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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 9-15, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Chronic hepatic disease is associated with osteoporosis, osteopenia or osteomalacia. Osteoporosis and fractures due to bone fragility present high prevalences and are more frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the general population. The search for a diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population may allow early intervention and modify unfavorable outcomes. Objective To know the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis and of fracture due to bone fragility in individuals with liver cirrhosis, the associated risk factors, and its compromise in their quality of life (QoL). Methods Observational, transversal study performed with 71 liver cirrhosis patients of the Hepatology Service of the Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília, DF, Brazil, between July 2017 and December 2018. The patients were submitted to bone densitometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine and of the femoral neck, to x-ray of the lumbosacral spine and to the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) for the evaluation of quality of life (QoL). The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) major was calculated for patients >50 years old. The analyses were performed for the evaluation of the risk factors associated with lumbosacral spine fracture. Results The majority (62%) of the 71 evaluated patients was diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia on DXA. Of the 44 patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis, 52.3% were female, with a mean age of 62.6±9.51 years old, with the majority (72.7%) being Child A, cirrhotics of alcoholic etiology (36.4%), and with an intermediate QoL according to the CLDQ (3.3). Regarding the patients with lumbosacral spine fracture, the mean age was 61.6±11.1 years old, 60% were female, most of them Child A (66.7%), of alcoholic etiology (46.7%), and with an intermediary QoL according to the CLDQ (3.5). The presence of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was associated with lumbosacral fracture (P<0.001), without correlation with the other analyzed variables: age, body mass index, gender, presence and absence of ascites, Child-Pugh classification, vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus serum concentration, cirrhosis etiology and FRAX major. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatic osteodystrophy was high, and the occurrence of lumbosacral spine fracture was more associated with osteoporosis and/or osteopenia among the cirrhotic patients studied. The QoL was intermediate and with no differences between cirrhotics with and without fracture.


RESUMO Contexto A doença hepática crônica associa-se com osteoporose, osteopenia ou osteomalácia. A osteoporose e as fraturas por fragilidade óssea têm altas prevalências e são mais frequentes em pacientes com cirrose hepática do que na população geral. A busca por osteopenia e osteoporose nesta população pode permitir a intervenção precoce e modificar os desfechos desfavoráveis. Objetivo Conhecer a prevalência de osteopenia ou osteoporose e de fraturas por fragilidade óssea em portadores de cirrose hepática, fatores de risco associados e seu comprometimento na qualidade de vida. Métodos Estudo observacional e transversal realizado com 71 pacientes portadores de cirrose hepática do Serviço de Hepatologia do Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília, DF, Brasil, no período de julho de 2017 a dezembro de 2018. Os pacientes foram submetidos à densitometria óssea de coluna lombar e colo de fêmur, raio-x de coluna lombo sacra e ao questionário Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ, na sigla em inglês) para avaliação de qualidade de vida. Foi calculado o escore de Fracture Risk Assessment Tool "FRAX Maior" nos pacientes >50 anos. As análises foram realizadas para a avaliação dos fatores de risco associados à fratura de coluna lombo sacra. Resultados Dos 71 pacientes avaliados, a maioria (62%) foi diagnosticada com osteoporose ou osteopenia à densitometria. Dos 44 portadores de osteopenia ou osteoporose, 52,3% eram do sexo feminino, com idade média de 62,6±9,51 anos, sendo a maioria (72,7%) Child A, cirróticos de etiologia alcoólica (36,4%) e com qualidade de vida intermediária ao CLDQ (3,3). Dos pacientes com fratura de coluna lombo sacra, a média de idade foi de 61,6±11,1 anos, 60% eram do sexo feminino, a maioria Child A (66,7%), de etiologia alcoólica (46,7%), e apresentaram qualidade de vida intermediária ao CLDQ (3,5). A presença de osteopenia e/ou osteoporose esteve associada à fratura lombo sacra (P<0,001), sem correlação com as demais variáveis analisadas: idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC), gênero, presença e ausência de ascite, classificação de Child-Pugh, concentrações séricas de vitamina D, cálcio e fósforo, etiologia da cirrose e "FRAX maior". Conclusão A prevalência de osteodistrofia hepática foi elevada, e a ocorrência de fratura de coluna lombo sacra esteve mais associada à osteoporose e/ou osteopenia entre cirróticos estudados. A qualidade de vida se mostrou intermediária e sem diferença entre cirróticos com e sem fratura.

2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 102-109, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374455

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Bacterial infections occur in 43—59% of cirrhotic patients admitted to the intensive care unit with impact in morbidity and mortality. An increase in the frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDRO) and extensively drug-resistant (XDRO) organisms has been described in bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with an adverse impact on survival. Objective To characterize community-acquired (CA), healthcare-associated (HCA), and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in cirrhotic patients and their impact in the occurrence of adverse outcomes. Methods This study included all cirrhotic patients admitted in an intensive care unit specialized in liver and gastrointestinal diseases in Brazil between January 2012 and June 2018. Frequency and topography of infections were retrospectively evaluated, as well as the frequency of MDRO and XDRO organisms, and their impact in occurrence of acute kidney injury, hepatorenal syndrome, acute-on-chronic liver failure, sepsis and mortality. Results A total of 374 infections were observed and classified as CA (22%), HCA (34%) and hospital-acquired (44%). Eighty-nine (54%) episodes of hospital-acquired infections were second infections. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (32%) and urinary tract infection (23%) were the most common infections. Culture-proven infections were positive in 61% of the cases, mainly gram-negative bacteria (73%). Acute kidney injury, hepatorenal syndrome and sepsis were observed, respectively, in 48%, 15% and 53% of the cases. MDRO and XDRO were seen, respectively, in 35% and 16%, mainly in HCA (48% vs 26% in CA infections, P=0.02) and hospital-acquired (58% vs 26% in CA infections, P=0.0009). Adverse outcomes were more frequently observed in subjects with hospital-acquired infections when compared to HCA and CA infections. Hospital-acquired, HCA and second infections were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion Hospital-acquired, HCA and second infections are increasingly associated with either MDRO and/or XDRO and are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Their recognition and proper selection of appropriate empiric antibiotic regimens are important measures to reduce in-hospital mortality.


RESUMO Contexto As infecções bacterianas ocorrem em 43—59% dos pacientes cirróticos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva com impacto na morbimortalidade. Um aumento na frequência de bactérias multirresistentes e com resistência estendida foi descrito em infecções bacterianas em pacientes cirróticos, com um impacto adverso na sobrevida. Objetivo Caracterizar as infecções adquiridas na comunidade, relacionadas aos cuidados de saúde (RCS) e hospitalares em pacientes cirróticos e seu impacto na ocorrência de desfechos adversos. Métodos Este estudo incluiu todos os pacientes cirróticos internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva especializada em doenças hepáticas e gastrointestinais no Brasil entre janeiro de 2012 e junho de 2018. A frequência e topografia das infecções foram avaliadas retrospectivamente, bem como a frequência de bactérias multirresistentes e resistência estendida, e seu impacto na ocorrência de lesão renal aguda, síndrome hepatorrenal, insuficiência hepática crônica agudizada, sepse e mortalidade. Resultados Um total de 374 infecções foram observadas e classificadas como infecções adquiridas na comunidade (22%), RCS (34%) e infecções hospitalares (44%). Oitenta e nove (54%) episódios de infecções hospitalares foram identificadas como segunda infecção. Peritonite bacteriana espontânea (32%) e infecção do trato urinário (23%) foram as infecções mais comuns. As infecções comprovadas por cultura foram positivas em 61% dos casos, principalmente ocasionadas por bactérias gram-negativas (73%). Lesão renal aguda, síndrome hepatorrenal e sepse foram observados respectivamente, em 48%, 15% e 53% dos casos. Bactérias multirresistentes e resistência estendida foram observadas respectivamente, em 35% e 16%, principalmente nos RCS (48% vs 26% em infecções adquiridas na comunidade, P=0,02) e infecções hospitalares (58% vs 26% em infecções adquiridas na comunidade, P=0,0009). Os resultados adversos foram observados com mais frequência em indivíduos com infecções nosocomiais em comparação com infecções relacionadas aos cuidados de saúde e comunitárias. Infecções hospitalares, RCS e ocorrência de uma segunda infecção foram independentemente associadas à mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Conclusão Infecções hospitalares, relacionadas aos cuidados de saúde e reinfecções estão cada vez mais associadas a bactérias multirresistentes e/ou resistência estendida e são preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Seu reconhecimento e seleção adequada de regimes antibióticos empíricos apropriados são medidas importantes para reduzir a mortalidade intra-hospitalar.

3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 24-32, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376902

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cirrhosis is the final stage of chronically progressive liver diseases of various etiologies. It is a common disease, with a variable prevalence in each country. Its peak incidence occurs between 40 and 50 years of age, predominantly in men. Aims: To compare a cohort of patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, evaluate their complications and survival according to etiology, describe clinical and laboratory aspects, and determine the role of a fatty liver. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out with patients who held a specialized hepatology consultation in the center of liver and digestive diseases (CEHYD) in Bogotá, Colombia, between January 2010 and June 2019. Results: We reviewed a total of 1,200 medical records (56.8 % women). There were no statistically significant differences in median survival between groups by etiology, sex, presence or absence of complications, or Child. We noted that the older the age at the diagnosis of cirrhosis, the higher the risk of death; HR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.02-1.075). For each month that follow-up increases, the risk of death decreases by 90 %; HR 0.1 (95 % CI 0.03-0.29). For each month that the follow-up of complications increases, the risk of death is reduced by 2 %; HR 0.98 (95 % CI 0.97-0.99). Conclusions: Survival by etiology was similar in the different groups. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was the leading cause of cirrhosis in this cohort. Efforts should focus on its diagnosis and management in the early stages.


Resumen Introducción: la cirrosis es el estadio final de enfermedades hepáticas crónicamente progresivas de diferentes etiologías. Es una enfermedad frecuente, con una prevalencia variable en cada país. Su pico de incidencia se presenta entre los 40 y 50 años, predominantemente en hombres. Objetivos: comparar una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis, evaluar sus complicaciones y sobrevida de acuerdo con su etiología, describir los aspectos clínicos y de laboratorio, y determinar el papel del hígado graso. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, en donde se incluyeron pacientes que asistieron a consulta especializada de hepatología en el centro de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas (CEHYD), en la ciudad de Bogotá, durante enero de 2010 y junio de 2019. Resultados: se revisaron un total de 1200 historias clínicas (56,8 % mujeres). No se evidenció diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las medianas de sobrevida entre los grupos por etiologías, sexo, presencia o no de complicaciones, o Child. Se evidenció que entre mayor edad en el diagnóstico de cirrosis, el riesgo de muerte es mayor; HR 1,04 (IC 95 % 1,02-1,075). Por cada mes que aumenta el seguimiento se reduce el riesgo de muerte en 90 %; HR 0,1 (IC 95 % 0,03-0,29). Por cada mes que aumenta el seguimiento de las complicaciones se reduce el riesgo de muerte en 2 %; HR 0,98 (IC 95 % 0,97-0,99). Conclusiones: La sobrevida por etiología fue similar en los diferentes grupos. La esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (NASH) fue la principal causa de cirrosis en esta cohorte. Se deben orientar esfuerzos a su diagnóstico y manejo en fases tempranas.

4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 71-80, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357462

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although autonomic dysfunction has been shown to be associated with liver cirrhosis, the prevalence and prognostic implications are unclear. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic function, has not been well investigated in cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of high-risk HRV parameters in a cohort of cirrhotic patients and their association with cardiac dysfunction and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study conducted in the Federal University of São Paulo. METHOD: A cohort of 120 patients, comprising 17 healthy controls and 103 cirrhotic outpatients, was evaluated and followed for 10 months. HRV analysis was based on 24-hour Holter monitoring and defined using time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. RESULTS: The HRV parameters were statistically lower in cirrhotic patients than in healthy subjects. High-risk HRV parameters were prevalent, such that 64% had at least one high-risk parameter. Time-domain parameters correlated with Child scores (P < 0.0001). In regression models, HRV parameters were independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction and mortality. During 10 months of follow-up, there were 11 deaths, all of patients with at least one high-risk HRV parameter. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated low survival rates among patients with standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) < 100. CONCLUSION: Reduced HRV is prevalent in liver cirrhosis and is related to cardiac dysfunction, severity of liver disease and mortality. Abnormal high-risk HRV parameters are prevalent among cirrhotic patients and are also predictors of mortality. Our findings highlight the need for a more careful cardiac evaluation of cirrhotic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Prospective Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 666-670, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922977

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is an important manifestation of malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis and is one of the common complications of liver cirrhosis, and about 30%-70% of the patients with liver cirrhosis suffer from sarcopenia, which seriously affects the survival and prognosis of patients. Studies have shown that exercise therapy has many advantages in the treatment of such diseases, such as few side effects, high benefits, and simple operability. To summarize the theoretical studies and application results of exercise in liver cirrhosis with sarcopenia and find evidence for the effect of exercise on liver cirrhosis with sarcopenia and related mechanisms, in order to provide a scientific reference for the treatment of liver cirrhosis with sarcopenia.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 601-605, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922961

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the comorbidity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and to lay a foundation for further research on the influence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis on HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the data of 401 patients with hepatic cystic echinococcosis who were admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University from 2003 to 2019, and the state of comorbidity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma was clarified. The patients with hepatic cystic echinococcosis and chronic HBV/HCV infection were selected as comorbidity group, and the patients with HBV/HCV infection alone were matched as control group. The chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the state of viral infection and the disease composition of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Of all 401 patients, 38(9.5%) were included in the comorbidity group and 2(0.5%) had liver cirrhosis after HBV/HCV infection, while no patient had hepatocellular carcinoma after HBV/HCV infection. Among the patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the comorbidity group, non-active HBsAg carriers accounted for 81%, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients accounted for 9.5%, and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients accounted for 9.5%; among the patients with hepatitis B virus infection in the control group, non-active HBsAg carriers accounted for 43%, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients accounted for 33%, and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients accounted for 19%, with a significant difference between the two groups ( P =0.033). There was a significant difference in the HBV RNA clearance rate of the patients with HCV infection between the comorbidity group and the control group ( χ 2 =4.447, P =0.035). In the comorbidity group, the patients with liver cirrhosis accounted for 5.2% and there were no patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, while in the control group, the patients with liver cirrhosis accounted for 18.4% and those with hepatocellular carcinoma accounted for 5.2%; the comorbidity group had significantly lower proportions than the control group ( P =0.048). Conclusion The proportion of liver cirrhosis patients with hepatic cystic echinococcosis and HBV/HCV infection is lower than that of liver cirrhosis patients with viral hepatitis alone, and there are no cases of hepatocellular carcinoma after HBV/HCV infection. Further multicenter studies are needed to investigate the influence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis on chronic HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 553-557, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922952

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of international standardized ratio-to-platelet ratio (INPR) versus aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with primary cholangitis (PBC). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the patients who underwent liver biopsy and were diagnosed with PBC in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2013 to March 2021. Scheuer score was used to systematically evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis (S0-S4 stage). According to the results of liver biopsy, the degree of liver fibrosis was classified as significant liver fibrosis (≥S2), progressive liver fibrosis (≥S3), and liver cirrhosis (S4). Related data including general information, liver function, routine blood test results, and blood coagulation were collected, and related formulas were used to calculate the values of the noninvasive serological models INPR, APRI, and FIB-4. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between multiple groups. A Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between noninvasive models and liver fibrosis stage. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the efficacy of the noninvasive serological models in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis degree, and the DeLong method was used for comparison of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results A total of 143 patients with PBC were enrolled in the study, among whom 4 had stage S0 liver fibrosis, 50 had stage S1 liver fibrosis, 46 had stage S2 liver fibrosis, 26 had stage S3 liver fibrosis, and 17 had stage S4 liver fibrosis. There was a significant difference in INPR value between the PBC patients with different liver fibrosis degrees ( χ 2 =27.347, P 0.05). Conclusion INPR is a simple and accurate noninvasive model for the evaluation of liver fibrosis and has a certain value in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in PBC.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 452-456, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920911

ABSTRACT

Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is a challenging complication of liver cirrhosis associated with portal hypertension, and its pathogenesis and therapeutic measures remain unknown. This article summarizes and reviews the advances and challenges in the research on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of HH and proposes a multidisciplinary treatment strategy, including reducing the production of ascites, preventing effusion from entering the thoracic cavity, removing pleural effusion, occluding the pleural cavity, and performing liver transplantation, so as to provide a reference for more clinicians.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 443-447, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920909

ABSTRACT

Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a self-healing pathological process after all kinds of chronic liver injuries and can cause diseases such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved in species evolution and widely exists in invertebrates and vertebrates, and many studies have confirmed that the Wnt signaling pathway is closely associated with the development and progression of HF. This article reviews the mechanisms of the classical and non-classical Wnt signaling pathways in regulating hepatic stellate cells, hepatic macrophages, and hepatic progenitor cells, so as to provide new ideas for subsequent studies on the mechanism of the Wnt signaling pathway in regulating HF and further exploration of therapeutic targets that can reverse HF.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 359-364, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920885

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors for covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) in patients with liver cirrhosis and their influence on prognosis. Methods A total of 416 patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in a grade A tertiary hospital in Chongqing from September 2019 to June 2020 were enrolled in the study, and according to the presence or absence of CHE, they were divided into CHE group with 212 patients and non-CHE group with 204 patients. Clinical data and laboratory examination results were collected, and follow-up was performed for 6 months. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups; the chi-square test, the continuous correction chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the risk factors for CHE. Results The incidence rate of CHE was 51%. The univariate analysis showed that age, course of disease, the medical history of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), infection, ascites, electrolyte disturbance, hepatorenal syndrome, Child-Pugh class, prothrombin time, total bilirubin, creatinine, platelet, prothrombin activity, albumin, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were the influencing factors for CHE (all P < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the medical history of HE ( OR =10.848, 95% CI : 4.971-23.674, P < 0.05), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) ( OR =4.334, 95% CI : 1.203-15.621, P < 0.05), Child-Pugh class ( OR =4.968, 95% CI : 1.299-18.992, P < 0.05), and MELD score ( OR =1.253, 95% CI : 1.161-1.352, P < 0.05) were independent predictive factors for CHE ( P < 0.05). The follow-up study showed that CHE had an effect on the short-or medium-term readmission, HE, and death of patients (all P < 0.05). Conclusion CHE has a relatively high incidence rate and greatly affects the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of CHE should be taken seriously in patients with a past history of HE, a history of TIPS, Child-Pugh class C liver function, and a high MELD score, and identification, screening, and intervention should be performed as early as possible to improve the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 352-358, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920884

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate whether Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) is more suitable than Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) in nutritional risk screening for patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as the applicability of subjective global assessment (SGA) in the nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods A total of 113 patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from August 2020 to June 2021 were enrolled. RFH-NPT and NRS-2002 were used for nutritional risk screening, and SGA was used for nutritional assessment. The results of these tools were compared with the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the three tools. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for each screening tool, and the association between nutritional status and short-term prognosis was analyzed. The independent samples t -test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of GLIM criteria with NRS2002, RFH-NPT and SGA. Results According to the GLIM criteria, 69.9% of the patients were diagnosed with malnutrition, and RFH-NPT and NRS2002 screened out that 72.6% and 51.3%, respectively, of the patients had nutritional risk, while SGA assessment showed that 57.5% of the patients had malnutrition. Compared with NRS2002, RFH-NPT had a higher degree of correlation with the GLIM criteria ( r =0.764, P < 0.001), higher sensitivity (94.9%) and NPV (87.1%), and a better predictive value (AUC=0.872, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 0.786-0.957). Under the GLIM criteria, SGA had good specificity (88.2%) in the diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, with fair sensitivity (77.2%), good correlation ( r =0.607, P < 0.001), and good predictive value (AUC=0.827, 95% CI : 0.744-0.911). Based on the GLIM criteria, SGA assessment, and RFH-NPT assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition tended to have a longer length of hospital stay ( Z= -3.301, -2.812, and -3.813, all P < 0.05) and a higher rehospitalization rate ( χ 2 =3.957, 6.922, and 6.766, all P < 0.05). Based on the GLIM criteria and NRS2002 assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition had a significant increase in mortality rate within 3 months ( χ 2 =4.511 and 0.776, both P < 0.05). Conclusion Under the GLIM criteria, RFH-NPT is more suitable than NRS2002 for nutritional risk screening of patients with liver cirrhosis, and SGA also has good applicability in nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, GLIM criteria, SGA, and RFH-NPT are associated with the clinical outcome of patients.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 347-351, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920883

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the level of glycosylated albumin (GA) in liver cirrhosis patients with different Child-Pugh classes and its application value in predicting liver function. Methods A total of 486 patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2019, were enrolled, among whom 227 patients had liver cirrhosis without diabetes and 259 patients had liver cirrhosis with diabetes. The patients were divided into groups according to Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, and fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and percentage of GA (GA%) were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between three groups, and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used for further comparison between two groups. Scatter plots and fitting curves were plotted for CTP score and GA% to evaluate the association between them and calculate the cut-off value. Results For the cirrhosis patients without diabetes, there were significant differences between the patients with different Child-Pugh classes in GA% ( χ 2 =24.809, P < 0.001), fasting blood glucose ( χ 2 =11.899, P =0.003), and glycosylated hemoglobin ( χ 2 =13.607, P =0.001); further pairwise comparison showed that there was a significant difference in GA% between Child-Pugh class A/B liver cirrhosis patients without diabetes and Child-Pugh class C liver cirrhosis patients ( P < 0.05), Child-Pugh class A patients had a significantly higher level of fasting blood glucose than Child-Pugh class B patients ( P < 0.05), and Child-Pugh class A patients had a significantly higher level of glycosylated hemoglobin than Child-Pugh class B/C patients ( P < 0.05). For the patients with liver cirrhosis and diabetes, there were significant differences between the patients with different Child-Pugh classes in GA% ( χ 2 =10.734, P =0.005) and fasting blood glucose ( χ 2 =16.295, P < 0.001); further pairwise comparison showed that Child-Pugh class C liver cirrhosis patients with diabetes had a significantly lower GA% than Child-Pugh class A/B patients ( P < 0.05) and Child-Pugh class A patients had a significantly lower fasting blood glucose level than Child-Pugh class B patients ( P < 0.05). The fitting curve showed that GA% increased with the increase in CTP score in the liver cirrhosis patients without diabetes, reached the highest value at the CTP score of 6.5, and then started to decrease, with the lower value at the CTP score of 11.5, which showed a curvilinear relationship; in the liver cirrhosis patients with diabetes, GA% first increased and then decreased with the increase in CTP score, with a cut-off value of 8. Conclusion GA% first increases and then decreases along with the progression of liver cirrhosis. There is a significant difference in GA between liver cirrhosis patients with different Child-Pugh classes, suggesting that the reduction in GA is closely associated with liver function decompensation in end-stage liver cirrhosis.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 342-346, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920882

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of liver CD8 + T lymphocytes on co-cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) after the application of Fuzheng Huayu prescription in a moues model of acute liver injury, as well as the mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu prescription in preventing liver fibrosis. Methods A total of 18 specific pathogen-free male C57BL/6NCrl Vr mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, and Fuzheng Huayu prescription group, with 6 mice in each group. The mice in the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group were given Fuzheng Huayu prescription for 5 days in advance. At 12 hours before the experiment, 10% CCl 4 was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight. Blood was collected from the main abdominal vein, and the serum was separated to measure the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Part of the liver was used for pathological observation. After the mice were pretreated with medication in vivo, flow cytometry was used for the sorting of mouse liver CD8 + T lymphocytes, which were then co-cultured with the mouse HSC cell line (JS 1) in a 96-well plate at a ratio of 2∶ 1, and after co-culture for 24 and 48 hours, qPCR was used to measure the changes in the mRNA expression of Col.I and α-SMA. An analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the SNK- q test or the least significant difference t -test was used for further comparison between two groups. Results The model group had significantly higher activities of ALT and AST than the normal group (both P < 0.000 1), and compared with the model group, the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group had a significantly lower degree of increase in ALT activity ( P < 0.001). HE staining showed that the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group had a significantly lower degree of hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis compared with the model group. Compared with the normal group, the total lymphocytes, CD45, CD4 - CD8 + T and CD8 + CD28 - T in the model group increased significantly, while the proportion of the above lymphocytes in the Fuzheng Huayu formula group decreased significantly compared with the model group ( P < 0.001). CD8 + T lymphocytes isolated from the liver of mice in each group were co-cultured with JS 1 for 48 hours, and compared with the control group (JS 1 cultured alone) and the normal group, the model group had a significant increase in the mRNA expression of α-SMA (both P < 0.01) and significantly higher mRNA expression of Col.I than the control group and the normal group (normal mouse liver CD8 + T lymphocytes co-cultured with JS 1) (both P < 0.001). The Fuzheng Huayu prescription group had significantly lower mRNA expression levels of α-SMA and Col.I than the model group (both P < 0.01). Conclusion Fuzheng Huayu prescription can indirectly inhibit activated HSCs by altering the functional phenotype of CD8 + T lymphocytes in mouse liver.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 334-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920880

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the intervention effect of GDC-0449, a hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, on rats with liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) combined with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). Methods A total of 18 female Fisher344 rats were randomly divided into normal group, CCl 4 /2-AAF group, and GDC-0449 group, with 6 rats in each group. The rats in the CCl 4 /2-AAF group and the GDC-0449 group were given subcutaneously injected 30% CCl 4 -olive oil solution at a dose of 2 mL/kg twice a week for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis; since week 7, in addition to the injection of CCl 4 -olive oil solution, the rats in these two groups were given 2-AAF (100 mg/kg/d) by gavage, and the rats in the GDC-0449 group were given GDC-0449 (25 mg/kg/d) by gavage, while those in the normal group were given an equal volume of olive oil solution by injection and normal saline by gavage. All rats were sacrificed at the end of week 9, and related samples were collected. HE staining and sirius red (SR) staining were used to observe the changes in liver histopathology and collagen deposition, and the semi-quantitative analysis of SR-positive area and Ishak score were used to evaluate fibrosis degree; the alkaline hydrolysis method was used to measure the level of hydroxyproline (Hyp) in liver tissue; immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were used to measure the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen (Col-Ⅰ), type Ⅳ collagen (Col-Ⅳ), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), the epithelial cell adhesion molecule Epcam, and the hedgehog signaling pathway in liver tissue; double immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the colocalization of CK19 and the oval cell marker OV6. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t -test was used for further comparison between two groups. Results Compared with the normal group, the CCl 4 /2-AAF group had marked inflammatory cell aggregation and collagen deposition in liver tissue, with the formation of a pseudolobular structure, as well as significant increases in Hyp level and collagen positive area ratio in liver tissue ( P < 0.05), Ishak score ( P < 0.05), and the expression of α-SMA, Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅳ, Epcam, CK19, CK7, the transmembrane transporter Smoothened (Smo), Hedgehog ligand Desert Hedgehog (Dhh), the Indian Hedgehog membrane-binding receptor Patched (Ptch2), and glioma-related oncogenes Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 (all P < 0.05); double immunofluorescence staining showed that CK19-positive cells also expressed OV6 in the liver tissue of rats in the CCl 4 /2-AAF group, with a significant increase compared with the normal group. Compared with the CCl 4 /2-AAF group, the GDC-0449 group had significant reductions in inflammatory cell aggregation and collagen deposition in liver tissue, Hyp level and collagen positive area ratio in liver tissue ( P < 0.05), Ishak score ( P < 0.05), and the expression of α-SMA, Epcam, CK19, CK7, Smo, Ptch2, Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 (all P < 0.05); double immunofluorescence staining showed a significant reduction in the number of cells with co-expression of OV6 and CK19 in liver tissue. Conclusion The Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor GDC-0449 can significantly inhibit the progression of liver fibrosis induced by CCl 4 /2-AAF in rats, possibly by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation, collagen deposition, activation and proliferation of hepatic progenitor cells, and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells into biliary epithelial cells.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 322-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920878

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of urinary α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase/urinary creatinine (NAG/UCr) in monitoring renal injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver diseases. Methods A total of 85 patients with HBV-related liver diseases who attended The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from August 2019 to August 2020 were enrolled, and according to the history of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC), they were divided into NUC treatment group with 57 patients and non-NUC treatment group with 28 patients; according to the type of NUC used, the NUC treatment group was further divided into entecavir (ETV) treatment group with 32 patients and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment group with 25 patients; according to the results of HBV serum antigen and antibody markers, the patients were divided into HBeAg-negative group with 57 patients and HBeAg-positive group with 28 patients; according to the results of serum HBV DNA quantification, the patients were divided into HBV DNA-negative group with 47 patients and HBV DNA-positive group with 38 patients; according to abdominal imaging findings, the patients were divided into non-liver cirrhosis group with 47 patients and liver cirrhosis group with 38 patients. The data on medical history and laboratory markers were collected for comparison between two groups. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of data with skewed distribution between two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The McNemar test was used to compare the diagnostic merit of each index; a Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of each factor with α1-MG, and NAG/UCr; the multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the independent influencing factors for α1-MG and NAG/UCr. Results The non-NUC treatment group, the HBeAg-positive group, and the HBV DNA-positive group had significantly higher levels of urinary α1-MG than the NUC treatment group ( Z =-2.054, P =0.04), the HBeAg-negative group ( Z =-2.293, P =0.022), and the HBV DNA-negative group ( Z =-2.229, P =0.026), respectively. The HBV DNA-positive group and the liver cirrhosis group had significantly higher levels of NAG and NAG/UCr than the HBV DNA-negative group ( Z =-2.908 and -2.824, both P < 0.05) and the non-liver cirrhosis group ( Z =-3.204 and -3.412, both P < 0.05), respectively. There was a significant difference in the proportion of patients with abnormal α1-MG and that of patients with abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (31.8% vs 20.0%, χ 2 =7.178, P =0.007), and the proportion of patients with abnormal α1-MG and NAG/UCr was significantly higher than that of patients with abnormal eGFR (35.3% vs 20.0%, χ 2 =8.049, P =0.005). There was a significant difference in diagnostic merit between α1-MG+NAG/UCr and eGFR ( P =0.015). Age ( β =0.246, P < 0.05), positive HBeAg ( β =0.284, P < 0.01), and liver cancer ( β =0.291, P < 0.01) were independent risk factors for the increase in α1-MG, while the increase in FIB-4 value ( β =0.352, P < 0.05), ascites ( β =0.260, P < 0.05), esophagogastric varices( β =-0.248, P < 0.05), positive HBV DNA ( β =0.197, P < 0.05), and high total bilirubin ( β =0.257, P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for the increase in NAG/UCr. Conclusion In patients with chronic HBV-related liver diseases, renal injury may occur during the whole course of active viral replication, liver cirrhosis, and deterioration of liver function. Antiviral therapy with NUC can alleviate renal impairment caused by HBV and is safe and reliable within a certain course of treatment. Combined measurement of urinary α1-MG and NAG/UCr has more advantages over eGFR in the diagnosis of early renal injury, and it is an effective method for renal function monitoring in patients with chronic HBV-related liver diseases.

16.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 97-103, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913159

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of transient elastography (TE) in the staging of hepatic fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver disease (ALD). Methods PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on TE in the staging of hepatic fibrosis in ALD published from January 2000 to January 2021. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction for the articles included, and QUADAS2 was used for quality assessment. The bivariate mixed effects model in Stata 15.0 software was used to perform the Meta-analysis. Results A total of 11 articles were included, with 1041 patients in total. In the diagnosis of significant hepatic fibrosis (F≥2), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI : 0.75-0.86), a specificity of 0.87(95% CI 0.79-0.92), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91(95% CI 0.88-0.93); in the diagnosis of advanced hepatic fibrosis (F≥3), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.81(95% CI 0.74-0.87), a sensitivity of 0.90(95% CI 0.85-0.93), and an AUC of 0.92(95% CI 0.90-0.94); in the diagnosis of early-stage liver cirrhosis (F4), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.87(95% CI 0.74-0.93), a specificity of 0.93(95% CI 0.87-0.97), and an AUC of 0.96(95% CI 0.94-0.97). Conclusion TE has a good diagnostic value in evaluating significant liver fibrosis, advanced liver fibrosis, and early-stage liver cirrhosis in patients with ALD, especially with a relatively high diagnostic accuracy for early-stage liver cirrhosis.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 191-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913140

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is a common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis, with an incidence rate of up to 40%-70%, which increases the incidence rate of complications in patients with liver cirrhosis and seriously affects patients' quality of life and survival time. Sarcopenia in liver cirrhosis has a complex pathogenesis, and its clinical manifestations are easily ignored. No consensus has been reached on diagnostic criteria, and there are few targeted therapeutic drugs. Therefore, it should be taken seriously by clinician and the research on pathogenesis and therapeutic drugs should be strengthened.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 187-190, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913139

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis is a liver disease caused by various factors and is characterized by diffuse fibrous hyperplasia, lobular structural damage, and pseudolobule formation. Bile duct proliferation has been observed in a variety of animal models of liver cirrhosis and patients with liver cirrhosis caused by different etiologies, and it is regulated by signaling pathways with the involvement of multiple regulatory factors such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones. Moreover, the proliferated bile ducts promote the formation of liver fibrosis by mediating the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells. This article summarizes the changes of the intrahepatic bile duct system in liver cirrhosis and its influence on the process of liver fibrosis, various signaling pathways associated with cholangiocyte proliferation and liver fibrosis, and the value of the dynamic evolution of bile duct structure in predicting the degree of liver fibrosis. It is pointed out that bile duct proliferation may become a potential target for the intervention of liver fibrosis, which provides new ideas and methods for early treatment and reversal of liver fibrosis.

19.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 104-109, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913122

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association of five noninvasive diagnostic methods for liver cirrhosis, i.e., liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on FibroScan, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR), and red blood cell distribution width-to-platelet ratio (RPR), with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome types in patients with compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 327 patients who were diagnosed with compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis in The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Chinese Medicine from January 2017 to January 2020, and based on their TCM syndrome type, they were divided into liver depression and spleen deficiency group with 160 patients, liver-gallbladder damp-heat syndrome group with 84 patients, liver-kidney Yin deficiency group with 13 patients, spleen-kidney Yang deficiency group with 5 patients, and blood stasis obstructing the collaterals group with 65 patients. Related data were collected, including clinical data, routine blood test results, liver function, LSM, and color Doppler ultrasound findings of liver, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas. TCM syndrome differentiation was performed, and the models of APRI, FIB-4, GPR, and RPR were established. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t -test was used for further comparison between two groups; the multiple independent samples Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the one- way Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA (k-sample) was used for multiple comparison; the binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between TCM syndrome types and non-invasive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic capability of five noninvasive methods for predicting TCM syndrome type in compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Results The logistic regression analysis showed that in the liver-gallbladder damp-heat syndrome group, aspartate aminotransferase OR =1.981, 95% CI : 1.8225-2.139, P < 0.05), and LSM ( OR =2.002, 95% CI : 1.840-2.160, P < 0.05) were influencing factors for compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; in the liver depression and spleen deficiency group, portal vein width ( OR =4.402, 95% CI : 4.050-4.754, P < 0.05), LSM ( OR =3.901, 95% CI : 3.589-4.213, P < 0.05), APRI ( OR =1.891, 95% CI : 1.740-2.042, P < 0.05), and FIB-4 ( OR =1.845, 95% CI : 1.697-1.993, P < 0.05) were influencing factors for compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; in the blood stasis obstructing the collaterals group, LSM ( OR =2.465, 95% CI : 2.268-2.662, P < 0.05), APRI ( OR =1.298, 95% CI : 1.194-1.402, P < 0.05), and FIB-4 ( OR =1.849, 95% CI : 1.701-1.997, P < 0.05) were influencing factors for compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. The ROC curve analysis showed that LSM and RPR had a significantly better diagnostic value than the other methods in evaluating liver-gallbladder damp-heat syndrome, and LSM and FIB-4 had a significantly better diagnostic value than the other methods in evaluating liver depression and spleen deficiency; all five noninvasive diagnostic methods had a good value in evaluating the syndrome of blood stasis obstructing the collaterals. Conclusion The five noninvasive diagnostic methods have their own advantages in evaluating different syndrome types, which provide a reference for the diagnosis of TCM syndrome types in patients with compensated hepatitis B cirrhosis.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927929

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with conventional drugs for the treatment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library were searched for the relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs) published from database inception to February 2021. All the retrieved papers were independently screened, extracted and evaluated by two researchers, followed by Meta-analysis by Review Manager 5.4. Finally, 18 RCTs were included, involving 2 168 patients(1 106 in the treatment group and 1 062 in the control group). The Meta-analysis results showed that compared with conventional drugs alone, Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with conventional drugs could increase the effective rate of clinical treatment by reducing serum hyaluronic acid(HA), laminin(LN), procollagen type Ⅲ(PCⅢ), and type Ⅳ collagen(Ⅳ-C) to improve liver function, decreasing the levels of total bilirubin(TBiL), alanine amino-transferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST), and improving the negative conversion ratio of hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA. In terms of safety, there were no serious adverse reactions in the treatment group and the control group. The results showed that Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with antiviral or other conventional liver-protecting drugs could improve liver function, treat liver cirrhosis, and reduce liver fibrosis with high safety. However, due to the influence of literature quality and quantity, multi-center and high-quality RCTs with large sample size are needed for verification.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Tablets
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