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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(9): e20230077, set. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514736


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a curve of weekly serum levels of adiponectin and leptin among pregnant adolescents. In addition, pregestational body mass index and weight gain were assessed and correlated with the serum concentration of these molecules. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, including only pregnant adolescents with eutrophic pre-gestational body mass index who were weekly followed during the evolution of gestation. The serum concentrations of adipokines were determined using commercial ELISA kits and were correlated to pre-gestational body mass index and pregnancy weight gain. A total of 157 pregnant women participated in this study. RESULTS: Adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease among the trimesters (p=0.0004). However, we did not observe significant differences among its levels when compared weekly, neither of which was between adiponectin concentration and pre-gestational body mass index or weight gain (p=0.36 and p=0.10, respectively). In contrast, we detected a significant increase in weekly serum leptin levels (p<0.0001), positively correlated to both pre-gestational body mass index and weight gain (p=0.003 and p=0.0007, respectively). CONCLUSION: These adipokines present a different profile throughout adolescent pregnancy.

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12742, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447690


Brain glucose hypometabolism and neuroinflammation are early pathogenic manifestations in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation may also disrupt leptin signaling, an adipokine that centrally regulates appetite and energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus and exerting neuroprotection in the hippocampus. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) animal model used to investigate diabetes-associated molecular mechanisms without obesity jeopardizing effects. Wistar and GK rats received the maintenance adult rodent diet. Also, an additional control group of Wistar rats received a high-fat and high-sugar diet (HFHS) provided by free consumption of condensed milk. All diets and water were provided ad libitum for eight weeks. Brain glucose uptake was evaluated by 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose under basal (saline administration) or stimulated (CL316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist) conditions. The animals were fasted for 10-12 h, anesthetized, and euthanized. The brain was quickly dissected, and the hippocampal area was sectioned and stored at -80°C in different tubes for protein and RNA analyses on the same animal. GK rats exhibited attenuated brain glucose uptake compared to Wistar animals and the HFHS group under basal conditions. Also, the hippocampus of GK rats displayed upregulated leptin receptor, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression and IL-1β and the subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB (p-p65) protein expression. No significant alterations were detected in the hippocampus of HFHS rats. Our data indicated that a genetic predisposition to T2DM has significant brain deteriorating features, including brain glucose hypometabolism, neuroinflammation, and leptin signaling disruption in the hippocampal area.

Gac. méd. boliv ; 46(1)2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448309


Introducción: la obesidad es un estado patológico caracterizado por una acumulación excesiva de tejido adiposo, la misma secreta adipocinas entre las cuales se encuentra la Leptina que está implicada en importantes funciones metabólicas como el control de apetito y peso corporal. Objetivos: se realizo este estudio de la correlación entre la concentración de Leptina sérica con indicadores antropométricos y parámetros bioquímicos en pacientes entre 5 a 15 años de edad, con sobrepeso u obesidad. Métodos: se efectuó e estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, con 148 pacientes entre 5 y 15 años de edad, se realizaron exámenes bioquímicos para evaluar la concentración de Leptina, Glucosa, Insulina, perfil lipídico e indicadores antropométricos. IMC, %GC y RCE. Resultados Se determinó correlaciones positivas entre las concentraciones de Leptina sérica con el IMC (75,4; p< 0,000), el (% GC) Porcentaje de grasa corporal (70,7: p< 0,000) y el (RCE) Razón Cintura estatura (75,4; p< 0,000), encontramos que no existe correlación entre la concentración de Leptina y Colesterol Total, por otra parte encontramos correlación negativa inversa con la concentración de Colesterol HDL en el sexo masculino, mientras que los Triglicéridos presentaron una correlación estadísticamente significativa. Por otra parte, no encontramos correlación significativa entre la determinación de la Leptina y la glicemia, por el contrario, la insulina presento una correlación alta estadísticamente significativa (p<0,000). Conclusiones: este estudio muestra la existencia de correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la Leptina sérica con indicadores antropométricos y parámetros bioquímicos en pacientes entre 5 a 15 años de edad, que tienen sobrepeso u obesidad.

Introduction: Obesity is a pathological state characterized by an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, which secretes adipokines where there is Leptin, that is involved in important metabolic functions such as appetite control and body weight. Objectives: a study was carried out on the correlation between the serum Leptin concentration with anthropometric indicators and biochemical parameters in patients between 5 and 15 years old, overweight and obesity. Methods: the cross-sectional descriptive observational study was carried out, with 148 patients between 5 and 15 years of age, biochemical tests were performed to evaluate the concentration of Leptin Glucose, insulin, lipid profile and anthropometric indicators BMI, % BF y WHR. Results: positive correlations were found between serum Leptin concentrations with BMI (75.4; p <0.000), the (% BF) Body fat percentage (70.7: p <0.000) and the (WHR) Waist Ratio height (75,4 p <0.000). A low correlation was observed between the Leptin concentration and Total Cholesterol, with the concentration of HDL Cholesterol an inverse correlation was found in male sex, while Triglycerides presented higher levels in the adolescent group, there was no statistically significant. Also, we did not find a significant between the determination of Leptin and glycemia, on the contrary, insulin presented a statistically significant higher correlation (p <0.000). Conclusion: this study shows the existence of a statistically significant correlation between serum Leptin with anthropometric indicators and biochemical parameters in patients between 5 and 15 years of age, who are overweight or obese.

Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 56: e12746, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505873


Leptin and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) are two extensively studied biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies have mostly focused on either MetS or OA alone, with no available data on Vietnamese patients. This study aimed to investigate the levels of leptin and IL-1β in this patient population and explore their association with clinical parameters of MetS and OA. The study included 164 patients with primary knee OA, who were classified into two categories based on the presence of MetS, and 78 healthy controls. The plasma leptin and IL-1β levels were quantified by ELISA and correlated with clinical parameters. Leptin levels were higher in patients with OA (11.50±10.04 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (0.54±0.37 ng/mL) and increased in patients with MetS compared to those without MetS. IL-1β levels were also significantly higher in OA patients (14.63±15.87 pg/mL) than in controls (7.79±5.11 pg/mL), but were not significantly different between the MetS and non-MetS groups. Leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, visual analogue scale scores, HbA1c and insulin levels, and HOMA-IR index, whereas IL-1β levels were only correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR index. ROC curve analysis revealed that leptin and IL-1β levels could distinguish individuals with and without OA (AUC=0.96; 0.88, respectively), and individuals with and without MetS (AUC=0.82; 0.71, respectively). Our findings suggested that both leptin and IL-1β levels were associated with both MetS and OA and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MetS-related OA.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450073


Introducción: El ácido valproico es un fármaco que se utiliza en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, entre ellas la epilepsia. Aunque se lo considera un fármaco seguro presenta distintos efectos adversos entre ellos el más común es el aumento considerable de peso corporal. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre el uso de ácido valproico en pacientes con tratamiento antiepiléptico y la ganancia de peso. Método: Revisión sistemática realizada en la Universidad Abierta Interamericana, en la que se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de estudios en la base de datos PubMed con términos MesH sobre Valproic acid AND weight gain. Una vez seleccionados los artículos tras la aplicación de criterios de inclusión y exclusión quedaron 17, los que fueron útiles para llevar a cabo esta investigación. Resultados: La información de los artículos hallados revela que los mecanismos a través del cual el ácido valproico puede generar este incremento de peso corporal aún no están del todo esclarecidos. Se han propuesto varias hipótesis; las más frecuentes en la literatura son: la hiperinsulinemia y resistencia a la insulina, así como también la hiperleptinemia y la resistencia a la leptina, entre otros. Los pacientes que presentan ganancia de peso tienen importantes consecuencias para la salud, en particular, el desarrollo de obesidad y la asociación con dislipidemia, hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y aterosclerosis. Además, al generar cambios en la imagen corporal puede traer aparejada depresión, disminución de la autoestima y confianza en sí mismo, lo que provoca el incumplimiento y abandono del tratamiento. Conclusiones: Se observa la relación de causalidad del ácido valproico sobre la ganancia de peso en pacientes que padecen epilepsia.

Introduction: Valproic acid is a drug used in the treatment of various diseases, including epilepsy. Although it is considered a safe drug, it presents different adverse effects, among them the most common is the considerable increase in body weight. Objective: To identify the relationship between the use of valproic acid in patients with antiepileptic treatment and weight gain. Method: Systematic review carried out at the Universidad Abierta Interamericana, Argentina, in which an exhaustive search of studies was carried out in the PubMed database with MeSH terms on Valproic acid AND weight gain. Once the articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 remained, which were useful to carry out this research. Results: The information from the articles found reveals that the mechanisms through which valproic acid can generate this increase in body weight are still not fully clarified. Several hypotheses have been proposed; the most frequent in the literature are: hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as well as hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance, among others. Patients who present weight gain have important health consequences, particularly the development of obesity and the association with dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. In addition, by generating changes in body image, it can bring depression, decreased self-esteem and self-confidence, which causes non-compliance and abandonment of treatment. Conclusions: The causal relationship of valproic acid on weight gain in patients with epilepsy is observed.

Introdução: O ácido valpróico é um fármaco utilizado no tratamento de diversas doenças, entre elas a epilepsia. Apesar de ser considerado um medicamento seguro, apresenta diversos efeitos adversos, dentre eles o mais comum é o aumento considerável do peso corporal. Objetivo: Identificar a relação entre o uso de ácido valpróico em pacientes em tratamento antiepiléptico e o ganho de peso. Método: Revisão sistemática realizada na Universidad Abierta Interamericana, na qual foi realizada uma busca exaustiva de estudos na base de dados PubMed com termos MeSH sobre ácido valpróico AND ganho de peso. Uma vez selecionados os artigos após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, restaram 17, que foram úteis para a realização desta pesquisa. Resultados: As informações dos artigos encontrados revelam que os mecanismos pelos quais o ácido valpróico pode gerar esse aumento de peso corporal ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Várias hipóteses foram propostas; os mais frequentes na literatura são: hiperinsulinemia e resistência à insulina, assim como hiperleptinemia e resistência à leptina, entre outros. Pacientes que apresentam ganho de peso trazem importantes consequências para a saúde, principalmente o desenvolvimento de obesidade e associação com dislipidemia, hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e aterosclerose. Além disso, por gerar alterações na imagem corporal, pode trazer depressão, diminuição da autoestima e da autoconfiança, o que ocasiona a não adesão e abandono do tratamento. Conclusões: Observa-se a relação causal do ácido valpróico com o ganho de peso em pacientes com epilepsia.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(10): e20230240, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514704


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of leptin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and their relations with clinical parameters in patients with primary fibromyalgia and healthy controls. METHODS: Our study was performed on 30 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and 30 healthy controls. The levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 were measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. The serum level of leptin was measured by the ELISA kit. RESULTS: The serum level of leptin was significantly higher, but the serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome than healthy controls (p<0.001). The leptin level was positively correlated with the Visual Analog Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score, Beck Depression Inventory score, tender point count, age, and duration of disease (p<0.001), but it was negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor-1 (p<0.001). The insulin-like growth factor-1 level was negatively correlated with age, Visual Analog Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory scores, duration of disease, and tender point count (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that high levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 may play a role in the physiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia and may be related to some symptoms.

Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 61-65, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992263


Objective:To analyze the association between serum leptin and the risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods:The clinical data of 127 COPD patients admitted to the Ninth People′s Hospital of Suzhou from November 2019 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether acute exacerbation occurred in COPD patients, they were divided into acute exacerbation group (35 cases) and stable group (92 cases). General data of all patients were collected, including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), education level, disease course, smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, pneumonia, asthma and treatment methods. The forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1/FVC), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2), arterial blood pH and laboratory indicators [serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels] were detected. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the value of serum leptin, TNF-α and CRP in predicting acute exacerbation in COPD patients, and non-conditional logistic stepwise regression was used to analyze the risk factors of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. Results:Compared with the stable group, the proportion of patients with BMI<18.5 kg/m 2, complicated with pneumonia and asthma was higher, and the levels of serum leptin, TNF-α and CRP were also higher in acute exacerbation group (all P<0.05); ROC analysis showed that leptin≥3.683 ng/ml, TNF-α≥95.746 pg/ml and CRP≥22.405 mg/L were the best cut-off values of acute exacerbation in COPD patients(all P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI<18.5 kg/m 2, combined pneumonia, combined asthma, leptin≥3.683 ng/ml, TNF-α≥95.746 pg/ml, CRP≥22.405 mg/L were the risk factors for acute exacerbation of COPD patients(all P<0.05). Conclusions:Serum leptin level is elevated in COPD patients, and elevated serum leptin can lead to increased risk of acute exacerbation of COPD. In addition, low BMI, combined pneumonia or asthma, abnormally elevated TNF-α and CRP may be risk factors for acute exacerbation of COPD patients.

Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 805-810, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979196


Background Previous studies have shown that active smoking during pregnancy can reduce the level of neonatal cord blood leptin, and thereby affect birth weight. However, few studies have studied the association of passive smoking during pregnancy with leptin in neonatal cord blood and birth weight. Objective To explore the effects of passive smoking in varied pregnancy stages and entire pregnancy on neonatal cord blood leptin level and birth weight in a certain rural area of Yunnan, and potential mediating role of cord blood leptin. Methods Based on a prospective prenatal cohort study conducted in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, a total of 545 mother-infant pairs were included in this study from early pregnancy enrollment to delivery. The demographic information and reproductive history of the subjects were collected by questionnaire. The urine samples of pregnant women in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy were collected during regular prenatal examinations. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from newborns at birth. The concentration of urine cotinine (UC) was measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). According to the results of UC level during pregnancy, the study subjects were divided into three groups: negative group (<LOD), low exposure group (LOD-M), and high exposure group(>M). The level of leptin in cord blood was detected by ELISA. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the effect of passive smoking on umbilical cord blood leptin in newborns during pregnancy. Path analysis was used to explore the relationship among passive smoking during pregnancy, neonatal cord blood leptin, and birth weight. Results The average exposure rate of passive smoking during pregnancy was 87.28%, and the exposure rate for entire pregnancy was 76.88%. The median concentration of leptin in neonatal cord blood was 4.17 μg·L−1. After adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, educational level, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, annual household income, infant sex, and birth weight, we found that low level (b=−3.388, P=0.001) and high level (b=−2.738, P=0.006) of passive smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy had negative associations with leptin concentration of cord blood by multiple linear model. The path analysis results showed that passive smoking in the first trimester and pre-pregnancy BMI directly affected leptin levels, and the sizes of direct effects were −0.073 and −0.087 (both P<0.05) respectively. Passive smoking in late pregnancy, gestational weight gain, premature, newborn girls, parity, and pre-pregnancy BMI directly affected birth weight, and the sizes of direct effects were −0.063, 0.191, −0.301, −0.128, −0.121, and 0.167 (all P<0.05), respectively. No mediating role of leptin was found in the effect of passive smoking on neonatal birth weight. Conclusion Passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is common among rural women in Yunnan Province. Passive smoking in the first trimester may be key in decreasing the leptin level of neonatal cord blood. Passive smoking in third trimester may lead to a decrease in birth weight. No evidence shows that leptin mediates the relationship between passive smoking and birth weight.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 808-814, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403242


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on body weight and composition, insulin resistance, and mediators of appetite and energy homeostasis, namely ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Subjects and methods: Thirty-five adult patients (27 female and 8 male, aged 39.63 ± 9.70 years) with overt hyperthyroidism were evaluated for leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and FGF21 levels; insulin resistance; and body composition using DEXA both at baseline and a minimum of two months following normalization of serum thyroxin on carbimazole treatment. Comparison of means between the baseline and post treatment values was performed by the paired t test for normally distributed parameters and by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for non-normally distributed data. Results: Hyperthyroidism correction resulted in an increase in weight from 51.15 ± 8.50 kg to 55.74 ± 8.74 kg (P < 0.001), paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR from 1.35 (1.02-1.72) to 0.73 (0.52-0.93) ( P < 0.001). Correction of hyperthyroidism was also associated with a decrease in FGF21 from 58 (55-64) to 52 (47-58) pg/mL ( P < 0.001) and in leptin levels from 17 (7-36) to 11 (4.6-28) ng/mL ( P = 0.03). Conclusion: Despite lower body weight, thyrotoxicosis is associated with insulin resistance. High levels of thermogenic hormones, leptin, and FGF21 were observed in thyrotoxicosis and may be partly responsible for the excessive heat production typical of this condition.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216435


Background: Delirium is a complex, reversible neuropsychiatric disorder that frequently occurs in the geriatric age group in acute care settings with multifactorial etiology and numerous knowledge gaps in the pathogenesis. Objective: This study aimed to establish an association between leptin levels and delirium in patients aged 60 years and above admitted under the geriatric medicine department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in consecutively admitted patients to the geriatric ward. Patients were assessed for delirium within 24 h of admission and daily thereafter until they were discharged from the hospital or died using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) or CAM?intensive care unit with subsequent division into delirium and nondelirium groups. Serum leptin levels were measured using enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Two hundred patients were recruited in the study. The mean age of participants was found to be 73.1 ± 8.8 years. Prevalence rates of delirium at the time of admission and incidence rates during hospital stay were found to be 20% and 5%, respectively. The occurrence of delirium was also found to be significantly associated with mortality (32.5% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.001). Serum leptin levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with delirium (2.58 ± 1.01 ng/mL vs. 10.72 ± 1.46 ng/mL, P = 0.03). Multivariable regression analysis revealed delirium to significantly correlate positively with age (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.63 (1.07–2.47), P = 0.021) and negatively with leptin levels (OR: 0.94 (0.90–0.99), P = 0.018). Conclusion: Delirium is a frequently occurring condition in hospitalized older adults with high mortality rates. Leptin might serve as a potential predictor of delirium owing to its probable role in the pathophysiological processes of delirium.

Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(4): 489-497, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403228


ABSTRACT Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in individuals with obesity. Its association with factors that control hunger and satiety has not yet been elucidated. We evaluated whether levels of inflammatory markers, frequency of psychiatric comorbidities, and appetite-related hormones levels differ between individuals with obesity with and without BED. Materials and methods: The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 - Clinician Version (SCID-5-CV), Binge Eating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were evaluated in 39 individuals with obesity. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Results: Individuals of the BED group exhibited significantly higher percentages of altered eating patterns (hyperphagia, bingeing, post-dinner eating, feeling "stuffed", and emotional eating), higher depressive symptom scores and levels of leptin, CRP, and TNF-α, compared to those from the non-BED group. Logistic regression showed that BED was independently associated with depressive symptoms and CRP levels. Conclusions: Individuals with obesity and BED showed greater psychiatric comorbidity, worse eating patterns and worse inflammatory profile than those without BED. BED should be assessed as an indicator of clinical severity in patients with obesity.

Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 159-174, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372969


A obesidade é definida pelo excesso de gordura corporal acumulada no tecido adiposo quando o indivíduo atinge valores de IMC igual ou superior a 30 Kg/m2. Constitui um dos principais fatores de risco para várias doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs) como por exemplo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, acidente vascular cerebral e até mesmo o câncer. Embora a obesidade esteja diretamente relacionada com o consumo calórico excessivo em relação ao gasto energético diário, sua etiologia pode estar associada aos baixos níveis de atividade física, às alterações neuroendócrinas e aos fatores genéticos. Considerando o componente genético, esta pode ser classificada como sindrômicas e estar associada às alterações cromossômicas estruturais ou numéricas, ou como não sindrômica, quando relacionada, principalmente, com os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos simples (SNPs) em alelos que atuam como herança monogênica, ou ainda com a interação vários genes (poligênica multifatorial). Apesar de existirem muitas etiologias diferentes, normalmente a obesidade é tratada a partir da mesma abordagem, desconsiderando a fisiologia que a desencadeou. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi abordar a obesidade genética não sindrômica por meio a) da descrição breve de perspectiva histórica sobre seu entendimento; b) da exposição dos principais mecanismos moleculares envolvidos com o controle de peso; c) da compilação dos principais genes e SNPs relacionados; d) da definição dos principais genes; e e) da abordagem das principais perspectivas de intervenção.

Obesity is defined as excess body fat accumulated in the adipose tissue when the individual reaches BMI values equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2. It is one of the main risk factors for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, stroke and even cancer. Although obesity is directly related to excessive calorie intake in relation to daily energy expenditure, its etiology may be associated with low levels of physical activity, neuroendocrine changes, and genetic factors. Considering the genetic component, it can be classified as syndromic and be associated with chromosomal or numerical changes, or as non-syndromic and being related mainly to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alleles that act as monogenic inheritance, or with an interaction of several genes (multifactorial polygenic). Although there are many different etiologies, obesity is usually treated using the same approach, disregarding the physiology that triggered it. Thus, the aim of this study was to address non-syndromic genetic obesity through a) a brief description of a historical perspective on its understanding; b) the exposure of the main molecular mechanisms involved in weight control, c) the compilation of the key genes and related SNPs, d) the definition of the key genes and e) the approach of the main intervention representations.

Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight/genetics , Epigenomics , Genes/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/genetics , Melanocortins/genetics , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Hypothalamus/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224040


Background: There is an established link between Hyperleptinemia and Obesity. Leptin resistance, characterized by elevated levels of circulating leptin together with disruption of hormone signalling, is an important feature of obesity. Hyperleptinemia has been demonstrated to correlate with insulin resistance. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of Leptin In Obese and Non - Obese Diabetics. Methods: This cross - sectional study aimed to evaluate the levels of lepti n in non - obese and obese and its relationship. A total of 30 obese diabetics and 30 non - obese diabetics were involved in the study which was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh. Collected blood samples were estimated for HbA1C and leptin levels. Body Fat was estimated using Body Stat in Non - Obese Diabetics and Obese Diabetics. Results: In this study, Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese diabetics compared to non - obese diabetics. Data presents cor relations between leptin in obese with HbA1C, BMI, and Body Fat in Obese Conclusion: Elevated Leptin Levels is a strong marker of obesity which suggests Leptin Resistance

Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 33(1)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408268


Introducción: La lipodistrofia congénita de Berardinelli-Seip es un síndrome genético autosómico recesivo, caracterizado por la ausencia generalizada del tejido adiposo, el déficit de leptina y las alteraciones metabólicas incluidas la resistencia a la insulina, la esteatohepatitis y la hipertrigliceridemia. Objetivo: Definir los diferentes espectros clínicos y fisiopatológicos del síndrome y su relación con el fenotipo definiendo las estrategias terapéuticas actuales. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica no sistemática en las bases de datos Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO y PubMed. Los criterios de inclusión fueron publicaciones en inglés, portugués o español, en las que el título y las palabras clave, abordaban el tema planteado con una vigencia de 10 años. Se obtuvieron 50 artículos relacionados con el síndrome, de los cuales 30 fueron seleccionados para su revisión. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de la enfermedad es principalmente clínico. Se establece en presencia de tres criterios mayores o la combinación de dos mayores con dos menores y/o por la identificación de variantes patogénicas por medio del estudio genético y molecular. La dieta y el ejercicio conjuntamente con la administración de la metreleptina son pilares fundamentales en el manejo de estos pacientes. El reconocimiento temprano del síndrome es esencial para prevenir las complicaciones, y brindar asesoría genética y reproductiva a los pacientes y familiares(AU)

Introduction: Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy is an autosomal recessive genetic syndrome, characterized by the general absence of adipose tissue, leptin deficiency and metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and hypertriglyceridemia. Objective: To present the different clinical and pathophysiological spectra of the syndrome, its relationship with the phenotype, defining the current therapeutic strategies. Methods: A non-systematic bibliographic search was carried out in Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO and PubMed databases. The inclusion criteria were publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, in which the title and keywords included information pertinent to the stated objective with a periodicity of 10 years, 50 articles were retrieved, and 30 of them were selected. Conclusions: The diagnosis of the disease is mainly clinical. It is established in the presence of three major criteria or the combination of two major and two minor criteria and/or by the identification of pathogenic variants through genetic and molecular studies. Diet and exercise together with the administration of metreleptin are fundamental pillars in the management of these patients. Early recognition of the syndrome is essential to prevent complications, allowing genetic and reproductive counseling to be provided to patients and their families(AU)

Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Health Strategies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 163-171, feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389635


BACKGROUND: Appetite regulation is integral to food intake and is modulated by complex interactions between internal and external stimuli. Hormonal mechanisms which stimulate or inhibit intake have been characterized, but the physiologic effects of serum levels of such hormones in short-term appetite regulation have received little attention. AIM: To evaluate whether fasting levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic hormones were associated with energy intake at breakfast, served soon after drawing a fasting blood sample, in a group of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured in 655 Chilean adolescents aged 16.8 ± 0.3 years (52% males). Energy intake was measured at a semi-standardized breakfast. Associations between hormone levels and energy intake were studied using multivariate linear models. RESULTS: Thirty nine percent of participants were overweight/ obese. After an overnight fast, median values for leptin, insulin, ghrelin and orexin-A were 7.3 ng/mL, 6.7 IU/dL, 200.8 pg/mL, and 16.1 pg/mL, respectively. Participants ate on average 637 ± 239 calories at breakfast. In multivariable models, insulin levels were inversely and independently associated with caloric intake at breakfast (β = −18.65; p < 0.05), whereas leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A levels were positively and independently associated with intake: β= 5.56, β = 0.34 and β = 8.40, respectively, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A were positively associated with energy intake during breakfast provided soon after the blood draw. Insulin was negatively associated with energy intake. Modifiable factors influencing levels of appetite regulating hormones could be a potential target for influencing food intake.

ANTECEDENTES: La regulación del apetito es parte integral de la ingesta alimentaria y es modulada por complejas interacciones entre estímulos internos y externos. Se han caracterizado los mecanismos hormonales que estimulan o inhiben la ingesta, pero los efectos fisiológicos de los niveles séricos de tales hormonas en la regulación del apetito a corto plazo han recibido poca atención. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si los niveles en ayunas de hormonas orexigénicas/ anorexigénicas se asocian con la ingesta energética en el desayuno, entregado inmediatamente después de una muestra de sangre en ayunas, en un grupo de adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se efectuaron mediciones antropométricas, composición corporal y medición de niveles en ayunas de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A en 655 adolescentes de 16,8 ± 0,26 años. La ingesta energética se midió en un desayuno semiestandarizado. Se estudiaron las asociaciones entre los niveles hormonales y la ingesta energética mediante modelos lineales multivariados. RESULTADOS: Los valores de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A fueron 7,3 ng/mL, 6,7 UI/dL, 200,8 pg/mL y 16,1 pg/mL respectivamente. Los participantes comieron un promedio de 637 ± 239 calorías en el desayuno. Los niveles de insulina se asociaron inversa e independientemente con la ingesta del desayuno (β = −18,65; p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de leptina, grelina y orexina-A se asociaron positiva e independientemente con la ingesta: β = 5,65; β = 0,34; β = 8,40, (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La leptina, grelina y orexina-A en ayunas se asociaron positivamente con la ingesta de energía durante el desayuno proporcionado poco después de la muestra de sangre. La insulina se asoció negativamente con la ingesta de energía. Los factores modificables que influyen en las hormonas reguladoras del apetito podrían ser un objetivo potencial para influir en la ingesta de alimentos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Appetite/physiology , Breakfast , Energy Intake/physiology , Chile , Fasting , Leptin , Ghrelin , Orexins , Insulin
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19516, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383980


Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as "add- on" therapy with metformin on the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is a multi- center, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical study. Sixty patients were allocated into two groups: control and treatment groups; they received orally either 120 mg starch/capsule or 120mg GKB/capsule, respectively as an adjuvant with metformin for 90 days. Blood samples were obtained at zero time and after 90 days. The blood was utilized for analysis of the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin, and TAOC. The GKB extract produced a significant decrease in the levels of TG, LDL-c, and CRP, with a significant increase in HDL-c compared to baseline values. There were no significant changes reported in the placebo-treated group. It also produced a significant decrease in the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and leptin compared to baseline values and placebo-treated groups with a significant increase in TAOC compared to baseline values. In conclusion, GKB extract, as an adjuvant with metformin, decreases inflammatory mediators, leptin level and improves the antioxidant status and lipid profile of T2DM patients improperly managed with metformin

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Placebos/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Ginkgo biloba/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Metformin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 90(6): 475-485, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404931


Resumen OBJETIVOS: Evaluar las concentraciones séricas maternas de las adipocinas: adiponectina, adipsina, leptina, lipocalina-2, proteína quimioatrayente de monocitos-1, factor de crecimiento nervioso, resistina y factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y su relación con el índice de masa corporal previo al embarazo y la ganancia de peso gestacional en mujeres con preeclampsia comparadas con mujeres sanas, y hacer un análisis de la clasificación de preeclampsia en temprana y tardía. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, comparativo, retrolectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia efectuado en pacientes atendidas en el Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia 3, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). En el preoperatorio se tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar las concentraciones séricas de las adipocinas mediante ensayos multianalito. RESULTADOS: Se estudió una muestra de 75 mujeres con embarazo sano y 44 con preeclampsia (temprana n = 20, tardía n = 24). Solo las concentraciones de adipsina, leptina y factor de necrosis tumoral alfa fueron mayores en preeclampsia que en el embarazo sano [mediana (rango intercuartílico): 3.9 µg/mL (2.9-5.4) vs 2.5 µg/mL (1.9-3.1), 10.6 ng/mL (6.0-19.1) en comparación con 7.1 ng/mL (3.8-12.4), 3.6 pg/mL (2.7-5.8) vs 2.9 (2.3-3.5), respectivamente]. Las concentraciones de las adipocinas no se correlacionaron con el índice de masa corporal previo al embarazo ni con la ganancia de peso gestacional. No hubo diferencias significativas en las concentraciones entre los subtipos de preeclampsia. CONCLUSIÓN: En el tercer trimestre del embarazo la preeclampsia se asocia con un perfil sérico de adipocinas alterado, caracterizado por concentraciones elevadas de adipsina, leptina y factor de necrosis tumoral alfa, que no se relaciona con el índice de masa corporal previo al embarazo, la ganancia de peso gestacional y el subtipo de preeclampsia.

Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate maternal serum concentrations of adipokines: adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, lipocalin-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, nerve growth factor, resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and their relationship with pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy women, and to perform an analysis classifying preeclampsia as early and late. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative, retrolective, non-probabilistic convenience sampling study carried out in patients attended at the Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia 3, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Preoperatively, a blood sample was taken to determine serum adipokine concentrations by multianalyte assays. RESULTS: A sample of 75 women with healthy pregnancy and 44 with preeclampsia (early n = 20, late n = 24) was studied. Only adipsin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations were higher in preeclampsia than in healthy pregnancy [median (interquartile range): 3. 9 µg/mL (2.9-5.4) vs. 2.5 µg/mL (1.9-3.1), 10.6 ng/mL (6.0-19.1) compared to 7.1 ng/mL (3.8-12.4), 3.6 pg/mL (2.7-5.8) vs. 2.9 (2.3-3.5), respectively]. Adipokine concentrations did not correlate with pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain. There were no significant differences in concentrations between preeclampsia subtypes. CONCLUSION: In the third trimester of pregnancy, preeclampsia is associated with an altered serum adipokine profile, characterized by elevated concentrations of adipsin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which is not related to prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and preeclampsia subtype.

Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 68-72, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934015


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and recurrent disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The quality of life of patients with IBD is seriously affected. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex, among which immune factors are considered to be the predominant factor. Leptin is a hormone derived from adipocytes and recent studies have shown that it is involved in the regulation of immune cells and inflammatory signaling pathways. This review summarized the pathogenesis of IBD, the immunoregulatory mechanism of leptin and research progress in immune modulators, introduced the potential effects of leptin on the regulation of immunological homeostasis in IBD and its potential roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD, and discussed a possible immunotherapy method to treat IBD through leptin antagonist to reduce the inflammatory response and inhibit the inflammatory signaling pathways.

Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 275-279, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932777


Objective:To study the relationship and the role of leptin in children with biliary atresia and hepatic fibrosis to provide a treatment basis for these patients.Methods:The clinical data of children with biliary atresia or congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) who underwent surgical treatment at the Department of General Surgery of Tianjin Children's Hospital from August 2019 to August 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 31 children included in this study, there were 14 males and 17 females, with age of 60 (30, 63) d. Children with biliary atresia served as the study group ( n=26) and children with CBD served as the control group ( n=5). Leptin protein, α-smooth muscleactin (α-SMA) and phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues were detectd by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression level of leptin mRNA in liver tissues were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results:The average optical density values of leptin protein, α-SMA protein and p-ERK1/2 protein in the liver tissues of children in the study group were significantly higher than the control group ( P<0.05). The expression levels of leptin, α-SMA and p-ERK1/2 in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia significantly increased with increase in fibrosis degree ( P<0.05). The expression level of leptin in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia was positively correlated with the liver fibrosis grade ( rs=0.876), α-SMA ( r=0.723) and p-ERK1/2 ( r=0.725) ( P<0.01). The results of qRT-PCR showed that the content of leptin mRNA in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia was significantly higher than that of children with CBD ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Expressions of leptin increased with aggravation of degrees of hepatic fibrosis in biliary atresia. Leptin may be involved in activation of HSCs through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the process of hepatic fibrosis due to biliary atresia.

Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 542-547, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956723


Objective:To explore the effect of leptin on B cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from SLE patients, and then CD19 + B cells were purified with magnetic bead sorting method. PBMCs or purified B cells were cultured with recombinant leptin at 0, 100, 250 ng/ml for 3 or 5 days. The frequencies of plasma cells, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and peripheral helper T (Tph) cells, as well as activation markers (CD80, CD86) and leptin receptor and the proliferation of B cells were determined with flow cytometry. The concentrations of antibodies and cytokines were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed with t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results:Increased levels of leptin were positively correlated with systematic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) and the frequency of plasma cells in SLE patients. Leptin receptor could be detected on SLE B cells, and recombinant leptin elevated the levels of its receptor on CD19 + B cells [(7.8±1.3)% vs (6.1±0.9)%, t=3.36, P=0.006]. Leptin enhanced the expression of CD80 [(21±4)% vs (19±4)%, t=2.84, P=0.004] and CD86 [(22±4)% vs (19±4)%, t=4.92, P=0.004] on SLE B cells in vitro. It also promoted B cells to differentiate into plasma cells [(7.6±1.5)% vs (5.2±1.3)%, t=6.42, P=0.025]. There was no statistical significant difference of the effect of leptin on B cell proliferation. Leptin also increased the levels of antibodies [IgG: (62±3) ng/ml vs (45±4) ng/ml, t=7.75, P<0.001; IgM: (112±24) ng/ml vs (56±18) ng/ml, t=5.38, P<0.001] and inflammatory cytokines [IL-6: (24±5) pg/ml vs (20±5) pg/ml, t=4.09, P=0.002; TNF-α: (19.1±3.8) pg/ml vs (14.1±2.9) pg/ml, t=3.38, P=0.006; IL-10: (24±5) pg/ml vs (20±5) pg/ml, t=4.09, P=0.002] secreted by B cells. In addition, leptin significantly upregulated the frequencies of Tfh cells[(2.82±0.49)% vs (1.28±0.20)%, t=4.56, P=0.001] and Tph cells [(4.5±0.5)% vs (3.4±0.4)%, t=3.88, P=0.003]. Conclusion:Leptin could directly promote the activation, differentiation and secretory capacity of B cells by binding to its receptor, and also modulate B cell responses indirectly via enhancement of Tfh and Tph cells, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.