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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 159-174, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372969

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é definida pelo excesso de gordura corporal acumulada no tecido adiposo quando o indivíduo atinge valores de IMC igual ou superior a 30 Kg/m2. Constitui um dos principais fatores de risco para várias doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs) como por exemplo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, acidente vascular cerebral e até mesmo o câncer. Embora a obesidade esteja diretamente relacionada com o consumo calórico excessivo em relação ao gasto energético diário, sua etiologia pode estar associada aos baixos níveis de atividade física, às alterações neuroendócrinas e aos fatores genéticos. Considerando o componente genético, esta pode ser classificada como sindrômicas e estar associada às alterações cromossômicas estruturais ou numéricas, ou como não sindrômica, quando relacionada, principalmente, com os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos simples (SNPs) em alelos que atuam como herança monogênica, ou ainda com a interação vários genes (poligênica multifatorial). Apesar de existirem muitas etiologias diferentes, normalmente a obesidade é tratada a partir da mesma abordagem, desconsiderando a fisiologia que a desencadeou. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi abordar a obesidade genética não sindrômica por meio a) da descrição breve de perspectiva histórica sobre seu entendimento; b) da exposição dos principais mecanismos moleculares envolvidos com o controle de peso; c) da compilação dos principais genes e SNPs relacionados; d) da definição dos principais genes; e e) da abordagem das principais perspectivas de intervenção.


Obesity is defined as excess body fat accumulated in the adipose tissue when the individual reaches BMI values equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2. It is one of the main risk factors for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, stroke and even cancer. Although obesity is directly related to excessive calorie intake in relation to daily energy expenditure, its etiology may be associated with low levels of physical activity, neuroendocrine changes, and genetic factors. Considering the genetic component, it can be classified as syndromic and be associated with chromosomal or numerical changes, or as non-syndromic and being related mainly to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alleles that act as monogenic inheritance, or with an interaction of several genes (multifactorial polygenic). Although there are many different etiologies, obesity is usually treated using the same approach, disregarding the physiology that triggered it. Thus, the aim of this study was to address non-syndromic genetic obesity through a) a brief description of a historical perspective on its understanding; b) the exposure of the main molecular mechanisms involved in weight control, c) the compilation of the key genes and related SNPs, d) the definition of the key genes and e) the approach of the main intervention representations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight/genetics , Genes/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression/genetics , Leptin/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/genetics , Diet/methods , Melanocortins/genetics , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Epigenomics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/metabolism , Hypothalamus
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 163-171, feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Appetite regulation is integral to food intake and is modulated by complex interactions between internal and external stimuli. Hormonal mechanisms which stimulate or inhibit intake have been characterized, but the physiologic effects of serum levels of such hormones in short-term appetite regulation have received little attention. AIM: To evaluate whether fasting levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic hormones were associated with energy intake at breakfast, served soon after drawing a fasting blood sample, in a group of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured in 655 Chilean adolescents aged 16.8 ± 0.3 years (52% males). Energy intake was measured at a semi-standardized breakfast. Associations between hormone levels and energy intake were studied using multivariate linear models. RESULTS: Thirty nine percent of participants were overweight/ obese. After an overnight fast, median values for leptin, insulin, ghrelin and orexin-A were 7.3 ng/mL, 6.7 IU/dL, 200.8 pg/mL, and 16.1 pg/mL, respectively. Participants ate on average 637 ± 239 calories at breakfast. In multivariable models, insulin levels were inversely and independently associated with caloric intake at breakfast (β = −18.65; p < 0.05), whereas leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A levels were positively and independently associated with intake: β= 5.56, β = 0.34 and β = 8.40, respectively, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A were positively associated with energy intake during breakfast provided soon after the blood draw. Insulin was negatively associated with energy intake. Modifiable factors influencing levels of appetite regulating hormones could be a potential target for influencing food intake.


ANTECEDENTES: La regulación del apetito es parte integral de la ingesta alimentaria y es modulada por complejas interacciones entre estímulos internos y externos. Se han caracterizado los mecanismos hormonales que estimulan o inhiben la ingesta, pero los efectos fisiológicos de los niveles séricos de tales hormonas en la regulación del apetito a corto plazo han recibido poca atención. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si los niveles en ayunas de hormonas orexigénicas/ anorexigénicas se asocian con la ingesta energética en el desayuno, entregado inmediatamente después de una muestra de sangre en ayunas, en un grupo de adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se efectuaron mediciones antropométricas, composición corporal y medición de niveles en ayunas de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A en 655 adolescentes de 16,8 ± 0,26 años. La ingesta energética se midió en un desayuno semiestandarizado. Se estudiaron las asociaciones entre los niveles hormonales y la ingesta energética mediante modelos lineales multivariados. RESULTADOS: Los valores de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A fueron 7,3 ng/mL, 6,7 UI/dL, 200,8 pg/mL y 16,1 pg/mL respectivamente. Los participantes comieron un promedio de 637 ± 239 calorías en el desayuno. Los niveles de insulina se asociaron inversa e independientemente con la ingesta del desayuno (β = −18,65; p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de leptina, grelina y orexina-A se asociaron positiva e independientemente con la ingesta: β = 5,65; β = 0,34; β = 8,40, (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La leptina, grelina y orexina-A en ayunas se asociaron positivamente con la ingesta de energía durante el desayuno proporcionado poco después de la muestra de sangre. La insulina se asoció negativamente con la ingesta de energía. Los factores modificables que influyen en las hormonas reguladoras del apetito podrían ser un objetivo potencial para influir en la ingesta de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Appetite/physiology , Breakfast , Energy Intake/physiology , Chile , Fasting , Leptin , Ghrelin , Orexins , Insulin
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934015

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and recurrent disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The quality of life of patients with IBD is seriously affected. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex, among which immune factors are considered to be the predominant factor. Leptin is a hormone derived from adipocytes and recent studies have shown that it is involved in the regulation of immune cells and inflammatory signaling pathways. This review summarized the pathogenesis of IBD, the immunoregulatory mechanism of leptin and research progress in immune modulators, introduced the potential effects of leptin on the regulation of immunological homeostasis in IBD and its potential roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD, and discussed a possible immunotherapy method to treat IBD through leptin antagonist to reduce the inflammatory response and inhibit the inflammatory signaling pathways.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932777

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the relationship and the role of leptin in children with biliary atresia and hepatic fibrosis to provide a treatment basis for these patients.Methods:The clinical data of children with biliary atresia or congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) who underwent surgical treatment at the Department of General Surgery of Tianjin Children's Hospital from August 2019 to August 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 31 children included in this study, there were 14 males and 17 females, with age of 60 (30, 63) d. Children with biliary atresia served as the study group ( n=26) and children with CBD served as the control group ( n=5). Leptin protein, α-smooth muscleactin (α-SMA) and phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues were detectd by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression level of leptin mRNA in liver tissues were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results:The average optical density values of leptin protein, α-SMA protein and p-ERK1/2 protein in the liver tissues of children in the study group were significantly higher than the control group ( P<0.05). The expression levels of leptin, α-SMA and p-ERK1/2 in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia significantly increased with increase in fibrosis degree ( P<0.05). The expression level of leptin in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia was positively correlated with the liver fibrosis grade ( rs=0.876), α-SMA ( r=0.723) and p-ERK1/2 ( r=0.725) ( P<0.01). The results of qRT-PCR showed that the content of leptin mRNA in liver tissues of children with biliary atresia was significantly higher than that of children with CBD ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Expressions of leptin increased with aggravation of degrees of hepatic fibrosis in biliary atresia. Leptin may be involved in activation of HSCs through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the process of hepatic fibrosis due to biliary atresia.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942328

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the underlying mechanism of Bushen Huatan prescription in alleviating postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) by maintaining the balance of osteogenesis and adipogenic differentiation in ovariectomized rats with osteoporosis. MethodSeventy-five 6-month-old non-pregnant female SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model group, atorvastatin group, liviol group, and Bushen Huatan prescription group. Bilateral ovaries were removed in the four groups except the sham-operation group, while only the same mass of adipose tissue around the ovaries was removed in the sham-operation group. On the 5th week after surgery, drugs were consecutively administrated for 8 weeks. Rats in the Bushen Huatan prescription group received 9.4 mg·kg-1 of the prescription, rats in the atorvastatin group received 0.92 mg·kg-1 of atorvastatin, rats in the Liviol group received 0.23 mg·kg-1 of liviol, and rats in the model group and the sham-operation group received saline once a day. Micro-computed tomography (Micro CT) was used to detect bone mineral density (BMD) of rat tibia in each group. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to detect the relative area of rat bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in each group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the relative expression levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), leptin (LPN), and leptin receptor (OBR) in bone tissues. ResultAs compared with the sham operation group, the BMD of rats in the model group decreased (P<0.05), while the relative area of BMAT increased (P<0.05). In addition, the expression levels of LPN, OBR, and Runx2 decreased in the model group (P<0.05), while the level of PPARγ increased (P<0.05). As compared with the model group, the BMD of rats in the atorvastatin group, the Livial group, and the Bushen Huatan prescription group increased (P<0.05), and the relative area of BMAT decreased (P<0.05). The expression levels of LPN, OBR, and Runx2 in these groups increased (P<0.05), while the expression level of PPARγ decreased (P<0.05). ConclusionBushen Huatan prescription plays the anti-osteoporosis role in the rat model of PMOP through up-regulating LPN and OBR in bone tissues and maintaining the balance of osteogenesis and adipogenic differentiation, thereby reducing postmenopausal bone loss and playing a role in the prevention and treatment of PMOP.

6.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 581-585, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927242

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effects of the link between overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on leptin and visfatin levels.@*Methods@#Males without T2DM and male patients with T2DM hospitalized in Lishui Municipal Central Hospital from January to June, 2017 were enrolled. Subjects' age and medical history of diseases were collected. The height and body weight were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was estimated. The leptin and visfatin levels were determined, and compared between patients with and without T2DM, and between patients with and without overweight/obesity. The effect of the link between overweight/obesity and T2DM on leptin and visfatin levels was examined using a generalized linear regression model.@*Results@#There were 66 patients with T2DM, with a mean age of (49.70±9.45) years and a mean diabetes duration of (4.99±4.46) years, and there were 64 patients without T2DM, with a mean age of (43.89±0.20) years. The leptin [ (3.17±0.36) vs. (3.03±0.30) ng/mL; t=2.387, P=0.018] and visfatin levels [ (29.14±3.16) vs. (21.81±3.32) ng/mL; t=12.900, P<0.001] were significantly greater in T2DM patients than in patients without T2DM. The leptin level was significantly greater in patients with overweight/obesity than in those without overweight/obesity [ (3.27±0.32) vs. (2.92±0.26) ng/mL; t=6.634, P<0.001], and the visfatin level was significantly lower in patients with overweight/obesity than in those without overweight/obesity [(24.38±5.14) vs. (26.71±4.36) ng/mL; t=2.780, P=0.006]. Generalized linear regression analysis showed interacting effects of overweight/obesity and T2DM on leptin (β=0.286, P=0.003) and visfatin levels (β=2.709, P=0.008).@*Conclusion@#The interaction between overweight/obesity and T2DM affects leptin and visfatin levels.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the the effects of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and PTEN expression of rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) cultured under hypoxic condition.@*METHODS@#SD rat RPCs were cultured in normoxic conditions or exposed to hypoxia in the presence of 0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10, and 30 nmol/L leptin for 12, 48 and 72 h, and the cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit 8 (CCK 8) assay. The RPCs in primary culture were divided into control group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+leptin group, and after 48 h of culture, the cell medium was replaced with differentiation medium and the cells were further cultured for 6 days. Immunofluorescence staining was employed to detect the cells positive for β-tubulin III and GFAP, and Western blotting was used to examine the expression of PTEN at 48 h of cell culture.@*RESULTS@#The first generation of RPCs showed suspended growth in the medium with abundant and bright cellular plasma and formed mulberry like cell spheres after 2 days of culture. Treatment with low-dose leptin (below 3.0 nmol/L) for 48 h obviously improved the viability of RPCs cultured in hypoxia, while at high concentrations (above 10 nmol/L), leptin significantly suppressed the cell viability (P < 0.05). The cells treated with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h showed the highest viability (P < 0.05). After treatment with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h, the cells with hypoxic exposure showed similar GFAP and β-tubulin Ⅲ positivity with the control cells (P>0.05), but exhibited an obvious down-regulation of PTEN protein expression compared with the control cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In rat RPCs with hypoxic exposure, treatment with low dose leptin can promote the cell proliferation and suppress cellular PTEN protein expression without causing significant effects on cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Leptin/pharmacology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Tubulin
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 149-165, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929077

ABSTRACT

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone, has been shown to facilitate breathing. However, the central sites and circuit mechanisms underlying the respiratory effects of leptin remain incompletely understood. The present study aimed to address whether neurons expressing leptin receptor b (LepRb) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) contribute to respiratory control. Both chemogenetic and optogenetic stimulation of LepRb-expressing NTS (NTSLepRb) neurons notably activated breathing. Moreover, stimulation of NTSLepRb neurons projecting to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) not only remarkably increased basal ventilation to a level similar to that of the stimulation of all NTSLepRb neurons, but also activated LPBN neurons projecting to the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). By contrast, ablation of NTSLepRb neurons projecting to the LPBN notably eliminated the enhanced respiratory effect induced by NTSLepRb neuron stimulation. In brainstem slices, bath application of leptin rapidly depolarized the membrane potential, increased the spontaneous firing rate, and accelerated the Ca2+ transients in most NTSLepRb neurons. Therefore, leptin potentiates breathing in the NTS most likely via an NTS-LPBN-preBötC circuit.


Subject(s)
Leptin/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials , Neurons/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19516, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383980

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as "add- on" therapy with metformin on the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is a multi- center, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical study. Sixty patients were allocated into two groups: control and treatment groups; they received orally either 120 mg starch/capsule or 120mg GKB/capsule, respectively as an adjuvant with metformin for 90 days. Blood samples were obtained at zero time and after 90 days. The blood was utilized for analysis of the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin, and TAOC. The GKB extract produced a significant decrease in the levels of TG, LDL-c, and CRP, with a significant increase in HDL-c compared to baseline values. There were no significant changes reported in the placebo-treated group. It also produced a significant decrease in the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and leptin compared to baseline values and placebo-treated groups with a significant increase in TAOC compared to baseline values. In conclusion, GKB extract, as an adjuvant with metformin, decreases inflammatory mediators, leptin level and improves the antioxidant status and lipid profile of T2DM patients improperly managed with metformin.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909283

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy of liraglutide combined with enpagliflozin in the treatment of obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:A total of 160 obesity patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received treatment in Yuyao People's Hospital, China between October 2018 and October 2019 were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to receive repaglinide, insulin detemir and metformin in combination (control group, n = 80) or liraglutide, enpagliflozin and metformin in combination (treatment group, n = 80). After 3 months of treatment, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, body mass index, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin, adiponectin, and vaspin as well as the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the control and treatment groups. Results:After treatment, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and body mass index were reduced in each group. They were (7.89 ± 1.02) mmol/L, (8.10 ± 1.25) %, (11.10 ± 1.59) mmol/L, (23.18 ± 2.19) kg/m 2, respectively in the observation group, which were significantly lower than those in the control group [(9.88 ± 1.27) mmol/L, (11.20 ± 1.85)%, (13.67 ± 2.01) mmol/L, (27.80 ± 2.51) kg/m 2, t1 = 10.927, t2 = 12.418, t3 = 8.969, t4 = 12.405, all P < 0.001). After treatment, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were reduced in each group. Their levels in the observation group were [(51.19 ± 3.19) pg/L, (2.14 ± 0.31) mg/L, (4.07 ± 0.67) pg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group [(62.18 ± 4.10) pg/L, (3.66 ± 0.58) mg/L, (5.96 ± 0.81) pg/L, t1 = 18.922, t2 = 20.672, t3 = 8.969, all P < 0.001). After treatment, leptin and vaspin levels were reduced in each group, and their values in the observation group were (5.48±0.94) μg/L, (1.62 ± 0.37) μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group [(6.59 ± 0.82) μg/L, (1.99 ± 0.52) μg/L, t1=7.959, t2=10.323, both P < 0.001]. Adiponectin level increased in each group, and it was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group [(7.13 ± 1.52) mg/L vs. (5.12 ± 0.85) mg/L, t3 = 5.185, P < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between control and observation groups ( χ2 = 0.313, P > 0.05). Conclusion:Liraglutide combined with enpagliflozin for the treatment of obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly effective. It can effectively lower blood glucose level, reduce body mass and inflammatory reactions, further regulate serum vaspin, leptin and adiponectin levels and is highly safe. Therefore, this method can be widely used in the clinic.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909257

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on the characteristics of offspring metabolism and the underlying mechanism.Methods:Pregnant women who delivered from April 2016 to December 2018 in Jiaxing Xiuzhou District Maternal and Child Health Hospital after providing written informed consent and their singleton newborns were considered for recruitment for this study. Finally, 2000 pregnant women and their newborns were included in this study. These pregnant women were divided into study control ( n = 1 576, normal body weight) and ( n = 424, overweight) groups according to their body mass before and during pregnancy. The levels of leptin, blood lipid, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, long form of leptin receptor (OB-Rb), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene expression, insulin resistance index, and insulin sensitivity index were compared between the control and study groups. Results:The body mass index before pregnancy and body mass during pregnancy in the study group were (30.91 ± 1.86) kg/m 2 and (21.25 ± 2.61) kg, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group [(26.87 ± 1.05) kg/m 2, (14.57 ± 1.36) kg, t = 7.972, P = 0.013; t = 9.786, P = 0.001]. The levels of leptin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the study group were (1.23 ± 0.29) ng/mL, (0.65 ± 0.16) mmol/L, (1.40 ± 0.24) mmol/L, (0.76 ± 0.13) mmol/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.63 ± 0.11) ng/mL, (0.38 ± 0.16) mmol/L, (1.13 ± 0.32) mmol/L, (0.56 ± 0.09) mmol/L, t = 7.701, P = 0.010; t = 7.329, P = 0.019; t = 5.734, P = 0.030; t = 9.387, P = 0.001]. The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group [(1.26 ± 0.17) mmol/L vs. (1.75 ± 0.26) mmol/L, t = 8.072, P = 0.008]. The expression of SOCS3 mRNA and OB-Rb mRNA in newborns from the study group was (1.44 ± 0.29) and (1.33 ± 0.39), respectively, which was significantly greater than that in the control group [(0.33 ± 0.19), (0.50 ± 0.21), t = 9.987, P < 0.001; t = 11.037, P < 0.001]. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels as well as insulin resistance index in the study group were (22.06 ± 3.94) mmol/L, (20.02 ± 4.61) mU/L, (19.79 ± 6.29) respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group [(11.73 ± 2.92) mmol/L, (13.31 ± 3.43) mU/L, (6.96 ± 2.52), t = 8.133, P = 0.001; t = 4.498, P = 0.027; t = 7.352, P = 0.002]. Insulin sensitivity index in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group [(-6.07 ± 0.32) vs. (-4.98 ± 0.37), t = 8.244, P < 0.001]. Conclusion:Obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy will increase the expression of SOCS3 mRNA and further affect the expression of STAT3-SOCS3-leptin/insulin signaling pathway in offspring.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908660

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the correlation between serum ferritin (SF), perilipin, leptin and the outcome of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods:From October 2017 to December 2019, 126 patients with GDM who underwent maternity checkups in Baoding Fourth Central Hospital and gave birth were selected as the GDM group, and 82 normal pregnant women during the same period were selected as the control group for retrospective analysis. The levels of serum SF, perilipin, and leptin in the GDM group and the control group were measured and compared, and the expressions of serum indexes of patients with different blood glucose control and different pregnancy outcomes in the GDM group were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between the expression of serum indexes in GDM patients and fasting blood glucose (FPG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG), and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of serum indicators and adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to observe the value of single serum indexes and to predict the pregnancy outcome of GDM patients.Results:The levels of SF, perilipin and leptin in GDM group were higher than those in control group: (152.48 ± 37.64) μg/L vs. (109.27 ± 32.16) μg/L, (857.06 ± 192.35) ng/L vs. (262.83 ± 104.7) ng/L, (23.54 ± 2.28) μg/L vs.(14.62 ± 1.83) μg/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The levels of SF, perilipin and leptin in patients with good blood glucose control in GDM group were lower than those in patients with poor blood glucose control: (132.10 ± 36.52) μg/L vs. (176.37 ± 40.06) μg/L, (176.37 ± 40.06) ng/L vs. (946.42 ± 205.37) ng/L, (21.49 ± 2.16) μg/L vs. (25.94 ± 2.40) μg/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The levels of serum SF, perilipin and leptin in GDM patients were positively correlated with FPG, 2 h PG and HOMA-IR levels ( P<0.05). The levels of serum SF, perilipin and leptin in GDM patients with adverse pregnancy outcomes were higher than those in patients without occurrence: (182.86 ± 42.29) μg/L vs. (138.86 ± 35.47) μg/L, (1 013.35 ± 216.07) ng/L vs. (787.00 ± 183.49) ng/L, (27.04 ± 2.5) μg/L vs. (21.97 ± 2.07) μg/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum SF, perilipin and leptin were closely related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM patients ( P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and the specificity of SF, perilipin, leptin combined detection to predict GDM patients with adverse pregnancy outcomes was 76.92% and 83.91%. Conclusions:The serum SF, perilipin and leptin are abnormally high expression in GDM patients, and it is positively correlated with blood glucose level and HOMA-IR. Joint detection can improve the predictive value of adverse pregnancy outcomes and provide a basis for early intervention.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911365

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical and genetic features in a family with type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy, and to improve the understanging of this disease.Methods:The clinical symptoms, results of the laboratory, and radiography examinations of the patient and his family members were analyzed. The whole exome sequencing and Sanger validation were used to determine the genetic cause of the disease.Results:Generalized lipodystrophy, impaired liver function, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and acanthosis nigricans were found in the proband. His serum leptin level was much lower than normal value. The proband and three members of this family were confirmed to have insertion mutation at exon 5 of BSCL2 gene. The site was mutated from TTC to TCGGTC, resulting in the replacement of glutamate by aspartate and arginine. The mutation in proband was homozygote, and his father, mother, and brother were heterozygous.Conclusions:The mutation in exon 5 c. 545_546insCCG of BSCL2 gene leads to the occurrence of type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1532-1536, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881546

ABSTRACT

Torpor refers to a state in which the metabolic activity in the body of the living animal is greatly reduced during the period of reduced food supply, which is manifested as a substantial decrease in body temperature, metabolic level, and exercise level. Mammals have a strict body temperature regulation system to maintain a constant body temperature. When the energy supply is insufficient for a long time, some mammals will enter a hibernation state. Torpor is very similar to the hibernation state. The research on the mechanism of torpor state is of great significance in aerospace, military medicine and other fields. This review summarizes the specific mechanisms regulating the occurrence of torpor from four aspects: adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (adcyap) neurons, leptin, pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide (QRFP) neurons, and sympathetic nervous system, aiming to provide ideas for further research on the mechanism of torpor.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed that the alcohol extract of Morinda officinalis can effectively improve the bone quality and body mass of obese rats after ovariectomy. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. In this study, leptin and leptin receptor were used as the breakthrough point to investigate the effect of alcohol extract of Morinda officinalis on lipid metabolism and bone metabolism in ovariectomized obese rats. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of alcohol extract of Morinda officinalis lipid metabolism and bone metabolism in ovariectomized obese rats. METHODS: A total of 160 SPF female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an osteoporosis group (n=120) and a sham operation group (n=40). A postmenopausal osteoporosis model was made in the osteoporosis group by removing both ovaries. After modeling, rats in the osteoporosis group were randomly subdivided into a normal diet group, a high-fat diet group and a high-fat diet + Morinda officinalis alcohol extract group, with 40 rats in each group. The sham operation group and the normal diet group were fed with ordinary diet, while the high-fat diet group and the high-fat diet + Morinda officinalis alcohol extract group were fed with high-fat diet. The high-fat diet + Morinda officinalis alcohol extract group was gavaged with 20 g/kg Morinda officinalis alcohol extract once a day, and the remaining three groups were gavaged with 2 mL of normal saline. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee of Fuzhou Second Hospital of Xiamen University in September 2018 with an approval No. 20180019. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham operation group, serum leptin, leptin receptor, osteoprotegerin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05), whereas osteocalcin, RANKL, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Compared with the high-fat diet group, serum leptin, leptin receptor, osteoprotegerin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the high-fat diet + Morinda officinalis alcohol extract group (P < 0.05), whereas osteocalcin, RANKL, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were decreased to different extents in the high-fat diet + Morinda officinalis alcohol extract group (P < 0.05). To conclusion, the alcohol extract of Morindus officinalis can up-regulate the leptin and leptin receptor expression in serum of ovariectomized obese rats, so as to improve the abnormal bone metabolism and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized obese rats.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880565

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the ancient Yin-Yang theory has been gradually adopted by modern researchers, especially European and American scholars, and it has also been applied to modern scientific research on sleep, viruses, metabolism, cancer, genes, autoimmune diseases, and so on. It is very promising and fruitful results have been reported. However, the understanding of the connotations of Yin-Yang theory is not sufficient and thorough enough in these studies. If we understand and apply Yin-Yang theory more comprehensively, it may provide us with additional potential mechanisms and research directions worthy of study. On the basis of promoting a comprehensive understanding of all three connotations of Yin-Yang theory, this review attempts to illustrate this theory, summarize its applications in modern scientific research, and reveal the potential research direction of modern medicine.

18.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 18(1)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386892

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Las alteraciones en las concentraciones plasmáticas de leptina y adiponectina son la causa de las alteraciones metabólicas en la infancia como, por ejemplo, resistencia a la insulina, glicemias elevadas y perfil lipídico alterado. El desequilibrio de estas adipoquinas es la consecuencia metabólica del exceso de tejido adiposo en el individuo. La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública en el mundo, al ser una condición predisponente para el desarrollo de exceso de peso en la adultez y, consecuentemente, de padecimientos crónicos como enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes, síndrome metabólico, entre otras. De ahí la importancia de su detección en etapas tempranas de la vida para su prevención o tratamiento. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el perfil lipídico y biomarcadores de adiposidad, con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de dislipidemias y riesgo de aterogenicidad en niños escolares del distrito de Tres Ríos, cantón de La Unión, provincia de Cartago. Metodología: Se determinó la concentración plasmática de leptina, adiponectina, insulina y lípidos de un grupo de 108 escolares del cantón de La Unión, Cartago, Costa Rica, con edades entre 6 y 10 años, a los cuales se les realizó la evaluación antropométrica y la determinación por duplicado de los biomarcadores. Resultados: Las concentraciones plasmáticas de colesterol total y triglicéridos se encontraban fuera del rango de normalidad en la población en estudio. El exceso de peso evidencia una relación significativa y positiva con las concentraciones plasmáticas de leptina e insulina. Condiciones como la edad y el sexo no afectaron el comportamiento de los indicadores estudiados. Conclusiones: El colesterol total, los triglicéridos, la leptina e insulina podrían constituirse en indicadores metabólicos para el monitoreo del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas en poblaciones pediátricas.


Summary: Introduction: Childhood obesity is a public health problem in the world, being a predisposing condition for the development of excess weight in adulthood and consequently of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, among others, hence the importance of its detection in early stages of life for prevention and / or treatment. Alterations in plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in childhood are the reason for the metabolic alterations that may occur in this population such as insulin resistance, high blood sugar levels and altered lipid profile. The imbalance of these adipokines is the metabolic consequence of excess adipose tissue in the individual. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the lipid profile and biomarkers of adiposity, in order to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemias and risk of atherogenicity in school children in the Tres Ríos district, La Unión canton, Cartago province. Methodology: The serum concentration of leptin, adiponectin, insulin and lipids was determined from a group of 108 schoolchildren from the canton of La Unión, Cartago, Costa Rica, aged between 6 and 10 years, to whom the anthropometric evaluation and duplicate determination of biomarkers. Results: Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides were outside the normal range in the study population. Excess weight shows a significant and positive relationship with plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin. Conditions such as age and sex did not affect the behavior of the indicators studied. Conclusions: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, and insulin could be metabolic indicators for monitoring the risk of chronic diseases in pediatric populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adiposity , Pediatric Obesity , Lipids , Students
19.
Perspect. nutr. hum ; 22(2): 189-200, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351203

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Objetivo: explorar la relación entre indicadores antropométricos y niveles de leptina en un grupo de madres y en sus hijos. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal en 74 binomios madre-hijo de Cali, Colombia. Se realizó caracterización sociodemográfica, evaluaciones antropométricas y leptina sérica en 56 madres y 26 niños. Se usaron coeficientes de correlación entre los indicadores antropométricos y la leptina. Resultados: las madres presentaron 35,5 % de exceso de peso, elevada grasa corporal en un 80 % y niveles de leptina de 20,5 ng/mL. Los niños tenían 20,7±2,4 meses de edad; 8,2 % de exceso de peso; 4,1 % desnutrición aguda y niveles de leptina de 1,85 ng/mL. En madres e hijos las correlaciones entre indicadores antropométricos fueron significativas y positivas, lo mismo con leptina en las madres, pero en los niños solo correlacionó débilmente con peso/talla e IMC-edad. La leptina en las madres se correlacionó débilmente con indicadores antropométricos de los niños, pero no al contrario. Conclusión: la prevalencia de exceso de peso es alta en las madres y menor en los niños. La leptina en las madres se correlaciona débilmente con indicadores antropométricos de los niños, pero no al contrario.


Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for non-communicable chronic diseases. Objective: Explore the relationship between anthropometric indicators and leptin levels in a group of mothers and their children. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study in 74 mother-child pairs from Cali, Colombia. Sociodemographic characterization, anthropo-metric evaluations, and serum leptin measurements were performed in 56 mothers and 26 children. Correlation coefficients were used between anthropometric indicators and leptin. Results: 35.5% of mothers had excess weight, 80% had high body fat, and leptin levels of 20.5 ng/dL. The children were 20.7 ± 2.4 months old; 8.2% presented with excess weight; 4.1% had acute malnutrition, and leptin levels of 1.85 ng/dL. In mothers and children, the correlations between anthropometric indicators were significant and positive, the same with leptin in mothers, but in children leptin only correlated weakly with weight / height and BMI-age. Leptin in mothers was weakly correlated with anthropometric indicators in children, but not vice versa. Conclusion: The prevalence of excess weight was high in mothers and less so in their children. Leptin in mothers weakly correlated with anthropometric indicators in their children, but not vice versa.


Subject(s)
Leptin , Obesity
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2315-2329, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148395

ABSTRACT

Assess the nutritional and biochemical state of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) compared to a control group. This is an observational, case-control and descriptive type study, based on the recruiting of 22 elderly individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD considered as the case group, and 22 other elderly individuals considered as the control group. Evaluations were made using the results from the following scales Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), anthropometric measurements for obtaining the body mass index (BMI) and biochemical analyses. The analyses were performed on the program SPSS version 20.0, using absolute and relative measures, T test for independent samples for measurement comparisons and the Spearman correlation test. In the cognitive evaluation MMSE, those participants with AD present higher risk of cognitive decline (81.8%), greater risk of malnutrition according to MNA (45.5%) and altered levels of leptin (90.9%). Upon performing the comparison analysis between the group with AD and the control group, there existed noteworthy differences between the means for the variables MNA (4.40; BMI95% 2.75 ­ 6.06), MMSE (10.54; BMI95% 7.09 ­ 13.99) and doses of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) (14.53; BMI95% 6.18 ­ 22.88). As well as differences in the p-value < 0.09 in the leptin doses (11.54; BMI95% (-24.98 ­ 1.89) and transferrin dose (-72.31; BMI95% -159.48 ­ 14.84). The Spearman correlation demonstrated that the cognitive decline in the group of senior citizens with AD was strongly associated with nutritional conditions MNA (R 0.484) and the leptin dose (R 0.590). Senior citizens with AD present worse nutritional conditions, cognitive decline and biochemical alterations when compared to senior citizens in the control group. As such, the study demonstrated the need for an integrated healthcare assistance concerning senior citizens with AD.


Avaliar o estado nutricional e bioquímico de pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer (DA) comparando com um grupo controle. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um tipo observacional, caso-controle e descritivo a partir do recrutamento de 22 idosos diagnosticados clinicamente com DA considerados grupo caso e outros 22 idosos considerados controle, foi utilizado a escala Mini Avaliação nutricional (MNA), Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), medidas antropométricas para obtenção do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e análises bioquímicas. As análises foram realizadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0, utilizou-se de medidas absolutas e relativas, teste T para amostras independentes para comparação de médias e o teste de correlação de Spearman. Na avaliação cognitiva MMSE os participantes com DA apresentaram maior prevalência de declínio cognitivo (81,8%), maior prevalência de risco para desnutrição segundo MNA (45,5%) e níveis alterados de leptina (90,9%). Ao se realizar a análise de comparação o grupo com DA e o controle observou-se diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis MNA (4,40; IC95% 2,75 ­ 6,06), MMSE (10,54; IC95% 7,09 ­ 13,99) e dosagens de HDL (14,53; IC95% 6,18 ­ 22,88). E diferenças com o p-valor < 0,09 nas dosagens de leptina (11,54; IC95% (-24,98 ­ 1,89) e dosagem de transferrina (-72,31; IC95% -159,48 ­ 14,84). A correlação de Spearman demonstrou que o declínio cognitivo no grupo de idosos com DA, esteve associado significativamente às condições nutricionais MNA (R 0,484) e dosagem de leptina (R 0,590). Idosos com DA apresentaram piores condições nutricionais, declínio cognitivo e alterações bioquímicas, ao compara-los com idosos controles. Desta forma, o estudo demonstra a necessidade de uma assistência integral a esses idosos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers , Nutrition Assessment , Leptin , Alzheimer Disease
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