazgos contradictorios sin aclarar qué partes son más propensas a la tributación progresiva. Estos estudios tampoco consideraron una característica distintiva de la política latinoamericana: los gobiernos de coalición. Utilizando el nivel de recaudación de impuestos directos como indicador de la tributación progresiva y datos de panel de los países de América Latina desde 1990, investigamos cómo varían los impuestos progresivos a lo largo de una escala de ideología observada en el poder ejecutivo junto con la heterogeneidad ideológica de su coalición. Los resultados muestran que los gobiernos ideológicamente heterogéneos presentan un policy drift, ya que las políticas que se promulgan se apartan de las preferencias originales de los partidos. Los gobiernos homogéneos de izquierda recaudan más impuestos directos que las coaliciones ideológicamente heterogéneas lideradas por gobiernos con la misma ideología. La misma dinámica se observa con gobiernos homogéneos de derecha, que recaudan más impuestos indirectos en coaliciones ideológicamente homogéneas. Estos resultados crean nuevos caminos de investigación que destacan la necesidad de incluir la composición del gobierno en el análisis para comprender el diseño de políticas y la necesidad de desentrañar el mecanismo a través del cual se produce policy drift de políticas en gobiernos ideológicamente heterogéneos.


Resumo A relação entre tributação e partidarismo é amplamente estudada na Ciência Política. Entretanto, trabalhos anteriores não só apresentaram resultados contraditórios - sem esclarecer quais partidos são mais propensos a instituir tributos progressivos - como nenhum considerou um elemento particular da política latino-americana: os governos de coalizão. Usando o nível de arrecadação com tributos diretos como uma proxy para tributação progressiva e adotando um banco de dados em painel, investiga-se a receita com tributos progressivos considerando uma escala da ideologia da liderança executiva e a heterogeneidade ideológica da coalizão que forma o governo. Os resultados indicam que governos ideologicamente heterogêneos apresentam policy drift, já que as políticas sendo implementadas se distanciam das preferências originais da liderança executiva. Governos homogêneos de esquerda têm receitas maiores com tributos diretos do que governos formados a partir de coalizão ideologicamente heterogênea sob as mesmas lideranças. A mesma dinâmica ocorre com governos homogêneos de direita, que têm receitas maiores com tributos indiretos. Os resultados indicam novos caminhos para pesquisa, destacando a necessidade de se incorporar a composição de um governo à análise de políticas públicas, como a importância de se compreender o mecanismo pelo qual policy drift ocorre em governos ideologicamente heterogêneos.


Subject(s)
Taxes , Executive , Policy , Government , Latin America
18.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(1): e1685, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375611

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas, la evolución y el tratamiento de los pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó a 47 pacientes con diagnóstico primario de hipertensión pulmonar. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 48 años, y el 91,49 % fueron mujeres. El promedio de seguimiento fue 39 meses. Los tipos predominantes de hipertensión arterial pulmonar fueron los siguientes: asociada a cardiopatía congénita (48,93 %), asociada a enfermedad del tejido conectivo (21,28 %) e hipertensión idiopática (17,02 %). En el 78,72 % de los pacientes se empleó la monoterapia (principalmente con sildenafilo), y en 21,28 % de los casos se usó la terapia combinada secuencial (sildenafilo más bosentan). Durante el seguimiento, el 70,21 % tuvo por lo menos una hospitalización y cinco pacientes fallecieron, lo que significó una mortalidad total acumulada de 10,64 %. Conclusiones: La hipertensión arterial pulmonar afecta predominantemente a personas jóvenes y de sexo femenino. La cardiopatía congénita es la principal etiología asociada. La monoterapia con sildenafilo es el tratamiento específico que se utiliza con más frecuencia. La mortalidad encontrada fue menor a la reportada en otros estudios.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, evolution and treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Materials and methods: A descriptive study that included 47 patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Results: The average age of the patients was 48 years and 91.49 % were females. The average follow-up was 39 months. The main types of pulmonary arterial hypertension were the one associated with congenital heart diseases (48.93 %), the one associated with connective tissue diseases (21.28 %) and idiopathic hypertension (17.02 %). Monotherapy (mainly with sildenafil) and sequential combination therapy (sildenafil plus bosentan) were used in 78.72 % and 21.28 % of the patients, respectively. During the follow-up, 70.21 % of the patients were hospitalized at least once and five patients died, resulting in a cumulative total mortality of 10.64 %. Conclusions: Pulmonary arterial hypertension predominantly affects young people and females. The main associated etiology is congenital heart disease. The most frequently used specific treatment is sildenafil monotherapy. The mortality rate was lower than that reported in other studies.

19.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) among immigrants and refugees in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS Overall, 355 individuals were interviewed, and blood samples were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG. Anti-HEV-positive samples were similarly tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS All participants were from Latin American countries, most of whom, young adult males. The overall anti-HAV IgG prevalence was 87.4% (95%CI: 83.5-90.4), of whom 94.9%, 75.6%, and 60% were from Haiti, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries, respectively (p < 0.001). Age above 19 years and more than 36 months residing in Brazil were associated with a higher prevalence of previous HAV and HEV infection, respectively. Of the children eligible for HAV vaccination according to the National Immunization Program, only eight (44%) had been vaccinated. The overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 6.5% (95%CI: 4.4-9.5). All anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals were Haitians, including a child born in Brazil. HEV RNA was detected in two of the anti-HEV IgG-positive samples. CONCLUSION The survey detected a high prevalence of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG among immigrants and refugees, and active HEV infection among some Haitian participants. Prevention measures are urgently required to interrupt enteric virus transmission in this emergent and vulnerable population.

20.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e220285, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394400

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo pretendo demonstrar a atualidade do pensamento político-pedagógico de Juan César García no contexto contemporâneo. Com esse objetivo, primeiro discuto a "teoria do modo de produção de médicos" proposta por García, inspirado no referencial marxista. Segundo, sistematizo elementos que permitem delinear uma teoria da educação baseada no materialismo-histórico, com forte influência do pensamento gramsciano, formulada por García em contraposição ao que chama de "pedagogia idealista". Terceiro, destaco na sua obra elementos político-pedagógicos que precisariam de melhor contextualização para poder avaliar sua efetiva contribuição para a educação profissional em Saúde. Finalmente, apresento argumentos que valorizam a contribuição de Juan César García para a compreensão da dialética permanência-transformação na relação educação-trabalho, sobretudo o papel das instituições encarregadas da formação de sujeitos críticos, criativos e engajados na luta histórica pela qualidade-equidade em saúde.


This article aims to demonstrate the political and pedagogical thinking of Juan César García from a contemporary perspective. First, I discuss the theory of the "mode of medical production" proposed by García, inspired by Marxism. Second, I systematize elements that delineate a theory of education based on historical materialism, with a strong influence from Gramscian thought as formulated by García, in contrast to what he calls "idealist pedagogy". Third, I highlight political and pedagogical elements in his work that need better contextualization to assess his real contribution to professional health education. Finally, I present arguments to highlight Juan César García's contribution to the understanding of the permanence-transformation dialectic in education-work relations, focusing on the role of institutions tasked with training critical and creative subjects engaged in the historic struggle for health equity and quality of care.


En este artículo, pretendo demostrar la actualidad del pensamiento político-pedagógico de Juan César García no contexto contemporáneo. Con ese objetivo, discuto primero la "teoría del modo de producción de médicos" propuesta por García, inspirado en el referencial marxista. Segundo, sistematizo elementos que permiten delinear una teoría de la educación basada en el materialismo-histórico, con fuerte influencia del pensamiento gramsciano, formulada por García en contraposición a lo que llama de "pedagogía idealista". Tercero, destaco en su obra elementos político-pedagógicos que necesitarían mejor contextualización para poder evaluar su efectiva contribución para la educación profesional en salud. Finalmente, presento argumentos que valorizan la contribución de Juan César García para la comprensión de la dialéctica permanencia-transformación en la relación educación-trabajo, principalmente el papel de las instituciones encargadas de la formación de sujetos críticos, creativos y comprometidos en la lucha histórica por la calidad-equidad en salud.

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