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1.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 87-96, ene 2, 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1532862

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipertensión portal (HTP) se define como una elevación anormal de la presión venosa en el sistema portal que lleva al desarrollo de vías colaterales para desviar el flujo sanguíneo de la zona. Dentro de su etiología están las relacionadas con la cirrosis hepática y otras causas denominadas no cirróticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los principales hallazgos demográficos, clínicos y paraclínicos en un grupo de pacientes con HTP, y determinar el uso de ayudas invasivas y no invasivas, y su disponibilidad para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de los pacientes en los centros que no cuentan con laboratorio de hemodinamia hepática, reflejando la dinámica de múltiples escenarios en Colombia. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, retrospectivo, en pacientes atendidos en una institución de tercer nivel del sur de Colombia, entre enero del año 2015 y diciembre del año 2020. Resultados. Se obtuvo una muestra de 61 pacientes en donde la mayoría de casos correspondían a hombres en la séptima década de la vida, procedentes del área urbana. La principal causa de consulta fue el sangrado digestivo (39,3 %), asociado a la presencia de telangiectasias (arañas vasculares) en el 37,2 %, seguido de circulación colateral (31,3 %) e ictericia (19,7 %). En la ecografía abdominal (realizada en el 57,4 % de los pacientes) predominaron la cirrosis (68 %) y la presencia de esplenomegalia (14,2 %), y en lospacientes con Doppler portal (realizado en el 16,4 %) se encontró hígado cirrótico (80 %) y dilatación portal (40 %). Con respecto a los hallazgos en la esofagogastroduodenoscopia predominó la presencia de várices esofágicas y gastritis crónica. Conclusión. El principal motivo de consulta fue el sangrado digestivo, en tanto que la cirrosis fue el antecedente y el hallazgo imagenológico más frecuente, seguido de las várices esofágicas. Se encontró que el uso de paraclínicos, ecografía abdominal, ecografía con Doppler portal y esofagogastroduodenoscopia fueron los más utilizados en el contexto clínico de los pacientes con el diagnóstico de HTP.


Introduction. Portal hypertension (PHT) is defined as an abnormal elevation of venous pressure in the portal system that leads to the development of collateral pathways to divert blood flow from the area. Within its etiology are those related to liver cirrhosis and other so-called non cirrhotic causes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main demographic, clinical and paraclinical findings in a group of patients with PHT, and to determine the use of invasive and non-invasive aids, and their availability for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients in centers that do not have a hepatic hemodynamics laboratory, reflecting the dynamics of multiple scenarios in Colombia. Methodology. A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted in patients attended in a third level institution in Southern Colombia, between January 2015 and December 2020. Results. A sample of 61 patients was obtained where the majority of cases corresponded to men in the seventh decade of life, from the urban area. The main cause of consultation was digestive bleeding (39.3%), associated with the presence of telangiectasias (spider veins) in 37.2%, followed by collateral circulation (31.3%) and jaundice (19.7%). In abdominal ultrasound (performed in 57.4% of the patients), cirrhosis (68%) and the presence of splenomegaly (14.2%) predominated, and in patients with portal Doppler (performed in 16.4%), cirrhotic liver (80%) and portal dilatation (40%) were found. With respect to the findings in the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, esophageal varices and chronic gastritis were predominant. Conclusion. The main reason for consultation was gastrointestinal bleeding, while cirrhosis was the most frequent history and imaging finding, followed by esophageal varices. It was found that the use of paraclinics, abdominal ultrasound, ultrasound with portal Doppler and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were the most used in the clinical context of patients diagnosed with PHT.

2.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 97-107, ene 2, 2024. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1532865

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad hepática esteatósica asociada a disfunción metabólica (MASLD) se ha convertido en la enfermedad hepática crónica más frecuente en los países occidentales, causando un aumento en los costos y en la ocupación hospitalaria. La caracterización integral previa al trasplante hepático en pacientes con MASLD es una gran interrogante, especialmente en nuestro medio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar la caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de pacientes trasplantados por cirrosis hepática (CH) descompensada o carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) asociado a MASLD. Metodología. Se desarrolló un estudio observacional retrospectivo, descriptivo, de corte transversal en el Servicio de Hepatología del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe en Medellín, Colombia. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 17 años, con diagnóstico de CH o de CHC asociado a MASLD que fueron trasplantados entre los años 2004 a 2017. Resultados. Se encontraron 84 pacientes que fueron trasplantados con esas características. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 59±10,5 con una mayor proporción significativa de hombres sobre mujeres, llegando casi al 70 %. Con relación a las comorbilidades, se encontró que el sobrepeso/obesidad, la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 fueron un hallazgo en el 44,1 %, 33,3 % y 33,3 %, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el 14,5 %, el 33,7 % y el 51,8 % presentaron un Child-Pugh A, B y C, respectivamente. La media del puntaje MELD fue de 18,9±6,26. Con respecto a las complicaciones de la cirrosis, el 77,4 % de los pacientes presentó ascitis, el 61,9 % encefalopatía hepática, el 36,9 % hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior y el 29,8 % peritonitis bacteriana espontánea. Conclusión. Los resultados expuestos mostraron nuestra experiencia en trasplante hepático en pacientes con CH y CHC asociado a MASLD. Se debe realizar una evaluación multidisciplinaria antes y después del trasplante en estos pacientes, haciendo especial énfasis en el manejo de la disfunción metabólica y sus componentes, entre los que se destacan la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus.


Introduction. Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) has become the most frequent chronic liver disease in Western countries, causing increased costs and hospital occupancy. The comprehensive pre-transplant characterization in patients with MASLD is a major question, especially in our setting. The aim of the present study was to perform the clinical-epidemiological characterization of transplanted patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with MASLD. Methodology. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Hepatology Department of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Patients over 17 years of age, with a diagnosis of LC or HCC associated with MASLD who were transplanted between 2004 and 2017 were included. Results. We found 84 patients who were transplanted with these characteristics. The mean age of the patients was 59±10.5 with a significantly higher proportion of men over women, reaching almost 70%. Regarding comorbidities, overweight/obesity, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were found in 44.1%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. On the other hand, 14.5%, 33.7%, and 51.8% had Child-Pugh A, B, and C, respectively. The mean MELD score was 18.9±6.26. Regarding complications of cirrhosis, 77.4% of patients developed ascites, 61.9% hepatic encephalopathy, 36.9% upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and 29.8% spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Conclusion. The above results showed our experience of liver transplantation in patients with LC and HCC associated with MASLD. A multidisciplinary evaluation should be performed before and after transplantation in these patients, with special emphasis on the management of metabolic dysfunction and its components, including obesity and diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
3.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 34-47, ene 2, 2024. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1530759

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años, la trombosis de la vena porta entre los pacientes cirróticos se ha comportado como una entidad reconocida y cada vez más estudiada, no solo por su creciente incidencia, sino por la asociación con gravedad y mal pronóstico en cirrosis. Asimismo, se hacen objeto de estudio las terapias disponibles para el manejo tanto médico como quirúrgico de estos pacientes, lo que ha dado un papel importante a la derivación portosistémica transyugular intrahepática (TIPS). El uso de TIPS en esta población se posiciona como una alternativa de manejo aceptable, no solo por brindar mejoría en las complicaciones derivadas de la hipertensión portal, sino también por sus resultados prometedores en diferentes estudios sobre el flujo y la recanalización portal, y por su perfil de seguridad. Sin embargo, la eficacia, los efectos adversos a largo plazo y el pronóstico de dicha intervención en la compleja fisiopatología de la cirrosis deben continuar en estudio. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los avances del uso de TIPS en el manejo de pacientes con cirrosis hepática y trombosis portal.


In recent years, portal vein thrombosis among cirrhotic patients has been a well-recognized and continuously studied entity, not only because of its increasing incidence but also because of its association with severity and poor prognosis in cirrhosis. Likewise, therapies available for both medical and surgical management in these patients are being studied, which has given an important role to the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). The use of TIPS in this population is positioned as an acceptable management alternative, not only because it provides improvement in complications derived from portal hypertension, but also because of its promising results in different studies on portal flow and recanalization upgrade, and for its safety. However, the efficacy, long-term adverse effects, and prognosis of this intervention in the complex pathophysiology of cirrhosis must continue to be studied. The objective of this article is to review the advances in the use of TIPS in the management of patients with liver cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis.

4.
Hepatología ; 5(1): 48-61, ene 2, 2024. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1530765

ABSTRACT

La albúmina sérica humana es la proteína más abundante en el plasma, su estructura molecular le confiere estabilidad, pero también flexibilidad para ligar y transportar un amplio rango de moléculas. Su función oncótica es la propiedad más reconocida que la lleva a introducirse en la terapéutica médica como un expansor de volumen. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se le han adicionado funciones con carácter antioxidante, inmunomodulador y de estabilización endotelial, que hacen presumir que su impacto terapéutico está más allá de sus funciones volumétricas. En los últimos años, específicamente en la cirrosis y la falla hepática aguda sobre crónica, se ha tenido un cambio en el paradigma fisiológico, desde una perspectiva netamente hemodinámica hacia una perspectiva inflamatoria, en donde las funciones oncóticas y no oncóticas de la albúmina están alteradas y tienen un carácter pronóstico en estas entidades. Este conocimiento creciente, desde una perspectiva inflamatoria, hace que se fortalezca el uso terapéutico de la albúmina sérica humana desde las indicaciones tradicionales como prevención de la disfunción circulatoria posparacentesis, prevención y tratamiento de lesión renal aguda, hasta las discusiones para administración a largo plazo en pacientes cirróticos con ascitis.


Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, with a molecular structure that provides stability while also allowing flexibility to bind and transport a wide range of molecules. Its oncotic function is the most recognized property, leading to its introduction in medical therapy as a volume expander. However, in recent years, additional functions with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and endothelial stabilization properties have been identified, suggesting that its therapeutic impact extends beyond its volumetric functions. Specifically, in cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure, there has been a shift in the pathophysiological paradigm from a purely hemodynamic perspective to an inflammatory perspective, where both oncotic and non-oncotic functions of albumin are altered and have prognostic significance in these conditions. This growing understanding from an inflammatory perspective strengthens the therapeutic use of human serum albumin, not only for traditional indications such as the prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory disfunction, prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury, but also for discussions regarding long-term administration in cirrhotic patients with ascites.

5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(1): e20230984, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529369

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to elucidate fibrosis in patients who visited our outpatient clinic with complaints such as abdominal pain and dyspepsia and who had fatty liver by ultrasound imaging. METHODS: A total of 119 patients who were admitted to the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of our institution with incidentally detected hepatosteatosis on ultrasound imaging were included in the study. Patients with hepatosteatosis were examined for fibrosis with the FibroScan-502-touch (Echosens, Paris, France) elastic tissue ultrasonography device. The effects of these parameters on hepatosteatosis and possible fibrosis degree were investigated. RESULTS: No fibrosis was detected in 75 (63.02%) patients with hepatosteatosis on ultrasound imaging, 20 (10.05%) F1, 22 (18.48%) F2, 1 (0.8%) F3, and 0.1 (0.8%) F4. Accordingly, as the degree of steatosis increases in patients with incidentally detected hepatosteatosis, the degree and frequency of fibrosis increase with statistical significance (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between the alanine transaminase increase and the hepatosteatosis degree (p=0.028). The median value of gamma-glutamyltransferase was 15 U/L in S0, 18.5 U/L in S1, 22 U/L in S2, and 26 U/L in S3 (p<0.047). CONCLUSION: To date, no research exists on fibrosis in patients with incidental hepatosteatosis. The outcomes of this study elaborated that patients with hepatosteatosis in the community could be detected at least at an early stage by following up and diagnosing them with serum markers before they progress to end-stage fibrosis.

6.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 8(1): [10], 2024. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551339

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La encefalopatía hepática mínima (EHM), es una enfermedad definida por la existencia de varias alteraciones neurofisiológicas, indetectables a la exploración neurológica y el examen clínico. Dentro de las estrategias diagnosticas para la EHM se contemplan las pruebas psicométricas (PHE), pero para su aplicación es indispensable la estandarización previamente en la población de estudio. Objetivo: El estudio se propuso determinar la tabla de la normalidad de las PHE para diagnosticar la encefalopatía hepática subclínica en una muestra de la población dominicana. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal en un hospital de referencia nacional. Se analizaron 134 personas clasificados por grupos de edades (18-70 años de edad) y años de escolaridad. Se diseñó una tabla de 5x5. Se estudió la influencia de la edad, sexo, uso de espejuelo y de los años de escolarización en el rendimiento de cada uno de las PHE, para lo cual se utilizaron las siguientes pruebas estadísticas: análisis de varianza (ANOVA), prueba t de Student y regresión lineal. Resultado: La escolaridad y la edad fueron variables determinantes en el desempeño de las 5 pruebas psicométricas. Pero, la correlación univariable de la edad con el desempeño de la prueba TMS no hubo diferencias intra e inter grupos estadísticamente significativas (p>0.171). Conclusión: se confecciono la fórmula de predicción de resultados de los test psicométricos. Ninguno sobrepasó el punto de corte de la puntuación que oscila entre los -4 y los +2 puntos.


Introduction: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a disease defined by the existence of several neurophysiological alterations, undetectable by neurological examination and clinical examination. Among the diagnostic strategies for EHM, psychometric tests (PHE) are contemplated, but for their application, prior standardization in the study population is essential. Objective: The study will need to determine the normality table of PHE to detect subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in a sample of the Dominican population. Method: A descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in a national reference hospital. 134 people classified by age groups (18-70 years of age) and years of schooling were analyzed. A 5x5 board is recommended. The influence of age, sex, use of glasses and years of schooling on the performance of each one of the PHEs was studied, for which the following statistical tests were used: analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t test and linear regression. Result: Schooling and age were determining variables in the performance of the 5 psychometric tests. But, the univariate coincidence of age with the performance of the TMS test, there were no statistically significant intra and inter group differences (p>0.171). Conclusion: the formula for predicting the results of the psychometric tests was made. None exceeded the cut-off point of the score that oscillates between -4 and +2 points.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hepatic Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis , Dominican Republic , Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data
7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 745-752, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016519

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Fuzheng Huayu prescription on hepatocyte extinction and regeneration in fibrotic liver and its mechanism of action in promoting hepatocyte regeneration. MethodsMice were given intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for 6 weeks to establish a model of liver cirrhosis, and there were 10 mice in the model group, 10 in the sorafenib group, 10 in the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group, and 9 in the normal control group. Since week 4 of modeling, the mice in the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group and the sorafenib group were given the corresponding drug by gavage at a dose of 4.8 g/kg and 4 mg/kg, respectively, for three consecutive weeks, and those in the normal group and the model group were given an equal volume of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Serum liver function parameters were measured; the METAVIR scoring system was used to evaluate liver inflammation and fibrosis stage; Sirius Red staining and hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissue were used to evaluate collagen deposition; immunohistochemistry was used to measure the protein expression levels of type IV collagen, CD31, CD32b, Ki67, CyclinD1, glutamine synthetase, Wnt2, and HGF, and Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of Wnt2, LRP6, β-catenin, p-β-catenin, and CyclinD1 in liver tissue. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. ResultsCompared with the model group, the Fuzheng Huayu prescription group and the sorafenib group showed the following changes: significant reductions in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and the content of Hyp in liver tissue (all P<0.01); a significant reduction in METAVIR score; significant reductions in the expression levels of type Ⅳ collagen and CD31 (all P<0.05) and a significant increase in the expression level of CD32b (P<0.01); significant reductions in the number of parenchymal extinction lesions and significant increases in the expression levels of Ki67 and CyclinD1 in liver tissue (all P<0.01); significant increases in the protein expression levels of Wnt2, LRP6, β-catenin, and CyclinD1 and a significant reduction in the protein expression level of p-β-catenin (all P<0.05); significant increases in the number of cells stained positive for both CD32b and Wnt2. ConclusionFuzheng Huayu prescription can inhibit hepatic sinusoidal capillarization, improve the Wnt2 exocrine function of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway associated with hepatocyte regeneration, and finally reverse liver cirrhosis.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 734-738, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016517

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue adhesive injection with the assistance of metal clips in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with gastric varices and gastric-renal shunt (GRS). MethodsThe patients who attended Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, due to liver cirrhosis and gastric varices from February to June 2023 were enrolled, and all patients were confirmed to have GRS and received endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue adhesive injection with the assistance of metal clips. The primary evaluation index was alleviation or disappearance of varicose veins after surgery, and the secondary evaluation indices were surgical completion and complications. ResultsA total of 11 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom there were 7 male patients and 4 female patients, with a median age of 55 years. Of all patients, 1 had Child class A liver function, 7 had Child class B liver function, and 3 had Child class C liver function. The maximum (median) diameter of the shunt was 8 mm, and the minimum (median) diameter of the shunt was 4 mm. The median blood flow velocity of the target vessel was 11 cm/s before treatment and 5 cm/s after occlusion with metal clips. The median amount of tissue adhesive injected was 2 mL, and the amount of lauromacrogol used was 1 mL. Disappearance of blood flow signals was observed in all patients after surgery (100%), and the success rate of surgery was 100%. No patient experienced rebleeding after follow-up for 6 weeks. Gastroscopy at 1 month after surgery showed that gastric varices were eradicated or almost disappeared in 9 patients and were alleviated in 2 patients. ConclusionEndoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue adhesive injection with the assistance of metal clips is a feasible, safe, and effective treatment method for cirrhotic patients with gastric varices and GRS.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 726-733, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016516

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and the changing trend of the disease burden of liver cirrhosis in the Chinese population from 1990 to 2019, and to provide a data reference for formulating the prevention and treatment strategies for liver cirrhosis in China. MethodsThe Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 was used to collect the data on the incidence rate, mortality rate, disability-adjusted life years (DALY), years of life lost (YLL), and years lived with disability (YLD) of liver cirrhosis. The Joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the changing trend of disease burden; the age-period-cohort (APC) model was used to evaluate age, period, and cohort effects; R software BAPC package was used to predict future changes in disease burden. ResultsFrom 1990 to 2019 in China, there were increases in the numbers of liver cirrhosis cases and prevalent cases in the general population, as well as in the male and female populations, while there was a reduction in the number of deaths. From 1990 to 2019, the standardized incidence rate, standardized prevalence rate, and standardized mortality rate of liver cirrhosis in the Chinese population showed a downward trend, with a mean annual reduction of 0.62% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.74% to -0.50%, t=9.99, P<0.001), 0.44% (95%CI: -0.53% to -0.35%, t=13.18, P<0.001), and 3.02% (95%CI: -3.12% to -2.93%, t=7.58, P<0.001), respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the standardized DALY, YLL, and YLD rates of liver cirrhosis in the Chinese population also showed a downward trend, with a mean annual reduction of 3.27% (95%CI: -3.37% to -3.18%, t=6.22, P<0.001), 3.32% (95%CI: -3.42% to -3.22%, t=9.31, P<0.001), and 1.42% (95%CI: -1.49% to -1.34%, t=4.93, P<0.001), respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the incidence rate of liver cirrhosis in the Chinese population first increased and then decreased with age, while the mortality rate showed an increasing trend, and the risks of disease onset and death showed a decreasing trend with time and birth cohort. The predictive model showed that the standardized incidence rate, prevalence rate, mortality rate, and DALY rate of liver cirrhosis in China will show a decreasing trend from 2020 to 2030. Alcohol was the most important risk factor for both male and female populations, followed by medication. ConclusionThe disease burden of liver cirrhosis in China shows a decreasing trend from 1990 to 2019, with sex and age differences, especially in the middle-aged male population. Effective measures should be taken for intervention.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 679-681, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016508

ABSTRACT

The expert panel of American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases published Practice guidance on acute-on-chronic liver failure and the management of critically ill patients with cirrhosis on November 9, 2023 in Hepatology. This practice guidance elaborates on the definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure, prediction models, and the management of liver cirrhosis comorbid with acute-on-chronic liver failure and organ failure in critically ill patients, and this article gives an excerpt of the key points in the practice guidance.

11.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 101-105, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016423

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the short-term survival and prognostic quality of life of patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by bacterial infection. Methods This study collected and analyzed 300 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with infection who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, and followed up to discuss their survival and quality of life. Results In this study, the top two causes of infection were spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (60.67% of patients) and pneumonia (50.67% of patients). The second causes were urinary tract infections (15.33%), gastrointestinal infections (12.33%), and other causes. There was no statistically significant difference between male and female patients (P>0.05). In addition, the proportion of hospital infections was 71.00%, and there was no statistically significant difference between male and female patients (P>0.05). A total of 353 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated in this study (73.37% of patients with hospital infections). The distribution analysis of pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest proportion of ECO was 35.98%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.98%). The distribution trend of 259 strains of pathogenic bacteria among hospital patients was consistent with that of all strains, and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Gram negative bacteria accounted for 79.60% (281/353) of all detected strains, of which Escherichia coli was mostly detected in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Klebsiella Pneumoniae (KPN) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) were mostly detected in patients with pneumonia, and Enterococcus (ENF) was mostly detected in patients with urinary tract infection; Among gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis (SEP) and Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) are mostly found in patients with other infectious causes (blood flow infection, etc.) , and Streptococcus (STR) accounts for a high proportion in patients with Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In this study, 9 cases of death prognosis were detected during follow-up, and there was no statistically significant difference in the detection of death prognosis between different bacterial strains in both genders, as well as the difference in detection of death prognosis between hospital infections and out of hospital infections in both genders (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the detection of death prognosis between males and females due to different causes of infection, P>0.05. The quality of life scores of 291 surviving patients were compared between baseline and follow-up, indicating an increase in follow-up scores, especially in the dimensions of physiological function and physical pain. There was no statistically significant difference between different bacterial strains, infection causes, and hospital/non hospital infections (P>0.05) . Conclusion Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia are the main causes of infection that deserve special attention, and the main pathogens of infection are Gram negative bacteria. Targeted treatment and rehabilitation should be provided for patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by infection. At the same time, the proportion of hospital infections is relatively high, and attention should be paid to, prevention and control measures should be implemented as well.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 616-620, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013147

ABSTRACT

The liver plays an important regulatory role in maintaining the dynamic balance of coagulation and anticoagulation in the body. Such dynamic balance is fragile in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the risk of bleeding can be increased due to reductions in coagulation factors and platelet count and excessive fibrinolysis; meanwhile, thrombus can be formed due to the increases in von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor Ⅷ, the reductions in anticoagulant protein C and anticoagulant protein S, the increase in thrombin-generating potential, and alterations in antifibrinolytic components. This article reviews the mechanisms of coagulation disorder in liver cirrhosis, so as to help clinicians with the prevention and treatment of bleeding or thrombotic disorders in patients with liver cirrhosis.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 585-588, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013141

ABSTRACT

The disease spectrum of ABCB4 gene mutation involves various diseases such as progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3), gallstone disease, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, portal hypertension, liver cirrhosis, and even primary hepatic and biliary malignancies. A young male patient was admitted to Department of Hepatobiliary Medicine, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, and was initially diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and gallstones, and he was planned to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Preoperative examination showed abnormal liver function, liver cirrhosis, splenomegaly, and mild esophageal varices, and next-generation sequencing was performed to make a confirmed diagnosis of ABCB4 gene mutation-associated liver cirrhosis with gallstones. The liver function of the patient gradually returned to normal after cholagogic treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid capsules.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 581-584, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013140

ABSTRACT

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disease that often involves skin, blood, and nervous systems, and EPP with the main manifestations of severe liver damage and acute abdominal pain is extremely rare. By reviewing the clinical data and genetic testing results of a patient with EPP, this article discusses the clinical features and pathogenic genes of this disease, in order to improve the understanding of the disease among hepatologists and achieve early diagnosis and treatment.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 521-526, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013131

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the value of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and platelet-albumin-bilirubin (PALBI) score in predicting the risk of esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 119 patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from May 2021 and June 2022 were enrolled, and clinical data, routine blood test results, serum biochemistry, and coagulation test results were collected from all patients. According to the presence or absence of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, the patients were divided into non-bleeding group with 59 patients and bleeding group with 60 patients, and a comparative analysis was performed for the two groups. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-squared test or the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors for esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and establish a nomogram predictive model. ResultsThe male patients accounted for 75.00% in the bleeding group and 40.68% in the non-bleeding group, and there was a significant difference in sex composition between the two groups (χ2=14.384, P<0.001). Chronic hepatitis B was the main etiology in both the bleeding group and the non-bleeding group (53.33% vs 38.98%), and there was no significant difference in composition ratio between the two groups (χ2=2.464, P=0.116). Compared with the non-bleeding group, the bleeding group had a significantly higher activity of AT-IIIA (t=3.329, P=0.001) and significantly lower levels of PLT, TBil, Ca, TC, and TT (all P<0.05). There were significant differences in APRI and PALBI between the two groups (χ2=6.175 and 19.532, both P<0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that APRI (odds ratio [OR]=0.309, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.109‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.881, P=0.028), PALBI (OR=7.667, 95%CI: 2.005‍ ‍—‍ ‍29.327, P=0.003), Ca (OR=0.001, 95%CI: 0.000‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.141, P=0.007), TC (OR=0.469, 95%CI: 0.226‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.973, P=0.042), and TT (OR=0.599, 95%CI: 0.433‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.830, P=0.002) were independent influencing factors for esophagogastric variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis. A nomogram model was established based on the above factors and had an index of concordance of 0.899 and a well-fitted calibration curve. ConclusionAPRI and PALBI have a good value in predicting esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the nomogram model established based on this study can predict the incidence rate of esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.

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Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 516-520, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013130

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the influencing factors for death within 30 days in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for 616 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy in Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 2008 to April 2018, and all patients were followed up for 30 days. According to their prognosis, they were divided into survival group with 488 patients and death group with 128 patients. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the independent risk factors for death within 30 days in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. ResultsThe multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR]=1.029, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.014‍ — ‍1.044, P<0.001), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (HR=1.118, 95%CI: 1.098‍ — ‍1.139, P<0.001), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (HR=1.036, 95%CI: 1.015‍ — ‍1.057, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for death within 30 days in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The stratified analysis showed that the patients with a MELD score of≥20 and an NLR of≥4 had a higher risk of death, with a 30-day mortality rate of 57.1% (80/140). The patients with a MELD score of<20 and an NLR of<4 had a 30-day mortality rate of 3.9% (9/232). ConclusionAge, MELD score, and NLR are independent risk factors for death within 30 days in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, and patients with a MELD score of≥20 and an NLR of≥4 tend to have a high risk of death.

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Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 461-472, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013122

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the advances in basic and clinical research, medical workers have gained a deeper understanding of the clinical diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis, and meanwhile, more studies have been conducted on the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment of liver cirrhosis in China, especially in the field of anti-liver fibrosis treatment where TCM plays an important role. This guideline is revised based on the 2008 edition of Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases in Chinese internal medicine, and in accordance with related requirements in TCM standardization, evidence-based medicine, and technical guidance documents, the project team formed the guidelines for TCM diagnosis and treatment through literature research, expert interview, questionnaire survey, identification of clinical problems, grading of evidence, formation of recommendation opinions, and soliciting opinions, so as to provide practical and standardized guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment. This guideline has been approved by China Association of Chinese Medicine, with the standard number of T/CACM1576-2024.

18.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 306-311, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007245

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical application value of a predictive model for the efficacy of third-generation cephalosporin in the treatment of community-acquired spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (CASBP). MethodsThis prospective study was conducted among 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and CASBP who were admitted to The Ninth Hospital of Nanchang from January 2021 to June 2022, and the patients were randomly divided into optimized treatment group and traditional treatment group, with 25 patients in each group. The patients in the optimized treatment group received ceftazidime or imipenem for initial treatment based on the above predictive model, and those in the traditional treatment group received ceftazidime for initial treatment, with the subsequent use of antibiotics adjusted based on the efficacy of initial treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of the response rate of initial treatment, cure rate on day 5, and 30-day mortality rate. The independent-samples t test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. ResultsAll patients completed the study. The optimized treatment group had a significantly higher response rate of initial treatment than the traditional treatment group (88.0% vs 60.0%, χ2=5.094, P=0.024), while there was no significant difference in the cure rate on day 5 between the two groups (80.0% vs 56.6%, χ2=3.309, P=0.069). As for the patients who received ceftazidime for initial treatment, the optimized treatment group had a significantly higher response rate of initial treatment than the traditional treatment group (88.9% vs 60.0%, χ2=4.341, P=0.037), while there was no significant difference in the cure rate on day 5 between the two groups (83.3% vs 56.0%, χ2=2.425, P=0.119). There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality rate between the two groups (8.0% vs 20.0%, χ2=0.664, P=0.415). For all patients, there was a significant association between response of initial treatment and cure on day 5 (odds ratio [OR]=9.643, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.292‍ — ‍40.564) and between cure on day 5 and 30-day mortality (OR=0.138, 95%CI: 0.023‍ — ‍0.813). ConclusionThis predictive model for efficacy helps clinicians to identify the patients who can benefit from third-generation cephalosporin treatment and improve the efficacy of third-generation cephalosporin in the initial empirical treatment of CASBP.

19.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 298-305, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007244

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the value of platelet-albumin-bilirubin index (PALBI) combined with AIMS65 score in predicting rebleeding and death within 6 weeks after admission in patients with liver cirrhosis and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). MethodsA retrospective study was conducted for 238 patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB who were hospitalized in The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University from February 2021 to October 2022, and all patients were followed up for 6 weeks. According to the prognosis, they were divided into death group with 65 patients and survival group with 173 patients, and according to the presence or absence of rebleeding, they were divided into non-rebleeding group with 149 patients and rebleeding group with 89 patients. General data and laboratory markers (including blood routine, liver/renal function, and coagulation), and PALBI, AIMS65 score, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were calculated on admission. The independent-samples t test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. A multivariate logistic regression model analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for death or rebleeding within 6 weeks after admission in patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to investigate the predictive efficacy of each scoring system, and the DeLong test was used for comparison of AUC. ResultsThere were significant differences between the death group and the survival group in hematemesis, past history of varices, albumin (Alb), total bilirubin (TBil), international normalized ratio (INR), creatinine (Cr), prothrombin time (PT), systolic blood pressure, PALBI, AIMS65 score, CTP score, and MELD score (all P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hematemesis (odds ratio [OR]=4.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88‍ ‍—‍ ‍10.05, P<0.001), past history of varices (OR=3.51, 95%CI: 1.37‍ ‍—‍ ‍8.98, P=0.009), PALBI (OR=4.49, 95%CI: 1.48‍ ‍—‍ ‍13.64, P=0.008), and AIMS65 score (OR=3.85, 95%CI: 2.35‍ ‍—‍ ‍6.30, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for death. The ROC curve analysis of each scoring system in predicting survival showed that CTP score, MELD score, PALBI, AIMS65 score, and PALBI combined with AIMS65 score had an AUC of 0.758, 0.798, 0.789, 0.870, and 0.888, respectively, suggesting that PALBI combined with AIMS65 score had a significantly larger AUC than the four scoring systems used alone (all P<0.05). There were significant differences between the rebleeding group and the non-rebleeding group in hematemesis, history of diabetes, Alb, TBil, INR, Cr, PT, PALBI, AIMS65 score, CTP score, and MELD score (all P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that PALBI (OR=2.41, 95%CI: 1.17‍ ‍—‍ ‍4.95, P=0.017) and AIMS65 score (OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.17‍ ‍—‍ ‍2.15, P=0.003) were independent risk factors for rebleeding. The ROC curve analysis of each scoring system in predicting rebleeding showed that CTP score, MELD score, PALBI, AIMS65 score, and PALBI combined with AIMS65 score had an AUC of 0.680, 0.719, 0.709, 0.711, and 0.741, respectively, suggesting that PALBI combined with AIMS65 score had the largest AUC (all P<0.05), but with a relatively low specificity. ConclusionPALBI combined with AIMS65 score has a certain value in predicting death within 6 weeks after admission in patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB, with a better value than CTP score and MELD score alone. PALBI combined with AIMS65 score has a relatively low value in predicting rebleeding within 6 weeks, with an acceptable accuracy.

20.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 169-174, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006444

ABSTRACT

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is one of the common complications during the natural course of liver cirrhosis and has an important influence on the progression of liver cirrhosis. This article mainly summarizes the research advances in the risk factors for PVT. There are many risk factors for PVT, and Virchow’s triad, namely venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and vascular endothelial injury and systemic inflammation caused by surgery or trauma, are considered the main reasons for the development and progression of PVT. At present, more prospective studies are still needed to validate the predictive models for the risk of PVT that have certain application prospects in clinical practice. Cirrhotic patients with PVT tend to have a poor prognosis, and complete obstructive PVT is associated with increased mortality after liver transplantation. Recent studies have shown that prophylactic anticoagulant therapy is safe and effective in patients with liver cirrhosis and can thus help with the prevention and treatment of PVT.

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