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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200091, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136875

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment have major limitations. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a quinoline derivative, Hydraqui (7-chloro-4-(3-hydroxy-benzilidenehydrazo)quinoline, against Leishmania amazonensis. In silico analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) parameters were performed. RESULTS: Hydraqui showed significant in vitro anti-amastigote activity. Also, Hydraqui-treated mice exhibited high efficacy in lesion size (48.3%) and parasitic load (93.8%) reduction, did not cause hepatic and renal toxicity, and showed appropriate ADMET properties. CONCLUSIONS: Hydraqui presents a set of satisfactory criteria for its application as an antileishmanial agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolines/chemistry , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Parasite Load , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(1): 21-30, abr. 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1178658

ABSTRACT

El ministerio de salud tiene como una de las prioridades en investigación a las enfermedades infecciosas, entre las que incluye a las leishmaniasis y la tripanosomiasis americana. En la Facultad Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas se estudian especies vegetales medicinales utilizadas por la cultura Tacana como fuente de agentes antiparasitarios potenciales. Los laboratorios dedicados al descubrimiento de moléculas naturales con actividad antiparasitaria, tienen el desafío de desarrollar protocolos que permitan detectar biomoléculas selectivas, efectivas y menos tóxicas que las disponibles. Por ende, las evaluaciones antiparasitarias in vitro (CI50), deberían ir acompañadas de evaluaciones de citotoxicidad (DL50), con el fin de calcular un Índice de Selectividad (IS=DL50 / CI50) como parámetro de especificidad biológica. La citotoxicidad fue medida sobre líneas de macrófagos (RAW 264.7, murino), células involucradas en las infecciones por parásitos intracelulares. El protocolo fluorométrico parte con una población de 5x104 células/mL, incubada a 37ºC en DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's médium), por 96 horas, con adición de resazurina (2mM) 3 horas antes de las lecturas finales. Bajo estas condiciones se evaluó la citotoxicidad de drogas control y 15 extractos vegetales seleccionados por su actividad anti-kinetoplastida. El extracto de Cosmailu fue el más citotóxico, Ejije bid'u resultó selectivo para T. cruzi y Leishmania amazonensis, mientras que Id'ene eidhue, fue selectivo para L. amazonensis. Finalmente, los otros 12 extractos resultaron ser poco selectivos o citotóxicos.


The Ministry of Health has infectious diseases as one of the research priorities, including leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis. The Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Sciences develops evaluations of medicinal plant species used by the Tacana culture as a source of potential antiparasitic agents. Laboratories dedicated to the discovery of natural molecules with antiparasitic activity, have the challenge of developing protocols that allow the detection of selective, effective and less toxic biomolecules than those available. Therefore, in vitro antiparasitic evaluations (IC50) should be accompanied by cytotoxicity evaluations (LD50), in order to calculate a Selectivity Index (IS = LD50/ IC50) as a parameter of biological specificity. The cytotoxicity was measured on macrophage line (RAW 264.7, murine), cells engaged on intracellular parasites infections. The fluorometric protocol starts with an initial population of 5x104 cells/mL, incubated at 37ºC, in DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium) for 96 hours with addition of resazurin (2mM) 3 hours, before final readings. Under these conditions the cytotoxicity of control drugs and 15 plant extracts, selected by their anti-kinetoplastid activity, was evaluated. Cosumailu extract was the most cytotoxic, Ejije bid'u was selective for T. cruzi, and Leishmania amazonensis, while Id'ene eidhue, was selective for L. amazonensis. Finally, the other 12 extracts were little selective or cytotoxic.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Leishmaniasis , Parasitic Diseases , Plant Extracts , Determination , Control
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17481, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055310

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania spp. are protozoal species responsible for millions of cases of parasitic diseases worldwide. Considering the potential of natural products and the need for more effective and less toxic alternatives to treat trichomoniasis and leishmaniasis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two series of triterpenes derivatives with different modifications at C-3 and C-28 positions of the ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) against trophozoites of Trichomonas vaginalis and promastigotes forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. The compounds modified just at C-3 were the most active. The 3β-acetyl betulinic acid (1b) reduced the trophozoites viability of T. vaginalis at 74%, followed by the 3-oxo ursolic acid and 3-oxo betulinic acid (3a and 3b) compounds (55% of reduction). The compound 3β-isobutyl ursolic acid (7a) inhibited the viability of L. amazonensis promastigotes by 55%. Therefore, analyzing the structure-activity relationship and the data of literature, it is possible to suppose that the inclusion of polar groups in the skeletons could improve the antiprotozoal activity. Overall, further studies are necessary to develop triterpenic derivatives with more powerful trichomonicidal and leishmanicidal properties.

5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17584, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039064

ABSTRACT

In South American folk medicine members of the genus Myrciaria are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea, asthma, inflammation and post-partum uterine cleansing. The aim of this work was to evaluate its antileishmanial properties (in vitro) of essential oil derived from leaves of Myrciaria plinioides D. Legrand, a plant species that is native in South of Brazil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation using fresh leaves of M. plinioides. The chemical composition of this essential oil (MPEO, M. plinioides essential oil) was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MPEO was assayed in vitro for antileishmanial properties against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum, and for cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages. The MPEO comprised 66 components and was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (82.66%) containing spathulenol (21.12%) as its major constituent. The MPEO was effective against L. amazonensis with IC50 value of 14.16 ± 7.40 µg/mL, while against L. infantum the IC50 value was higher with 101.50 ± 5.78 µg/mL. The MPEO showed significant activity against L. amazonensis, and presented a selectivity index (SI) of 6.60. The results suggest that the essential oil from leaves of M. plinioides is a promising source for new antileishmanial agents against L. amazonensis.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Brazil/ethnology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Myrtaceae/anatomy & histology , Leishmania infantum , Plant Leaves/classification , Leishmania
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61: e18160461, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus. It may manifest in visceral and tegumentary forms, and pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs used for the treatment. Frequently these drugs show low efficiency and high toxicity to mammalian host. The present study describes the chemical profile and the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of red propolis and Dalbergia ecastaphyllum extracts from Sergipe, Brazil, in Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The phenolic composition of the extracts was evaluated by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) fingerprinting. The leishmanicidal effect was evaluated by the Resazurin colorimetric method. Similar composition profiles have been found for D. ecastaphyllum and propolis samples. The isoflavones formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein and pinocembrin were identified in both extracts. Propolis extract showed leishmanicidal activity in both L. chagasi and L. amazonensis, with IC50 values of 21.54 and 9.73 µg/mL, respectively. The D. ecastaphyllum extract presented activity only in L. amazonensis, with IC50 of 53.42 µg/mL. These results suggest that red propolis extract from Sergipe has the leguminosae D. ecastaphyllum as botanical origin, and that it presents potential leishmanicidal activity, which may be associated with the presence of the phenolic compounds found in its composition.

7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(4): e170345, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected diseases, is a serious public health problem in many countries, including Brazil. Currently available treatments require long-term use and have serious side effects, necessitating the development of new therapeutic interventions. Because translocator protein (TSPO) levels are reduced in Leishmania amazonensis-infected cells and because this protein participates in apoptosis and immunomodulation, TSPO represents a potential target for Leishmania chemotherapy. The present study evaluated PK11195, a ligand of this protein, as an anti-leishmanial agent. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of PK11195 against L. amazonensis in infected CBA mouse macrophages in vitro. METHODS The viability of axenic L. amazonensis, Leishmania major, and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes was assessed after 48 h treatment with PK11195 (0.2-400 µM). Additionally, intracellular parasite viability was evaluated to determine IC50 values and the number of viable parasites in infected macrophages treated with PK11195 (50-100 µM). Infected macrophages were then treated with PK11195 (25-100 µM) to determine the percentage of L. amazonensis-infected cells and the number of parasites per infected cell. Electron microscopy was used to investigate morphological changes caused by PK11195. The production of free oxygen radicals, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines was also evaluated in infected macrophages treated with PK11195 and primed or not primed with IFN-γ. FINDINGS Median IC50 values for PK11195 were 14.2 µM for L. amazonensis, 8.2 µM for L. major, and 3.5 µM for L. braziliensis. The selective index value for L. amazonensis was 13.7, indicating the safety of PK11195 for future testing in mammals. Time- and dose-dependent reductions in the percentage of infected macrophages, the number of parasites per infected macrophage, and the number of viable intracellular parasites were observed. Electron microscopy revealed some morphological alterations suggestive of autophagy. Interestingly, MCP-1 and superoxide levels were reduced in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages treated with PK11195. MAIN CONCLUSIONS PK11195 causes the killing of amastigotes in vitro by mechanisms independent of inflammatory mediators and causes morphological alterations within Leishmania parasites, suggestive of autophagy, at doses that are non-toxic to macrophages. Thus, this molecule has demonstrated potential as an anti-leishmanial agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmania mexicana , Drug Utilization , Macrophages
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 21, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954855

ABSTRACT

Lipid metabolites play an important role in parasite differentiation and virulence. Studies have revealed that Leishmania sp. uses prostaglandins to evade innate barriers, thus enabling the parasites to survive inside immune cells. Despite the role of the enzyme Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in prostaglandins production, few studies have investigated the role of parasite PLA2 during the interaction between L. (L.) amazonensis and the host (in vitro and in vivo) immune cells. Methods: In the present work, the leishmanicidal effect of PLA2 inhibitors, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), bromoenol lactone (BEL) and aristolochic acid (AA) were investigated in vitro (promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis) and during in vivo infection using BALB/c mice. Results: The aforementioned inhibitors were deleterious to promastigote and amastigote forms of the L. (L.) amazonensis and were non-toxic to peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice treated with the inhibitor BEL presented decreased lesion size and skin parasitism; however, BEL treatment induced hepatotoxicity in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: Results presented herein suggested that PLA2 inhibitors altered L. (L.) amazonensis viability. In spite of liver toxicity, treatment with BEL was the most selective compound in vitro, as well in vivo, resulting in lower skin parasitism in the infected mice. These findings corroborate the role of PLA2 in parasite virulence and maintenance in vertebrate hosts, and suggest that molecules structurally related to BEL should be considered when planning compounds against Leishmania sp.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Leishmania/parasitology , In Vitro Techniques , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Lactones/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3005-3013, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are globally widespread parasitic diseases which have been responsible for high mortality rates. Since drugs available for their treatment are highly hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic, adherence to therapy has been affected. Thus, the search for new, more effective and safer drugs for the treatment of these diseases is necessary. Natural products have stood out as an alternative to searching for new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potential. In this study, the chemical composition and antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. The essential oil was promising against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50= 28.55 μg.mL-1) and L. amazonensis promastigotes (IC50 = 2.28 μg.mL-1). Eighteen chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in the essential oil, whose major constituents were spathulenol (17.6 %), caryophyllene oxide (16.4 %), β-caryophyllene (14.0 %) and myrcene (8.4 %). In addition, the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves had moderate cytotoxicity against LLCMK2 adherent epithelial cell at the concentration range under analysis (CC50 = 150.9 μg.mL-1). It should be highlighted that this is the first report of the chemical composition and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves.


Subject(s)
Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Burseraceae/chemistry , Trypanocidal Agents/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 681-691, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. OBJECTIVE To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs) in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. METHODS Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season) and November (rainy season) in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp.) and 578 (22 spp.) were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens) identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Forests , Grassland , Insect Vectors
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 146-154, Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania. These parasites present high resistance against oxidative stress generated by inflammatory cells. OBJECTIVES To investigate oxidative stress and molecular inflammatory markers in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis and the effect of antioxidant treatment on these parameters. METHODS Four months after infection, oxidative and inflammatory parameters of liver, kidneys, spleen, heart and lungs from BALB/c mice were assessed. FINDINGS In liver, L. amazonensis caused thiol oxidation and nitrotyrosine formation; SOD activity and SOD2 protein content were increased while SOD1 protein content decreased. The content of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and the receptor of advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) increased in liver. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (20 mg/kg b.w) for five days inhibited oxidative stress parameters. MAIN CONCLUSIONS L. amazonensis induces significant alterations in the redox status of liver but not in other organs. Acute antioxidant treatment alleviates oxidative stress in liver, but it had no effect on pro-inflammatory markers. These results indicate that the pathobiology of leishmaniasis is not restricted to the cutaneous manifestations and open perspectives for the development of new therapeutic approaches to the disease, especially for liver function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/metabolism , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 44-52, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841754

ABSTRACT

Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility. In vivo fast-, medium- and slow-growing subclones were obtained; moreover, fast-growing subclones could generate slow-growing subclones and inversely, revealing the continuous generation of diversity after passage into mice. No antimony-resistant subclone appeared, probably a rare occurrence. By tagging subclone cells with a L. amazonensis genomic cosmid library, we found that only a very small number of founding cells could produce lesions. Leishmania clones transfected with in vivo selected individual cosmids were also diverse in terms of lesion growth rate, revealing the cosmid-independent intrinsic characteristics of each clone. Our results suggest that only a few of the infecting parasites are able to grow and produce lesions; later, within the cell mixture of each lesion, there coexist several parasite populations with different potentialities to grow lesions during the next infection round. This may reflect a sort of programmed heterogeneity of individual parasites, favoring the survival of some individuals in various environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Leishmania mexicana/genetics , Leishmania mexicana/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Phenotype , Time Factors , Mice, Inbred BALB C
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168662

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected and endemic disease that affects poorest population mainly in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro activity of boldine against Leishmania amazonensis murine cell infection. Boldine ((S)-2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine) is an aporphine alkaloid found abundantly in the leaves/bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), a widely distributed tree native to Chile. The in vitro system consisted of murine macrophage infection with amastigotes of L. amazonensis treated with different concentrations from 50 to 600 μg/ml of boldine for 24 hr. Intracellular parasite destruction was assessed by morphological examination and boldine cytotoxicity to macrophages was tested by the MTT viability assay. When cells were treated with 100 μg/ml of boldine the reduction of parasite infection was 81% compared with untreated cultures cells. Interestingly, boldine-treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease of macrophage infection that culminated with 96% of reduction when cells were submitted to 600 μg/ml of boldine. Cell cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of boldine and 300 μg/ml of Glucantime® during 24 hr showed a significant reduction of 50% in parasitized cells compared with cell cultures exposed just to Glucantime®. The study showed that treatment with boldine produces a better effect than treatment with the reference antimonial drug, glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected macrophage. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Chile , Developing Countries , Endemic Diseases , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis , Macrophages , Neglected Diseases , Parasites , Peumus , Trees
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 579-585, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798123

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. METHODS Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. RESULTS It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition). CONCLUSIONS Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Maytenus/chemistry , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 460-468, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787557

ABSTRACT

The 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) is a molecular chaperone that assists the parasite Leishmania in returning to homeostasis after being subjected to different types of stress during its life cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of HSP70 transfection of L. amazonensis promastigotes (pTEX-HSP70) in terms of morphology, resistance, infectivity and mitochondrial bioenergetics. The pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes showed no ultrastructural morphological changes compared to control parasites. Interestingly, the pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes are resistant to heat shock, H2O2-induced oxidative stress and hyperbaric environments. Regarding the bioenergetics parameters, the pTEX-HSP70 parasites had higher respiratory rates and released less H2O2 than the control parasites. Nevertheless, the infectivity capacity of the parasites did not change, as verified by the infection of murine peritoneal macrophages and human macrophages, as well as the infection of BALB/c mice. Together, these results indicate that the overexpression of HSP70 protects L. amazonensis from stress, but does not interfere with its infective capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/physiology , Leishmania mexicana/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/physiology , Stress, Physiological , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Leishmania mexicana/genetics , Leishmania mexicana/ultrastructure , Macrophages/parasitology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mitochondria/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Transfection/methods
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 349-354, May 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782047

ABSTRACT

During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage/genetics , DNA Repair/genetics , DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data
17.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 26(2): 180-183, Jan.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-779014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Eleven compounds, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1), persicogenin (2), eriodictyol 3′,4′,7-trimethyl ether (3), phytol (4), spathulenol (5), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (6), onopordin (7), 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-7,3′-dimethoxyflavone (8), quercetin (9), jaceosidin (10), and 8-hydroxyluteolin (11), were isolated from an ethanol extract of Lantana balansae Briq., Verbenaceae, that was found to possess antileishmanial activity. The structures of the compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and HR mass spectrometry, and 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and 9 were investigated for antiprotozoal activity toward promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis. Compound 1 was shown to be the most potent, with the IC50 values 2.0 µM toward L. amazonensis and 0.68 µM toward L. braziliensis, although less potent than the positive control Amphotericin B. All compounds have been reported previously, but this is the first report of the isolation of a cyclopentenone fatty acid (1) and flavanones (2 and 3) from a Lantana species.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776538

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania . Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, with millions of new cases worldwide each year. Treatments are ineffective due to the toxicity of existing drugs and the resistance acquired by certain strains of the parasite. METHODS: We evaluated the activity of sodium nitroprusside in macrophages infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis . Phagocytic and microbicidal activity were evaluated by phagocytosis assay and promastigote recovery, respectively, while cytokine production and nitrite levels were determined by ELISA and by the Griess method. Levels of iNOS and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Sodium nitroprusside exhibited in vitro antileishmanial activity at both concentrations tested, reducing the number of amastigotes and recovered promastigotes in macrophages infected with L. amazonensis . At 1.5µg/mL, sodium nitroprusside stimulated levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide, but not IFN-γ. The compound also increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, but not expression of iNOS, suggesting that the drug acts as an exogenous source of nitric oxide. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium nitroprusside enhances microbicidal activity in Leishmania -infected macrophages by boosting nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Tyrosine/biosynthesis , Tyrosine/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1024-1034, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769826

ABSTRACT

The herbaceous shrub Tetradenia riparia has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recently, a study showed that T. riparia essential oil (TrEO) obtained in summer has antileishmanial effects, although these results could be influenced by seasonal variation. This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from plants harvested in summer had the highest 50% cytotoxic concentration, 1,476 ng/mL for J774.A1 macrophages, and in spring (90.94 ng/mL) for murine macrophages. NO production did not change in samples of the TrEO from different seasons. The antileishmanial effect in vivo consisted of a reduction of the parasite load in the spleen. These results suggest that the TrEO has potential effects on L. (L.) amazonensis, consonant with its traditional use to treat parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania/classification , Lymph Nodes/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Parasite Load , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Spleen/parasitology , Time Factors
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1051-1057, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769832

ABSTRACT

Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/parasitology , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
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